Articles | Volume 14, issue 20
Research article
17 Oct 2014
Research article |  | 17 Oct 2014

TNO-MACC_II emission inventory; a multi-year (2003–2009) consistent high-resolution European emission inventory for air quality modelling

J. J. P. Kuenen, A. J. H. Visschedijk, M. Jozwicka, and H. A. C. Denier van der Gon

Abstract. Emissions to air are reported by countries to EMEP. The emissions data are used for country compliance checking with EU emission ceilings and associated emission reductions. The emissions data are also necessary as input for air quality modelling. The quality of these "official" emissions varies across Europe.

As alternative to these official emissions, a spatially explicit high-resolution emission inventory (7 × 7 km) for UNECE-Europe for all years between 2003 and 2009 for the main air pollutants was made. The primary goal was to supply air quality modellers with the input they need. The inventory was constructed by using the reported emission national totals by sector where the quality is sufficient. The reported data were analysed by sector in detail, and completed with alternative emission estimates as needed. This resulted in a complete emission inventory for all countries.

For particulate matter, for each source emissions have been split in coarse and fine particulate matter, and further disaggregated to EC, OC, SO4, Na and other minerals using fractions based on the literature. Doing this at the most detailed sectoral level in the database implies that a consistent set was obtained across Europe. This allows better comparisons with observational data which can, through feedback, help to further identify uncertain sources and/or support emission inventory improvements for this highly uncertain pollutant.

The resulting emission data set was spatially distributed consistently across all countries by using proxy parameters. Point sources were spatially distributed using the specific location of the point source. The spatial distribution for the point sources was made year-specific.

The TNO-MACC_II is an update of the TNO-MACC emission data set. Major updates included the time extension towards 2009, use of the latest available reported data (including updates and corrections made until early 2012) and updates in distribution maps.

Final-revised paper