Articles | Volume 20, issue 3
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1391–1429, 2020
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-1391-2020
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1391–1429, 2020
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-1391-2020

Research article 05 Feb 2020

Research article | 05 Feb 2020

A new look at the environmental conditions favorable to secondary ice production

Alexei Korolev et al.

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Cited articles

Ackerman, A. S., Fridlind, A. M., Grandin, A., Dezitter, F., Weber, M., Strapp, J. W., and Korolev, A. V.: High ice water content at low radar reflectivity near deep convection – Part 2: Evaluation of microphysical pathways in updraft parcel simulations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11729–11751, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-11729-2015, 2015. 
Bacon, N. J., Swanson, B. D., Baker, M. B., and Davis, E. J.: Breakup of levitated frost particles, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 13763–13775, https://doi.org/10.1029/98JD01162, 1998. 
Bailey, M. P. and Hallett, J.: A Comprehensive Habit Diagram for Atmospheric Ice Crystals: Confirmation from the Laboratory, AIRS II, and Other Field Studies, J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 2888–2899, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JAS2883.1, 2009. 
Baumgardner, D., Jonsson, H. H., Dawson, W., O'Connor, D. P., and Newton, R.: The Cloud, Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer: A New Instrument for Cloud Investigations, Atmos. Res., 59–60, 251–264, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-8095(01)00119-3, 2001. 
Beard, K. V.: Ice initiation in warm-base convective clouds: An assessment of microphysical mechanisms, Atmos. Res., 28, 125–152, https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-8095(92)90024-5, 1992. 
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Short summary
This study attempts identification of mechanisms of secondary ice production (SIP) based on the observation of small faceted ice crystals. It was found that in both mesoscale convective systems and frontal clouds, SIP was observed right above the melting layer and extended to the higher altitudes with colder temperatures. A principal conclusion of this work is that the freezing drop shattering mechanism is plausibly accounting for the measured ice concentrations in the observed condition.
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