Articles | Volume 15, issue 5
Research article
09 Mar 2015
Research article |  | 09 Mar 2015

How much is particulate matter near the ground influenced by upper-level processes within and above the PBL? A summertime case study in Milan (Italy) evidences the distinctive role of nitrate

G. Curci, L. Ferrero, P. Tuccella, F. Barnaba, F. Angelini, E. Bolzacchini, C. Carbone, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, G. P. Gobbi, J. P. P. Kuenen, T. C. Landi, C. Perrino, M. G. Perrone, G. Sangiorgi, and P. Stocchi

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Cited articles

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Short summary
Particulate matter (PM) at ground level is of primary concern for the quality of the air we breathe. Most direct sources of PM are near the ground, but an important fraction of PM is produced by photochemical processes happening also in the upper atmospheric layers. We investigated the contribution of those layers to the PM near the ground and found a significant impact. Nitrate is a major player in the “vertical direction”, owing to its sensitivity to ambient temperature and relative humidity.
Final-revised paper