Articles | Volume 20, issue 23
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15015–15036, 2020
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
04 Dec 2020
Research article | 04 Dec 2020
Particle aging and aerosol–radiation interaction affect volcanic plume dispersion: evidence from the Raikoke 2019 eruption
Lukas O. Muser et al.
Julia Bruckert, Gholam Ali Hoshyaripour, Ákos Horváth, Lukas O. Muser, Fred J. Prata, Corinna Hoose, and Bernhard Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3535–3552,Short summary
Volcanic emissions endanger aviation and public health and also influence weather and climate. Forecasting the volcanic-plume dispersion is therefore a critical yet sophisticated task. Here, we show that explicit treatment of volcanic-plume dynamics and eruption source parameters significantly improves volcanic-plume dispersion forecasts. We further demonstrate the lofting of the SO2 due to a heating of volcanic particles by sunlight with major implications for volcanic aerosol research.
Axel Seifert, Vanessa Bachmann, Florian Filipitsch, Jochen Förstner, Christian Grams, Gholam Ali Hoshyaripour, Julian Quinting, Anika Rohde, Heike Vogel, Annette Wagner, and Bernhard Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We investigate how mineral dust can lead to the formation of cirrus clouds. Dusty cirrus clouds lead to a reduction in solar radiation at the surface and, hence, a reduced photovoltaic power generation. Current weather prediction systems are not able to predict this interaction of mineral dust and cirrus clouds. We have developed a new physical description of the formation of dusty cirrus clouds. Overall, we can show a considerable improvement in forecast quality of clouds and radiation.
Christian von Savigny, Anna Lange, Anne Hemkendreis, Christoph G. Hoffmann, and Alexei Rozanov
Clim. Past, 18, 2345–2356,Short summary
This study investigates the possibility of inferring information on aerosol optical depth from photographs of historic paintings. The idea – which has been applied in previous studies – is very interesting because it would provide an archive of the atmospheric aerosol loading covering many centuries. We show that twilight colours depend not only on the aerosol optical thickness, but also on several other parameters, making a quantitative estimate of aerosol optical depth very difficult.
Carlo Arosio, Alexei Rozanov, Victor Gorshelev, Alexandra Laeng, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5949–5967,Short summary
This paper characterizes the uncertainties affecting the ozone profiles retrieved at the University of Bremen through OMPS limb satellite observations. An accurate knowledge of the uncertainties is relevant for the validation of the product and to correctly interpret the retrieval results. We investigate several sources of uncertainties, estimate a total random and systematic component, and verify the consistency of the combined OMPS-MLS total uncertainty.
Christoph G. Hoffmann, Lena G. Buth, and Christian von Savigny
The Madden–Julian oscillation is an important feature of weather in the Tropics. Although it is mainly active in the troposphere, we show that it systematically influences the air temperature in the layers above – up to about 100 km altitude and from pole to pole. We have linked this to another known far-reaching process, the interhemispheric coupling. This is basic research on atmospheric couplings and variability, but might also be of interest for intraseasonal weather forecasting models.
Ákos Horváth, James L. Carr, Dong L. Wu, Julia Bruckert, Gholam Ali Hoshyaripour, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12311–12330,Short summary
We estimate plume heights for the April 2021 La Soufrière daytime eruptions using GOES-17 near-limb side views and GOES-16–MODIS stereo views. These geometric heights are then compared with brightness-temperature-based radiometric height estimates to characterize the biases of the latter. We also show that the side view method can be applied to infrared imagery and thus nighttime eruptions, albeit with larger uncertainty.
John T. Sullivan, Arnoud Apituley, Nora Mettig, Karin Kreher, K. Emma Knowland, Marc Allaart, Ankie Piters, Michel Van Roozendael, Pepijn Veefkind, Jerry R. Ziemke, Natalya Kramarova, Mark Weber, Alexei Rozanov, Laurence Twigg, Grant Sumnicht, and Thomas J. McGee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11137–11153,Short summary
A TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) validation campaign (TROLIX-19) was held in the Netherlands in September 2019. The research presented here focuses on using ozone lidars from NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center to better evaluate the characterization of ozone throughout TROLIX-19 as compared to balloon-borne, space-borne and ground-based passive measurements, as well as a global coupled chemistry meteorology model.
Natalia E. Chubarova, Heike Vogel, Elizaveta E. Androsova, Alexander A. Kirsanov, Olga B. Popovicheva, Bernhard Vogel, and Gdaliy S. Rivin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10443–10466,Short summary
Effects of urban aerosol pollution in Moscow were analyzed using the COSMO-ART chemical transport model and intensive measurement campaigns. We show that urban aerosol comprises about 15–20% of columnar aerosol content, consisting mainly of fine aerosol mode. The black carbon (BC) fraction is about 5 %, depending on particle dispersion intensity (IPD). The BC fraction low value explains weak absorbing properties of the Moscow atmosphere. IPD also defines the daily cycle of urban aerosol species.
Linlu Mei, Vladimir Rozanov, Alexei Rozanov, and John Burrows
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for GMDShort summary
This paper summarizes recent developments of aerosol, clouds and surface reflectance databases and models in the framework of the software package SCIATRAN. These updates and developments extend the capabilities of the radiative transfer modelling, especially by accounting for different kinds of vertical inhomogeneties. Vertically inhomogeneous clouds and different aerosol types can be easily accounted for within SCIATRAN (V4.5). The widely used surface models and databases are now available.
Sandra Wallis, Christoph Gregor Hoffmann, and Christian von Savigny
Ann. Geophys., 40, 421–431,Short summary
Although the 1991 eruption of Mt Pinatubo had a severe impact on Earth's climate, the effect of this event on the mesosphere is not well understood. We investigated satellite-borne temperature measurements from the HALOE instrument and found indications that a positive temperature anomaly is present in the tropical upper mesosphere at the beginning of the HALOE time series, which may be related to the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo.
Anna Lange, Gerd Baumgarten, Alexei Rozanov, and Christian von Savigny
Ann. Geophys., 40, 407–419,Short summary
We investigate the influence of different parameters on the colour of noctilucent clouds (highest clouds in the atmosphere), using radiative transfer calculations. We determined the effect of the particle size, optical depth, single scattering/multiple scattering and ozone. For sufficiently large optical depth and for specific viewing geometries, ozone plays only a minor role in the blueish colour of noctilucent clouds (new result).
William G. Read, Gabriele Stiller, Stefan Lossow, Michael Kiefer, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Dale Hurst, Holger Vömel, Karen Rosenlof, Bianca M. Dinelli, Piera Raspollini, Gerald E. Nedoluha, John C. Gille, Yasuko Kasai, Patrick Eriksson, Christopher E. Sioris, Kaley A. Walker, Katja Weigel, John P. Burrows, and Alexei Rozanov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3377–3400,Short summary
This paper attempts to provide an assessment of the accuracy of 21 satellite-based instruments that remotely measure atmospheric humidity in the upper troposphere of the Earth's atmosphere. The instruments made their measurements from 1984 to the present time; however, most of these instruments began operations after 2000, and only a few are still operational. The objective of this study is to quantify the accuracy of each satellite humidity data set.
Nora Mettig, Mark Weber, Alexei Rozanov, John P. Burrows, Pepijn Veefkind, Anne M. Thompson, Ryan M. Stauffer, Thierry Leblanc, Gerard Ancellet, Michael J. Newchurch, Shi Kuang, Rigel Kivi, Matthew B. Tully, Roeland Van Malderen, Ankie Piters, Bogumil Kois, René Stübi, and Pavla Skrivankova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2955–2978,Short summary
Vertical ozone profiles from combined spectral measurements in the UV and IR spectral ranges were retrieved by using data from TROPOMI/S5P and CrIS/Suomi-NPP. The vertical resolution and accuracy of the ozone profiles are improved by combining both wavelength ranges compared to retrievals limited to UV or IR spectral data only. The advancement of our TOPAS algorithm for combined measurements is required because in the UV-only retrieval the vertical resolution in the troposphere is very limited.
Mireia Papke Chica, Valerian Hahn, Tiziana Braeuer, Elena de la Torre Castro, Florian Ewald, Mathias Gergely, Simon Kirschler, Luca Bugliaro Goggia, Stefanie Knobloch, Martina Kraemer, Johannes Lucke, Johanna Mayer, Raphael Maerkl, Manuel Moser, Laura Tomsche, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Martin Zoeger, Christian von Savigny, and Christiane Voigt
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
The mixed-phase temperature regime in convective clouds challenges our understanding of microphysical and radiative cloud properties. We provide a rare and unique dataset of aircraft in situ measurements in a strong mid-latitude convective system. We find that mechanisms initiating ice nucleation and growth strongly depend on temperature, relative humidity, and vertical velocity and variate within the measured system, resulting in altitude dependent changes of the cloud liquid and ice fraction.
Julia Bruckert, Gholam Ali Hoshyaripour, Ákos Horváth, Lukas O. Muser, Fred J. Prata, Corinna Hoose, and Bernhard Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3535–3552,Short summary
Volcanic emissions endanger aviation and public health and also influence weather and climate. Forecasting the volcanic-plume dispersion is therefore a critical yet sophisticated task. Here, we show that explicit treatment of volcanic-plume dynamics and eruption source parameters significantly improves volcanic-plume dispersion forecasts. We further demonstrate the lofting of the SO2 due to a heating of volcanic particles by sunlight with major implications for volcanic aerosol research.
Julia Koch, Adam Bourassa, Nick Lloyd, Chris Roth, and Christian von Savigny
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3191–3202,Short summary
The mesopause, the region of the earth's atmosphere between 85 and 100 km, is hard to access by direct measurements. Therefore we look for parameters that can be measured using satellite or ground-based measurements. In this study we researched sodium airglow, a phenomenon that occurs when sodium atoms are excited by chemical reactions. We compared satellite measurements of the airglow and resulting sodium concentration profiles to gain a better understanding of the sodium in that region.
Sandip S. Dhomse, Carlo Arosio, Wuhu Feng, Alexei Rozanov, Mark Weber, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5711–5729,Short summary
High-quality long-term ozone profile data sets are key to estimating short- and long-term ozone variability. Almost all the satellite (and chemical model) data sets show some kind of bias with respect to each other. This is because of differences in measurement methodologies as well as simplified processes in the models. We use satellite data sets and chemical model output to generate 42 years of ozone profile data sets using a random-forest machine-learning algorithm that is named ML-TOMCAT.
Elizaveta Malinina, Alexei Rozanov, Ulrike Niemeier, Sandra Wallis, Carlo Arosio, Felix Wrana, Claudia Timmreck, Christian von Savigny, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14871–14891,Short summary
In the paper, changes in the stratospheric aerosol loading after the 2018 Ambae eruption were analyzed using OMPS-LP observations. The eruption was also simulated with the MAECHAM5-HAM global climate model. Generally, the model and observations agree very well. We attribute the good consistency of the results to a precisely determined altitude and mass of the volcanic injection, as well as nudging of the meteorological data. The radiative forcing from the eruption was estimated to be −0.13 W m−2.
Nora Mettig, Mark Weber, Alexei Rozanov, Carlo Arosio, John P. Burrows, Pepijn Veefkind, Anne M. Thompson, Richard Querel, Thierry Leblanc, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Rigel Kivi, and Matthew B. Tully
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6057–6082,Short summary
TROPOMI is a nadir-viewing satellite that has observed global atmospheric trace gases at unprecedented spatial resolution since 2017. The retrieval of ozone profiles with high accuracy has been demonstrated using the TOPAS (Tikhonov regularised Ozone Profile retrievAl with SCIATRAN) algorithm and applying appropriate spectral corrections to TROPOMI UV data. Ozone profiles from TROPOMI were compared to ozonesonde and lidar profiles, showing an agreement to within 5 % in the stratosphere.
Andrea Orfanoz-Cheuquelaf, Alexei Rozanov, Mark Weber, Carlo Arosio, Annette Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5771–5789,Short summary
OMPS/NPP (2012–present) allows obtaining the tropospheric ozone column by combining ozone data from limb and nadir observations from the same instrument platform. In a first step, the retrieval of the total ozone column from the OMPS Nadir Mapper using the weighting function fitting approach (WFFA) is described here. The OMPS total ozone was compared with ground-based and other satellite measurements, showing agreement within 2.5 %.
Ákos Horváth, James L. Carr, Olga A. Girina, Dong L. Wu, Alexey A. Bril, Alexey A. Mazurov, Dmitry V. Melnikov, Gholam Ali Hoshyaripour, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12189–12206,Short summary
We give a detailed description of a new technique to estimate the height of volcanic eruption columns from near-limb geostationary imagery. Such oblique angle observations offer spectacular side views of eruption columns protruding from the Earth ellipsoid and thereby facilitate a height-by-angle estimation method. Due to its purely geometric nature, the new technique is unaffected by the limitations of traditional brightness-temperature-based height retrievals.
Ákos Horváth, Olga A. Girina, James L. Carr, Dong L. Wu, Alexey A. Bril, Alexey A. Mazurov, Dmitry V. Melnikov, Gholam Ali Hoshyaripour, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12207–12226,Short summary
We demonstrate the side view plume height estimation technique described in Part 1 on seven volcanic eruptions from 2019 and 2020, including the 2019 Raikoke eruption. We explore the strengths and limitations of the new technique in comparison to height estimation from brightness temperatures, stereo observations, and ground-based video footage.
Hengheng Zhang, Frank Wagner, Harald Saathoff, Heike Vogel, Gholam Ali Hoshyaripour, Vanessa Bachmann, Jochen Förstner, and Thomas Leisner
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The evolution and the properties of Saharan dust plume were characterized by LIDARs, a sun photometer, and a regional transport model. Comparison between LIDAR measurements, sun photometer and ICON-ART predictions shows a good agreement for dust arrival time, dust layer height, and dust structure but also that the model overestimates the backscatter coefficients by a factor of (2.2 ± 0.16) and underestimate aerosol optical depth by a factor of (1.5 ± 0.11).
Daniel Zawada, Ghislain Franssens, Robert Loughman, Antti Mikkonen, Alexei Rozanov, Claudia Emde, Adam Bourassa, Seth Dueck, Hannakaisa Lindqvist, Didier Ramon, Vladimir Rozanov, Emmanuel Dekemper, Erkki Kyrölä, John P. Burrows, Didier Fussen, and Doug Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3953–3972,Short summary
Satellite measurements of atmospheric composition often rely on computer tools known as radiative transfer models to model the propagation of sunlight within the atmosphere. Here we have performed a detailed inter-comparison of seven different radiative transfer models in a variety of conditions. We have found that the models agree remarkably well, at a level better than previously reported. This result provides confidence in our understanding of atmospheric radiative transfer.
Michaela I. Hegglin, Susann Tegtmeier, John Anderson, Adam E. Bourassa, Samuel Brohede, Doug Degenstein, Lucien Froidevaux, Bernd Funke, John Gille, Yasuko Kasai, Erkki T. Kyrölä, Jerry Lumpe, Donal Murtagh, Jessica L. Neu, Kristell Pérot, Ellis E. Remsberg, Alexei Rozanov, Matthew Toohey, Joachim Urban, Thomas von Clarmann, Kaley A. Walker, Hsiang-Jui Wang, Carlo Arosio, Robert Damadeo, Ryan A. Fuller, Gretchen Lingenfelser, Christopher McLinden, Diane Pendlebury, Chris Roth, Niall J. Ryan, Christopher Sioris, Lesley Smith, and Katja Weigel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1855–1903,Short summary
An overview of the SPARC Data Initiative is presented, to date the most comprehensive assessment of stratospheric composition measurements spanning 1979–2018. Measurements of 26 chemical constituents obtained from an international suite of space-based limb sounders were compiled into vertically resolved, zonal monthly mean time series. The quality and consistency of these gridded datasets are then evaluated using a climatological validation approach and a range of diagnostics.
Nellie Wullenweber, Anna Lange, Alexei Rozanov, and Christian von Savigny
Clim. Past, 17, 969–983,Short summary
This study investigates the physical processes leading to the rare phenomenon of the sun appearing blue or green. The phenomenon is caused by anomalous scattering by, e.g., volcanic or forest fire aerosols. Unlike most other studies, our study includes a full treatment of the effect of Rayleigh scattering on the colour of the sun. We investigate different factors and revisit a historic example, i.e. the Canadian forest fires in 1950, that led to blue sun events in different European countries.
Felix Wrana, Christian von Savigny, Jacob Zalach, and Larry W. Thomason
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2345–2357,Short summary
In this paper, we describe a new method for calculating the size of naturally occurring droplets (aerosols) made mostly of sulfuric acid and water that can be found roughly at 20 km altitude in the atmosphere. We use data from the instrument SAGE III/ISS that is mounted on the International Space Station. We show that our method works well, and that the size parameters we calculate are reasonable and can be a valuable addition for a better understanding of aerosols and their effect on climate.
Harald Rybka, Ulrike Burkhardt, Martin Köhler, Ioanna Arka, Luca Bugliaro, Ulrich Görsdorf, Ákos Horváth, Catrin I. Meyer, Jens Reichardt, Axel Seifert, and Johan Strandgren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4285–4318,Short summary
Estimating the impact of convection on the upper-tropospheric water budget remains a problem for models employing resolutions of several kilometers or more. A sub-kilometer high-resolution model is used to study summertime convection. The results suggest mostly close agreement with ground- and satellite-based observational data while slightly overestimating total frozen water path and anvil lifetime. The simulations are well suited to supplying information for parameterization development.
Larry W. Thomason, Mahesh Kovilakam, Anja Schmidt, Christian von Savigny, Travis Knepp, and Landon Rieger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1143–1158,Short summary
Measurements of the impact of volcanic eruptions on stratospheric aerosol loading by space-based instruments show show a fairly well-behaved relationship between the magnitude and the apparent changes to aerosol size over several orders of magnitude. This directly measured relationship provides a unique opportunity to verify the performance of interactive aerosol models used in climate models.
Stefan Noël, Klaus Bramstedt, Alexei Rozanov, Elizaveta Malinina, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5643–5666,Short summary
A new approach to derive stratospheric aerosol extinction profiles from SCIAMACHY solar occultation measurements based on an onion-peeling method is presented. The resulting extinctions at 452, 525 and 750 nm compare well with other limb and occultation data from, e.g. SAGE and SCIAMACHY, but show small oscillating features which vanish in monthly anomalies. Major volcanic eruptions, polar stratospheric clouds and influences of the quasi-biennial oscillation can be identified in the time series.
Thomas von Clarmann, Douglas A. Degenstein, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Stefan Bender, Amy Braverman, André Butz, Steven Compernolle, Robert Damadeo, Seth Dueck, Patrick Eriksson, Bernd Funke, Margaret C. Johnson, Yasuko Kasai, Arno Keppens, Anne Kleinert, Natalya A. Kramarova, Alexandra Laeng, Bavo Langerock, Vivienne H. Payne, Alexei Rozanov, Tomohiro O. Sato, Matthias Schneider, Patrick Sheese, Viktoria Sofieva, Gabriele P. Stiller, Christian von Savigny, and Daniel Zawada
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4393–4436,Short summary
Remote sensing of atmospheric state variables typically relies on the inverse solution of the radiative transfer equation. An adequately characterized retrieval provides information on the uncertainties of the estimated state variables as well as on how any constraint or a priori assumption affects the estimate. This paper summarizes related techniques and provides recommendations for unified error reporting.
Barbara Altstädter, Konrad Deetz, Bernhard Vogel, Karmen Babić, Cheikh Dione, Federica Pacifico, Corinne Jambert, Friederike Ebus, Konrad Bärfuss, Falk Pätzold, Astrid Lampert, Bianca Adler, Norbert Kalthoff, and Fabienne Lohou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7911–7928,Short summary
We present the high vertical variability of the black carbon (BC) mass concentration measured with the unmanned aerial system ALADINA during the field experiment of DACCIWA. The COSMO-ART model output was applied for the campaign period and is compared with the observational BC data during a case study on 14–15 July 2016. Enhanced BC concentrations were related to transport processes to the measurement site by maritime inflow and not to local emissions as initially expected.
Alima Dajuma, Kehinde O. Ogunjobi, Heike Vogel, Peter Knippertz, Siélé Silué, Evelyne Touré N'Datchoh, Véronique Yoboué, and Bernhard Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5373–5390,Short summary
A modeling study through COSMO-ART was used to investigate the implication of downward mixing induced by clouds in transporting biomass burning aerosols from central and southern Africa located between 2 and 4 km into the PBL over southern West Africa. Results showed that individual mixing events south of the coast of Côte d’Ivoire due to mid-level convective clouds injects part of the biomass burning plume into the PBL. 15 % of CO mass from the 2–4 km layer is mixed below 1 km.
Christian von Savigny and Christoph G. Hoffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1909–1920,Short summary
Stratospheric sulfate aerosols increase the Earth's planetary albedo and can lead to significant surface cooling, for example in the aftermath of volcanic eruptions. Their particle size distribution, important for physical and chemical effects of these aerosols, is still not fully understood. The present paper proposes an explanation for systematic differences in aerosol particle size retrieved from measurements made in different measurement geometries and reported in earlier studies.
Olexandr Lednyts'kyy and Christian von Savigny
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2221–2261,Short summary
Atomic oxygen is a chemically active trace gas and a critical component of the energy balance of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). By sequentially applying continuity equations of low degree, a new model representing the airglow and photochemistry of oxygen in the MLT is implemented, enabling comparisons with airglow observations at each step. The most effective data sets required to derive the abundance of atomic oxygen are the O2 atmospheric band emission, temperature, N2 and O2.
Constanze Wellmann, Andrew I. Barrett, Jill S. Johnson, Michael Kunz, Bernhard Vogel, Ken S. Carslaw, and Corinna Hoose
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2201–2219,Short summary
Severe hailstorms may cause damage to buildings and crops. Thus, the forecast of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models should be as reliable as possible. Using statistical emulation, we identify those model input parameters describing environmental conditions and cloud microphysics which lead to large uncertainties in the prediction of deep convection. We find that the impact of the input parameters on the uncertainty depends on the considered output variable.
Piao Rong, Christian von Savigny, Chunmin Zhang, Christoph G. Hoffmann, and Michael J. Schwartz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1737–1755,Short summary
We study the presence and characteristics of 27 d solar signatures in middle atmospheric temperature observed by the microwave limb sounder on NASA's Aura spacecraft. This is a highly interesting and significant subject because the physical and chemical mechanisms leading to these 27 d solar-driven signatures are, in many cases, not well understood. The analysis shows that highly significant 27 d solar signatures in middle atmospheric temperature are present at many altitudes and latitudes.
Sophie L. Haslett, Jonathan W. Taylor, Mathew Evans, Eleanor Morris, Bernhard Vogel, Alima Dajuma, Joel Brito, Anneke M. Batenburg, Stephan Borrmann, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Cyrielle Denjean, Thierry Bourrianne, Peter Knippertz, Régis Dupuy, Alfons Schwarzenböck, Daniel Sauer, Cyrille Flamant, James Dorsey, Ian Crawford, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15217–15234,Short summary
Three aircraft datasets from the DACCIWA campaign in summer 2016 are used here to show there is a background mass of pollution present in the lower atmosphere in southern West Africa. We suggest that this likely comes from biomass burning in central and southern Africa, which has been carried into the region over the Atlantic Ocean. This would have a negative health impact on populations living near the coast and may alter the impact of growing city emissions on cloud formation and the monsoon.
Xiaoli Shen, Heike Vogel, Bernhard Vogel, Wei Huang, Claudia Mohr, Ramakrishna Ramisetty, Thomas Leisner, André S. H. Prévôt, and Harald Saathoff
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13189–13208,Short summary
This study provides good insight into the chemical nature and complex origin of aerosols by combining comprehensive field observations and transport modelling. We suggest that factors related to topography, metrological conditions, local emissions, in situ formation and growth, regional transport, and the interaction of biogenic and anthropogenic compounds need to be considered for a comprehensive understanding of aerosol processes.
Jacob Zalach, Christian von Savigny, Arvid Langenbach, Gerd Baumgarten, Franz-Josef Lübken, and Adam Bourassa
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Arvid Langenbach, Gerd Baumgarten, Jens Fiedler, Franz-Josef Lübken, Christian von Savigny, and Jacob Zalach
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4065–4076,Short summary
Stratospheric aerosol backscatter ratios in the Arctic using Rayleigh, Mie and Raman backscattered signals were calculated. A backscatter ratio calculation during daytime was performed for the first time. Sharp aerosol layers thinner than 1 km over several days were observed. The seasonal cycle of stratospheric background aerosol in high latitudes including the summer months was calculated for the first time. Top altitude of the aerosol layer was found to reach up to 34 km, especially in summer.
Dan Weaver, Kimberly Strong, Kaley A. Walker, Chris Sioris, Matthias Schneider, C. Thomas McElroy, Holger Vömel, Michael Sommer, Katja Weigel, Alexei Rozanov, John P. Burrows, William G. Read, Evan Fishbein, and Gabriele Stiller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4039–4063,Short summary
This work assesses water vapour profiles acquired by Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite instruments in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) using comparisons to radiosondes and ground-based Fourier transform infrared spectrometer measurements acquired at a Canadian high Arctic measurement site in Eureka, Nunavut. Additional comparisons are made between these Eureka measurements and other water vapour satellite datasets for context, including AIRS, MLS, and others.
Elizaveta Malinina, Alexei Rozanov, Landon Rieger, Adam Bourassa, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, and Doug Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3485–3502,Short summary
This paper covers the problems related to the derivation of aerosol extinction coefficients and Ångström exponents from space-borne instruments working in limb and occultation viewing geometries. Aerosol extinction coefficients and Ångström exponents were calculated from the SCIAMACHY aerosol particle size data set. The results were compared with the data from SAGE II and OSIRIS. The Ångström exponent in the tropical regions and its dependency on particle size parameters are discussed.
Stefan Lossow, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Michael Kiefer, Kaley A. Walker, Jean-Loup Bertaux, Laurent Blanot, James M. Russell, Ellis E. Remsberg, John C. Gille, Takafumi Sugita, Christopher E. Sioris, Bianca M. Dinelli, Enzo Papandrea, Piera Raspollini, Maya García-Comas, Gabriele P. Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, Anu Dudhia, William G. Read, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Robert P. Damadeo, Joseph M. Zawodny, Katja Weigel, Alexei Rozanov, Faiza Azam, Klaus Bramstedt, Stefan Noël, John P. Burrows, Hideo Sagawa, Yasuko Kasai, Joachim Urban, Patrick Eriksson, Donal P. Murtagh, Mark E. Hervig, Charlotta Högberg, Dale F. Hurst, and Karen H. Rosenlof
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2693–2732,
Carlo Arosio, Alexei Rozanov, Elizaveta Malinina, Mark Weber, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2423–2444,Short summary
The aim of this study is the merging of stratospheric ozone profiles from three satellite data sets. The merged time series is used to compute long-term changes as a function of altitude, latitude and longitude to study the evolution of the ozone layer over 1985–2018. During the last 16 years we found positive trends in the upper stratosphere at mid latitudes, a large variability of the ozone changes as a function of longitude and a fluctuation in the tropical middle stratospheric trend.
Christoph G. Hoffmann and Christian von Savigny
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4235–4256,Short summary
We examine a possible statistical linkage between atmospheric variability in the tropical troposphere on the intraseasonal timescale, which is known as Madden–Julian oscillation, and known variability of the solar radiation with a period of 27 days. This helps to understand tropospheric variability in more detail, which is generally of interest, e.g., for weather forecasting. We find indications for such a linkage; however, more research has to be conducted for an unambiguous attribution.
Christian von Savigny, Dieter H. W. Peters, and Günter Entzian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2079–2093,Short summary
This study investigates solar effects in radio reflection height observations in the ionospheric D region at an altitude of about 80 km at northern midlatitudes. The analyzed time series covers almost six solar cycles. Statistically significant solar 27-day and 11-year signatures are identified. However, the driving mechanisms are not fully understood. We also provide evidence for dynamical effects on the radio reflection heights with periods close to the solar rotational cycle.
Tilo Fytterer, Christian von Savigny, Martin Mlynczak, and Miriam Sinnhuber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1835–1851,Short summary
A model was developed to derive night-time atomic oxygen (O(3P)) and atomic hydrogen (H) from satellite observations in the altitude region between 75 km and 100 km. Comparisons between the
best-fit modeland the measurements suggest that chemical reactions involving O2 and O(3P) might occur differently than is usually assumed in literature. This considerably affects the derived abundances of O(3P) and H, which in turn might influence air temperature and winds of the whole atmosphere.
Sophie L. Haslett, Jonathan W. Taylor, Konrad Deetz, Bernhard Vogel, Karmen Babić, Norbert Kalthoff, Andreas Wieser, Cheikh Dione, Fabienne Lohou, Joel Brito, Régis Dupuy, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Paul Zieger, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1505–1520,Short summary
As the population in West Africa grows and air pollution increases, it is becoming ever more important to understand the effects of this pollution on the climate and on health. Aerosol particles can grow by absorbing water from the air around them. This paper shows that during the monsoon season, aerosol particles in the region are likely to grow significantly because of the high moisture in the air. This means that climate effects from increasing pollution will be enhanced.
Evgenia Galytska, Alexey Rozanov, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip. S. Dhomse, Mark Weber, Carlo Arosio, Wuhu Feng, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 767–783,Short summary
In this study we analysed ozone changes in the tropical mid-stratosphere as observed by the SCIAMACHY instrument during 2004–2012. We used simulations from TOMCAT model with different chemical and dynamical forcings to reveal primary causes of ozone changes. We also considered measured NO2 and modelled NOx, NOx, and N2O data. With modelled AoA data we identified seasonal changes in the upwelling speed and explained how those changes affect N2O chemistry which leads to observed ozone changes.
Tim Bösch, Vladimir Rozanov, Andreas Richter, Enno Peters, Alexei Rozanov, Folkard Wittrock, Alexis Merlaud, Johannes Lampel, Stefan Schmitt, Marijn de Haij, Stijn Berkhout, Bas Henzing, Arnoud Apituley, Mirjam den Hoed, Jan Vonk, Martin Tiefengraber, Moritz Müller, and John Philip Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6833–6859,Short summary
A new MAX-DOAS profiling algorithm for aerosols and trace gases was developed. The performance of this novel algorithm was tested with the help of synthetic data and measurements from the CINDI-2 campaign in Cabauw, the Netherlands, in 2016.
Konrad Deetz, Heike Vogel, Sophie Haslett, Peter Knippertz, Hugh Coe, and Bernhard Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14271–14295,Short summary
Water uptake can significantly increase the size and therefore alters the optical properties of aerosols. Our model study reveals that the high moisture and aerosol burden in the southern West African monsoon layer makes it favorable to quantify properties that determine the aerosol liquid water content and its impact on the aerosol optical depth and radiative transfer. Especially in moist tropical environments the relative humidity impact on AOD has to be considered in atmospheric models.
Jennifer Schröter, Daniel Rieger, Christian Stassen, Heike Vogel, Michael Weimer, Sven Werchner, Jochen Förstner, Florian Prill, Daniel Reinert, Günther Zängl, Marco Giorgetta, Roland Ruhnke, Bernhard Vogel, and Peter Braesicke
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4043–4068,Short summary
In this paper, we introduce the most up-to-date version of the flexible tracer framework for the ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic model with Aerosols and Reactive Trace gases (ICON-ART). We performed multiple simulations using different ICON physics configurations for weather and climate with ART. The flexible tracer framework within ICON-ART 2.1 suits the demands of a large variety of different applications ranging from numerical weather prediction to climate integrations.
Chellappan Seethala, Jan Fokke Meirink, Ákos Horváth, Ralf Bennartz, and Rob Roebeling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13283–13304,Short summary
We compared the microphysical properties of South Atlantic stratocumulus (Sc) from three different satellite instruments (SEVIRI, TMI, MODIS). The liquid water path (LWP) and its diurnal cycle from the three datasets agreed very well in overcast, smoke-free scenes. LWP showed a decrease from an early morning peak to a late afternoon minimum, after which it increased until morning. The presence of smoke aloft Sc, however, negatively biased the LWP retrieved by the visible/near-infrared technique.
Farahnaz Khosrawi, Stefan Lossow, Gabriele P. Stiller, Karen H. Rosenlof, Joachim Urban, John P. Burrows, Robert P. Damadeo, Patrick Eriksson, Maya García-Comas, John C. Gille, Yasuko Kasai, Michael Kiefer, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Stefan Noël, Piera Raspollini, William G. Read, Alexei Rozanov, Christopher E. Sioris, Kaley A. Walker, and Katja Weigel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4435–4463,Short summary
Time series of stratospheric and lower mesospheric water vapour using 33 data sets from 15 satellite instruments were compared in the framework of the second SPARC water vapour assessment. We find that most data sets can be considered in observational and modelling studies addressing, e.g. stratospheric and lower mesospheric water vapour variability and trends if data-set-specific characteristics (e.g. a drift) and restrictions (e.g. temporal and spatial coverage) are taken into account.
Konrad Deetz, Heike Vogel, Peter Knippertz, Bianca Adler, Jonathan Taylor, Hugh Coe, Keith Bower, Sophie Haslett, Michael Flynn, James Dorsey, Ian Crawford, Christoph Kottmeier, and Bernhard Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9767–9788,Short summary
Highly resolved process study simulations for 2–3 July are conducted with COSMO-ART to assess the aerosol direct and indirect effect on meteorological conditions over southern West Africa. The meteorological phenomena of Atlantic inflow and stratus-to-cumulus transition are identified as highly susceptible to the aerosol direct effect, leading to a spatial shift of the Atlantic inflow front and a temporal shift of the stratus-to-cumulus transition with changes in the aerosol amount.
Landon A. Rieger, Elizaveta P. Malinina, Alexei V. Rozanov, John P. Burrows, Adam E. Bourassa, and Doug A. Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3433–3445,Short summary
This paper compares aerosol extinction records from two limb scattering instruments, OSIRIS and SCIAMACHY, to that from the occultation instrument SAGE II. Differences are investigated through modelling and retrieval studies and important sources of systematic errors are quantified. It is found that the largest biases come from uncertainties in the aerosol size distribution and the aerosol particle concentration at altitudes above 30 km.
Simon Gruber, Simon Unterstrasser, Jan Bechtold, Heike Vogel, Martin Jung, Henry Pak, and Bernhard Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6393–6411,Short summary
A numerical model also used for operational weather forecast was applied to investigate the impact of contrails and contrail cirrus on the radiative fluxes at the earth's surface. Accounting for contrails produced by aircraft enables the model to simulate high clouds that are otherwise missing. In a case study, we find that the effect of these extra clouds is to reduce the incoming shortwave radiation at the surface as well as the production of photovoltaic power by up to 10 %.
Carlo Arosio, Alexei Rozanov, Elizaveta Malinina, Kai-Uwe Eichmann, Thomas von Clarmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2135–2149,Short summary
This paper describes the development of a retrieval algorithm at the University of Bremen which derives stratospheric ozone profiles from limb observations performed by the OMPS satellite instrument. Here we present the implementation of the algorithm and the validation of our results (1 year of data against independent satellite and ground-based measurements). Good agreement is generally found between 20 and 55 km, mostly within 10 % at all latitudes.
Elizaveta Malinina, Alexei Rozanov, Vladimir Rozanov, Patricia Liebing, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2085–2100,Short summary
Stratospheric aerosols play an important role in climate change. This paper presents the retrieval algorithm of two aerosol particle size distribution parameters in the stratosphere from remote sensing instruments. A unique data set was created by implementing this algorithm on SCIAMACHY limb measurements. The general behaviour of the aerosol particle size parameters was revealed. Comparison of the retrieved parameters with another instrument showed good agreement.
Stefan Noël, Katja Weigel, Klaus Bramstedt, Alexei Rozanov, Mark Weber, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4463–4476,Short summary
The combined analysis of stratospheric methane and water vapour data derived from SCIAMACHY solar occultation measurements shows the expected anti-correlation and a clear temporal variation related to waves in equatorial zonal winds. Above about 20 km most of the additional water vapour is attributed to the oxidation of methane. The SCIAMACHY data confirm that at lower altitudes water vapour and methane are transported from the tropics to higher latitudes.
Philipp Gasch, Daniel Rieger, Carolin Walter, Pavel Khain, Yoav Levi, Peter Knippertz, and Bernhard Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13573–13604,Short summary
This paper presents simulations of a severe dust event in the Eastern Mediterranean with a weather prediction model using very high spatial resolution. Due to the high resolution, the small-scale features of the event are captured in great detail. Consequently, the previously erroneous forecast of the event is improved drastically. In addition, the interaction of mineral dust with radiation inside the model has been included as a part of this work and is presented here.
Daniel Rieger, Andrea Steiner, Vanessa Bachmann, Philipp Gasch, Jochen Förstner, Konrad Deetz, Bernhard Vogel, and Heike Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13391–13415,Short summary
The importance for reliable forecasts of incoming solar radiation is growing rapidly, especially for those countries with an increasing share in photovoltaic (PV) power production. We investigate the impact of mineral dust on the PV power generation during a Saharan dust outbreak over Germany on 4 April 2014. We find an overall improvement of the PV power forecast for 65 % of the pyranometer stations in Germany.
Fred Prata, Mark Woodhouse, Herbert E. Huppert, Andrew Prata, Thor Thordarson, and Simon Carn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10709–10732,Short summary
This paper investigates the separation of gases and particles that frequently occurs during violent volcanic eruptions. This problem is important because atmospheric winds spread volcanic aerosols at great distances from the source, and wind shear then causes the aerosols to spread in different directions at different altitudes. This has important repercussions for accurately forecasting the movement of hazardous volcanic clouds. The May 2011 Grímsvötn eruption is analysed in great detail.
Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Lucien Froidevaux, Ryan Fuller, Ray Wang, John Anderson, Chris Roth, Adam Bourassa, Doug Degenstein, Robert Damadeo, Joe Zawodny, Stacey Frith, Richard McPeters, Pawan Bhartia, Jeannette Wild, Craig Long, Sean Davis, Karen Rosenlof, Viktoria Sofieva, Kaley Walker, Nabiz Rahpoe, Alexei Rozanov, Mark Weber, Alexandra Laeng, Thomas von Clarmann, Gabriele Stiller, Natalya Kramarova, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Thierry Leblanc, Richard Querel, Daan Swart, Ian Boyd, Klemens Hocke, Niklaus Kämpfer, Eliane Maillard Barras, Lorena Moreira, Gerald Nedoluha, Corinne Vigouroux, Thomas Blumenstock, Matthias Schneider, Omaira García, Nicholas Jones, Emmanuel Mahieu, Dan Smale, Michael Kotkamp, John Robinson, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Neil Harris, Birgit Hassler, Daan Hubert, and Fiona Tummon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10675–10690,Short summary
Thanks to the 1987 Montreal Protocol and its amendments, ozone-depleting chlorine (and bromine) in the stratosphere has declined slowly since the late 1990s. Improved and extended long-term ozone profile observations from satellites and ground-based stations confirm that ozone is responding as expected and has increased by about 2 % per decade since 2000 in the upper stratosphere, around 40 km altitude. At lower altitudes, however, ozone has not changed significantly since 2000.
Eleni Athanasopoulou, Orestis Speyer, Dominik Brunner, Heike Vogel, Bernhard Vogel, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, and Evangelos Gerasopoulos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10597–10618,Short summary
This work focuses on the impact of residential wood burning on aerosol levels, composition and radiation under the ongoing economic crisis in Greece. The atmospheric model COSMO-ART performed a series of runs during the winter of 2013–2014. Emission inputs were revised according to the detailed aerosol characterization by local measurements. Aerosol levels were found to be elevated and mostly composed of organics, yet the timing of the plume justifies the minor radiative cooling and feedbacks.
Martin P. Langowski, Christian von Savigny, John P. Burrows, Didier Fussen, Erin C. M. Dawkins, Wuhu Feng, John M. C. Plane, and Daniel R. Marsh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2989–3006,Short summary
Meteoric metals form metal layers in the upper atmosphere anandplay a role in the formation of middle-atmospheric clouds and aerosols. However, the total metal influx rate is not well known. Global Na datasets from measurements and a model are available, which had not been compared yet on a global scale until this paper. Overall the agreement is good, and many differences between measurements are also found in the model simulations. However, the modeled layer altitude is too low.
Georgina M. Miles, Richard Siddans, Roy G. Grainger, Alfred J. Prata, Bradford Fisher, and Nickolay Krotkov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2687–2702,Short summary
Volcanic eruptions are important in the way they perturb the climate and help us understand atmospheric processes. We show a new method to measure the SO2 released by explosive volcanic eruptions using the HIRS/2 satellite instrument, which measured atmospheric temperature and H2O. We apply the technique to the 1991 eruption of Cerro Hudson and show it is possible to detect SO2 with a good degree of accuracy. This method and instrument can potentially generate a climate-significant record.
Franziska Glassmeier, Anna Possner, Bernhard Vogel, Heike Vogel, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8651–8680,Short summary
We compare two chemistry and aerosol schemes – one designed for air-quality, the other for climate applications. For distribution, composition and radiative properties, the choice of aerosol types and processes turns out to be more important than their implementation. For aerosol–cloud interactions, we find cloud processes, in particular ice formation, to be the main obstacle to our understanding.
Michael Weimer, Jennifer Schröter, Johannes Eckstein, Konrad Deetz, Marco Neumaier, Garlich Fischbeck, Lu Hu, Dylan B. Millet, Daniel Rieger, Heike Vogel, Bernhard Vogel, Thomas Reddmann, Oliver Kirner, Roland Ruhnke, and Peter Braesicke
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2471–2494,Short summary
In this paper, the recently developed module for trace gas emissions in the online coupled modelling framework ICON-ART for atmospheric chemistry is presented. Algorithms for offline and online calculation of the emissions are described. The module is validated with ground-based as well as airborne measurements of acetone. It is shown that the module performs well and allows the simulation of annual cycles of emission-driven trace gases.
Konrad Deetz and Bernhard Vogel
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1607–1620,Short summary
A new gas flaring emission data set for CO, CO2, NO, NO2 and SO2 has been developed, which combines remote sensing observations with combustion equations. The physically based parameterization can easily be applied to different research domains, e.g., to provide flaring emission datasets for chemistry models. Within the project DACCIWA, we have derived a flaring data set for southern West Africa and compared the results to pre-existing emission inventories.
Jia Jia, Annette Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Xuewei Hou, Alexei Rozanov, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4915–4930,
Stefan Lossow, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Faiza Azam, Klaus Bramstedt, John. P. Burrows, Bianca M. Dinelli, Patrick Eriksson, Patrick J. Espy, Maya García-Comas, John C. Gille, Michael Kiefer, Stefan Noël, Piera Raspollini, William G. Read, Karen H. Rosenlof, Alexei Rozanov, Christopher E. Sioris, Gabriele P. Stiller, Kaley A. Walker, and Katja Weigel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1111–1137,
Guangliang Fu, Fred Prata, Hai Xiang Lin, Arnold Heemink, Arjo Segers, and Sha Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1187–1205,Short summary
A Satellite Observational Operator (SOO) is proposed to translates satellite-retrieved 2-D volcanic ash mass loadings to 3-D concentrations. The SOO makes the analysis step of assimilation comparable in the 3-D model space, and thus it avoids the artificial vertical correlations by not involving the integral operator in directly assimilating 2-D data. The results show that satellite data assimilation with SOO can efficiently improve the estimate of volcanic ash state and the forecast.
Patrick E. Sheese, Kaley A. Walker, Chris D. Boone, Chris A. McLinden, Peter F. Bernath, Adam E. Bourassa, John P. Burrows, Doug A. Degenstein, Bernd Funke, Didier Fussen, Gloria L. Manney, C. Thomas McElroy, Donal Murtagh, Cora E. Randall, Piera Raspollini, Alexei Rozanov, James M. Russell III, Makoto Suzuki, Masato Shiotani, Joachim Urban, Thomas von Clarmann, and Joseph M. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5781–5810,Short summary
This study validates version 3.5 of the ACE-FTS NOy species data sets by comparing diurnally scaled ACE-FTS data to correlative data from 11 other satellite limb sounders. For all five species examined (NO, NO2, HNO3, N2O5, and ClONO2), there is good agreement between ACE-FTS and the other data sets in various regions of the atmosphere. In these validated regions, these NOy data products can be used for further investigation into the composition, dynamics, and climate of the stratosphere.
Leo J. Donner, Travis A. O'Brien, Daniel Rieger, Bernhard Vogel, and William F. Cooke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12983–12992,Short summary
Uncertainties in both climate forcing and sensitivity limit the extent to which climate projections can meet society's needs for actionable climate science. Advances in observing and modeling atmospheric vertical velocities provide a potential breakthrough in understanding climate forcing and sensitivity, with concurrent reductions in uncertainty.
Carolin Walter, Saulo R. Freitas, Christoph Kottmeier, Isabel Kraut, Daniel Rieger, Heike Vogel, and Bernhard Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9201–9219,Short summary
Buoyancy produced by vegetation fires can lead to substantial plume rise with consequences for the dispersion of aerosol emitted by the fires. To study this effect a 1-D plume rise model was included into the regional online integrated model system COSMO-ART. Comparing model results and satellite data for a case study of 2010 Canadian wildfires shows, that the plume rise model outperforms prescribed emission height. The radiative impact of the aerosol leads to a pronounced temperature change.
Kai-Uwe Eichmann, Luca Lelli, Christian von Savigny, Harjinder Sembhi, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 793–815,Short summary
Height-resolved limb radiance spectra of the satellite instrument SCIAMACHY are used to retrieve cloud top heights with a colour index method. Clouds are detectable from the lower to the uppermost troposphere. These cloud heights help to improve the trace gas retrieval for the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Comparisons with other data sets have shown good agreement. As clouds and aerosols are not distinguishable, lower stratospheric volcanic aerosol clouds are detected in some years.
M. P. Langowski, C. von Savigny, J. P. Burrows, V. V. Rozanov, T. Dunker, U.-P. Hoppe, M. Sinnhuber, and A. C. Aikin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 295–311,Short summary
An algorithm has been developed for the retrieval of sodium atom (Na) number density on a latitude and altitude grid from SCIAMACHY limb measurements of the Na resonance fluorescence (multiannual means 2008–2012). The Na layer peaks at 90 to 93 km altitude and has a FWHM of 5 to 15 km. A summer minimum in peak density and width is observed at high latitudes. At low latitudes, a semiannual oscillation is found. The results are compared with other measurements and models and agree well with these.
F. Ebojie, J. P. Burrows, C. Gebhardt, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, C. von Savigny, A. Rozanov, M. Weber, and H. Bovensmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 417–436,Short summary
The goal of this study is to determine the global and zonal changes in the tropospheric ozone data product derived from SCIAMACHY limb-nadir-matching (LNM) observations during the period 2003–2011. Tropospheric O3 shows statistically significant increases over some regions of South Asia, the South American continent, Alaska, around Congo in Africa and over some continental outflows. Significant decrease in TOC is observed over some continents and oceans.
K. Weigel, A. Rozanov, F. Azam, K. Bramstedt, R. Damadeo, K.-U. Eichmann, C. Gebhardt, D. Hurst, M. Kraemer, S. Lossow, W. Read, N. Spelten, G. P. Stiller, K. A. Walker, M. Weber, H. Bovensmann, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 133–158,Short summary
The SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) aboard the Envisat satellite provided measurements between 2002 and 2012 with different viewing geometries. The limb viewing geometry allows the retrieval of water vapour profiles in the UTLS (upper troposphere and lower stratosphere) from the near-infrared spectral range (1353–1410 nm). Here, we present data version 3.01 and compare it to other water vapour data.
F. Khosrawi, J. Urban, S. Lossow, G. Stiller, K. Weigel, P. Braesicke, M. C. Pitts, A. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, and D. Murtagh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 101–121,Short summary
Our sensitivity studies based on air parcel trajectories confirm that Polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation is quite sensitive to water vapour and temperature changes. Considering water vapour time series from satellite measurements we do not find a consistent, significant trend in water vapour in the lower stratosphere during the past 15 years (2000–2014). Thus, the severe dentrification observed in 2010/2011 cannot be directly related to increases in stratospheric water vapour.
C. von Savigny, F. Ernst, A. Rozanov, R. Hommel, K.-U. Eichmann, V. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, and L. W. Thomason
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5223–5235,Short summary
This article presents validation results for stratospheric aerosol extinction profiles retrieved from limb-scatter measurements with the SCIAMACHY instrument on the Envisat satellite. The SCIAMACHY retrievals are compared to co-located measurements with the SAGE II instrument. Very good agreement to within about 15% is found in a global average sense at altitudes above 15 km. The article also presents sample results on the global morphology of the stratospheric aerosol layer from 2003 to 2011.
N. Rahpoe, M. Weber, A. V. Rozanov, K. Weigel, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, A. Laeng, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, E. Kyrölä, V. F. Sofieva, J. Tamminen, K. Walker, D. Degenstein, A. E. Bourassa, R. Hargreaves, P. Bernath, J. Urban, and D. P. Murtagh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4369–4381,Short summary
The analyses among six satellite instruments measuring ozone reveals that the relative drift between the sensors is not significant in the stratosphere and we conclude that merging of data from these instruments is possible. The merged ozone profiles can then be ingested in global climate models for long-term forecasts of ozone and climate change in the atmosphere. The added drift uncertainty is estimated at about 3% per decade (1 sigma) and should be applied in the calculation of ozone trends.
T. Wagner, S. Beirle, S. Dörner, M. Penning de Vries, J. Remmers, A. Rozanov, and R. Shaiganfar
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4265–4280,Short summary
We present a new method for the absolute calibration of atmospheric radiance measurements. Existing methods are based on laboratory measurements, but our method uses the atmospheric radiance measurements themselves. For selected sky conditions these measurements are compared to radiative transfer simulations. The method is very accurate (better than 7%) and might be used for a variety of scientific applications, as well as for the determination of the energy yield of photovoltaic cells.
G. A. Hoshyaripour, M. Hort, and B. Langmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9361–9379,Short summary
Iron released from volcanic ash can perturb the biogeochemical cycles in the ocean. However, knowing that the emitted ash from a volcano contains insoluble iron, what processes can solubilize the ash iron while it is airborne? To answer this question, a numerical model is developed in this study to simulate the gas-ash-aerosol interactions within the eruption plume. Results show that the dissolution of the ash mediated by halogen acids exert the key control on ash iron mobilization.
J. Jia, A. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3369–3383,
M. Hummel, C. Hoose, M. Gallagher, D. A. Healy, J. A. Huffman, D. O'Connor, U. Pöschl, C. Pöhlker, N. H. Robinson, M. Schnaiter, J. R. Sodeau, M. Stengel, E. Toprak, and H. Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6127–6146,
D. Rieger, M. Bangert, I. Bischoff-Gauss, J. Förstner, K. Lundgren, D. Reinert, J. Schröter, H. Vogel, G. Zängl, R. Ruhnke, and B. Vogel
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1659–1676,
O. Lednyts'kyy, C. von Savigny, K.-U. Eichmann, and M. G. Mlynczak
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1021–1041,Short summary
This paper deals with the retrieval of atomic oxygen concentration profiles in the Earth's upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere region from SCIAMACHY observations of oxygen green line airglow emissions. Atomic oxygen is one of the most important chemical constituents of this atmospheric region, and long-term satellite data sets are rare. The paper includes a detailed description of the retrieval algorithm, an error budget, validation results and some first scientific analyses.
M. P. Langowski, C. von Savigny, J. P. Burrows, W. Feng, J. M. C. Plane, D. R. Marsh, D. Janches, M. Sinnhuber, A. C. Aikin, and P. Liebing
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 273–295,Short summary
Global concentration fields of Mg and Mg+ in the Earth's upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (70-150km) are presented. These are retrieved from SCIAMACHY/Envisat satellite grating spectrometer measurements in limb viewing geometry between 2008 and 2012. These were compared with WACCM-Mg model results and a large fraction of the available measurement results for these species, and an interpretation of the results is done. The variation of these species during NLC presence is discussed.
J. Aschmann, J. P. Burrows, C. Gebhardt, A. Rozanov, R. Hommel, M. Weber, and A. M. Thompson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12803–12814,Short summary
This study compares observations and simulation results of ozone in the lower tropical stratosphere. It shows that ozone in this region decreased from 1985 up to about 2002, which is consistent with an increase in tropical upwelling predicted by climate models. However, the decrease effectively stops after 2002, indicating that significant changes in tropical upwelling have occurred. The most important factor appears to be that the vertical ascent in the tropics is no longer accelerating.
K. Noguchi, A. Richter, V. Rozanov, A. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, H. Irie, and K. Kita
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3497–3508,
S. Kowalewski, C. von Savigny, M. Palm, I. C. McDade, and J. Notholt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10193–10210,
J. M. Balzani Lööv, B. Alfoldy, L. F. L. Gast, J. Hjorth, F. Lagler, J. Mellqvist, J. Beecken, N. Berg, J. Duyzer, H. Westrate, D. P. J. Swart, A. J. C. Berkhout, J.-P. Jalkanen, A. J. Prata, G. R. van der Hoff, and A. Borowiak
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2597–2613,
H. Vogel, J. Förstner, B. Vogel, T. Hanisch, B. Mühr, U. Schättler, and T. Schad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7837–7845,
F. Ebojie, C. von Savigny, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A. Rozanov, M. Weber, K.-U. Eichmann, S. Bötel, N. Rahpoe, H. Bovensmann, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2073–2096,
B. Hassler, I. Petropavlovskikh, J. Staehelin, T. August, P. K. Bhartia, C. Clerbaux, D. Degenstein, M. De Mazière, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, G. Dufour, S. M. Frith, L. Froidevaux, S. Godin-Beekmann, J. Granville, N. R. P. Harris, K. Hoppel, D. Hubert, Y. Kasai, M. J. Kurylo, E. Kyrölä, J.-C. Lambert, P. F. Levelt, C. T. McElroy, R. D. McPeters, R. Munro, H. Nakajima, A. Parrish, P. Raspollini, E. E. Remsberg, K. H. Rosenlof, A. Rozanov, T. Sano, Y. Sasano, M. Shiotani, H. G. J. Smit, G. Stiller, J. Tamminen, D. W. Tarasick, J. Urban, R. J. van der A, J. P. Veefkind, C. Vigouroux, T. von Clarmann, C. von Savigny, K. A. Walker, M. Weber, J. Wild, and J. M. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1395–1427,
H. Brenot, N. Theys, L. Clarisse, J. van Geffen, J. van Gent, M. Van Roozendael, R. van der A, D. Hurtmans, P.-F. Coheur, C. Clerbaux, P. Valks, P. Hedelt, F. Prata, O. Rasson, K. Sievers, and C. Zehner
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 1099–1123,
R. Hommel, K.-U. Eichmann, J. Aschmann, K. Bramstedt, M. Weber, C. von Savigny, A. Richter, A. Rozanov, F. Wittrock, F. Khosrawi, R. Bauer, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3247–3276,
C. Gebhardt, A. Rozanov, R. Hommel, M. Weber, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, D. Degenstein, L. Froidevaux, and A. M. Thompson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 831–846,
A. Baklanov, K. Schlünzen, P. Suppan, J. Baldasano, D. Brunner, S. Aksoyoglu, G. Carmichael, J. Douros, J. Flemming, R. Forkel, S. Galmarini, M. Gauss, G. Grell, M. Hirtl, S. Joffre, O. Jorba, E. Kaas, M. Kaasik, G. Kallos, X. Kong, U. Korsholm, A. Kurganskiy, J. Kushta, U. Lohmann, A. Mahura, A. Manders-Groot, A. Maurizi, N. Moussiopoulos, S. T. Rao, N. Savage, C. Seigneur, R. S. Sokhi, E. Solazzo, S. Solomos, B. Sørensen, G. Tsegas, E. Vignati, B. Vogel, and Y. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 317–398,
M. Langowski, M. Sinnhuber, A. C. Aikin, C. von Savigny, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 29–48,
K. Zink, A. Pauling, M. W. Rotach, H. Vogel, P. Kaufmann, and B. Clot
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N. Rahpoe, C. von Savigny, M. Weber, A.V. Rozanov, H. Bovensmann, and J. P. Burrows
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A. Hilboll, A. Richter, A. Rozanov, Ø. Hodnebrog, A. Heckel, S. Solberg, F. Stordal, and J. P. Burrows
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E. Athanasopoulou, H. Vogel, B. Vogel, A. P. Tsimpidi, S. N. Pandis, C. Knote, and C. Fountoukis
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Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Survival probabilities of atmospheric particles: comparison based on theory, cluster population simulations, and observations in BeijingThe simulation of mineral dust in the United Kingdom Earth System Model UKESM1Dust pollution in China affected by different spatial and temporal types of El NiñoAn improved representation of aerosol mixing state for air quality–weather interactionsCirculation-regulated impacts of aerosol pollution on urban heat island in BeijingSize-resolved dust direct radiative effect efficiency derived from satellite observationsModeling coarse and giant desert dust particlesFire–climate interactions through the aerosol radiative effect in a global chemistry–climate–vegetation modelContributions of meteorology and anthropogenic emissions to the trends in winter PM2.5 in eastern China 2013–2018Impacts of condensable particulate matter on atmospheric organic aerosols and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in ChinaMapping the dependence of black carbon radiative forcing on emission region and seasonRegional PM2.5 pollution confined by atmospheric internal boundaries in the North China Plain: boundary layer structures and numerical simulationToward targeted observations of the meteorological initial state for improving the PM2.5 forecast of a heavy haze event that occurred in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei regionBelow-cloud scavenging of aerosol by rain: a review of numerical modelling approaches and sensitivity simulations with mineral dust in the Met Office's Unified ModelPredicting gridded winter PM2.5 concentration in the east of ChinaSatellite-based evaluation of AeroCom model bias in biomass burning regionsImpacts of marine organic emissions on low-level stratiform clouds – a large eddy simulator studyAviation contrail climate effects in the North Atlantic from 2016 to 2021Source attribution of cloud condensation nuclei and their impact on stratocumulus clouds and radiation in the south-eastern AtlanticSimulating wildfire emissions and plume rise using geostationary satellite fire radiative power measurements: a case study of the 2019 Williams Flats fireAtomistic and coarse-grained simulations reveal increased ice nucleation activity on silver iodide surfaces in slit and wedge geometriesSecondary aerosol formation in marine Arctic environments: a model measurement comparison at Ny-ÅlesundA global climatology of ice nucleating particles at cirrus conditions derived from model simulations with EMAC-MADE3Instant and delayed effects of march biomass burning aerosols over the Indochina PeninsulaEffective radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols in E3SM version 1: historical changes, causality, decomposition, and parameterization sensitivitiesExamination of aerosol impacts on convective clouds and precipitation in two metropolitan areas in East Asia; how varying depths of convective clouds between the areas diversify those aerosol effects?Where does the dust deposited over the Sierra Nevada snow come from?Influence of emission size distribution and nucleation on number concentrations over Greater ParisAerosol cloud interaction in the atmospheric chemistry model GRAPES_Meso5.1/CUACE and its impacts on mesoscale numerical weather prediction under haze pollution conditions in Jing-Jin-Ji in ChinaImpact of stratospheric aerosol intervention geoengineering on surface air temperature in China: a surface energy budget perspectiveRegional impacts of black carbon morphologies on shortwave aerosol–radiation interactions: a comparative study between the US and ChinaTropospheric warming over the northern Indian Ocean caused by South Asian anthropogenic aerosols: possible impact on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphereMicrophysical, macrophysical and radiative responses of subtropical marine clouds to aerosol injectionsIntraseasonal variation of the northeast Asian anomalous anticyclone and its impacts on PM2.5 pollution in the North China Plain in early winterInverse modeling of the 2021 spring super dust storms in East AsiaCausal influences of El Niño–Southern Oscillation on global dust activitiesFormation, radiative forcing, and climatic effects of severe regional hazeAdvances in air quality research – current and emerging challengesLarge-eddy-simulation study on turbulent particle deposition and its dependence on atmospheric-boundary-layer stabilityAerosol indirect effects in complex-orography areas: a numerical study over the Great Alpine RegionModelling the size distribution of aggregated volcanic ash and implications for operational atmospheric dispersion modellingThe effect of BC on aerosol–boundary layer feedback: potential implications for urban pollution episodesRelative importance of high-latitude local and long-range-transported dust for Arctic ice-nucleating particles and impacts on Arctic mixed-phase cloudsTechnical note: Dispersion of cooking-generated aerosols from an urban street canyonComparison of six approaches to predicting droplet activation of surface active aerosol – Part 1: moderately surface active organicsThe contribution of coral-reef-derived dimethyl sulfide to aerosol burden over the Great Barrier Reef: a modelling studyEstimation of elevated black carbon episode over Ukraine using Enviro-HIRLAMDevelopment and application of a street-level meteorology and pollutant tracking system (S-TRACK)How well do the CMIP6 models simulate dust aerosols?Input-adaptive linear mixed-effects model for estimating alveolar lung-deposited surface area (LDSA) using multipollutant datasets
Santeri Tuovinen, Runlong Cai, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jingkun Jiang, Chao Yan, Markku Kulmala, and Jenni Kontkanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15071–15091,Short summary
We compare observed survival probabilities of atmospheric particles from Beijing, China, with survival probabilities based on analytical formulae and model simulations. We find observed survival probabilities under polluted conditions at smaller sizes to be higher, while at larger sizes they are lower than or similar to theoretical survival probabilities. Uncertainties in condensation sink and growth rate are unlikely to explain higher-than-predicted survival probabilities at smaller sizes.
Stephanie Woodward, Alistair A. Sellar, Yongming Tang, Marc Stringer, Andrew Yool, Eddy Robertson, and Andy Wiltshire
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14503–14528,Short summary
We describe the dust scheme in the UKESM1 Earth system model and show generally good agreement with observations. Comparing with the closely related HadGEM3-GC3.1 model, we show that dust differences are not only due to inter-model differences but also to the dust size distribution. Under climate change, HadGEM3-GC3.1 dust hardly changes, but UKESM1 dust decreases because that model includes the vegetation response which, in our models, has a bigger impact on dust than climate change itself.
Yang Yang, Liangying Zeng, Hailong Wang, Pinya Wang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14489–14502,Short summary
Using an aerosol–climate model, dust pollution in China affected by different spatial and temporal types of El Niño are examined. Both eastern and central Pacific El Niño and short-duration El Niño increase winter dust concentrations over northern China, while long-duration El Niño decreases concentrations. Only long-duration El Niño events can significantly affect dust over China in the following spring. This study has profound implications for air pollution control and dust storm prediction.
Robin Stevens, Andrei Ryjkov, Mahtab Majdzadeh, and Ashu Dastoor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13527–13549,Short summary
Absorbing particles like black carbon can be coated with other matter. How much radiation these particles absorb depends on the coating thickness. The removal of these particles by clouds and rain depends on the coating composition. These effects are important for both climate and air quality. We implement a more detailed representation of these particles in an air quality model which accounts for both coating thickness and composition. We find a significant effect on particle concentrations.
Fan Wang, Gregory R. Carmichael, Jing Wang, Bin Chen, Bo Huang, Yuguo Li, Yuanjian Yang, and Meng Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13341–13353,Short summary
Unprecedented urbanization in China has led to serious urban heat island (UHI) issues, exerting intense heat stress on urban residents. We find diverse influences of aerosol pollution on urban heat island intensity (UHII) under different circulations. Our results also highlight the role of black carbon in aggravating UHI, especially during nighttime. It could thus be targeted for cooperative management of heat islands and aerosol pollution.
Qianqian Song, Zhibo Zhang, Hongbin Yu, Jasper F. Kok, Claudia Di Biagio, Samuel Albani, Jianyu Zheng, and Jiachen Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13115–13135,Short summary
This study developed a dataset that enables us to efficiently calculate dust direct radiative effect (DRE, i.e., cooling or warming our planet) for any given dust size distribution in addition to three sets of dust mineral components and two dust shapes. We demonstrate and validate the method of using this dataset to calculate dust DRE. Moreover, using this dataset we found that dust mineral composition is a more important factor in determining dust DRE than dust size and shape.
Eleni Drakaki, Vassilis Amiridis, Alexandra Tsekeri, Antonis Gkikas, Emmanouil Proestakis, Sotirios Mallios, Stavros Solomos, Christos Spyrou, Eleni Marinou, Claire L. Ryder, Demetri Bouris, and Petros Katsafados
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12727–12748,Short summary
State-of-the-art atmospheric dust models have limitations in accounting for a realistic dust size distribution (emission, transport). We modify the parameterization of the mineral dust cycle by including particles with diameter >20 μm, as indicated by observations over deserts. Moreover, we investigate the effects of reduced settling velocities of dust particles. Model results are evaluated using airborne and spaceborne dust measurements above Cabo Verde.
Chenguang Tian, Xu Yue, Jun Zhu, Hong Liao, Yang Yang, Yadong Lei, Xinyi Zhou, Hao Zhou, Yimian Ma, and Yang Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12353–12366,Short summary
We quantify the impacts of fire aerosols on climate through direct, indirect, and albedo effects. In atmosphere-only simulations, we find global fire aerosols cause surface cooling and rainfall inhibition over many land regions. These fast atmospheric perturbations further lead to a reduction in regional leaf area index and lightning activities. By considering the feedback of fire aerosols on humidity, lightning, and leaf area index, we predict a slight reduction in fire emissions.
Yanxing Wu, Run Liu, Yanzi Li, Junjie Dong, Zhijiong Huang, Junyu Zheng, and Shaw Chen Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11945–11955,Short summary
Multiple linear regression (MLR) analyses often interpret the correlation coefficient (r2) as the contribution of an independent variable to the dependent variable. Since a good correlation does not imply a causal relationship, we propose that r2 should be interpreted as the maximum possible contribution. Moreover, MLR results are sensitive to the length of time analyzed; long-term analysis gives a more accurate assessment because of its additional constraints.
Mengying Li, Shaocai Yu, Xue Chen, Zhen Li, Yibo Zhang, Zhe Song, Weiping Liu, Pengfei Li, Xiaoye Zhang, Meigen Zhang, Yele Sun, Zirui Liu, Caiping Sun, Jingkun Jiang, Shuxiao Wang, Benjamin N. Murphy, Kiran Alapaty, Rohit Mathur, Daniel Rosenfeld, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11845–11866,Short summary
This study constructed an emission inventory of condensable particulate matter (CPM) in China with a focus on organic aerosols (OAs), based on collected CPM emission information. The results show that OA emissions are enhanced twofold for the years 2014 and 2017 after the inclusion of CPM in the new inventory. Sensitivity cases demonstrated the significant contributions of CPM emissions from stationary combustion and mobile sources to primary, secondary, and total OA concentrations.
Petri Räisänen, Joonas Merikanto, Risto Makkonen, Mikko Savolahti, Alf Kirkevåg, Maria Sand, Øyvind Seland, and Antti-Ilari Partanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11579–11602,Short summary
A climate model is used to evaluate how the radiative forcing (RF) associated with black carbon (BC) emissions depends on the latitude, longitude, and seasonality of emissions. It is found that both the direct RF (BC absorption of solar radiation in air) and snow RF (BC absorption in snow/ice) depend strongly on the emission region and season. The results suggest that, for a given mass of BC emitted, climatic impacts are likely to be largest for high-latitude emissions due to the large snow RF.
Xipeng Jin, Xuhui Cai, Mingyuan Yu, Yu Song, Xuesong Wang, Hongsheng Zhang, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11409–11427,Short summary
Meteorological discontinuities in the vertical direction define the lowest atmosphere as the boundary layer, while in the horizontal direction it identifies the contrast zone as the internal boundary. Both of them determine the polluted air mass dimension over the North China Plain. This study reveals the boundary layer structures under three categories of internal boundaries, modified by thermal, dynamical, and blending effects. It provides a new insight to understand regional pollution.
Lichao Yang, Wansuo Duan, Zifa Wang, and Wenyi Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11429–11453,Short summary
The initial meteorological state has a great impact on PM2.5 forecasts. Assimilating additional observations is an effective way to improve the accuracy of the initial meteorological state. Here we used an advanced optimization approach to identify where we should preferentially place the meteorological observations associated with PM2.5 forecasts in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region of China. We provide evidence that the target observation strategy is effective for improving PM2.5 forecasts.
Anthony C. Jones, Adrian Hill, John Hemmings, Pascal Lemaitre, Arnaud Quérel, Claire L. Ryder, and Stephanie Woodward
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11381–11407,Short summary
As raindrops fall to the ground, they capture aerosol (i.e. below-cloud scavenging or BCS). Many different BCS schemes are available to climate models, and it is unclear what the impact of selecting one scheme over another is. Here, various BCS models are outlined and then applied to mineral dust in climate model simulations. We find that dust concentrations are highly sensitive to the BCS scheme, with dust atmospheric lifetimes ranging from 5 to 44 d.
Zhicong Yin, Mingkeng Duan, Yuyan Li, Tianbao Xu, and Huijun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11173–11185,Short summary
The PM2.5 concentration has been greatly reduced in recent years in China and has entered a crucial stage that required fine seasonal prediction. However, there is still no study aimed at predicting gridded PM2.5 concentration. A model for seasonal prediction of gridded winter PM2.5 concentration in the east of China was developed by analyzing the contributions of emissions and climate variability, which could provide scientific support for air pollution control at the regional and city levels.
Qirui Zhong, Nick Schutgens, Guido van der Werf, Twan van Noije, Kostas Tsigaridis, Susanne E. Bauer, Tero Mielonen, Alf Kirkevåg, Øyvind Seland, Harri Kokkola, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, David Neubauer, Zak Kipling, Hitoshi Matsui, Paul Ginoux, Toshihiko Takemura, Philippe Le Sager, Samuel Rémy, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Kai Zhang, Jialei Zhu, Svetlana G. Tsyro, Gabriele Curci, Anna Protonotariou, Ben Johnson, Joyce E. Penner, Nicolas Bellouin, Ragnhild B. Skeie, and Gunnar Myhre
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11009–11032,Short summary
Aerosol optical depth (AOD) errors for biomass burning aerosol (BBA) are evaluated in 18 global models against satellite datasets. Notwithstanding biases in satellite products, they allow model evaluations. We observe large and diverse model biases due to errors in BBA. Further interpretations of AOD diversities suggest large biases exist in key processes for BBA which require better constraining. These results can contribute to further model improvement and development.
Marje Prank, Juha Tonttila, Jaakko Ahola, Harri Kokkola, Thomas Kühn, Sami Romakkaniemi, and Tomi Raatikainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10971–10992,Short summary
Aerosols and clouds persist as the dominant sources of uncertainty in climate projections. In this modelling study, we investigate the role of marine aerosols in influencing the lifetime of low-level clouds. Our high resolution simulations show that sea spray can both extend and shorten the lifetime of the cloud layer depending on the model setup. The impact of the primary marine organics is relatively limited while secondary aerosol from monoterpenes can have larger impact.
Roger Teoh, Ulrich Schumann, Edward Gryspeerdt, Marc Shapiro, Jarlath Molloy, George Koudis, Christiane Voigt, and Marc E. J. Stettler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10919–10935,Short summary
Aircraft condensation trails (contrails) contribute to over half of the climate forcing attributable to aviation. This study uses historical air traffic and weather data to simulate contrails in the North Atlantic over 5 years, from 2016 to 2021. We found large intra- and inter-year variability in contrail radiative forcing and observed a 66 % reduction due to COVID-19. Most warming contrails predominantly result from night-time flights in winter.
Haochi Che, Philip Stier, Duncan Watson-Parris, Hamish Gordon, and Lucia Deaconu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10789–10807,Short summary
Extensive stratocumulus clouds over the south-eastern Atlantic (SEA) can lead to a cooling effect on the climate. A key pathway by which aerosols affect cloud properties is by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Here, we investigated the source attribution of CCN in the SEA as well as the cloud responses. Our results show that aerosol nucleation contributes most to CCN in the marine boundary layer. In terms of emissions, anthropogenic sources contribute most to the CCN and cloud droplets.
Aditya Kumar, R. Bradley Pierce, Ravan Ahmadov, Gabriel Pereira, Saulo Freitas, Georg Grell, Chris Schmidt, Allen Lenzen, Joshua P. Schwarz, Anne E. Perring, Joseph M. Katich, John Hair, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, and Hongyu Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10195–10219,Short summary
We use the WRF-Chem model with new implementations of GOES-16 wildfire emissions and plume rise based on fire radiative power (FRP) to interpret aerosol observations during the 2019 NASA–NOAA FIREX-AQ field campaign and perform model evaluations. The model shows significant improvements in simulating the variety of aerosol loading environments sampled during FIREX-AQ. Our results also highlight the importance of accurate wildfire diurnal cycle and aerosol chemical mechanisms in models.
Golnaz Roudsari, Olli H. Pakarinen, Bernhard Reischl, and Hanna Vehkamäki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10099–10114,Short summary
We use atomistic simulations to study heterogeneous ice nucleation on silver iodide surfaces in slit and wedge geometries at low supercooling which serve as a model of irregularities on real atmospheric aerosol particle surfaces. The revealed microscopic ice nucleation mechanisms in confined geometries strongly support the experimental evidence for the importance of surface features such as cracks or pits functioning as active sites for ice nucleation in the atmosphere.
Carlton Xavier, Metin Baykara, Robin Wollesen de Jonge, Barbara Altstädter, Petri Clusius, Ville Vakkari, Roseline Thakur, Lisa Beck, Silvia Becagli, Mirko Severi, Rita Traversi, Radovan Krejci, Peter Tunved, Mauro Mazzola, Birgit Wehner, Mikko Sipilä, Markku Kulmala, Michael Boy, and Pontus Roldin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10023–10043,Short summary
The focus of this work is to study and improve our understanding of processes involved in the formation and growth of new particles in a remote Arctic marine environment. We run the 1D model ADCHEM along air mass trajectories arriving at Ny-Ålesund in May 2018. The model finds that ion-mediated H2SO4–NH3 nucleation can explain the observed new particle formation at Ny-Ålesund. The growth of particles is driven via H2SO4 condensation and formation of methane sulfonic acid in the aqueous phase.
Christof Gerhard Beer, Johannes Hendricks, and Mattia Righi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Ice nucleating aerosol particles (INPs) have important influences on cirrus clouds and the climate system. However, their global atmospheric distribution in the cirrus regime is still very uncertain. We present a global climatology of INPs at cirrus conditions derived from model simulations, considering the INP-types mineral dust, soot, crystalline ammonium sulfate and glassy organics. The comparison of respective INP concentrations indicates a large importance of ammonium sulfate particles.
Anbao Zhu, Haiming Xu, Jiechun Deng, Jing Ma, and Shaofeng Hua
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study demonstrates the instant and delayed effects of biomass burning (BB) aerosols on precipitation over the Indochina Peninsula (ICP). The convection suppression due to the BB aerosol-induced stabilized atmosphere dominates over the favorable water-vapor condition induced by large-scale circulation responses, leading to an overall reduced precipitation in March. While the delayed effect promotes precipitation from early-April to mid-April due to the anomalous atmospheric circulations.
Kai Zhang, Wentao Zhang, Hui Wan, Philip J. Rasch, Steven J. Ghan, Richard C. Easter, Xiangjun Shi, Yong Wang, Hailong Wang, Po-Lun Ma, Shixuan Zhang, Jian Sun, Susannah M. Burrows, Manish Shrivastava, Balwinder Singh, Yun Qian, Xiaohong Liu, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Qi Tang, Xue Zheng, Shaocheng Xie, Wuyin Lin, Yan Feng, Minghuai Wang, Jin-Ho Yoon, and L. Ruby Leung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9129–9160,Short summary
Here we analyze the effective aerosol forcing simulated by E3SM version 1 using both century-long free-running and short nudged simulations. The aerosol forcing in E3SMv1 is relatively large compared to other models, mainly due to the large indirect aerosol effect. Aerosol-induced changes in liquid and ice cloud properties in E3SMv1 have a strong correlation. The aerosol forcing estimates in E3SMv1 are sensitive to the parameterization changes in both liquid and ice cloud processes.
Seoung Soo Lee, Jinho Choi, Goun Kim, Kyung-Ja Ha, Kyong-Hwan Seo, Chang Hoon Jung, Junshik Um, Youtong Zheng, Jianping Guo, Sang-Keun Song, Yun Gon Lee, and Nobuyuki Utsumi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9059–9081,Short summary
This study investigates how aerosols affect clouds and precipitation and how the aerosol effects vary with varying types of clouds that are characterized by cloud depth in two metropolitan areas in East Asia. As cloud depth increases, the enhancement of precipitation amount transitions to no changes in precipitation amount with increasing aerosol concentrations. This indicates that cloud depth needs to be considered for a comprehensive understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions.
Huilin Huang, Yun Qian, Ye Liu, Cenlin He, Jianyu Zheng, Zhibo Zhang, and Antonis Gkikas
Using a clustering method developed in the field of artificial neural networks, we identify four typical dust transport patterns across the Sierra Nevada, associated with the mesoscale and regional scale wind circulations. Our results highlight the connection between dust transport and dominant weather patterns, which can be used to understand dust transport in a changing climate.
Karine Sartelet, Youngseob Kim, Florian Couvidat, Maik Merkel, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean Sciare, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8579–8596,Short summary
A methodology is defined to estimate number emissions from an inventory providing mass emissions. Number concentrations are simulated over Greater Paris using different nucleation parameterisations (binary, ternary involving sulfuric acid and ammonia, and heteromolecular involving sulfuric acid and extremely low-volatility organics, ELVOCs). The comparisons show that ternary nucleation may not be a dominant process for new particle formation in cities, but they stress the role of ELVOCs.
Wenjie Zhang, Hong Wang, Xiaoye Zhang, Liping Huang, Yue Peng, Zhaodong Liu, Xiao Zhang, and Huizheng Che
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Aerosol-cloud interaction (ACI) is implemented in the atmospheric chemistry system GRAPES_Meso5.1/CUACE. The ACI can improve the simulated cloud, temperature, and precipitation under haze pollution conditions in severe haze polluted Jing-Jin-Ji region in China. This paper demonstrates the critical role of the ACI in the current numerical weather prediction system and the complexities of the ACI effect in haze pollution episodes.
Zhaochen Liu, Xianmei Lang, and Dabang Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7667–7680,Short summary
Stratospheric aerosol intervention geoengineering is considered a potential means to counteract global warming. Here the impact of stratospheric aerosol intervention geoengineering on surface air temperature over China and related physical processes are investigated. Results show that the increased stratospheric aerosols cause surface cooling over China. The temperature responses vary with models, regions, and seasons and are largely related to net surface shortwave radiation changes.
Jie Luo, Zhengqiang Li, Chenchong Zhang, Qixing Zhang, Yongming Zhang, Ying Zhang, Gabriele Curci, and Rajan K. Chakrabarty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7647–7666,Short summary
The fractal black carbon was applied to re-evaluate the regional impacts of morphologies on aerosol–radiation interactions (ARIs), and the effects were compared between the US and China. The regional-mean clear-sky ARI is significantly affected by the BC morphology, and relative differences of 17.1 % and 38.7 % between the fractal model with a Df of 1.8 and the spherical model were observed in eastern China and the northwest US, respectively.
Suvarna Fadnavis, Prashant Chavan, Akash Joshi, Sunil M. Sonbawne, Asutosh Acharya, Panuganti C. S. Devara, Alexandru Rap, Felix Ploeger, and Rolf Müller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7179–7191,Short summary
We show that large amounts of anthropogenic aerosols are transported from South Asia to the northern Indian Ocean. These aerosols are then lifted into the UTLS by the ascending branch of the Hadley circulation. They are further transported to the Southern Hemisphere and downward via westerly ducts over the tropical Atlantic and Pacific. These aerosols increase tropospheric heating, resulting in an increase in water vapor, which is then transported to the UTLS.
Je-Yun Chun, Robert Wood, Peter Blossey, and Sarah J. Doherty
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We investigate the impact of injected aerosol on subtropical low marine clouds under a variety of meteorological conditions using high-resolution model simulations. This study illustrates processes perturbed by aerosol injections and their impact on cloud properties (e.g., cloud number concentration, thickness and cover). We show that those responses are highly sensitive to background meteorological conditions, such as precipitation, background cloud properties.
Xiadong An, Wen Chen, Peng Hu, Shangfeng Chen, and Lifang Sheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6507–6521,Short summary
The intraseasonal NAAA usually establishes quickly on day −3 with a life span of 8 days. Further results revealed that the probability of regional PM2.5 pollution related to the NAAA for at least 2 days in the NCP is 80% in NDJ period 2000–2021. Particularly, air quality in the NCP tends to deteriorate on day 2 prior to the peak day of the NAAA and reaches a peak on day −1 with a life cycle of 4 days. The corresponding meteorological conditions support these conclusions.
Jianbing Jin, Mijie Pang, Arjo Segers, Wei Han, Li Fang, Baojie Li, Haochuan Feng, Hai Xiang Lin, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6393–6410,Short summary
Super dust storms reappeared in East Asia last spring after being absent for one and a half decades. Accurate simulation of such super sandstorms is valuable, but challenging due to imperfect emissions. In this study, the emissions of these dust storms are estimated by assimilating multiple observations. The results reveal that emissions originated from both China and Mongolia. However, for northern China, long-distance transport from Mongolia contributes much more dust than Chinese deserts.
Thanh Le and Deg-Hyo Bae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5253–5263,Short summary
Here we assess the response of dust activities to El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) over the 1850–2014 period using climate model outputs. Our results show that ENSO is an important driver of dust deposition and dust transportation with high consensus across models. However, the results indicate that ENSO is unlikely to show causal impacts on dust emissions of major dust sources. This study allows us to obtain further understanding of the linkages between ENSO and dust cycle at a global scale.
Yun Lin, Yuan Wang, Bowen Pan, Jiaxi Hu, Song Guo, Misti Levy Zamora, Pengfei Tian, Qiong Su, Yuemeng Ji, Jiayun Zhao, Mario Gomez-Hernandez, Min Hu, and Renyi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4951–4967,Short summary
Severe regional haze events, which are characterized by exceedingly high levels of fine particulate matter (PM), occur frequently in many developing countries (such as China and India), with profound implications for human health, weather, and climate. Our work establishes a synthetic view for the dominant regional features during severe haze events, unraveling rapid in situ PM production and inefficient transport, both of which are amplified by atmospheric stagnation.
Ranjeet S. Sokhi, Nicolas Moussiopoulos, Alexander Baklanov, John Bartzis, Isabelle Coll, Sandro Finardi, Rainer Friedrich, Camilla Geels, Tiia Grönholm, Tomas Halenka, Matthias Ketzel, Androniki Maragkidou, Volker Matthias, Jana Moldanova, Leonidas Ntziachristos, Klaus Schäfer, Peter Suppan, George Tsegas, Greg Carmichael, Vicente Franco, Steve Hanna, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Guus J. M. Velders, and Jaakko Kukkonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4615–4703,Short summary
This review of air quality research focuses on developments over the past decade. The article considers current and future challenges that are important from air quality research and policy perspectives and highlights emerging prominent gaps of knowledge. The review also examines how air pollution management needs to adapt to new challenges and makes recommendations to guide the direction for future air quality research within the wider community and to provide support for policy.
Xin Yin, Cong Jiang, Yaping Shao, Ning Huang, and Jie Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4509–4522,Short summary
Through a series of numerical experiments using the large-eddy-simulation model, we have developed an improved particle deposition scheme that takes into account transient wind shear fluctuations. Statistical analysis of the simulation results shows that the shear stress can be well approximated by a Weibull distribution and that the new scheme provides more accurate predictions than the conventional scheme, particularly under weak wind conditions and strong convective atmospheric conditions.
Anna Napoli, Fabien Desbiolles, Antonio Parodi, and Claudia Pasquero
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3901–3909,Short summary
Aerosols are liquid or solid particles suspended in the air that can interact with radiation and clouds, modifying the meteoclimatic conditions. Using an atmospheric model, we study the climatological impact of aerosols through their effects on clouds in the Alps, a region characterized by high pollution levels in the densely populated surrounding flatlands. Results show that cloud cover, temperature, and precipitation are affected by aerosols, and the response varies with elevation and season.
Frances Beckett, Eduardo Rossi, Benjamin Devenish, Claire Witham, and Costanza Bonadonna
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3409–3431,Short summary
As volcanic ash is transported through the atmosphere, it may collide and stick together to form aggregates. Neglecting the process of aggregation in atmospheric dispersion models could lead to inaccurate forecasts used by civil aviation for hazard assessment. We developed an aggregation scheme for use with the model NAME, which is used by the London Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre. Using our scheme, we investigate the impact of aggregation on simulations of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull ash cloud.
Jessica Slater, Hugh Coe, Gordon McFiggans, Juha Tonttila, and Sami Romakkaniemi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2937–2953,Short summary
This paper shows the specific impact of black carbon (BC) on the aerosol–planetary boundary layer (PBL) feedback and its influence on a Beijing haze episode. Overall, this paper shows that strong temperature inversions prevent BC heating within the PBL from significantly increasing PBL height, while BC above the PBL suppresses PBL development significantly through the day. From this we suggest a method by which both locally and regionally emitted BC may impact urban pollution episodes.
Yang Shi, Xiaohong Liu, Mingxuan Wu, Xi Zhao, Ziming Ke, and Hunter Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2909–2935,Short summary
We perform a modeling study to evaluate the contribution to Arctic dust loading and ice-nucleating particle (INP) population from high-latitude local and low-latitude dust. High-latitude dust has a large contribution in the lower troposphere, while low-latitude dust dominates the upper troposphere. The high-latitude dust INPs result in a net cooling effect on the Arctic surface by glaciating mixed-phase clouds. Our results highlight the contribution of high-latitude dust to the Arctic climate.
Shang Gao, Mona Kurppa, Chak K. Chan, and Keith Ngan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2703–2726,Short summary
The contribution of cooking emissions to organic aerosols may exceed that of motor vehicles. However, little is known about how cooking-generated aerosols evolve in the outdoor environment. In this paper, we present a numerical study of the dispersion of cooking emissions. For plausible choices of the emission strength, cooking can yield much higher concentrations than traffic. This has important implications for public health and city planning.
Sampo Vepsäläinen, Silvia M. Calderón, Jussi Malila, and Nønne L. Prisle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2669–2687,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols act as seeds for cloud formation. Many aerosols contain surface active material that accumulates at the surface of growing droplets. This can affect cloud droplet activation, but the broad significance of the effect and the best way to model it are still debated. We compare predictions of six different model approaches to surface activity of organic aerosols and find significant differences between the models, especially with large fractions of organics in the dry particles.
Sonya L. Fiddes, Matthew T. Woodhouse, Steve Utembe, Robyn Schofield, Simon P. Alexander, Joel Alroe, Scott D. Chambers, Zhenyi Chen, Luke Cravigan, Erin Dunne, Ruhi S. Humphries, Graham Johnson, Melita D. Keywood, Todd P. Lane, Branka Miljevic, Yuko Omori, Alain Protat, Zoran Ristovski, Paul Selleck, Hilton B. Swan, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Jason P. Ward, and Alastair G. Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2419–2445,Short summary
Coral reefs have been found to produce the climatically relevant chemical compound dimethyl sulfide (DMS). It has been suggested that corals can modify their environment via the production of DMS. We use an atmospheric chemistry model to test this theory at a regional scale for the first time. We find that it is unlikely that coral-reef-derived DMS has an influence over local climate, in part due to the proximity to terrestrial and anthropogenic aerosol sources.
Mykhailo Savenets, Larysa Pysarenko, Svitlana Krakovska, Alexander Mahura, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The paper explores spatio-temporal variability of black carbon during a wildfire episode of August 2010 with focus on Ukraine. As a research tool the seamless Enviro-HIRLAM modelling system used for investigating atmospheric transport of aerosol particles emitted by wildfires from remote and local sources. Results of this study improve our understanding of physical/ chemical processes and interactions of aerosols in the atmosphere.
Huan Zhang, Sunling Gong, Lei Zhang, Jingwei Ni, Jianjun He, Yaqiang Wang, Xu Wang, Lixin Shi, Jingyue Mo, Huabing Ke, and Shuhua Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2221–2236,Short summary
This study established a multi-model simulation system for street-level circulation and pollutant tracking and applied to real building scenarios and atmospheric conditions. Results showed that for a particular site the potential contribution ratio varies with the height of the site, with a peak not at the ground but at a certain height. This work is of significance for urban planning and improvement of urban air quality.
Alcide Zhao, Claire L. Ryder, and Laura J. Wilcox
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2095–2119,Short summary
The CMIP6 models' simulated dust processes are getting more uncertain as models become more sophisticated. Of particular challenge are the links between dust cycles and optical properties, and we recommend more detailed output relating to dust cycles in future intercomparison projects to constrain such links. Also, models struggle to capture certain key regional dust processes such as dust accumulation along the slope of the Himalayas and dust seasonal cycles in North China and North America.
Pak Lun Fung, Martha A. Zaidan, Jarkko V. Niemi, Erkka Saukko, Hilkka Timonen, Anu Kousa, Joel Kuula, Topi Rönkkö, Ari Karppinen, Sasu Tarkoma, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, and Tareq Hussein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1861–1882,Short summary
We developed an input-adaptive mixed-effects model, which was automatised to select the best combination of input variables, including up to three fixed effect variables and three time indictors as random effect variables. We tested the model to estimate lung-deposited surface area (LDSA), which correlates well with human health. The results show the inclusion of time indicators improved the sensitivity and the accuracy of the model so that it could serve as a network of virtual sensors.
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The requested paper has a corresponding corrigendum published. Please read the corrigendum first before downloading the article.
Volcanic aerosols endanger aircraft and thus disrupt air travel globally. For aviation safety, it is vital to know the location and lifetime of such aerosols in the atmosphere. Here we show that the interaction of volcanic particles with each other eventually reduces their atmospheric lifetime. Moreover, we demonstrate that sunlight heats these particles, which lifts them several kilometers in the atmosphere. These findings support a more reliable forecast of volcanic aerosol dispersion.
Volcanic aerosols endanger aircraft and thus disrupt air travel globally. For aviation safety,...