Articles | Volume 22, issue 2
19 Jan 2022
Research article | 19 Jan 2022
On the cross-tropopause transport of water by tropical convective overshoots: a mesoscale modelling study constrained by in situ observations during the TRO-Pico field campaign in Brazil
Abhinna K. Behera et al.
No articles found.
Bernard Legras, Clair Duchamp, Pasquale Sellitto, Aurélien Podglajen, Elisa Carboni, Richard Siddans, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Sergey Khaykin, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14957–14970,Short summary
The long-duration atmospheric impact of the Tonga eruption in January 2022 is a plume of water and sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere that persisted for more than 6 months. We study this evolution using several satellite instruments and analyse the unusual behaviour of this plume as sulfates and water first moved down rapidly and then separated into two layers. We also report the self-organization in compact and long-lived patches.
Mohamadou A. Diallo, Felix Ploeger, Michaela I. Hegglin, Manfred Ern, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Sergey Khaykin, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14303–14321,Short summary
The quasi-biennial oacillation disruption events in both 2016 and 2020 decreased lower-stratospheric water vapour and ozone. Differences in the strength and depth of the anomalous lower-stratospheric circulation and ozone are due to differences in tropical upwelling and cold-point temperature induced by lower-stratospheric planetary and gravity wave breaking. The differences in water vapour are due to higher cold-point temperature in 2020 induced by Australian wildfire.
Fayçal Lamraoui, Martina Krämer, Armin Afchine, Adam B. Sokol, Sergey Khaykin, Apoorva Pandey, and Zhiming Kuang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Cirrus clouds in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) can play a key role in vertical transport through the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. In this study, we explore the influence of ice habit on TTL cirrus associated with deep convection and determine the optimal model configuration to simulate cirrus microphysical properties adequately. We use a set of high-resolution simulations with three microphysics schemes and aircraft measurements during the StratoClim field campaign in 2017.
Mathieu Ratynski, Sergey Khaykin, Alain Hauchecorne, Robin Wing, Jean-Pierre Cammas, Yann Hello, and Philippe Keckhut
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT).Short summary
Aeolus is the first space-borne wind lidar providing global wind measurements since 2018. This study offers a comprehensive of analysis of Aeolus instrument performance, using ground-based wind lidars and meteorological radiosondes, at tropical and mid-latitudes sites. The analysis allows assessing the long-term evolution of the satellite's performance for more than 3 years. The results will help further elaborate the understanding of the error sources and the behavior of the Doppler wind lidar.
Clare E. Singer, Benjamin W. Clouser, Sergey M. Khaykin, Martina Krämer, Francesco Cairo, Thomas Peter, Alexey Lykov, Christian Rolf, Nicole Spelten, Armin Afchine, Simone Brunamonti, and Elisabeth J. Moyer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4767–4783,Short summary
In situ measurements of water vapor in the upper troposphere are necessary to study cloud formation and hydration of the stratosphere but challenging due to cold–dry conditions. We compare measurements from three water vapor instruments from the StratoClim campaign in 2017. In clear sky (clouds), point-by-point differences were <1.5±8 % (<1±8 %). This excellent agreement allows detection of fine-scale structures required to understand the impact of convection on stratospheric water vapor.
Virginie Marécal, Ronan Voisin-Plessis, Tjarda Jane Roberts, Alessandro Aiuppa, Herizo Narivelo, Paul David Hamer, Béatrice Josse, Jonathan Guth, Luke Surl, and Lisa Grellier
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
We implemented a halogen volcanic chemistry scheme in a one-dimensional modelling framework preparing for further use in a three-dimensional global chemistry-transport model. The results of the simulations for an eruption of Mt Etna in 2008, including various sensitivity tests, show a good consistency with observations and previous modelling studies.
Jason E. Williams, Vincent Huijnen, Idir Bouarar, Mehdi Meziane, Timo Schreurs, Sophie Pelletier, Virginie Marécal, Beatrice Josse, and Johannes Flemming
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4657–4687,Short summary
The global CAMS air quality model is used for providing tropospheric ozone information to end users. This paper updates the chemical mechanism employed (CBA) and compares it against two other mechanisms (MOCAGE, MOZART) and a multi-decadal dataset based on a previous version of CBA. We perform extensive validation for the US using multiple surface and aircraft datasets, providing an assessment of biases and the extent of correlation across different seasons during 2014.
Sergey M. Khaykin, Elizabeth Moyer, Martina Krämer, Benjamin Clouser, Silvia Bucci, Bernard Legras, Alexey Lykov, Armin Afchine, Francesco Cairo, Ivan Formanyuk, Valentin Mitev, Renaud Matthey, Christian Rolf, Clare E. Singer, Nicole Spelten, Vasiliy Volkov, Vladimir Yushkov, and Fred Stroh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3169–3189,Short summary
The Asian monsoon anticyclone is the key contributor to the global annual maximum in lower stratospheric water vapour. We investigate the impact of deep convection on the lower stratospheric water using a unique set of observations aboard the high-altitude M55-Geophysica aircraft deployed in Nepal in summer 2017 within the EU StratoClim project. We find that convective plumes of wet air can persist within the Asian anticyclone for weeks, thereby enhancing the occurrence of high-level clouds.
Paul D. Hamer, Virginie Marécal, Ryan Hossaini, Michel Pirre, Gisèle Krysztofiak, Franziska Ziska, Andreas Engel, Stephan Sala, Timo Keber, Harald Bönisch, Elliot Atlas, Kirstin Krüger, Martyn Chipperfield, Valery Catoire, Azizan A. Samah, Marcel Dorf, Phang Siew Moi, Hans Schlager, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16955–16984,Short summary
Bromoform is a stratospheric ozone-depleting gas released by seaweed and plankton transported to the stratosphere via convection in the tropics. We study the chemical interactions of bromoform and its derivatives within convective clouds using a cloud-scale model and observations. Our findings are that soluble bromine gases are efficiently washed out and removed within the convective clouds and that most bromine is transported vertically to the upper troposphere in the form of bromoform.
Claire Lamotte, Jonathan Guth, Virginie Marécal, Martin Cussac, Paul David Hamer, Nicolas Theys, and Philipp Schneider
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11379–11404,Short summary
Improvements are made in a global chemical transfer model by considering a new volcanic SO2 emissions inventory, with more volcanoes referenced and more information on the altitude of injection. Better constraining volcanic emissions with this inventory improves the global, but mostly local, tropospheric sulfur composition. The tropospheric sulfur budget shows a nonlinearity to the volcanic contribution, especially to the sulfate aerosol burden and sulfur wet deposition.
Lucí Hidalgo Nunes, Gerhard Held, Ana Maria Gomes, Kleber Pinheiro Naccarato, and Raul Reis Amorim
Weather Clim. Dynam. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
During the night of 04/05 June 2016 Campinas, Brazil, was hit by a tornado and by intense lightning activity. The day (Sunday) and time of the tornado occurrence probably contributed to the fact that only a small number of persons suffered injuries, without any fatalities. The phenomenon was evaluated by means of radar observations, lightning activity and damages. The occurrence of the phenomenon has shown that the municipal government and citizens are unprepared to face this kind of event.
Robin Wing, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Thomas J. McGee, John T. Sullivan, Sergey Khaykin, Grant Sumnicht, and Laurence Twigg
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3773–3794,Short summary
This paper is a validation study of the newly installed ozone and temperature lidar at Hohenpeißenberg, Germany. As part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), lidar stations are routinely compared against a travelling reference lidar operated by NASA. We have also attempted to assess potential biases in the reference lidar by comparing the results of this validation campaign with a previous campaign at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence, France.
Yann Cohen, Virginie Marécal, Béatrice Josse, and Valérie Thouret
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2659–2689,Short summary
Assessing long-term chemistry–climate simulations with in situ and frequent observations near the tropopause is possible with the IAGOS commercial aircraft data set. This study presents a method that distributes the IAGOS data (ozone and CO) on a monthly model grid, limiting the impact of resolution for the evaluation of the modelled chemical fields. We applied it to the CCMI REF-C1SD simulation from the MOCAGE CTM and notably highlighted well-reproduced O3 behaviour in the lower stratosphere.
Lars E. Kalnajs, Sean M. Davis, J. Douglas Goetz, Terry Deshler, Sergey Khaykin, Alex St. Clair, Albert Hertzog, Jerome Bordereau, and Alexey Lykov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2635–2648,Short summary
This work introduces a novel instrument system for high-resolution atmospheric profiling, which lowers and retracts a suspended instrument package beneath drifting long-duration balloons. During a 100 d circumtropical flight, the instrument collected over a hundred 2 km profiles of temperature, water vapor, clouds, and aerosol at 1 m resolution, yielding unprecedented geographic sampling and vertical resolution measurements of the tropical tropopause layer.
Masatomo Fujiwara, Tetsu Sakai, Tomohiro Nagai, Koichi Shiraishi, Yoichi Inai, Sergey Khaykin, Haosen Xi, Takashi Shibata, Masato Shiotani, and Laura L. Pan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3073–3090,Short summary
Lidar aerosol particle measurements in Japan during the summer of 2018 were found to detect the eastward extension of the Asian tropopause aerosol layer from the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone in the lower stratosphere. Analysis of various other data indicates that the observed enhanced particle levels are due to eastward-shedding vortices from the anticyclone, originating from pollutants emitted in Asian countries and transported vertically by convection in the Asian summer monsoon region.
Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, Nicole Spelten, Armin Afchine, David Fahey, Eric Jensen, Sergey Khaykin, Thomas Kuhn, Paul Lawson, Alexey Lykov, Laura L. Pan, Martin Riese, Andrew Rollins, Fred Stroh, Troy Thornberry, Veronika Wolf, Sarah Woods, Peter Spichtinger, Johannes Quaas, and Odran Sourdeval
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12569–12608,Short summary
To improve the representations of cirrus clouds in climate predictions, extended knowledge of their properties and geographical distribution is required. This study presents extensive airborne in situ and satellite remote sensing climatologies of cirrus and humidity, which serve as a guide to cirrus clouds. Further, exemplary radiative characteristics of cirrus types and also in situ observations of tropical tropopause layer cirrus and humidity in the Asian monsoon anticyclone are shown.
Robin Wing, Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Thomas J. McGee, John T. Sullivan, Grant Sumnicht, Gérard Ancellet, Alain Hauchecorne, Sergey Khaykin, and Philippe Keckhut
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5621–5642,Short summary
A lidar intercomparison campaign was conducted over a period of 28 nights at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP) in 2017 and 2018. The objective is to validate the ozone and temperature profiles at OHP to ensure the quality of data submitted to the NDACC database remains high. A mobile reference lidar operated by NASA was transported to OHP and operated concurrently with the French lidars. Agreement for ozone was better than 5 % between 20 and 40 km, and temperatures were equal within 3 K.
Mélanie Ghysels, Georges Durry, Nadir Amarouche, Jean-Christophe Samake, Fabien Frérot, and Emmanuel D. Rivière
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Publication in AMT not foreseenShort summary
Understanding the processes which regulate the entry of water into the lower stratosphere is essential to address the impact of water vapor on the climate, but also for the future balance of the ozone layer. Developing lightweight hygrometers is of importance to allow frequent sounding in support of such understanding. In this frame, a new lightweight hygrometer, named Pico-Light H2O, has been tested twice in-flight under rubber balloon in 2019.
Laaziz El Amraoui, Bojan Sič, Andrea Piacentini, Virginie Marécal, Nicolas Frebourg, and Jean-Luc Attié
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4645–4667,Short summary
The aim of this paper is to present the assimilation of lidar observations from the CALIOP instrument onboard the CALIPSO satellite in the chemistry-transport model of Météo-France, MOCAGE. We presented the first results of the assimilation of the extinction coefficient observations of the CALIOP lidar instrument during the pre-ChArMEx-TRAQA field campaign. We evaluated the added value of the assimilation product to better document a desert dust transport event compared to the model free run.
Travis N. Knepp, Larry Thomason, Marilee Roell, Robert Damadeo, Kevin Leavor, Thierry Leblanc, Fernando Chouza, Sergey Khaykin, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, and David Flittner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4261–4276,Short summary
Two common measurements that represent atmospheric aerosol loading are the backscatter and extinction coefficients. Measuring backscatter and extinction coefficients requires different viewing geometries and fundamentally different instrument systems. Further, these coefficients are not directly comparable. We present an algorithm to convert SAGE-observed extinction coefficients to backscatter coefficients for intercomparison with lidar backscatter products, followed by evaluation of the method.
Martin Cussac, Virginie Marécal, Valérie Thouret, Béatrice Josse, and Bastien Sauvage
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9393–9417,Short summary
Biomass burning emissions are a major source of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere. Here, the vertical transport that these emissions can undergo until the upper troposphere is investigated, as well as their contribution to carbon monoxide concentrations. It was found that boreal forest emissions were specific to the occurrence of pyroconvection directly above the fires, whereas biomass burning emissions from other regions of the globe relied more on the occurrence of deep convection.
Lilian Joly, Olivier Coopmann, Vincent Guidard, Thomas Decarpenterie, Nicolas Dumelié, Julien Cousin, Jérémie Burgalat, Nicolas Chauvin, Grégory Albora, Rabih Maamary, Zineb Miftah El Khair, Diane Tzanos, Joël Barrié, Éric Moulin, Patrick Aressy, and Anne Belleudy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3099–3118,Short summary
This article presents an instrument weighing less than 3 kg for accurate and rapid measurement of greenhouse gases between 0 and 30 km altitude using a meteorological balloon. This article shows the interest of these measurements for the validation of simulations of infrared satellite observations.
Olivier Coopmann, Vincent Guidard, Nadia Fourrié, Béatrice Josse, and Virginie Marécal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2659–2680,Short summary
The objective of this paper is to make a new selection of IASI channels by taking into account inter-channel observation-error correlations. Our selection further reduces the analysis error by 3 % in temperature, 1.8 % in humidity and 0.9 % in ozone compared to Collard’s selection, when using the same number of channels. A selection of 400 IASI channels is proposed at the end of the paper which is able to further reduce analysis errors.
Clara Orbe, David A. Plummer, Darryn W. Waugh, Huang Yang, Patrick Jöckel, Douglas E. Kinnison, Beatrice Josse, Virginie Marecal, Makoto Deushi, Nathan Luke Abraham, Alexander T. Archibald, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip Dhomse, Wuhu Feng, and Slimane Bekki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3809–3840,Short summary
Atmospheric composition is strongly influenced by global-scale winds that are not always properly simulated in computer models. A common approach to correct for this bias is to relax or
nudgeto the observed winds. Here we systematically evaluate how well this technique performs across a large suite of chemistry–climate models in terms of its ability to reproduce key aspects of both the tropospheric and stratospheric circulations.
Sergey M. Khaykin, Alain Hauchecorne, Robin Wing, Philippe Keckhut, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Jacques Porteneuve, Jean-Francois Mariscal, and Jerome Schmitt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1501–1516,Short summary
The article presents a powerful atmospheric instrument based on a laser radar (lidar), capable of measuring horizontal wind velocity at a wide range of altitudes. In this study, we evaluate the performance of the wind lidar at Observatoire de Haute-Provence and demonstrate the application of its measurements for studies of atmospheric dynamical processes. Finally, we present an example of early validation of the ESA Aeolus space-borne wind lidar using its ground-based predecessor.
Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Joaquim Arteta, Adriana Coman, Lyana Curier, Henk Eskes, Gilles Foret, Clio Gielen, Francois Hendrick, Virginie Marécal, Frédérik Meleux, Jonathan Parmentier, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Ankie J. M. Piters, Matthieu Plu, Andreas Richter, Arjo Segers, Mikhail Sofiev, Álvaro M. Valdebenito, Michel Van Roozendael, Julius Vira, Tim Vlemmix, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2795–2823,Short summary
MAX-DOAS tropospheric NO2 vertical column retrievals from a set of European measurement stations are compared to regional air quality models which contribute to the operational Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). Correlations are on the order of 35 %–75 %; large differences occur for individual pollution plumes. The results demonstrate that future model development needs to concentrate on improving representation of diurnal cycles and associated temporal scalings.
Julie M. Nicely, Bryan N. Duncan, Thomas F. Hanisco, Glenn M. Wolfe, Ross J. Salawitch, Makoto Deushi, Amund S. Haslerud, Patrick Jöckel, Béatrice Josse, Douglas E. Kinnison, Andrew Klekociuk, Michael E. Manyin, Virginie Marécal, Olaf Morgenstern, Lee T. Murray, Gunnar Myhre, Luke D. Oman, Giovanni Pitari, Andrea Pozzer, Ilaria Quaglia, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Susan Strahan, Simone Tilmes, Holger Tost, Daniel M. Westervelt, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1341–1361,Short summary
Differences in methane lifetime among global models are large and poorly understood. We use a neural network method and simulations from the Chemistry Climate Model Initiative to quantify the factors influencing methane lifetime spread among models and variations over time. UV photolysis, tropospheric ozone, and nitrogen oxides drive large model differences, while the same factors plus specific humidity contribute to a decreasing trend in methane lifetime between 1980 and 2015.
Yuanhong Zhao, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Xin Lin, Antoine Berchet, Michaela I. Hegglin, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Didier A. Hauglustaine, Sophie Szopa, Ann R. Stavert, Nathan Luke Abraham, Alex T. Archibald, Slimane Bekki, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Béatrice Josse, Douglas Kinnison, Ole Kirner, Virginie Marécal, Fiona M. O'Connor, David A. Plummer, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Andrea Stenke, Sarah Strode, Simone Tilmes, Edward J. Dlugokencky, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13701–13723,Short summary
The role of hydroxyl radical changes in methane trends is debated, hindering our understanding of the methane cycle. This study quantifies how uncertainties in the hydroxyl radical may influence methane abundance in the atmosphere based on the inter-model comparison of hydroxyl radical fields and model simulations of CH4 abundance with different hydroxyl radical scenarios during 2000–2016. We show that hydroxyl radical changes could contribute up to 54 % of model-simulated methane biases.
Corinna Kloss, Gwenaël Berthet, Pasquale Sellitto, Felix Ploeger, Silvia Bucci, Sergey Khaykin, Fabrice Jégou, Ghassan Taha, Larry W. Thomason, Brice Barret, Eric Le Flochmoen, Marc von Hobe, Adriana Bossolasco, Nelson Bègue, and Bernard Legras
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13547–13567,Short summary
With satellite measurements and transport models, we show that a plume resulting from strong Canadian fires in July/August 2017 was not only distributed throughout the northern/higher latitudes, but also reached the faraway tropics, aided by the circulation of Asian monsoon anticyclone. The regional climate impact in the wider Asian monsoon area in September exceeds the impact of the Asian tropopause aerosol layer by a factor of ~ 3 and compares to that of an advected moderate volcanic eruption.
Keun-Ok Lee, Thibaut Dauhut, Jean-Pierre Chaboureau, Sergey Khaykin, Martina Krämer, and Christian Rolf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11803–11820,Short summary
This study focuses on the hydration patch that was measured during the StratoClim field campaign and the corresponding convective overshoots over the Sichuan Basin. Through analysis using airborne and spaceborne measurements and the numerical simulation using a non-hydrostatic model, we show the key hydration process and pathway of the hydration patch in tropical tropopause layer.
Kévin Lamy, Thierry Portafaix, Béatrice Josse, Colette Brogniez, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Hassan Bencherif, Laura Revell, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Slimane Bekki, Michaela I. Hegglin, Patrick Jöckel, Oliver Kirner, Ben Liley, Virginie Marecal, Olaf Morgenstern, Andrea Stenke, Guang Zeng, N. Luke Abraham, Alexander T. Archibald, Neil Butchart, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Glauco Di Genova, Makoto Deushi, Sandip S. Dhomse, Rong-Ming Hu, Douglas Kinnison, Michael Kotkamp, Richard McKenzie, Martine Michou, Fiona M. O'Connor, Luke D. Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, John A. Pyle, Eugene Rozanov, David Saint-Martin, Kengo Sudo, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Daniele Visioni, and Kohei Yoshida
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10087–10110,Short summary
In this study, we simulate the ultraviolet radiation evolution during the 21st century on Earth's surface using the output from several numerical models which participated in the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative. We present four possible futures which depend on greenhouse gases emissions. The role of ozone-depleting substances, greenhouse gases and aerosols are investigated. Our results emphasize the important role of aerosols for future ultraviolet radiation in the Northern Hemisphere.
Vincent Huijnen, Andrea Pozzer, Joaquim Arteta, Guy Brasseur, Idir Bouarar, Simon Chabrillat, Yves Christophe, Thierno Doumbia, Johannes Flemming, Jonathan Guth, Béatrice Josse, Vlassis A. Karydis, Virginie Marécal, and Sophie Pelletier
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1725–1752,Short summary
We report on an evaluation of tropospheric ozone and its precursor gases in three atmospheric chemistry versions as implemented in ECMWF’s Integrated Forecasting System (IFS), referred to as IFS(CB05BASCOE), IFS(MOZART) and IFS(MOCAGE). This configuration of having various chemistry versions within IFS provides a quantification of uncertainties in CAMS trace gas products that are induced by chemistry modelling.
Kai-Lan Chang, Owen R. Cooper, J. Jason West, Marc L. Serre, Martin G. Schultz, Meiyun Lin, Virginie Marécal, Béatrice Josse, Makoto Deushi, Kengo Sudo, Junhua Liu, and Christoph A. Keller
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 955–978,Short summary
We developed a new method for combining surface ozone observations from thousands of monitoring sites worldwide with the output from multiple atmospheric chemistry models. The result is a global surface ozone distribution with greater accuracy than any single model can achieve. We focused on an ozone metric relevant to human mortality caused by long-term ozone exposure. Our method can be applied to studies that quantify the impacts of ozone on human health and mortality.
Maxence Descheemaecker, Matthieu Plu, Virginie Marécal, Marine Claeyman, Francis Olivier, Youva Aoun, Philippe Blanc, Lucien Wald, Jonathan Guth, Bojan Sič, Jérôme Vidot, Andrea Piacentini, and Béatrice Josse
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1251–1275,Short summary
The future Flexible Combined Imager (FCI) on board MeteoSat Third Generation is expected to improve the detection and the quantification of aerosols. The study assesses the potential of FCI/VIS04 channel for monitoring air pollution in Europe. An observing system simulation experiment in MOCAGE is developed, and they show a large positive impact of the assimilation over a 4-month period and particularly during a severe pollution episode. The added value of geostationary data is also assessed.
Alain Hauchecorne, Laurent Blanot, Robin Wing, Philippe Keckhut, Sergey Khaykin, Jean-Loup Bertaux, Mustapha Meftah, Chantal Claud, and Viktoria Sofieva
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 749–761,Short summary
This paper presents a new dataset of temperature profiles in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere acquired with the GOMOS spectrometer on board the European satellite ENVISAT. The principle is to observe the scattering of sunlight by air molecules at the Earth limb. The observed signal is proportional to the atmospheric density from which the temperature is derived. This technique provides a new source of information on temperature where satellite observations are sparse.
Robin Wing, Alain Hauchecorne, Philippe Keckhut, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Sergey Khaykin, and Emily M. McCullough
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6703–6717,Short summary
We have compared 2433 nights of OHP lidar temperatures (2002–2018) to temperatures derived from the satellites SABER and MLS. We have found a winter stratopause cold bias in the satellite measurements with respect to the lidar (−6 K for SABER and −17 K for MLS), a summer mesospheric warm bias for SABER (6 K near 60 km), and a vertically structured bias for MLS (−4 to 4 K). We have corrected the satellite data based on the lidar-determined stratopause height and found a significant improvement.
Robin Wing, Alain Hauchecorne, Philippe Keckhut, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Sergey Khaykin, Emily M. McCullough, Jean-François Mariscal, and Éric d'Almeida
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5531–5547,Short summary
The objective of this work is to minimize the errors at the highest altitudes of a lidar temperature profile which arise due to background estimation and a priori choice. The systematic method in this paper has the effect of cooling the temperatures at the top of a lidar profile by up to 20 K – bringing them into better agreement with satellite temperatures. Following the description of the algorithm is a 20-year cross-validation of two lidars which establishes the stability of the technique.
Jonas Hagen, Axel Murk, Rolf Rüfenacht, Sergey Khaykin, Alain Hauchecorne, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5007–5024,
Armin Afchine, Christian Rolf, Anja Costa, Nicole Spelten, Martin Riese, Bernhard Buchholz, Volker Ebert, Romy Heller, Stefan Kaufmann, Andreas Minikin, Christiane Voigt, Martin Zöger, Jessica Smith, Paul Lawson, Alexey Lykov, Sergey Khaykin, and Martina Krämer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4015–4031,Short summary
The ice water content (IWC) of cirrus clouds is an essential parameter that determines their radiative properties and is thus important for climate simulations. Experimental investigations of IWCs measured on board research aircraft reveal that their accuracy is influenced by the sampling position. IWCs detected at the aircraft roof deviate significantly from wing, side or bottom IWCs. The reasons are deflections of the gas streamlines and ice particle trajectories behind the aircraft cockpit.
Sandip S. Dhomse, Douglas Kinnison, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Ross J. Salawitch, Irene Cionni, Michaela I. Hegglin, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alex T. Archibald, Ewa M. Bednarz, Slimane Bekki, Peter Braesicke, Neal Butchart, Martin Dameris, Makoto Deushi, Stacey Frith, Steven C. Hardiman, Birgit Hassler, Larry W. Horowitz, Rong-Ming Hu, Patrick Jöckel, Beatrice Josse, Oliver Kirner, Stefanie Kremser, Ulrike Langematz, Jared Lewis, Marion Marchand, Meiyun Lin, Eva Mancini, Virginie Marécal, Martine Michou, Olaf Morgenstern, Fiona M. O'Connor, Luke Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, John A. Pyle, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Robyn Schofield, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Kengo Sudo, Simone Tilmes, Daniele Visioni, Yousuke Yamashita, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8409–8438,Short summary
We analyse simulations from the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) to estimate the return dates of the stratospheric ozone layer from depletion by anthropogenic chlorine and bromine. The simulations from 20 models project that global column ozone will return to 1980 values in 2047 (uncertainty range 2042–2052). Return dates in other regions vary depending on factors related to climate change and importance of chlorine and bromine. Column ozone in the tropics may continue to decline.
Andrea Pazmiño, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Alain Hauchecorne, Chantal Claud, Sergey Khaykin, Florence Goutail, Elian Wolfram, Jacobo Salvador, and Eduardo Quel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7557–7572,Short summary
The article mentions several symptoms of recovery. Multilinear regression analysis provides significant increase since 2001 of total ozone in Sept and during the period of maximum ozone destruction (15 Sept–15 Oct). There is significant decrease of ozone mass deficit for the same periods, decrease of relative area of total ozone values lower than 175 DU within the vortex (1 Sept–15 Oct since 2010) and a delay in the occurrence of ozone levels below 125 DU since 2005 for the 1 Sept–15 Oct period.
Clara Orbe, Huang Yang, Darryn W. Waugh, Guang Zeng, Olaf Morgenstern, Douglas E. Kinnison, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Simone Tilmes, David A. Plummer, John F. Scinocca, Beatrice Josse, Virginie Marecal, Patrick Jöckel, Luke D. Oman, Susan E. Strahan, Makoto Deushi, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Kohei Yoshida, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Yousuke Yamashita, Andreas Stenke, Laura Revell, Timofei Sukhodolov, Eugene Rozanov, Giovanni Pitari, Daniele Visioni, Kane A. Stone, Robyn Schofield, and Antara Banerjee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7217–7235,Short summary
In this study we compare a few atmospheric transport properties among several numerical models that are used to study the influence of atmospheric chemistry on climate. We show that there are large differences among models in terms of the timescales that connect the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes, where greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting substances are emitted, to the Southern Hemisphere. Our results may have important implications for how models represent atmospheric composition.
Vanessa Brocchi, Gisèle Krysztofiak, Valéry Catoire, Jonathan Guth, Virginie Marécal, Régina Zbinden, Laaziz El Amraoui, François Dulac, and Philippe Ricaud
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6887–6906,Short summary
The Mediterranean Basin still suffers from a limited amount of in situ measurements for a good characterization of its environmental state. This study shows that intercontinental transport of very high CO concentrations can affect the upper Mediterranean Basin troposphere. By using modeling, 5- to 12-day eastward transport of biomass burning starting from North America and Siberia impacts the mid-troposphere of the Mediterranean Basin.
Yann Cohen, Hervé Petetin, Valérie Thouret, Virginie Marécal, Béatrice Josse, Hannah Clark, Bastien Sauvage, Alain Fontaine, Gilles Athier, Romain Blot, Damien Boulanger, Jean-Marc Cousin, and Philippe Nédélec
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5415–5453,Short summary
Measurements of ozone and carbon monoxide were performed during 1994–2013 around the tropopause on board commercial aircraft. Seasonal cycles and trends were calculated above eight well-sampled regions in Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes. CO shows decreasing concentrations over the last 10 years, thus reflecting the impact of the legislation on anthropogenic emissions. Ozone amounts increased over the 20 years in the upper troposphere during different seasons, depending on the longitudes.
Jonathan Guth, Virginie Marécal, Béatrice Josse, Joaquim Arteta, and Paul Hamer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4911–4934,
Olaf Morgenstern, Michaela I. Hegglin, Eugene Rozanov, Fiona M. O'Connor, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alexander T. Archibald, Slimane Bekki, Neal Butchart, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Makoto Deushi, Sandip S. Dhomse, Rolando R. Garcia, Steven C. Hardiman, Larry W. Horowitz, Patrick Jöckel, Beatrice Josse, Douglas Kinnison, Meiyun Lin, Eva Mancini, Michael E. Manyin, Marion Marchand, Virginie Marécal, Martine Michou, Luke D. Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, Laura E. Revell, David Saint-Martin, Robyn Schofield, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Kengo Sudo, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Simone Tilmes, Yousuke Yamashita, Kohei Yoshida, and Guang Zeng
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 639–671,Short summary
We present a review of the make-up of 20 models participating in the Chemistry–Climate Model Initiative (CCMI). In comparison to earlier such activities, most of these models comprise a whole-atmosphere chemistry, and several of them include an interactive ocean module. This makes them suitable for studying the interactions of tropospheric air quality, stratospheric ozone, and climate. The paper lays the foundation for other studies using the CCMI simulations for scientific analysis.
Sergey M. Khaykin, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Philippe Keckhut, Alain Hauchecorne, Julien Jumelet, Jean-Paul Vernier, Adam Bourassa, Doug A. Degenstein, Landon A. Rieger, Christine Bingen, Filip Vanhellemont, Charles Robert, Matthew DeLand, and Pawan K. Bhartia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1829–1845,Short summary
The article is devoted to the long-term evolution and variability of stratospheric aerosol, which plays an important role in climate change and the ozone layer. We use 22-year long continuous observations using laser radar soundings in southern France and satellite-based observations to distinguish between natural aerosol variability (caused by volcanic eruptions) and human-induced change in aerosol concentration. An influence of growing pollution above Asia on stratospheric aerosol is found.
Bojan Sič, Laaziz El Amraoui, Andrea Piacentini, Virginie Marécal, Emanuele Emili, Daniel Cariolle, Michael Prather, and Jean-Luc Attié
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5535–5554,
Sergey M. Khaykin, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Emmanuel D. Riviere, Gerhard Held, Felix Ploeger, Melanie Ghysels, Nadir Amarouche, Jean-Paul Vernier, Frank G. Wienhold, and Dmitry Ionov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12273–12286,Short summary
The study makes use of a series of field experiments conducted in Brazil and aimed at studying the processes controlling the composition of the tropical lower stratosphere. High-resolution balloon-borne measurements together with global-coverage satellite observations and weather radar acquisitions are analysed using trajectory and transport modelling in order to evaluate the contribution of different transport pathways to the stratospheric water budget.
Swagata Payra, Philippe Ricaud, Rachid Abida, Laaziz El Amraoui, Jean-Luc Attié, Emmanuel Rivière, Fabien Carminati, and Thomas von Clarmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4355–4373,Short summary
The study deals with the budget of water vapour (H2O) at the tropical tropopause. The MOCAGE-VALENTINA assimilation tool has been used to assimilate Microwave Limb Sounder H2O space-borne measurements within the 316–5 hPa range from August 2011 to March 2013. Diagnostics are developed to assess the quality of the analyses depending on several parameters. Sensitivity studies show the improvement on the analyses when assimilating measurements of better quality, mainly over the convective areas.
Mélanie Ghysels, Emmanuel D. Riviere, Sergey Khaykin, Clara Stoeffler, Nadir Amarouche, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Gerhard Held, and Georges Durry
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1207–1219,Short summary
Water vapor in the Earth stratosphere has a significant impact on the climate and the radiative balance. Achieving high-accuracy measurements of humidity in the stratosphere is still far from routine. In this paper, we demonstrate one of the best in situ balloon-borne measurement comparisons from two highly compact spectrometers: Pico-SDLA H2O and FLASH-B.
J. Guth, B. Josse, V. Marécal, M. Joly, and P. Hamer
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 137–160,
P. D. Hamer, K. W. Bowman, D. K. Henze, J.-L. Attié, and V. Marécal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10645–10667,Short summary
Using a simplified air quality forecasting model, we explore how characteristics of air quality observations affect our ability to understand and predict ozone air pollution. We show that the photochemical conditions can strongly influence the observing priorities for ozone prediction, such as which species are observed and how well, when, and how frequently. High-freqency observations of ozone, NOx and HCHO in combination during the morning and afternoon are particularly advantageous.
V. Marécal, V.-H. Peuch, C. Andersson, S. Andersson, J. Arteta, M. Beekmann, A. Benedictow, R. Bergström, B. Bessagnet, A. Cansado, F. Chéroux, A. Colette, A. Coman, R. L. Curier, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, A. Drouin, H. Elbern, E. Emili, R. J. Engelen, H. J. Eskes, G. Foret, E. Friese, M. Gauss, C. Giannaros, J. Guth, M. Joly, E. Jaumouillé, B. Josse, N. Kadygrov, J. W. Kaiser, K. Krajsek, J. Kuenen, U. Kumar, N. Liora, E. Lopez, L. Malherbe, I. Martinez, D. Melas, F. Meleux, L. Menut, P. Moinat, T. Morales, J. Parmentier, A. Piacentini, M. Plu, A. Poupkou, S. Queguiner, L. Robertson, L. Rouïl, M. Schaap, A. Segers, M. Sofiev, L. Tarasson, M. Thomas, R. Timmermans, Á. Valdebenito, P. van Velthoven, R. van Versendaal, J. Vira, and A. Ung
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2777–2813,Short summary
This paper describes the air quality forecasting system over Europe put in place in the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate projects. It provides daily and 4-day forecasts and analyses for the previous day for major gas and particulate pollutants and their main precursors. These products are based on a multi-model approach using seven state-of-the-art models developed in Europe. An evaluation of the performance of the system is discussed in the paper.
V. Catoire, G. Krysztofiak, C. Robert, M. Chartier, P. Jacquet, C. Guimbaud, P. D. Hamer, and V. Marécal
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
A three-channel infrared laser absorption spectrometer has been developed for airborne measurements of trace gases up to the upper troposphere. More than three different species can be measured simultaneously with high time resolution using three individual Continuous Wave Quantum Cascade Lasers coupled to a single Robert multipass optical cell. The first deployment of this spectrometer was realized in convective outflows over South China Sea where enhancements of CO were detected.
M. Sofiev, U. Berger, M. Prank, J. Vira, J. Arteta, J. Belmonte, K.-C. Bergmann, F. Chéroux, H. Elbern, E. Friese, C. Galan, R. Gehrig, D. Khvorostyanov, R. Kranenburg, U. Kumar, V. Marécal, F. Meleux, L. Menut, A.-M. Pessi, L. Robertson, O. Ritenberga, V. Rodinkova, A. Saarto, A. Segers, E. Severova, I. Sauliene, P. Siljamo, B. M. Steensen, E. Teinemaa, M. Thibaudon, and V.-H. Peuch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8115–8130,Short summary
The paper presents the first ensemble modelling experiment for forecasting the atmospheric dispersion of birch pollen in Europe. The study included 7 models of MACC-ENS tested over the season of 2010 and applied for 2013 in forecasting and reanalysis modes. The results were compared with observations in 11 countries, members of European Aeroallergen Network. The models successfully reproduced the timing of the unusually late season of 2013 but had more difficulties with absolute concentration.
J. Flemming, V. Huijnen, J. Arteta, P. Bechtold, A. Beljaars, A.-M. Blechschmidt, M. Diamantakis, R. J. Engelen, A. Gaudel, A. Inness, L. Jones, B. Josse, E. Katragkou, V. Marecal, V.-H. Peuch, A. Richter, M. G. Schultz, O. Stein, and A. Tsikerdekis
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 975–1003,Short summary
We describe modules for atmospheric chemistry, wet and dry deposition and lightning NO production, which have been newly introduced in ECMWF's weather forecasting model. With that model, we want to forecast global air pollution as part of the European Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service. We show that the new model results compare as well or better with in situ and satellite observations of ozone, CO, NO2, SO2 and formaldehyde as the previous model.
B. Sič, L. El Amraoui, V. Marécal, B. Josse, J. Arteta, J. Guth, M. Joly, and P. D. Hamer
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 381–408,
D. W. Fahey, R.-S. Gao, O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, C. Schiller, V. Ebert, M. Krämer, T. Peter, N. Amarouche, L. M. Avallone, R. Bauer, Z. Bozóki, L. E. Christensen, S. M. Davis, G. Durry, C. Dyroff, R. L. Herman, S. Hunsmann, S. M. Khaykin, P. Mackrodt, J. Meyer, J. B. Smith, N. Spelten, R. F. Troy, H. Vömel, S. Wagner, and F. G. Wienhold
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3177–3213,
F. Carminati, P. Ricaud, J.-P. Pommereau, E. Rivière, S. Khaykin, J.-L. Attié, and J. Warner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6195–6211,
L. Grellier, V. Marécal, B. Josse, P. D. Hamer, T. J. Roberts, A. Aiuppa, and M. Pirre
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
I. Engel, B. P. Luo, S. M. Khaykin, F. G. Wienhold, H. Vömel, R. Kivi, C. R. Hoyle, J.-U. Grooß, M. C. Pitts, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3231–3246,
R. Hossaini, H. Mantle, M. P. Chipperfield, S. A. Montzka, P. Hamer, F. Ziska, B. Quack, K. Krüger, S. Tegtmeier, E. Atlas, S. Sala, A. Engel, H. Bönisch, T. Keber, D. Oram, G. Mills, C. Ordóñez, A. Saiz-Lopez, N. Warwick, Q. Liang, W. Feng, F. Moore, B. R. Miller, V. Marécal, N. A. D. Richards, M. Dorf, and K. Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11819–11838,
S. M. Khaykin, I. Engel, H. Vömel, I. M. Formanyuk, R. Kivi, L. I. Korshunov, M. Krämer, A. D. Lykov, S. Meier, T. Naebert, M. C. Pitts, M. L. Santee, N. Spelten, F. G. Wienhold, V. A. Yushkov, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11503–11517,
M. von Hobe, S. Bekki, S. Borrmann, F. Cairo, F. D'Amato, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ebersoldt, M. Ebert, C. Emde, I. Engel, M. Ern, W. Frey, S. Genco, S. Griessbach, J.-U. Grooß, T. Gulde, G. Günther, E. Hösen, L. Hoffmann, V. Homonnai, C. R. Hoyle, I. S. A. Isaksen, D. R. Jackson, I. M. Jánosi, R. L. Jones, K. Kandler, C. Kalicinsky, A. Keil, S. M. Khaykin, F. Khosrawi, R. Kivi, J. Kuttippurath, J. C. Laube, F. Lefèvre, R. Lehmann, S. Ludmann, B. P. Luo, M. Marchand, J. Meyer, V. Mitev, S. Molleker, R. Müller, H. Oelhaf, F. Olschewski, Y. Orsolini, T. Peter, K. Pfeilsticker, C. Piesch, M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, F. D. Pope, F. Ravegnani, M. Rex, M. Riese, T. Röckmann, B. Rognerud, A. Roiger, C. Rolf, M. L. Santee, M. Scheibe, C. Schiller, H. Schlager, M. Siciliani de Cumis, N. Sitnikov, O. A. Søvde, R. Spang, N. Spelten, F. Stordal, O. Sumińska-Ebersoldt, A. Ulanovski, J. Ungermann, S. Viciani, C. M. Volk, M. vom Scheidt, P. von der Gathen, K. Walker, T. Wegner, R. Weigel, S. Weinbruch, G. Wetzel, F. G. Wienhold, I. Wohltmann, W. Woiwode, I. A. K. Young, V. Yushkov, B. Zobrist, and F. Stroh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9233–9268,
K. M. Longo, S. R. Freitas, M. Pirre, V. Marécal, L. F. Rodrigues, J. Panetta, M. F. Alonso, N. E. Rosário, D. S. Moreira, M. S. Gácita, J. Arteta, R. Fonseca, R. Stockler, D. M. Katsurayama, A. Fazenda, and M. Bela
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 1389–1405,
P. D. Hamer, V. Marécal, R. Hossaini, M. Pirre, N. Warwick, M. Chipperfield, A. A. Samah, N. Harris, A. Robinson, B. Quack, A. Engel, K. Krüger, E. Atlas, K. Subramaniam, D. Oram, E. Leedham, G. Mills, K. Pfeilsticker, S. Sala, T. Keber, H. Bönisch, L. K. Peng, M. S. M. Nadzir, P. T. Lim, A. Mujahid, A. Anton, H. Schlager, V. Catoire, G. Krysztofiak, S. Fühlbrügge, M. Dorf, and W. T. Sturges
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
S. M. Khaykin, J.-P. Pommereau, and A. Hauchecorne
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6391–6402,
G. Lacressonnière, V.-H. Peuch, J. Arteta, B. Josse, M. Joly, V. Marécal, D. Saint Martin, M. Déqué, and L. Watson
Geosci. Model Dev., 5, 1565–1587,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Methane emissions from China: a high-resolution inversion of TROPOMI satellite observationsEstimated regional CO2 flux and uncertainty based on an ensemble of atmospheric CO2 inversionsAssessing the representativity of NH3 measurements influenced by boundary-layer dynamics and the turbulent dispersion of a nearby emission sourceTowards monitoring CO2 source-sink distribution over India via inverse modelling: Quantifying the fine-scale spatiotemporal variability of atmospheric CO2 mole fractionAnalysis of CO2, CH4, and CO surface and column concentrations observed at Réunion Island by assessing WRF-Chem simulationsDevelopment and application of a multi-scale modelling framework for urban high-resolution NO2 pollution mappingTechnical note: Interpretation of field observations of point-source methane plume using observation-driven large-eddy simulationsQuantifying fossil fuel methane emissions using observations of atmospheric ethane and an uncertain emission ratioThe impact of peripheral circulation characteristics of typhoon on sustained ozone episodes over the Pearl River Delta region, ChinaUpdated Global Fuel Exploitation Inventory (GFEI) for methane emissions from the oil, gas, and coal sectors: evaluation with inversions of atmospheric methane observationsOptimizing Four Years of CO2 Biospheric Fluxes from OCO-2 and in situ data in TM5: Fire Emissions from GFED and Inferred from MOPITT CO dataHigh-resolution mapping of regional traffic emissions using land-use machine learning modelsLand use and anthropogenic heat modulate ozone by meteorology: a perspective from the Yangtze River Delta regionFour years of global carbon cycle observed from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) version 9 and in situ data and comparison to OCO-2 version 7Data assimilation of CrIS NH3 satellite observations for improving spatiotemporal NH3 distributions in LOTOS-EUROSEffects of ozone–vegetation interactions on meteorology and air quality in China using a two-way coupled land–atmosphere modelThe drivers and health risks of unexpected surface ozone enhancements over the Sichuan Basin, China, in 2020Estimating 2010–2015 anthropogenic and natural methane emissions in Canada using ECCC surface and GOSAT satellite observationsTechnical note: AQMEII4 Activity 1: evaluation of wet and dry deposition schemes as an integral part of regional-scale air quality modelsEvaluating the impact of storage-and-release on aircraft-based mass-balance methodology using a regional air-quality modelThe regional impact of urban emissions on air quality in Europe: the role of the urban canopy effectsA new inverse modeling approach for emission sources based on the DDM-3D and 3DVAR techniques: an application to air quality forecasts in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei regionAssessing urban methane emissions using column-observing portable Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers and a novel Bayesian inversion frameworkEvidence of a recent decline in UK emissions of hydrofluorocarbons determined by the InTEM inverse model and atmospheric measurementsVehicle-induced turbulence and atmospheric pollutionA comparative study to reveal the influence of typhoons on the transport, production and accumulation of O3 in the Pearl River Delta, ChinaSensitivity to the sources of uncertainties in the modeling of atmospheric CO2 concentration within and in the vicinity of ParisEstimating Upper Silesian coal mine methane emissions from airborne in situ observations and dispersion modelingAnalysis of CO2 spatio-temporal variations in China using a weather–biosphere online coupled modelMobile monitoring of urban air quality at high spatial resolution by low-cost sensors: impacts of COVID-19 pandemic lockdownLinking global terrestrial CO2 fluxes and environmental drivers: inferences from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 satellite and terrestrial biospheric modelsUncertainties in the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) emission inventory of greenhouse gasesUsing TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) measurements and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) CO modelling to understand the contribution of meteorology and emissions to an extreme air pollution event in IndiaGlobal methane budget and trend, 2010–2017: complementarity of inverse analyses using in situ (GLOBALVIEWplus CH4 ObsPack) and satellite (GOSAT) observationsCOVID-19 lockdowns highlight a risk of increasing ozone pollution in European urban areasLarge-eddy simulation of traffic-related air pollution at a very high resolution in a mega-city: evaluation against mobile sensors and insights for influencing factorsTechnical note: Emission mapping of key sectors in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, using satellite-derived urban land use dataImpact of western Pacific subtropical high on ozone pollution over eastern ChinaHigh-resolution hybrid inversion of IASI ammonia columns to constrain US ammonia emissions using the CMAQ adjoint modelSimulation of radon-222 with the GEOS-Chem global model: emissions, seasonality, and convective transportRegional CO2 fluxes from 2010 to 2015 inferred from GOSAT XCO2 retrievals using a new version of the Global Carbon Assimilation SystemThe friagem event in the central Amazon and its influence on micrometeorological variables and atmospheric chemistryModeling atmospheric ammonia using agricultural emissions with improved spatial variability and temporal dynamicsQuantifying methane emissions from Queensland's coal seam gas producing Surat Basin using inventory data and a regional Bayesian inversionErrors in top-down estimates of emissions using a known sourceThe impact of urban land-surface on extreme air pollution over central EuropeImpacts of future land use and land cover change on mid-21st-century surface ozone air quality: distinguishing between the biogeophysical and biogeochemical effectsWhat have we missed when studying the impact of aerosols on surface ozone via changing photolysis rates?Stratospheric impact on the Northern Hemisphere winter and spring ozone interannual variability in the troposphereDesign and evaluation of CO2 observation network to optimize surface CO2 fluxes in Asia using observation system simulation experiments
Zichong Chen, Daniel J. Jacob, Hannah Nesser, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Alba Lorente, Daniel J. Varon, Xiao Lu, Lu Shen, Zhen Qu, Elise Penn, and Xueying Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10809–10826,Short summary
We quantify methane emissions in China and contributions from different sectors by inverse analysis of 2019 TROPOMI satellite observations of atmospheric methane. We find that anthropogenic methane emissions for China are underestimated in the national inventory. Our estimate of emissions indicates a small life-cycle loss rate, implying net climate benefits from the current
coal-to-gasenergy transition in China. However, this small loss rate can be misleading given China's high gas imports.
Naveen Chandra, Prabir K. Patra, Yousuke Niwa, Akihiko Ito, Yosuke Iida, Daisuke Goto, Shinji Morimoto, Masayuki Kondo, Masayuki Takigawa, Tomohiro Hajima, and Michio Watanabe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9215–9243,Short summary
This paper is intended to accomplish two goals: (1) quantify mean and uncertainty in non-fossil-fuel CO2 fluxes estimated by inverse modeling and (2) provide in-depth analyses of regional CO2 fluxes in support of emission mitigation policymaking. CO2 flux variability and trends are discussed concerning natural climate variability and human disturbances using multiple lines of evidence.
Ruben B. Schulte, Margreet C. van Zanten, Bart J. H. van Stratum, and Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8241–8257,Short summary
We present a fine-scale simulation framework, utilizing large-eddy simulations, to assess NH3 measurements influenced by boundary-layer dynamics and turbulent dispersion of a nearby emission source. The minimum required distance from an emission source differs for concentration and flux measurements, from 0.5–3.0 km and 0.75–4.5 km, respectively. The simulation framework presented here proves to be a powerful and versatile tool for future NH3 research at high spatio-temporal resolutions.
Vishnu Thilakan, Dhanyalekshmi Pillai, Christoph Gerbig, Michal Galkowski, Aparnna Ravi, and Thara Anna Mathew
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This paper demonstrates how we can use atmospheric observations to improve the CO2 flux estimates of India. This is achieved by improving the representation of terrain, mesoscale transport and flux variations. We quantify the impact of unresolved variations in the current models on optimally estimated fluxes via inverse modelling and quantify the associated flux uncertainty. We illustrate how a parameterization scheme captures this variability in the coarse models.
Sieglinde Callewaert, Jérôme Brioude, Bavo Langerock, Valentin Duflot, Dominique Fonteyn, Jean-François Müller, Jean-Marc Metzger, Christian Hermans, Nicolas Kumps, Michel Ramonet, Morgan Lopez, Emmanuel Mahieu, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7763–7792,Short summary
A regional atmospheric transport model is used to analyze the factors contributing to CO2, CH4, and CO observations at Réunion Island. We show that the surface observations are dominated by local fluxes and dynamical processes, while the column data are influenced by larger-scale mechanisms such as biomass burning plumes. The model is able to capture the measured time series well; however, the results are highly dependent on accurate boundary conditions and high-resolution emission inventories.
Zhaofeng Lv, Zhenyu Luo, Fanyuan Deng, Xiaotong Wang, Junchao Zhao, Lucheng Xu, Tingkun He, Huan Liu, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study developed a hybrid model to quantitatively analyze the effects of vehicle emissions on urban roadside NO2 concentrations at a high spatial resolution. The modelling results revealed the effects of street canyons on the inside wind environment and pollutant concentrations. In summer, the relative contribution of vehicles to NO2 concentrations in Beijing urban areas was 39 % on average, but increased significantly with the decreased distance to the road centerline (up to 75 %).
Anja Ražnjević, Chiel van Heerwaarden, Bart van Stratum, Arjan Hensen, Ilona Velzeboer, Pim van den Bulk, and Maarten Krol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6489–6505,Short summary
Mobile measurement techniques (e.g., instruments placed in cars) are often employed to identify and quantify individual sources of greenhouse gases. Due to road restrictions, those observations are often sparse (temporally and spatially). We performed high-resolution simulations of plume dispersion, with realistic weather conditions encountered in the field, to reproduce the measurement process of a methane plume emitted from an oil well and provide additional information about the plume.
Alice E. Ramsden, Anita L. Ganesan, Luke M. Western, Matthew Rigby, Alistair J. Manning, Amy Foulds, James L. France, Patrick Barker, Peter Levy, Daniel Say, Adam Wisher, Tim Arnold, Chris Rennick, Kieran M. Stanley, Dickon Young, and Simon O'Doherty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3911–3929,Short summary
Quantifying methane emissions from different sources is a key focus of current research. We present a method for estimating sectoral methane emissions that uses ethane as a tracer for fossil fuel methane. By incorporating variable ethane : methane emission ratios into this model, we produce emissions estimates with improved uncertainty characterisation. This method will be particularly useful for studying methane emissions in areas with complex distributions of sources.
Ying Li, Xiangjun Zhao, Xuejiao Deng, and Jinhui Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3861–3873,Short summary
This study finds a new phenomenon of weak wind deepening (WWD) associated with the peripheral circulation of typhoon and gives the influence mechanism of WWD on its contribution to daily variation during sustained ozone episodes. The WWD provides the premise for pollution accumulation in the whole PBL and continued enhancement of ground-level ozone via vertical mixing processes. These findings could benefit the daily daytime ozone forecast in the PRD region and other areas.
Tia R. Scarpelli, Daniel J. Jacob, Shayna Grossman, Xiao Lu, Zhen Qu, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Yuzhong Zhang, Frances Reuland, Deborah Gordon, and John R. Worden
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3235–3249,Short summary
We present a spatially explicit version of the national inventories of oil, gas, and coal methane emissions as submitted by individual countries to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2021. We then use atmospheric modeling to compare our inventory emissions to atmospheric methane observations with the goal of identifying potential under- and overestimates of oil–gas methane emissions in the national inventories.
Hélène Peiro, Sean Crowell, and Berrien Moore III
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
CO data can provide a powerful constraint in fire fluxes, supporting more accurate estimation of biospheric CO2 fluxes. We converted CO fire flux in CO2 fire prior which is then used to adjust CO2 respiration. For comparison, we applied this to two other fire flux products. CO2 inversions constrained by satellites or in situ data are then performed. Results show larger variations among the data assimilated than across the priors, but tropical flux from in situ inversions are sensitive to priors.
Xiaomeng Wu, Daoyuan Yang, Ruoxi Wu, Jiajun Gu, Yifan Wen, Shaojun Zhang, Rui Wu, Renjie Wang, Honglei Xu, K. Max Zhang, Ye Wu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1939–1950,Short summary
Our work pioneered land-use machine learning methods for developing link-level emission inventories, utilizing hourly traffic profiles, including volume, speed, and fleet mix, obtained from the governmental intercity highway monitoring network in the "capital circles" of China. This research provides a platform to realize the near-real-time process of establishing high-resolution vehicle emission inventories for policy makers to engage in sophisticated traffic management.
Chenchao Zhan and Min Xie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1351–1371,Short summary
The changes of land use and anthropogenic heat (AH) derived from urbanization can affect meteorology and in turn O3 evolution. In this study, we briefly describe the general features of O3 pollution in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) based on in situ observational data. Then, the impacts of land use and anthropogenic heat on O3 via changing the meteorological factors and local circulations are investigated in this region using the WRF-Chem model.
Hélène Peiro, Sean Crowell, Andrew Schuh, David F. Baker, Chris O'Dell, Andrew R. Jacobson, Frédéric Chevallier, Junjie Liu, Annmarie Eldering, David Crisp, Feng Deng, Brad Weir, Sourish Basu, Matthew S. Johnson, Sajeev Philip, and Ian Baker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1097–1130,Short summary
Satellite CO2 observations are constantly improved. We study an ensemble of different atmospheric models (inversions) from 2015 to 2018 using separate ground-based data or two versions of the OCO-2 satellite. Our study aims to determine if different satellite data corrections can yield different estimates of carbon cycle flux. A difference in the carbon budget between the two versions is found over tropical Africa, which seems to show the impact of corrections applied in satellite data.
Shelley van der Graaf, Enrico Dammers, Arjo Segers, Richard Kranenburg, Martijn Schaap, Mark W. Shephard, and Jan Willem Erisman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 951–972,Short summary
CrIS NH3 satellite observations are assimilated into the LOTOS-EUROS model using two different methods. In the first method the data are used to fit spatially varying NH3 emission time factors. In the second method a local ensemble transform Kalman filter is used. Compared to in situ observations, combining both methods led to the most significant improvements in the modeled concentrations and deposition, illustrating the usefulness of CrIS NH3 to improve the spatiotemporal distribution of NH3.
Jiachen Zhu, Amos P. K. Tai, and Steve Hung Lam Yim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 765–782,Short summary
This study assessed O3 damage to plant and the subsequent effects on meteorology and air quality in China, whereby O3, meteorology, and vegetation can co-evolve with each other. We provided comprehensive understanding about how O3–vegetation impacts adversely affect plant growth and crop production, and contribute to global warming and severe O3 air pollution in China. Our findings clearly pinpoint the need to consider the O3 damage effects in both air quality studies and climate change studies.
Youwen Sun, Hao Yin, Xiao Lu, Justus Notholt, Mathias Palm, Cheng Liu, Yuan Tian, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18589–18608,Short summary
This study uses high-resolution nested-grid GEOS-Chem simulation, the eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) machine learning method, and the exposure–response relationship to determine the drivers and evaluate the health risks of the unexpected surface O3 enhancements over the Sichuan Basin in 2020. These unexpected O3 enhancements were induced by meteorological anomalies and caused dramatically high health risks.
Sabour Baray, Daniel J. Jacob, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Jian-Xiong Sheng, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Dylan B. A. Jones, A. Anthony Bloom, and Robert McLaren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18101–18121,Short summary
We use 2010–2015 surface and satellite observations to disentangle methane from anthropogenic and natural sources in Canada. Using a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem), the mismatch between modelled and observed methane concentrations can be used to infer emissions according to Bayesian statistics. Compared to prior knowledge, we show higher anthropogenic emissions attributed to energy and/or agriculture in Western Canada and lower natural emissions from Boreal wetlands.
Stefano Galmarini, Paul Makar, Olivia E. Clifton, Christian Hogrefe, Jesse O. Bash, Roberto Bellasio, Roberto Bianconi, Johannes Bieser, Tim Butler, Jason Ducker, Johannes Flemming, Alma Hodzic, Christopher D. Holmes, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Richard Kranenburg, Aurelia Lupascu, Juan Luis Perez-Camanyo, Jonathan Pleim, Young-Hee Ryu, Roberto San Jose, Donna Schwede, Sam Silva, and Ralf Wolke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15663–15697,Short summary
This technical note presents the research protocols for phase 4 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII4). This initiative has three goals: (i) to define the state of wet and dry deposition in regional models, (ii) to evaluate how dry deposition influences air concentration and flux predictions, and (iii) to identify the causes for prediction differences. The evaluation compares LULC-specific dry deposition and effective conductances and fluxes.
Sepehr Fathi, Mark Gordon, Paul A. Makar, Ayodeji Akingunola, Andrea Darlington, John Liggio, Katherine Hayden, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15461–15491,Short summary
We have investigated the accuracy of aircraft-based mass balance methodologies through computer model simulations of the atmosphere and air quality at a regional high-resolution scale. We have defined new quantitative metrics to reduce emission retrieval uncertainty by evaluating top-down mass balance estimates against the known simulated meteorology and input emissions. We also recommend methodologies and flight strategies for improved retrievals in future aircraft-based studies.
Peter Huszar, Jan Karlický, Jana Marková, Tereza Nováková, Marina Liaskoni, and Lukáš Bartík
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14309–14332,Short summary
Urban areas are strong hot spots of emissions influencing local and regional air quality. Cities furthermore influence the meteorological conditions due to their characteristic surface properties and geometry. We found that if these latter effects are not included in the quantification of the impact of urban emissions on regional air quality, this impact will be overestimated, and this overestimation is mainly due to the enhanced turbulence that is present in cities compared to rural areas.
Xinghong Cheng, Zilong Hao, Zengliang Zang, Zhiquan Liu, Xiangde Xu, Shuisheng Wang, Yuelin Liu, Yiwen Hu, and Xiaodan Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13747–13761,Short summary
We develop a new inversion method of emission sources based on sensitivity analysis and the three-dimension variational technique. The novel explicit observation operator matrix between emission sources and the receptor’s concentrations is established. Then this method is applied to a typical heavy haze episode in North China, and spatiotemporal variations of SO2, NO2, and O3 concentrations simulated using a posterior emission sources are compared with results using an a priori inventory.
Taylor S. Jones, Jonathan E. Franklin, Jia Chen, Florian Dietrich, Kristian D. Hajny, Johannes C. Paetzold, Adrian Wenzel, Conor Gately, Elaine Gottlieb, Harrison Parker, Manvendra Dubey, Frank Hase, Paul B. Shepson, Levi H. Mielke, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13131–13147,Short summary
Methane emissions from leaks in natural gas pipes are often a large source in urban areas, but they are difficult to measure on a city-wide scale. Here we use an array of innovative methane sensors distributed around the city of Indianapolis and a new method of combining their data with an atmospheric model to accurately determine the magnitude of these emissions, which are about 70 % larger than predicted. This method can serve as a framework for cities trying to account for their emissions.
Alistair J. Manning, Alison L. Redington, Daniel Say, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, Peter G. Simmonds, Martin K. Vollmer, Jens Mühle, Jgor Arduini, Gerard Spain, Adam Wisher, Michela Maione, Tanja J. Schuck, Kieran Stanley, Stefan Reimann, Andreas Engel, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, Christina M. Harth, Peter K. Salameh, Ray F. Weiss, Ray Gluckman, Peter N. Brown, John D. Watterson, and Tim Arnold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12739–12755,Short summary
This paper estimates UK emissions of important greenhouse gases (hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)) using high-quality atmospheric observations and atmospheric modelling. We compare these estimates with those submitted by the UK to the United Nations. We conclude that global concentrations of these gases are still increasing. Our estimates for the UK are 73 % of those reported and that the UK emissions are now falling, demonstrating an impact of UK government policy.
Paul A. Makar, Craig Stroud, Ayodeji Akingunola, Junhua Zhang, Shuzhan Ren, Philip Cheung, and Qiong Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12291–12316,Short summary
Vehicle pollutant emissions occur in an environment where upward transport can be enhanced due to the turbulence created by the vehicles as they move through the atmosphere. An approach for including these turbulence effects in regional air pollution forecast models has been derived from theoretical, observation, and higher-resolution modeling. The enhanced mixing, which occurs in the immediate vicinity of roadways, changes pollutant concentrations on the regional to continental scale.
Kun Qu, Xuesong Wang, Yu Yan, Jin Shen, Teng Xiao, Huabin Dong, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11593–11612,Short summary
Typhoons above the Northwest Pacific frequently lead to severe ambient ozone pollution in the Pearl River Delta, China, in autumn and summer. However, typhoons do not enhance ozone transport, production and accumulation at the same time, and differences also exist between these influences in two seasons. Through systematic comparisons, we revealed the complex interactions between local meteorology and ozone processes, which is essential for understanding the causes of regional ozone pollution.
Jinghui Lian, François-Marie Bréon, Grégoire Broquet, Thomas Lauvaux, Bo Zheng, Michel Ramonet, Irène Xueref-Remy, Simone Kotthaus, Martial Haeffelin, and Philippe Ciais
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10707–10726,Short summary
Currently there is growing interest in monitoring city-scale CO2 emissions based on atmospheric CO2 measurements, atmospheric transport modeling, and inversion technique. We analyze the various sources of uncertainty that impact the atmospheric CO2 modeling and that may compromise the potential of this method for the monitoring of CO2 emission over Paris. Results suggest selection criteria for the assimilation of CO2 measurements into the inversion system that aims at retrieving city emissions.
Julian Kostinek, Anke Roiger, Maximilian Eckl, Alina Fiehn, Andreas Luther, Norman Wildmann, Theresa Klausner, Andreas Fix, Christoph Knote, Andreas Stohl, and André Butz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8791–8807,Short summary
Abundant mining and industrial activities in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin lead to large emissions of the potent greenhouse gas methane. This study quantifies these emissions with continuous, high-precision airborne measurements and dispersion modeling. Our emission estimates are in line with values reported in the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR 2017) but significantly lower than values reported in the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR v4.3.2).
Xinyi Dong, Man Yue, Yujun Jiang, Xiao-Ming Hu, Qianli Ma, Jingjiao Pu, and Guangqiang Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7217–7233,Short summary
The dynamics of CO2 has received considerable attention in the literature, yet uncertainties remain. We applied an online coupled weather-biosphere model to simulate biosphere processes and meteorology simultaneously to characterize CO2 dynamics in China. Anthropogenic emission was more influential in upper air, and the biosphere flux played a more important role in surface CO2, suggesting a significant influence of the boundary layer thermal structure on the accumulation and depletion of CO2.
Shibao Wang, Yun Ma, Zhongrui Wang, Lei Wang, Xuguang Chi, Aijun Ding, Mingzhi Yao, Yunpeng Li, Qilin Li, Mengxian Wu, Ling Zhang, Yongle Xiao, and Yanxu Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7199–7215,Short summary
Mobile monitoring with low-cost sensors is a promising approach to garner high-spatial-resolution observations representative of the community scale. We develop a grid analysis method to obtain 50 m resolution maps of major air pollutants (CO, NO2, and O3) based on GIS technology. Our results demonstrate the sensing power of mobile monitoring for urban air pollution, which provides detailed information for source attribution and accurate traceability at the urban micro-scale.
Zichong Chen, Junjie Liu, Daven K. Henze, Deborah N. Huntzinger, Kelley C. Wells, Stephen Sitch, Pierre Friedlingstein, Emilie Joetzjer, Vladislav Bastrikov, Daniel S. Goll, Vanessa Haverd, Atul K. Jain, Etsushi Kato, Sebastian Lienert, Danica L. Lombardozzi, Patrick C. McGuire, Joe R. Melton, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Benjamin Poulter, Hanqin Tian, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Sönke Zaehle, and Scot M. Miller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6663–6680,Short summary
NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) satellite observes atmospheric CO2 globally. We use a multiple regression and inverse model to quantify the relationships between OCO-2 and environmental drivers within individual years for 2015–2018 and within seven global biomes. Our results point to limitations of current space-based observations for inferring environmental relationships but also indicate the potential to inform key relationships that are very uncertain in process-based models.
Efisio Solazzo, Monica Crippa, Diego Guizzardi, Marilena Muntean, Margarita Choulga, and Greet Janssens-Maenhout
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5655–5683,Short summary
We conducted an extensive analysis of the structural uncertainty of the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) emission inventory of greenhouse gases, which adds a much needed reliability dimension to the accuracy of the emission estimates. The study undertakes in-depth analyses of the implication of aggregating emissions from different sources and/or countries on the accuracy. Results are presented for all emissions sectors according to IPCC definitions.
Ashique Vellalassery, Dhanyalekshmi Pillai, Julia Marshall, Christoph Gerbig, Michael Buchwitz, Oliver Schneising, and Aparnna Ravi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5393–5414,Short summary
We investigate factors contributing to the severe and persistent air quality degradation in northern India that has worsened during every winter over the last decade. This is achieved by implementing atmospheric modelling and using recently available Sentinel-5 P satellite data for carbon monoxide. We see a minimal role of biomass burning, except for the state of Punjab. The aim is to focus on residential and industrial emission reduction strategies to tackle air pollution over northern India.
Xiao Lu, Daniel J. Jacob, Yuzhong Zhang, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Lu Shen, Zhen Qu, Tia R. Scarpelli, Hannah Nesser, Robert M. Yantosca, Jianxiong Sheng, Arlyn Andrews, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, A. Anthony Bloom, and Shuang Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4637–4657,Short summary
We use an analytical solution to the Bayesian inverse problem to quantitatively compare and combine the information from satellite and in situ observations, and to estimate global methane budget and their trends over the 2010–2017 period. We find that satellite and in situ observations are to a large extent complementary in the inversion for estimating global methane budget, and reveal consistent corrections of regional anthropogenic and wetland methane emissions relative to the prior inventory.
Stuart K. Grange, James D. Lee, Will S. Drysdale, Alastair C. Lewis, Christoph Hueglin, Lukas Emmenegger, and David C. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4169–4185,Short summary
The changes in mobility across Europe due to the COVID-19 lockdowns had consequences for air quality. We compare what was experienced to estimates of "what would have been" without the lockdowns. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), an important vehicle-sourced pollutant, decreased by a third. However, ozone (O3) increased in response to lower NO2. Because NO2 is decreasing over time, increases in O3 can be expected in European urban areas and will require management to avoid future negative outcomes.
Yanxu Zhang, Xingpei Ye, Shibao Wang, Xiaojing He, Lingyao Dong, Ning Zhang, Haikun Wang, Zhongrui Wang, Yun Ma, Lei Wang, Xuguang Chi, Aijun Ding, Mingzhi Yao, Yunpeng Li, Qilin Li, Ling Zhang, and Yongle Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2917–2929,Short summary
Urban air quality varies drastically at street scale, but traditional methods are too coarse to resolve it. We develop a 10 m resolution air quality model and apply it for traffic-related carbon monoxide air quality in Nanjing megacity. The model reveals a detailed geographical dispersion pattern of air pollution in and out of the road network and agrees well with a validation dataset. The model can be a vigorous part of the smart city system and inform urban planning and air quality management.
Trang Thi Quynh Nguyen, Wataru Takeuchi, Prakhar Misra, and Sachiko Hayashida
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2795–2818,Short summary
This study provides annual emissions of transportation, manufacturing industries and construction, and residential areas at 1 km resolution from 2009 to 2016 for Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Our originality is our use of satellite-derived urban land use morphological maps. These maps which are based on building height provided by a coarse-resolution satellite-derived digital surface model (DSM) and urban built-up area classified from Landsat images allow spatial disaggregation of annual emissions.
Zhongjing Jiang, Jing Li, Xiao Lu, Cheng Gong, Lin Zhang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2601–2613,Short summary
This study demonstrates that the intensity of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH), a major synoptic pattern in the northern Pacific during summer, can induce a dipole change in surface ozone pollution over eastern China. Ozone concentration increases in the north and decreases in the south during the strong WPSH phase, and vice versa. The change in chemical processes associated with the WPSH change plays a decisive role, whereas the natural emission of ozone precursors accounts for ~ 30 %.
Yilin Chen, Huizhong Shen, Jennifer Kaiser, Yongtao Hu, Shannon L. Capps, Shunliu Zhao, Amir Hakami, Jhih-Shyang Shih, Gertrude K. Pavur, Matthew D. Turner, Daven K. Henze, Jaroslav Resler, Athanasios Nenes, Sergey L. Napelenok, Jesse O. Bash, Kathleen M. Fahey, Gregory R. Carmichael, Tianfeng Chai, Lieven Clarisse, Pierre-François Coheur, Martin Van Damme, and Armistead G. Russell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2067–2082,Short summary
Ammonia (NH3) emissions can exert adverse impacts on air quality and ecosystem well-being. NH3 emission inventories are viewed as highly uncertain. Here we optimize the NH3 emission estimates in the US using an air quality model and NH3 measurements from the IASI satellite instruments. The optimized NH3 emissions are much higher than the National Emissions Inventory estimates in April. The optimized NH3 emissions improved model performance when evaluated against independent observation.
Bo Zhang, Hongyu Liu, James H. Crawford, Gao Chen, T. Duncan Fairlie, Scott Chambers, Chang-Hee Kang, Alastair G. Williams, Kai Zhang, David B. Considine, Melissa P. Sulprizio, and Robert M. Yantosca
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1861–1887,Short summary
We simulate atmospheric 222Rn using the GEOS-Chem model to improve understanding of 222Rn emissions and characterize convective transport in the model. We demonstrate the potential of a customized global 222Rn emission scenario to improve simulated surface 222Rn concentrations and seasonality. We assess convective transport using observed 222Rn vertical profiles. Results have important implications for using chemical transport models to interpret the transport of trace gases and aerosols.
Fei Jiang, Hengmao Wang, Jing M. Chen, Weimin Ju, Xiangjun Tian, Shuzhuang Feng, Guicai Li, Zhuoqi Chen, Shupeng Zhang, Xuehe Lu, Jane Liu, Haikun Wang, Jun Wang, Wei He, and Mousong Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1963–1985,Short summary
We present a 6-year inversion from 2010 to 2015 for the global and regional carbon fluxes using only the GOSAT XCO2 retrievals. We find that the XCO2 retrievals could significantly improve the modeling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations and that the inferred interannual variations in the terrestrial carbon fluxes in most land regions have a better relationship with the changes in severe drought area or leaf area index, or are more consistent with the previous estimates about drought impact.
Guilherme F. Camarinha-Neto, Julia C. P. Cohen, Cléo Q. Dias-Júnior, Matthias Sörgel, José Henrique Cattanio, Alessandro Araújo, Stefan Wolff, Paulo A. F. Kuhn, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Luciana V. Rizzo, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 339–356,Short summary
It was observed that friagem phenomena (incursion of cold waves from the high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere to the Amazon region), very common in the dry season of the Amazon region, produced significant changes in microclimate and atmospheric chemistry. Moreover, the effects of the friagem change the surface O3 and CO2 mixing ratios and therefore interfere deeply in the microclimatic conditions and the chemical composition of the atmosphere above the rainforest.
Xinrui Ge, Martijn Schaap, Richard Kranenburg, Arjo Segers, Gert Jan Reinds, Hans Kros, and Wim de Vries
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 16055–16087,Short summary
This article is about improving the modeling of agricultural ammonia emissions. By considering land use, meteorology and agricultural practices, ammonia emission totals officially reported by countries are distributed in space and time. We illustrated the first step for a better understanding of the variability of ammonia emission, with the possibility of being applied at a European scale, which is of great significance for ammonia budget research and future policy-making.
Ashok K. Luhar, David M. Etheridge, Zoë M. Loh, Julie Noonan, Darren Spencer, Lisa Smith, and Cindy Ong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15487–15511,Short summary
With the sharp rise in coal seam gas (CSG) production in Queensland’s Surat Basin, there is much interest in quantifying methane emissions from this area and from unconventional gas production in general. We develop and apply a regional Bayesian inverse model that uses hourly methane concentration data from two sites and modelled backward dispersion to quantify emissions. The model requires a narrow prior and suggests that the emissions from the CSG areas are 33% larger than bottom-up estimates.
Wayne M. Angevine, Jeff Peischl, Alice Crawford, Christopher P. Loughner, Ilana B. Pollack, and Chelsea R. Thompson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11855–11868,Short summary
Emissions of air pollutants must be known for a wide variety of applications. Different methods of estimating emissions often disagree substantially. In this study, we apply standard methods to a well-known source, a power plant. We explore the uncertainty implied by the different answers that come from the different methods, different samples taken over several years, and different pollutants. We find that the overall uncertainty of emissions estimates is about 30 %.
Peter Huszar, Jan Karlický, Jana Ďoubalová, Tereza Nováková, Kateřina Šindelářová, Filip Švábik, Michal Belda, Tomáš Halenka, and Michal Žák
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11655–11681,Short summary
The paper shows how extreme meteorological conditions change due to the urban land-cover forcing and how this translates to the impact on the extreme air pollution over central European cities. It focuses on ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 μm and shows that, while for the extreme daily maximum 8 h ozone, changes are same as for the mean ones, much larger modifications are calculated for extreme NO2 and PM2.5 compared to their mean changes.
Lang Wang, Amos P. K. Tai, Chi-Yung Tam, Mehliyar Sadiq, Peng Wang, and Kevin K. W. Cheung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11349–11369,Short summary
We investigate the effects of future land use and land cover change (LULCC) on surface ozone air quality worldwide and find that LULCC can significantly influence ozone in North America and Europe via modifying surface energy balance, boundary-layer meteorology, and regional circulation. The strength of such “biogeophysical effects” of LULCC is strongly dependent on forest type and generally greater than the “biogeochemical effects” via changing deposition and emission fluxes alone.
Jinhui Gao, Ying Li, Bin Zhu, Bo Hu, Lili Wang, and Fangwen Bao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10831–10844,Short summary
Light extinction of aerosols can decease surface ozone mainly via reducing photochemical production of ozone. However, it also leads to high levels of ozone aloft being entrained down to the surface which partly counteracts the reduction in surface ozone. The impact of aerosols is more sensitive to local ozone, which suggests that while controlling the levels of aerosols, controlling the local ozone precursors is an effective way to suppress the increase of ozone over China at present.
Junhua Liu, Jose M. Rodriguez, Luke D. Oman, Anne R. Douglass, Mark A. Olsen, and Lu Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6417–6433,Short summary
Our paper quantifies and identifies the importance of stratospheric ozone influence on the tropospheric ozone IAV in Northern Hemisphere mid-high latitudes. Our analysis provides an in-depth understanding of how 3-D dynamics influences the O3 redistribution in the troposphere. These findings are particularly important considering the potential changes in these dynamical conditions in the future as a result of climate change
Jun Park and Hyun Mee Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5175–5195,Short summary
Observation network experiments were conducted to optimize the surface CO2 flux in Asia. The impacts of the redistribution of and additions to the existing observation network were evaluated. The addition experiments revealed that considering both the normalized self-sensitivity and ecoregion information can yield better simulated surface CO2 fluxes compared to random addition. This study provides useful information for future observation network design to estimate the surface CO2 flux.
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Brabec, M., Wienhold, F. G., Luo, B. P., Vömel, H., Immler, F., Steiner, P., Hausammann, E., Weers, U., and Peter, T.: Particle backscatter and relative humidity measured across cirrus clouds and comparison with microphysical cirrus modelling, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 9135–9148, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-9135-2012, 2012. a
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Khaykin, S., Pommereau, J.-P., Korshunov, L., Yushkov, V., Nielsen, J., Larsen, N., Christensen, T., Garnier, A., Lukyanov, A., and Williams, E.: Hydration of the lower stratosphere by ice crystal geysers over land convective systems, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 2275–2287, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-2275-2009, 2009. a, b
Khaykin, S. M., Pommereau, J.-P., Riviere, E. D., Held, G., Ploeger, F., Ghysels, M., Amarouche, N., Vernier, J.-P., Wienhold, F. G., and Ionov, D.: Evidence of horizontal and vertical transport of water in the Southern Hemisphere tropical tropopause layer (TTL) from high-resolution balloon observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12273–12286, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-12273-2016, 2016. a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i
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Deep convection overshooting the stratosphere's contribution to the global stratospheric water budget is still being quantified. We ran three different cloud-resolving simulations of an observed case of overshoots in Bauru during the TRO-Pico balloon campaign in the context of upscaling the impact of overshoots at a large scale. These simulations, which have been validated with balloon-borne and S-band radar measurements, shed light on the local-scale variability and composition of overshoots.
Deep convection overshooting the stratosphere's contribution to the global stratospheric water...