Estimation of the Paris NOx emissions from mobile MAX-DOAS observations and CHIMERE model simulations during the MEGAPOLI campaign using the closed integral method
Abstract. We determined NOx emissions from Paris in summer 2009 and winter 2009/2010 by applying the closed integral method (CIM) to a large set of car multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements performed within the framework of the MEGAPOLI project (http://megapoli.dmi.dk/). MAX-DOAS measurements of the tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) were performed in large circles around Paris. From the combination of the observed NO2 VCDs with wind fields, the NO2 influx into and the outflux from the encircled area was determined. The difference between the influx and outflux represents the total emission. Compared to previous applications of the CIM, the large number of measurements during the MEGAPOLI campaign allowed the investigation of important aspects of the CIM. In particular, the applicability of the CIM under various atmospheric conditions could be tested. Another important advantage of the measurements during MEGAPOLI is that simultaneous atmospheric model simulations with a high spatial resolution (3 × 3 km2) are available for all days. Based on these model data, it was possible to test the consistency of the CIM and to derive information about favourable or non-favourable conditions for the application of the CIM. We found that in most situations the uncertainties and the variability in the wind data dominate the total error budget, which typically ranges between 30 and 50 %. Also, measurement gaps and uncertainties in the partitioning ratio between NO and NO2 are important error sources. Based on a consistency check, we deduced a set of criteria on whether measurement conditions are suitable or not for the application of the CIM. We also developed a method for the calculation of the total error budget of the derived NOx emissions. Typical errors are between ±30 and ±50 % for individual days (with one full circle around Paris). From the application of the CIM to car MAX-DOAS observations we derive daily average NOx emissions for Paris of 4.0 × 1025 molec s−1 for summer and of 6.9 × 1025 molec s−1 in winter. These values are a factor of about 1.4 and 2.0 larger than the corresponding emissions derived from the application of the CIM to the model data, using the Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek (TNO) MEGAPOLI emission inventory, in summer and winter, respectively. Similar ratios (1.5 and 2.3 for summer and winter, respectively) were found for the comparison with the Monitoring Atmospheric composition and climate III (MACC-III) emission inventory. The highest NOx emissions were found during some cold days in February. Enhanced domestic heating and a reduced conversion efficiency of catalytic converters might contribute to these enhanced NOx emissions.