Articles | Volume 14, issue 11
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5807–5824, 2014
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
11 Jun 2014
Research article | 11 Jun 2014
Estimating Asian terrestrial carbon fluxes from CONTRAIL aircraft and surface CO2 observations for the period 2006–2010
H. F. Zhang et al.
X. Tian, Z. Xie, Y. Liu, Z. Cai, Y. Fu, H. Zhang, and L. Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13281–13293,Short summary
A new carbon cycle data assimilation system (Tan-Tracker) is developed based on an advanced hybrid assimilation approach, as a part of the preparation for the launch of the Chinese carbon dioxide observation satellite (TanSat). Tan-Tracker adopts a joint data assimilation framework to simultaneously estimate CO2 concentrations and CFs and thus gradually reduce the uncertainty in the CO2 concentration evolution through continuously fitting model CO2 concentration simulations to the observations.
Pierre Friedlingstein, Matthew W. Jones, Michael O'Sullivan, Robbie M. Andrew, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Judith Hauck, Corinne Le Quéré, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Stephen Sitch, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Rob B. Jackson, Simone R. Alin, Peter Anthoni, Nicholas R. Bates, Meike Becker, Nicolas Bellouin, Laurent Bopp, Thi Tuyet Trang Chau, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Margot Cronin, Kim I. Currie, Bertrand Decharme, Laique M. Djeutchouang, Xinyu Dou, Wiley Evans, Richard A. Feely, Liang Feng, Thomas Gasser, Dennis Gilfillan, Thanos Gkritzalis, Giacomo Grassi, Luke Gregor, Nicolas Gruber, Özgür Gürses, Ian Harris, Richard A. Houghton, George C. Hurtt, Yosuke Iida, Tatiana Ilyina, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Atul Jain, Steve D. Jones, Etsushi Kato, Daniel Kennedy, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Jürgen Knauer, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Arne Körtzinger, Peter Landschützer, Siv K. Lauvset, Nathalie Lefèvre, Sebastian Lienert, Junjie Liu, Gregg Marland, Patrick C. McGuire, Joe R. Melton, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Yosuke Niwa, Tsuneo Ono, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Gregor Rehder, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Thais M. Rosan, Jörg Schwinger, Clemens Schwingshackl, Roland Séférian, Adrienne J. Sutton, Colm Sweeney, Toste Tanhua, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Francesco Tubiello, Guido R. van der Werf, Nicolas Vuichard, Chisato Wada, Rik Wanninkhof, Andrew J. Watson, David Willis, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Wenping Yuan, Chao Yue, Xu Yue, Sönke Zaehle, and Jiye Zeng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1917–2005,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2021 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Zhu Deng, Philippe Ciais, Zitely A. Tzompa-Sosa, Marielle Saunois, Chunjing Qiu, Chang Tan, Taochun Sun, Piyu Ke, Yanan Cui, Katsumasa Tanaka, Xin Lin, Rona L. Thompson, Hanqin Tian, Yuanzhi Yao, Yuanyuan Huang, Ronny Lauerwald, Atul K. Jain, Xiaoming Xu, Ana Bastos, Stephen Sitch, Paul I. Palmer, Thomas Lauvaux, Alexandre d'Aspremont, Clément Giron, Antoine Benoit, Benjamin Poulter, Jinfeng Chang, Ana Maria Roxana Petrescu, Steven J. Davis, Zhu Liu, Giacomo Grassi, Clément Albergel, Francesco N. Tubiello, Lucia Perugini, Wouter Peters, and Frédéric Chevallier
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1639–1675,Short summary
In support of the global stocktake of the Paris Agreement on climate change, we proposed a method for reconciling the results of global atmospheric inversions with data from UNFCCC national greenhouse gas inventories (NGHGIs). Here, based on a new global harmonized database that we compiled from the UNFCCC NGHGIs and a comprehensive framework presented in this study to process the results of inversions, we compared their results of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O).
Tobias Christoph Valentin Werner Riess, Klaas Folkert Boersma, Jasper van Vliet, Wouter Peters, Maarten Sneep, Henk Eskes, and Jos van Geffen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1415–1438,Short summary
This paper reports on improved monitoring of ship nitrogen oxide emissions by TROPOMI. With its fantastic resolution we can identify lanes of ship nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollution not detected from space before. The quality of TROPOMI NO2 data over sea is improved further by recent upgrades in cloud retrievals and the use of sun glint scenes. Lastly, we study the impact of COVID-19 on ship NO2 in European seas and compare the found reductions to emission estimates gained from ship-specific data.
Linh N. T. Nguyen, Harro A. J. Meijer, Charlotte van Leeuwen, Bert A. M. Kers, Hubertus A. Scheeren, Anna E. Jones, Neil Brough, Thomas Barningham, Penelope A. Pickers, Andrew C. Manning, and Ingrid T. Luijkx
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 991–1014,Short summary
We present 20-year flask sample records of atmospheric CO2, O2, and APO from the stations Lutjewad (the Netherlands), Mace Head (Ireland), and Halley (Antarctica). Data from Lutjewad and Mace Head show similar long-term trends and seasonal cycles, agreeing with measurements from another station (Weybourne, UK). Measurements from Halley agree partly with those conducted by other institutes. From our 2002–2018 Lutjewad and Mace Head records, we find good agreement for global ocean carbon uptake.
Philippe Ciais, Ana Bastos, Frédéric Chevallier, Ronny Lauerwald, Ben Poulter, Josep G. Canadell, Gustaf Hugelius, Robert B. Jackson, Atul Jain, Matthew Jones, Masayuki Kondo, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Prabir K. Patra, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Ana Maria Roxana Petrescu, Shilong Piao, Chunjing Qiu, Celso Von Randow, Pierre Regnier, Marielle Saunois, Robert Scholes, Anatoly Shvidenko, Hanqin Tian, Hui Yang, Xuhui Wang, and Bo Zheng
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1289–1316,Short summary
The second phase of the Regional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) will provide updated quantification and process understanding of CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions and sinks for ten regions of the globe. In this paper, we give definitions, review different methods, and make recommendations for estimating different components of the total land–atmosphere carbon exchange for each region in a consistent and complete approach.
Maria Paula Pérez-Peña, Jenny A. Fisher, Dylan B. Millet, Hisashi Yashiro, Ray L. Langenfelds, Paul B. Krummel, and Scott H. Kable
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
We used two atmospheric models to test the implications of previously unexplored aldehyde photochemistry on the atmospheric levels of molecular hydrogen (H2). The modelling study showed that this newly tested photochemistry produces more H2 over densely forested areas were is also removed more strongly compared to the rest of the world. The results highlight that other processes, like emissions or sinks, that contribute to atmospheric H2 levels should be studied further.
Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Ara Cho, Jin Ma, Aleya Kaushik, Katherine D. Haynes, Ian Baker, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Mathijs Groenink, Wouter Peters, John B. Miller, Joseph A. Berry, Jerome Ogée, Laura K. Meredith, Wu Sun, Kukka-Maaria Kohonen, Timo Vesala, Ivan Mammarella, Huilin Chen, Felix M. Spielmann, Georg Wohlfahrt, Max Berkelhammer, Mary E. Whelan, Kadmiel Maseyk, Ulli Seibt, Roisin Commane, Richard Wehr, and Maarten Krol
Biogeosciences, 18, 6547–6565,Short summary
The gas carbonyl sulfide (COS) can be used to estimate photosynthesis. To adopt this approach on regional and global scales, we need biosphere models that can simulate COS exchange. So far, such models have not been evaluated against observations. We evaluate the COS biosphere exchange of the SiB4 model against COS flux observations. We find that the model is capable of simulating key processes in COS biosphere exchange. Still, we give recommendations for further improvement of the model.
Shohei Nomura, Manish Naja, M. Kawser Ahmed, Hitoshi Mukai, Yukio Terao, Toshinobu Machida, Motoki Sasakawa, and Prabir K. Patra
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16427–16452,Short summary
Long-term measurements of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in India and Bangladesh unveiled specific characteristics in their variations in these regions. Plants including rice cultivated in winter and summer strongly affected seasonal variations and levels in CO2 and CH4. Long-term variability of GHGs showed quite different features in their growth rates from those in Mauna Loa. GHG trends in this region seemed to be hardly affected by El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO).
Antoine Berchet, Espen Sollum, Rona L. Thompson, Isabelle Pison, Joël Thanwerdas, Grégoire Broquet, Frédéric Chevallier, Tuula Aalto, Adrien Berchet, Peter Bergamaschi, Dominik Brunner, Richard Engelen, Audrey Fortems-Cheiney, Christoph Gerbig, Christine D. Groot Zwaaftink, Jean-Matthieu Haussaire, Stephan Henne, Sander Houweling, Ute Karstens, Werner L. Kutsch, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Guillaume Monteil, Paul I. Palmer, Jacob C. A. van Peet, Wouter Peters, Philippe Peylin, Elise Potier, Christian Rödenbeck, Marielle Saunois, Marko Scholze, Aki Tsuruta, and Yuanhong Zhao
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5331–5354,Short summary
We present here the Community Inversion Framework (CIF) to help rationalize development efforts and leverage the strengths of individual inversion systems into a comprehensive framework. The CIF is a programming protocol to allow various inversion bricks to be exchanged among researchers. The ensemble of bricks makes a flexible, transparent and open-source Python-based tool. We describe the main structure and functionalities and demonstrate it in a simple academic case.
Yosuke Niwa, Yousuke Sawa, Hideki Nara, Toshinobu Machida, Hidekazu Matsueda, Taku Umezawa, Akihiko Ito, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Hiroshi Tanimoto, and Yasunori Tohjima
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9455–9473,Short summary
Fires in Equatorial Asia release a large amount of carbon into the atmosphere. Extensively using high-precision atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) data from a commercial aircraft observation project, we estimated fire carbon emissions in Equatorial Asia induced by the big El Niño event in 2015. Additional shipboard measurement data elucidated the validity of the analysis and the best estimate indicated 273 Tg C for fire emissions during September–October 2015.
Astrid Müller, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Takafumi Sugita, Toshinobu Machida, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Prabir K. Patra, Joshua Laughner, and David Crisp
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8255–8271,Short summary
Over oceans, high uncertainties in satellite CO2 retrievals exist due to limited reference data. We combine commercial ship and aircraft observations and, with the aid of model calculations, obtain column-averaged mixing ratios of CO2 (XCO2) data over the Pacific Ocean. This new dataset has great potential as a robust reference for XCO2 measured from space and can help to better understand changes in the carbon cycle in response to climate change using satellite observations.
Ana Maria Roxana Petrescu, Matthew J. McGrath, Robbie M. Andrew, Philippe Peylin, Glen P. Peters, Philippe Ciais, Gregoire Broquet, Francesco N. Tubiello, Christoph Gerbig, Julia Pongratz, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Giacomo Grassi, Gert-Jan Nabuurs, Pierre Regnier, Ronny Lauerwald, Matthias Kuhnert, Juraj Balkovič, Mart-Jan Schelhaas, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Efisio Solazzo, Chunjing Qiu, Roberto Pilli, Igor B. Konovalov, Richard A. Houghton, Dirk Günther, Lucia Perugini, Monica Crippa, Raphael Ganzenmüller, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Pete Smith, Saqr Munassar, Rona L. Thompson, Giulia Conchedda, Guillaume Monteil, Marko Scholze, Ute Karstens, Patrick Brockmann, and Albertus Johannes Dolman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2363–2406,Short summary
This study is topical and provides a state-of-the-art scientific overview of data availability from bottom-up and top-down CO2 fossil emissions and CO2 land fluxes in the EU27+UK. The data integrate recent emission inventories with ecosystem data, land carbon models and regional/global inversions for the European domain, aiming at reconciling CO2 estimates with official country-level UNFCCC national GHG inventories in support to policy and facilitating real-time verification procedures.
Anteneh Getachew Mengistu, Gizaw Mengistu Tsidu, Gerbrand Koren, Maurits L. Kooreman, K. Folkert Boersma, Torbern Tagesson, Jonas Ardö, Yann Nouvellon, and Wouter Peters
Biogeosciences, 18, 2843–2857,Short summary
In this study, we assess the usefulness of Sun-Induced Fluorescence of Terrestrial Ecosystems Retrieval (SIFTER) data from the GOME-2A instrument and near-infrared reflectance of vegetation (NIRv) from MODIS to capture the seasonality and magnitudes of gross primary production (GPP) derived from six eddy-covariance flux towers in Africa in the overlap years between 2007–2014. We also test the robustness of sun-induced fluoresence and NIRv to compare the seasonality of GPP for the major biomes.
Shamil Maksyutov, Tomohiro Oda, Makoto Saito, Rajesh Janardanan, Dmitry Belikov, Johannes W. Kaiser, Ruslan Zhuravlev, Alexander Ganshin, Vinu K. Valsala, Arlyn Andrews, Lukasz Chmura, Edward Dlugokencky, László Haszpra, Ray L. Langenfelds, Toshinobu Machida, Takakiyo Nakazawa, Michel Ramonet, Colm Sweeney, and Douglas Worthy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1245–1266,Short summary
In order to improve the top-down estimation of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, a high-resolution inverse modelling technique was developed for applications to global transport modelling of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. A coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian transport model and its adjoint are combined with surface fluxes at 0.1° resolution to provide high-resolution forward simulation and inverse modelling of surface fluxes accounting for signals from emission hot spots.
Pierre Friedlingstein, Michael O'Sullivan, Matthew W. Jones, Robbie M. Andrew, Judith Hauck, Are Olsen, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Stephen Sitch, Corinne Le Quéré, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Robert B. Jackson, Simone Alin, Luiz E. O. C. Aragão, Almut Arneth, Vivek Arora, Nicholas R. Bates, Meike Becker, Alice Benoit-Cattin, Henry C. Bittig, Laurent Bopp, Selma Bultan, Naveen Chandra, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Wiley Evans, Liesbeth Florentie, Piers M. Forster, Thomas Gasser, Marion Gehlen, Dennis Gilfillan, Thanos Gkritzalis, Luke Gregor, Nicolas Gruber, Ian Harris, Kerstin Hartung, Vanessa Haverd, Richard A. Houghton, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Emilie Joetzjer, Koji Kadono, Etsushi Kato, Vassilis Kitidis, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Zhu Liu, Danica Lombardozzi, Gregg Marland, Nicolas Metzl, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Yosuke Niwa, Kevin O'Brien, Tsuneo Ono, Paul I. Palmer, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Adam J. P. Smith, Adrienne J. Sutton, Toste Tanhua, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Guido van der Werf, Nicolas Vuichard, Anthony P. Walker, Rik Wanninkhof, Andrew J. Watson, David Willis, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Wenping Yuan, Xu Yue, and Sönke Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3269–3340,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2020 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Tea Thum, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Aki Tsuruta, Tuula Aalto, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Jari Liski, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Tiina Markkanen, Julia Pongratz, Yukio Yoshida, and Sönke Zaehle
Biogeosciences, 17, 5721–5743,Short summary
Global vegetation models are important tools in estimating the impacts of global climate change. The fate of soil carbon is of the upmost importance as its emissions will enhance the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. To evaluate the skill of global vegetation models to model the soil carbon and its responses to environmental factors, it is important to use different data sources. We evaluated two different soil carbon models by using atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.
Guillaume Monteil, Grégoire Broquet, Marko Scholze, Matthew Lang, Ute Karstens, Christoph Gerbig, Frank-Thomas Koch, Naomi E. Smith, Rona L. Thompson, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Emily White, Antoon Meesters, Philippe Ciais, Anita L. Ganesan, Alistair Manning, Michael Mischurow, Wouter Peters, Philippe Peylin, Jerôme Tarniewicz, Matt Rigby, Christian Rödenbeck, Alex Vermeulen, and Evie M. Walton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12063–12091,Short summary
The paper presents the first results from the EUROCOM project, a regional atmospheric inversion intercomparison exercise involving six European research groups. It aims to produce an estimate of the net carbon flux between the European terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere for the period 2006–2015, based on constraints provided by observed CO2 concentrations and using inverse modelling techniques. The use of six different models enables us to investigate the robustness of the results.
Erik van Schaik, Maurits L. Kooreman, Piet Stammes, L. Gijsbert Tilstra, Olaf N. E. Tuinder, Abram F. J. Sanders, Willem W. Verstraeten, Rüdiger Lang, Alessandra Cacciari, Joanna Joiner, Wouter Peters, and K. Folkert Boersma
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4295–4315,Short summary
With our improved algorithm we have generated a stable, long-term dataset of fluorescence measurements from the GOME-2A satellite instrument. In this study we determined a correction for the degradation of GOME-2A in orbit and applied this correction along with other improvements to our SIFTER v2 retrieval algorithm. The result is a coherent dataset of daily and monthly averaged fluorescence values for the period 2007–2018 to track worldwide changes in photosynthetic activity by vegetation.
Yuanhong Zhao, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Xin Lin, Antoine Berchet, Michaela I. Hegglin, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Ray L. Langenfelds, Michel Ramonet, Doug Worthy, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9525–9546,Short summary
The hydroxyl radical (OH), which is the dominant sink of methane (CH4), plays a key role in closing the global methane budget. This study quantifies how uncertainties in the hydroxyl radical can influence top-down estimates of CH4 emissions based on 4D Bayesian inversions with different OH fields and the same surface observations. We show that uncertainties in CH4 emissions driven by different OH fields are comparable to the uncertainties given by current bottom-up and top-down estimations.
Getachew Agmuas Adnew, Thijs L. Pons, Gerbrand Koren, Wouter Peters, and Thomas Röckmann
Biogeosciences, 17, 3903–3922,Short summary
We measured the effect of photosynthesis, the largest flux in the carbon cycle, on the triple oxygen isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 at the leaf level during gas exchange using three plant species. The main factors that limit the impact of land vegetation on the triple oxygen isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 are identified, characterized and discussed. The effect of photosynthesis on the isotopic composition of CO2 is commonly quantified as discrimination (ΔA).
Marielle Saunois, Ann R. Stavert, Ben Poulter, Philippe Bousquet, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Peter A. Raymond, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Sander Houweling, Prabir K. Patra, Philippe Ciais, Vivek K. Arora, David Bastviken, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Lori Bruhwiler, Kimberly M. Carlson, Mark Carrol, Simona Castaldi, Naveen Chandra, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick M. Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles L. Curry, Giuseppe Etiope, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Michaela I. Hegglin, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Gustaf Hugelius, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Katherine M. Jensen, Fortunat Joos, Thomas Kleinen, Paul B. Krummel, Ray L. Langenfelds, Goulven G. Laruelle, Licheng Liu, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Joe McNorton, Paul A. Miller, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Jurek Müller, Fabiola Murguia-Flores, Vaishali Naik, Yosuke Niwa, Sergio Noce, Simon O'Doherty, Robert J. Parker, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, Pierre Regnier, William J. Riley, Judith A. Rosentreter, Arjo Segers, Isobel J. Simpson, Hao Shi, Steven J. Smith, L. Paul Steele, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Francesco N. Tubiello, Aki Tsuruta, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Thomas S. Weber, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray F. Weiss, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Yi Yin, Yukio Yoshida, Wenxin Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Yuanhong Zhao, Bo Zheng, Qing Zhu, Qiuan Zhu, and Qianlai Zhuang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1561–1623,Short summary
Understanding and quantifying the global methane (CH4) budget is important for assessing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. We have established a consortium of multidisciplinary scientists under the umbrella of the Global Carbon Project to synthesize and stimulate new research aimed at improving and regularly updating the global methane budget. This is the second version of the review dedicated to the decadal methane budget, integrating results of top-down and bottom-up estimates.
Ingrid Super, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Michiel K. van der Molen, Stijn N. C. Dellaert, and Wouter Peters
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2695–2721,Short summary
Understanding urban CO2 fluxes is increasingly important to support emission reduction policies. In this work we extended an existing framework for emission verification to increase its suitability for urban areas and source-sector-based decision-making by using a dynamic emission model. We find that the dynamic emission model provides a better understanding of emissions at small scales and their uncertainties. By including co-emitted species, emission can be related to specific source sectors.
Elise S. Droste, Karina E. Adcock, Matthew J. Ashfold, Charles Chou, Zoë Fleming, Paul J. Fraser, Lauren J. Gooch, Andrew J. Hind, Ray L. Langenfelds, Emma Leedham Elvidge, Norfazrin Mohd Hanif, Simon O'Doherty, David E. Oram, Chang-Feng Ou-Yang, Marios Panagi, Claire E. Reeves, William T. Sturges, and Johannes C. Laube
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4787–4807,Short summary
We update the tropospheric trends and emissions of six perfluorocarbon (PFC) gases, including separate isomers. Trends for these strong greenhouse gases are still increasing, but at slower rates than previously. The lack of natural sinks results in the global accumulation of 833 million metric tonnes of CO2 equivalent for these six PFCs by 2017. Modelling results indicate potential source regions and types in East Asia, but we find that many emissions are unaccounted for in emission reports.
Martin Jung, Christopher Schwalm, Mirco Migliavacca, Sophia Walther, Gustau Camps-Valls, Sujan Koirala, Peter Anthoni, Simon Besnard, Paul Bodesheim, Nuno Carvalhais, Frédéric Chevallier, Fabian Gans, Daniel S. Goll, Vanessa Haverd, Philipp Köhler, Kazuhito Ichii, Atul K. Jain, Junzhi Liu, Danica Lombardozzi, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Jacob A. Nelson, Michael O'Sullivan, Martijn Pallandt, Dario Papale, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Christian Rödenbeck, Stephen Sitch, Gianluca Tramontana, Anthony Walker, Ulrich Weber, and Markus Reichstein
Biogeosciences, 17, 1343–1365,Short summary
We test the approach of producing global gridded carbon fluxes based on combining machine learning with local measurements, remote sensing and climate data. We show that we can reproduce seasonal variations in carbon assimilated by plants via photosynthesis and in ecosystem net carbon balance. The ecosystem’s mean carbon balance and carbon flux trends require cautious interpretation. The analysis paves the way for future improvements of the data-driven assessment of carbon fluxes.
Roger J. Francey, Jorgen S. Frederiksen, L. Paul Steele, and Ray L. Langenfelds
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14741–14754,Short summary
25-year composites of interhemispheric baseline CO2 differences demonstrate close agreement between 4 monitoring networks. Variability from monthly to multiyear time frames mostly reflects variability in upper troposphere dynamical indices chosen to represent eddy and mean transport interhemispheric exchange. Monthly interhemispheric atmospheric fluxes are much larger than air–surface terrestrial exchanges. The composite differences offer unusual constraints on transport in global carbon models.
Pierre Friedlingstein, Matthew W. Jones, Michael O'Sullivan, Robbie M. Andrew, Judith Hauck, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Stephen Sitch, Corinne Le Quéré, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Robert B. Jackson, Peter Anthoni, Leticia Barbero, Ana Bastos, Vladislav Bastrikov, Meike Becker, Laurent Bopp, Erik Buitenhuis, Naveen Chandra, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Kim I. Currie, Richard A. Feely, Marion Gehlen, Dennis Gilfillan, Thanos Gkritzalis, Daniel S. Goll, Nicolas Gruber, Sören Gutekunst, Ian Harris, Vanessa Haverd, Richard A. Houghton, George Hurtt, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Emilie Joetzjer, Jed O. Kaplan, Etsushi Kato, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Peter Landschützer, Siv K. Lauvset, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Danica Lombardozzi, Gregg Marland, Patrick C. McGuire, Joe R. Melton, Nicolas Metzl, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Craig Neill, Abdirahman M. Omar, Tsuneo Ono, Anna Peregon, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Gregor Rehder, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Roland Séférian, Jörg Schwinger, Naomi Smith, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Francesco N. Tubiello, Guido R. van der Werf, Andrew J. Wiltshire, and Sönke Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1783–1838,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2019 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Mai Ouchi, Yutaka Matsumi, Tomoki Nakayama, Kensaku Shimizu, Takehiko Sawada, Toshinobu Machida, Hidekazu Matsueda, Yousuke Sawa, Isamu Morino, Osamu Uchino, Tomoaki Tanaka, and Ryoichi Imasu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5639–5653,Short summary
A novel, practical observation system for measuring tropospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations carried by a small helium-filled balloon (CO2 sonde) has been developed for the first time. The low-cost CO2 sondes can potentially be used for frequent measurements of vertical profiles of CO2 in any parts of the world, providing useful information to understand the global and regional carbon budgets by replenishing the present sparse observation coverage.
Yasunori Tohjima, Hitoshi Mukai, Toshinobu Machida, Yu Hoshina, and Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9269–9285,Short summary
The amount of fossil-fuel-derived carbon dioxide that was taken up by land biosphere and ocean was evaluated from atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen observations in the western Pacific over a 15-year period. The results showed that about 30 % and 17 % of the fossil-fuel-derived carbon dioxide emitted during a 17-year period (2000–2016) was taken up by the ocean and land sinks, respectively. Long-term trends of land and ocean sinks for the decadal period were also evaluated.
Yoichi Inai, Ryo Fujita, Toshinobu Machida, Hidekazu Matsueda, Yousuke Sawa, Kazuhiro Tsuboi, Keiichi Katsumata, Shinji Morimoto, Shuji Aoki, and Takakiyo Nakazawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7073–7103,
Mauro Rubino, David M. Etheridge, David P. Thornton, Russell Howden, Colin E. Allison, Roger J. Francey, Ray L. Langenfelds, L. Paul Steele, Cathy M. Trudinger, Darren A. Spencer, Mark A. J. Curran, Tas D. van Ommen, and Andrew M. Smith
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 473–492,Short summary
The scientific community uses numerical models to predict future atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases causing global warming. This study presents the history of atmospheric concentration of the major greenhouse gases over the last 2000 years measured in ice core bubbles from the site of Law Dome (East Antarctica). The associated dataset is useful to test climate models and help provide accurate predictions of future climate change.
Martin K. Vollmer, François Bernard, Blagoj Mitrevski, L. Paul Steele, Cathy M. Trudinger, Stefan Reimann, Ray L. Langenfelds, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, David M. Etheridge, Mark A. J. Curran, and James B. Burkholder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3481–3492,Short summary
We have discovered a new compound in the atmosphere, octafluorooxolane (c-C4F8O), from measurements in archived air samples. From our laboratory studies, we find that c-C4F8O is a very powerful greenhouse gas thereby contributing to global warming, and that it has a very long atmospheric lifetime of more than 3500 years. Based on our measurements we could reconstruct its atmospheric evolution over more than 4 decades. Based on this, we could estimate the global emissions of c-C4F8O.
Ann R. Stavert, Rachel M. Law, Marcel van der Schoot, Ray L. Langenfelds, Darren A. Spencer, Paul B. Krummel, Scott D. Chambers, Alistair G. Williams, Sylvester Werczynski, Roger J. Francey, and Russell T. Howden
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1103–1121,Short summary
The Southern Ocean is a key sink of carbon dioxide (CO2), but efforts to study trends in and the variability of the sink have been hindered by the limited number of CO2 measurements in this region. Here we describe a set of new in situ continuous (minutely) atmospheric CO2 observations. We show that this new record better captures long-term changes and seasonality than traditional 2-weekly flask records. As such, this data set will provide key insights into the changing Southern Ocean sink.
Benjamin Gaubert, Britton B. Stephens, Sourish Basu, Frédéric Chevallier, Feng Deng, Eric A. Kort, Prabir K. Patra, Wouter Peters, Christian Rödenbeck, Tazu Saeki, David Schimel, Ingrid Van der Laan-Luijkx, Steven Wofsy, and Yi Yin
Biogeosciences, 16, 117–134,Short summary
We have compared global carbon budgets calculated from numerical inverse models and CO2 observations, and evaluated how these systems reproduce vertical gradients in atmospheric CO2 from aircraft measurements. We found that available models have converged on near-neutral tropical total fluxes for several decades, implying consistent sinks in intact tropical forests, and that assumed fossil fuel emissions and predicted atmospheric growth rates are now the dominant axes of disagreement.
Corinne Le Quéré, Robbie M. Andrew, Pierre Friedlingstein, Stephen Sitch, Judith Hauck, Julia Pongratz, Penelope A. Pickers, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Glen P. Peters, Josep G. Canadell, Almut Arneth, Vivek K. Arora, Leticia Barbero, Ana Bastos, Laurent Bopp, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Philippe Ciais, Scott C. Doney, Thanos Gkritzalis, Daniel S. Goll, Ian Harris, Vanessa Haverd, Forrest M. Hoffman, Mario Hoppema, Richard A. Houghton, George Hurtt, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Truls Johannessen, Chris D. Jones, Etsushi Kato, Ralph F. Keeling, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Sebastian Lienert, Zhu Liu, Danica Lombardozzi, Nicolas Metzl, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Craig Neill, Are Olsen, Tsueno Ono, Prabir Patra, Anna Peregon, Wouter Peters, Philippe Peylin, Benjamin Pfeil, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Gregor Rehder, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Matthias Rocher, Christian Rödenbeck, Ute Schuster, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Tobias Steinhoff, Adrienne Sutton, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Francesco N. Tubiello, Ingrid T. van der Laan-Luijkx, Guido R. van der Werf, Nicolas Viovy, Anthony P. Walker, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Rebecca Wright, Sönke Zaehle, and Bo Zheng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 2141–2194,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2018 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Christine D. Groot Zwaaftink, Stephan Henne, Rona L. Thompson, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Toshinobu Machida, Jean-Daniel Paris, Motoki Sasakawa, Arjo Segers, Colm Sweeney, and Andreas Stohl
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4469–4487,Short summary
A Lagrangian particle dispersion model is used to simulate global fields of methane, constrained by observations through nudging. We show that this rather simple and computationally inexpensive method can give results similar to or as good as a computationally expensive Eulerian chemistry transport model with a data assimilation scheme. The three-dimensional methane fields are of interest to applications such as inverse modelling and satellite retrievals.
Taku Umezawa, Hidekazu Matsueda, Yousuke Sawa, Yosuke Niwa, Toshinobu Machida, and Lingxi Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14851–14866,Short summary
Distribution of atmospheric CO2 is key to estimate surface CO2 sources and sinks. We present extensive analysis of a unique 10-year three-dimensional dataset of atmospheric CO2 achieved by the CONTRAIL commercial airliner measurements over the Asia-Pacific region. Aided by model simulations, we identified the influence of anthropogenic and biospheric CO2 fluxes in the seasonal evolution of the spatial CO2 distributions under the seasonally varying meteorology (e.g., Asian summer monsoon)
Wei He, Ivar R. van der Velde, Arlyn E. Andrews, Colm Sweeney, John Miller, Pieter Tans, Ingrid T. van der Laan-Luijkx, Thomas Nehrkorn, Marikate Mountain, Weimin Ju, Wouter Peters, and Huilin Chen
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3515–3536,Short summary
We have implemented a regional, high-resolution, and computationally attractive carbon dioxide data assimilation system. This system, named CTDAS-Lagrange, is capable of simultaneously optimizing terrestrial biosphere fluxes and the lateral boundary conditions. The CTDAS-Lagrange system can be easily extended to assimilate an additional tracer, e.g., carbonyl sulfide (COS or OCS), for regional estimates of both net and gross carbon fluxes.
James S. Wang, S. Randolph Kawa, G. James Collatz, Motoki Sasakawa, Luciana V. Gatti, Toshinobu Machida, Yuping Liu, and Michael E. Manyin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11097–11124,Short summary
We used measurements of CO2 in the atmosphere from the GOSAT satellite and from surface sites around the world, together with a transport model and a unique estimation technique, to quantify CO2 sources and removals over a recent period. We find that climate variations can strongly influence uptake by vegetation and release in decay and fires. However, regional gaps in observations and inaccuracies to which current satellite technology is susceptible result in important estimation biases.
Yu Hoshina, Yasunori Tohjima, Keiichi Katsumata, Toshinobu Machida, and Shin-ichiro Nakaoka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9283–9295,Short summary
We installed a low flow rate measurement system on a cargo ship sailing between Japan and North America and started onboard continuous measurements for O2 and CO2. From the comparison between the in situ measurements and flask samples, we concluded that the uncertainties in the O2 and CO2 mole fraction for the in situ measurements are about 9 per meg and about 0.3 ppm, respectively.
Truls Andersen, Bert Scheeren, Wouter Peters, and Huilin Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2683–2699,Short summary
We developed and field-tested a UAV-based active AirCore for atmospheric measurements of CO2, CH4, and CO. AirCore is an innovative tool that passively samples air using the atmospheric pressure gradient during descent. Here we have taken further steps to change the “active” sampling process with a pump, miniaturize it, and deploy it on a UAV. The active AirCore system opens up a wide variety of opportunities, e.g., quantifying CH4 emissions from wetlands, landfills, other CH4 hot spots.
Karina E. Adcock, Claire E. Reeves, Lauren J. Gooch, Emma C. Leedham Elvidge, Matthew J. Ashfold, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Charles Chou, Paul J. Fraser, Ray L. Langenfelds, Norfazrin Mohd Hanif, Simon O'Doherty, David E. Oram, Chang-Feng Ou-Yang, Siew Moi Phang, Azizan Abu Samah, Thomas Röckmann, William T. Sturges, and Johannes C. Laube
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4737–4751,
Corinne Le Quéré, Robbie M. Andrew, Pierre Friedlingstein, Stephen Sitch, Julia Pongratz, Andrew C. Manning, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Glen P. Peters, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Thomas A. Boden, Pieter P. Tans, Oliver D. Andrews, Vivek K. Arora, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Leticia Barbero, Meike Becker, Richard A. Betts, Laurent Bopp, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Philippe Ciais, Catherine E. Cosca, Jessica Cross, Kim Currie, Thomas Gasser, Ian Harris, Judith Hauck, Vanessa Haverd, Richard A. Houghton, Christopher W. Hunt, George Hurtt, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Etsushi Kato, Markus Kautz, Ralph F. Keeling, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Arne Körtzinger, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Ivan Lima, Danica Lombardozzi, Nicolas Metzl, Frank Millero, Pedro M. S. Monteiro, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Yukihiro Nojiri, X. Antonio Padin, Anna Peregon, Benjamin Pfeil, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Gregor Rehder, Janet Reimer, Christian Rödenbeck, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Benjamin D. Stocker, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Francesco N. Tubiello, Ingrid T. van der Laan-Luijkx, Guido R. van der Werf, Steven van Heuven, Nicolas Viovy, Nicolas Vuichard, Anthony P. Walker, Andrew J. Watson, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Sönke Zaehle, and Dan Zhu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 405–448,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2017 describes data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. It is the 12th annual update and the 6th published in this journal.
Emma Leedham Elvidge, Harald Bönisch, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Andreas Engel, Paul J. Fraser, Eileen Gallacher, Ray Langenfelds, Jens Mühle, David E. Oram, Eric A. Ray, Anna R. Ridley, Thomas Röckmann, William T. Sturges, Ray F. Weiss, and Johannes C. Laube
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3369–3385,Short summary
Chemical species measured in stratospheric air can be used as proxies for stratospheric circulation changes which cannot be measured directly. A range of tracers is important to understand changing stratospheric dynamics. We demonstrate the suitability of PFCs and HFCs as tracers and support recent work that reduces the current stratospheric lifetime of SF6. Updates to policy-relevant parameters (e.g. stratospheric lifetime) linked to this change are provided for O3-depleting substances.
Martin K. Vollmer, Dickon Young, Cathy M. Trudinger, Jens Mühle, Stephan Henne, Matthew Rigby, Sunyoung Park, Shanlan Li, Myriam Guillevic, Blagoj Mitrevski, Christina M. Harth, Benjamin R. Miller, Stefan Reimann, Bo Yao, L. Paul Steele, Simon A. Wyss, Chris R. Lunder, Jgor Arduini, Archie McCulloch, Songhao Wu, Tae Siek Rhee, Ray H. J. Wang, Peter K. Salameh, Ove Hermansen, Matthias Hill, Ray L. Langenfelds, Diane Ivy, Simon O'Doherty, Paul B. Krummel, Michela Maione, David M. Etheridge, Lingxi Zhou, Paul J. Fraser, Ronald G. Prinn, Ray F. Weiss, and Peter G. Simmonds
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 979–1002,Short summary
We measured the three chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) CFC-13, CFC-114, and CFC-115 in the atmosphere because they are important in stratospheric ozone depletion. These compounds should have decreased in the atmosphere because they are banned by the Montreal Protocol but we find the opposite. Emissions over the last decade have not declined on a global scale. We use inverse modeling and our observations to find that a large part of the emissions originate in the Asian region.
Ivar R. van der Velde, John B. Miller, Michiel K. van der Molen, Pieter P. Tans, Bruce H. Vaughn, James W. C. White, Kevin Schaefer, and Wouter Peters
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 283–304,Short summary
We explored an inverse modeling technique to interpret global atmospheric measurements of CO2 and the ratio of its stable carbon isotopes (δ13C). We detected the possible underestimation of drought stress in biosphere models after applying combined atmospheric CO2 and δ13C constraints. This study highlights the importance of improving the representation of the biosphere in carbon–climate models, in particular in a world where droughts become more extreme and more frequent.
Kelley C. Wells, Dylan B. Millet, Nicolas Bousserez, Daven K. Henze, Timothy J. Griffis, Sreelekha Chaliyakunnel, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Eri Saikawa, Gao Xiang, Ronald G. Prinn, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, Ray F. Weiss, Geoff S. Dutton, James W. Elkins, Paul B. Krummel, Ray Langenfelds, and L. Paul Steele
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 735–756,Short summary
This paper uses three different frameworks to derive nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions based on global surface observations. One of these frameworks employs a new approach that allows for fast computation and explores a larger solution space than other methods. Our results point to a few conclusions about the global N2O budget, including a larger contribution from tropical sources, an overestimate of natural soil emissions, and an underestimate of agricultural sources particularly in springtime.
Ingrid Super, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Michiel K. van der Molen, Hendrika A. M. Sterk, Arjan Hensen, and Wouter Peters
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13297–13316,Short summary
In this research we examined the use of different models to simulate CO2 concentrations in and around urban areas. We find that in the presence of large stack emissions in a gridded model is insufficient to represent the small dimensions of the CO2 plumes. A plume model improves this representation up to 10–14 km from the stack. Better model results can improve the estimate of CO2 emissions from urban areas and assist in identifying efficient emission reduction policies.
Naoko Saitoh, Shuhei Kimoto, Ryo Sugimura, Ryoichi Imasu, Kei Shiomi, Akihiko Kuze, Yosuke Niwa, Toshinobu Machida, Yousuke Sawa, and Hidekazu Matsueda
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3877–3892,Short summary
This study evaluated biases in GOSAT/TANSO-FTS thermal infrared (TIR) V1 CO2 product on 736–287 hPa on the basis of comparisons with CONTRAIL CME CO2 data over airports. TIR V1 CO2 data had consistent negative biases of 1–1.5 %, with the largest negative biases at 541–398 hPa. Global comparisons between TIR CO2 data to which the bias-correction values were applied and CO2 data simulated by NICAM-TM confirmed the validity of the bias-correction values evaluated over airports in limited areas.
Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Ben Poulter, Anna Peregon, Philippe Ciais, Josep G. Canadell, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Giuseppe Etiope, David Bastviken, Sander Houweling, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Simona Castaldi, Robert B. Jackson, Mihai Alexe, Vivek K. Arora, David J. Beerling, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Lori Bruhwiler, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick Crill, Kristofer Covey, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Fortunat Joos, Heon-Sook Kim, Thomas Kleinen, Paul Krummel, Jean-François Lamarque, Ray Langenfelds, Robin Locatelli, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Vaishali Naik, Simon O'Doherty, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Prabir K. Patra, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Isabelle Pison, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, William J. Riley, Makoto Saito, Monia Santini, Ronny Schroeder, Isobel J. Simpson, Renato Spahni, Atsushi Takizawa, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Ray Weiss, David J. Wilton, Andy Wiltshire, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Xiyan Xu, Yukio Yoshida, Bowen Zhang, Zhen Zhang, and Qiuan Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11135–11161,Short summary
Following the Global Methane Budget 2000–2012 published in Saunois et al. (2016), we use the same dataset of bottom-up and top-down approaches to discuss the variations in methane emissions over the period 2000–2012. The changes in emissions are discussed both in terms of trends and quasi-decadal changes. The ensemble gathered here allows us to synthesise the robust changes in terms of regional and sectorial contributions to the increasing methane emissions.
Ingrid T. van der Laan-Luijkx, Ivar R. van der Velde, Emma van der Veen, Aki Tsuruta, Karolina Stanislawska, Arne Babenhauserheide, Hui Fang Zhang, Yu Liu, Wei He, Huilin Chen, Kenneth A. Masarie, Maarten C. Krol, and Wouter Peters
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2785–2800,Short summary
The CarbonTracker Data Assimilation Shell (CTDAS) is the new modular implementation of the CarbonTracker Europe (CTE) data assimilation system. We present and document CTDAS and demonstrate its ability to estimate global carbon sources and sinks. We present the latest CTE results including the distribution of the carbon sinks over the hemispheres and between the land biosphere and the oceans. We show the versatility of CTDAS with an overview of the wide range of other applications.
Yosuke Niwa, Yosuke Fujii, Yousuke Sawa, Yosuke Iida, Akihiko Ito, Masaki Satoh, Ryoichi Imasu, Kazuhiro Tsuboi, Hidekazu Matsueda, and Nobuko Saigusa
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2201–2219,Short summary
A new 4D-Var inversion system based on the icosahedral grid model, NICAM, is introduced and tested. Adding to the offline forward and adjoint models, this study has introduced the optimization method of POpULar; it does not require difficult decomposition of a matrix that establishes the correlation among the prior flux errors. In identical twin experiments of atmospheric CO2 inversion, the system successfully reproduces the spatiotemporal variations of the surface fluxes.
Aki Tsuruta, Tuula Aalto, Leif Backman, Janne Hakkarainen, Ingrid T. van der Laan-Luijkx, Maarten C. Krol, Renato Spahni, Sander Houweling, Marko Laine, Ed Dlugokencky, Angel J. Gomez-Pelaez, Marcel van der Schoot, Ray Langenfelds, Raymond Ellul, Jgor Arduini, Francesco Apadula, Christoph Gerbig, Dietrich G. Feist, Rigel Kivi, Yukio Yoshida, and Wouter Peters
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1261–1289,Short summary
In this study, we found that the average global methane emission for 2000–2012, estimated by the CTE-CH4 model, was 516±51 Tg CH4 yr-1, and the estimates for 2007–2012 were 4 % larger than for 2000–2006. The model estimates are sensitive to inputs and setups, but according to sensitivity tests the study suggests that the increase in atmospheric methane concentrations during 21st century was due to an increase in emissions from the 35S-EQ latitudinal bands.
Yosuke Niwa, Hirofumi Tomita, Masaki Satoh, Ryoichi Imasu, Yousuke Sawa, Kazuhiro Tsuboi, Hidekazu Matsueda, Toshinobu Machida, Motoki Sasakawa, Boris Belan, and Nobuko Saigusa
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1157–1174,Short summary
We have developed forward and adjoint models based on NICAM-TM, as part of the 4D-Var system for atmospheric GHGs inversions. The models are computationally efficient enough to make the 4D-Var iterative calculation feasible. Trajectory analysis for high-CO2 concentration events are performed to test adjoint sensitivities; we also demonstrate the potential usefulness of our adjoint model for diagnosing tracer transport.
Rona L. Thompson, Motoki Sasakawa, Toshinobu Machida, Tuula Aalto, Doug Worthy, Jost V. Lavric, Cathrine Lund Myhre, and Andreas Stohl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3553–3572,Short summary
Methane (CH4) fluxes were estimated for the high northern latitudes for 2005–2013 based on observations of atmospheric CH4 mixing ratios. Methane fluxes were found to be higher than prior estimates in northern Eurasia and Canada, especially in the Western Siberian Lowlands and the Canadian province Alberta. Significant inter-annual variations in the fluxes were found as well as a small positive trend. In Canada, the trend may be related to an increase in soil temperature over the study period.
Shohei Nomura, Hitoshi Mukai, Yukio Terao, Toshinobu Machida, and Yukihiro Nojiri
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 667–680,Short summary
We developed a battery-powered CO2 measurement system for monitoring at the summit of Mt. Fuji, which experiences severe environmental conditions without access to gridded electricity for 10 months. Our measurement system used 100 batteries to run the measurement unit during these months. CO2 mole fractions at Mt. Fuji demonstrated clear seasonal variation. The trend and the variability of the CO2 growth rate observed at Mt. Fuji was very similar to that of the Mauna Loa Observatory.
Jinwoong Kim, Hyun Mee Kim, Chun-Ho Cho, Kyung-On Boo, Andrew R. Jacobson, Motoki Sasakawa, Toshinobu Machida, Mikhail Arshinov, and Nikolay Fedoseev
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2881–2899,Short summary
To investigate the effect of CO2 observations in Siberia on the surface CO2 flux analyses, two experiments using observation data sets with and without Siberian measurements were performed. While the magnitude of the optimized surface CO2 flux uptake in Siberia decreased, that in the other regions of the Northern Hemisphere increased for the experiment with Siberian observations. It is expected that the Siberian observations play an important role in estimating surface CO2 flux in the future.
Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Ben Poulter, Anna Peregon, Philippe Ciais, Josep G. Canadell, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Giuseppe Etiope, David Bastviken, Sander Houweling, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Simona Castaldi, Robert B. Jackson, Mihai Alexe, Vivek K. Arora, David J. Beerling, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Victor Brovkin, Lori Bruhwiler, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles Curry, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Fortunat Joos, Heon-Sook Kim, Thomas Kleinen, Paul Krummel, Jean-François Lamarque, Ray Langenfelds, Robin Locatelli, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Julia Marshall, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Vaishali Naik, Simon O'Doherty, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Prabir K. Patra, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Isabelle Pison, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, William J. Riley, Makoto Saito, Monia Santini, Ronny Schroeder, Isobel J. Simpson, Renato Spahni, Paul Steele, Atsushi Takizawa, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray Weiss, Christine Wiedinmyer, David J. Wilton, Andy Wiltshire, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Xiyan Xu, Yukio Yoshida, Bowen Zhang, Zhen Zhang, and Qiuan Zhu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 697–751,Short summary
An accurate assessment of the methane budget is important to understand the atmospheric methane concentrations and trends and to provide realistic pathways for climate change mitigation. The various and diffuse sources of methane as well and its oxidation by a very short lifetime radical challenge this assessment. We quantify the methane sources and sinks as well as their uncertainties based on both bottom-up and top-down approaches provided by a broad international scientific community.
Johannes C. Laube, Norfazrin Mohd Hanif, Patricia Martinerie, Eileen Gallacher, Paul J. Fraser, Ray Langenfelds, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Jakob Schwander, Emmanuel Witrant, Jia-Lin Wang, Chang-Feng Ou-Yang, Lauren J. Gooch, Claire E. Reeves, William T. Sturges, and David E. Oram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15347–15358,
Sander van der Laan, Swagath Manohar, Alex Vermeulen, Fred Bosveld, Harro Meijer, Andrew Manning, Michiel van der Molen, and Ingrid van der Laan-Luijkx
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5523–5533,Short summary
A new methodology is presented to estimate regional-scale surface fluxes of 222Rn. 222Rn is an increasingly important trace gas which is used to calculate regional-scale greenhouse gas emissions and to validate atmospheric transport models. We tested our method at two atmospheric research stations in the Netherlands and compared our results with measurements from accumulation chambers and two recently published 222Rn soil flux maps for Europe.
Corinne Le Quéré, Robbie M. Andrew, Josep G. Canadell, Stephen Sitch, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Glen P. Peters, Andrew C. Manning, Thomas A. Boden, Pieter P. Tans, Richard A. Houghton, Ralph F. Keeling, Simone Alin, Oliver D. Andrews, Peter Anthoni, Leticia Barbero, Laurent Bopp, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Philippe Ciais, Kim Currie, Christine Delire, Scott C. Doney, Pierre Friedlingstein, Thanos Gkritzalis, Ian Harris, Judith Hauck, Vanessa Haverd, Mario Hoppema, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Atul K. Jain, Etsushi Kato, Arne Körtzinger, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Danica Lombardozzi, Joe R. Melton, Nicolas Metzl, Frank Millero, Pedro M. S. Monteiro, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Kevin O'Brien, Are Olsen, Abdirahman M. Omar, Tsuneo Ono, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Christian Rödenbeck, Joe Salisbury, Ute Schuster, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Benjamin D. Stocker, Adrienne J. Sutton, Taro Takahashi, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Ingrid T. van der Laan-Luijkx, Guido R. van der Werf, Nicolas Viovy, Anthony P. Walker, Andrew J. Wiltshire, and Sönke Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 605–649,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2016 is the 11th annual update of emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. This data synthesis brings together measurements, statistical information, and analyses of model results in order to provide an assessment of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties for years 1959 to 2015, with a projection for year 2016.
Zeli Tan, Qianlai Zhuang, Daven K. Henze, Christian Frankenberg, Ed Dlugokencky, Colm Sweeney, Alexander J. Turner, Motoki Sasakawa, and Toshinobu Machida
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12649–12666,Short summary
Methane emissions from the pan-Arctic could be important in understanding the global carbon cycle but are still poorly constrained to date. This study demonstrated that satellite retrievals can be used to reduce the uncertainty of the estimates of these emissions. We also provided additional evidence for the existence of large methane emissions from pan-Arctic lakes in the Siberian yedoma permafrost region. We found that biogeochemical models should be improved for better estimates.
Ingrid Super, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Michiel K. van der Molen, Hendrika A. M. Sterk, Arjan Hensen, and Wouter Peters
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Aki Tsuruta, Tuula Aalto, Leif Backman, Janne Hakkarainen, Ingrid T. van der Laan-Luijkx, Maarten C. Krol, Renato Spahni, Sander Houweling, Marko Laine, Marcel van der Schoot, Ray Langenfelds, Raymond Ellul, and Wouter Peters
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
In this study, we found that methane emission estimates, driven by the CTE-CH4 model, depend on model setups and inputs, especially for regional estimates. An optimal setup makes the estimates stable, but inputs, such as emission estimates from inventories, and observations, also play significant role. The results can be used for an extended analysis on relative contributions of methane emissions to atmospheric methane concentration changes in recent decades.
Makoto Inoue, Isamu Morino, Osamu Uchino, Takahiro Nakatsuru, Yukio Yoshida, Tatsuya Yokota, Debra Wunch, Paul O. Wennberg, Coleen M. Roehl, David W. T. Griffith, Voltaire A. Velazco, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Thorsten Warneke, Justus Notholt, John Robinson, Vanessa Sherlock, Frank Hase, Thomas Blumenstock, Markus Rettinger, Ralf Sussmann, Esko Kyrö, Rigel Kivi, Kei Shiomi, Shuji Kawakami, Martine De Mazière, Sabrina G. Arnold, Dietrich G. Feist, Erica A. Barrow, James Barney, Manvendra Dubey, Matthias Schneider, Laura T. Iraci, James R. Podolske, Patrick W. Hillyard, Toshinobu Machida, Yousuke Sawa, Kazuhiro Tsuboi, Hidekazu Matsueda, Colm Sweeney, Pieter P. Tans, Arlyn E. Andrews, Sebastien C. Biraud, Yukio Fukuyama, Jasna V. Pittman, Eric A. Kort, and Tomoaki Tanaka
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3491–3512,Short summary
In this study, we correct the biases of GOSAT XCO2 and XCH4 using TCCON data. To evaluate the effectiveness of our correction method, uncorrected/corrected GOSAT data are compared to independent XCO2 and XCH4 data derived from aircraft measurements. Consequently, we suggest that this method is effective for reducing the biases of the GOSAT data. We consider that our work provides GOSAT data users with valuable information and contributes to the further development of studies on greenhouse gases.
Naoko Saitoh, Shuhei Kimoto, Ryo Sugimura, Ryoichi Imasu, Shuji Kawakami, Kei Shiomi, Akihiko Kuze, Toshinobu Machida, Yousuke Sawa, and Hidekazu Matsueda
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2119–2134,Short summary
This study compared GOSAT/TANSO-FTS thermal infrared (TIR) V1 and CONTRAIL CME CO2 data in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The TIR CO2 averages agreed with the CME CO2 averages within 0.1 and 0.5 % in the Southern and Northern Hemisphere. At northern low and middle latitudes, their agreements were worse in spring and summer. The negative bias there made the maximum of TIR data being lower than that of CME data, which leads to underestimating the amplitude of CO2 seasonal variation.
Anna Karion, Colm Sweeney, John B. Miller, Arlyn E. Andrews, Roisin Commane, Steven Dinardo, John M. Henderson, Jacob Lindaas, John C. Lin, Kristina A. Luus, Tim Newberger, Pieter Tans, Steven C. Wofsy, Sonja Wolter, and Charles E. Miller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5383–5398,Short summary
Northern high-latitude carbon sources and sinks, including those resulting from degrading permafrost, are thought to be sensitive to the rapidly warming climate. Here we use carbon dioxide and methane measurements from a tower near Fairbanks AK to investigate regional Alaskan fluxes of CO2 and CH4 for 2012–2014.
Baozhang Chen and Mingliang Che
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Most studies of phenological estimates focusing on the phenology (RSP) retrieval algorithms based on remote sensing data, however, published studies that comparing process-based phenology models are limited. In this study, we evaluated two common used phenological algorithms in a land surface model (LSM) with selected eddy covariance flux tower measurements. We concluded the growing season index algorithm has good performance and can reasonably capture vegetation phenological changes in LSMs.
Sudhanshu Pandey, Sander Houweling, Maarten Krol, Ilse Aben, Frédéric Chevallier, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Luciana V. Gatti, Emanuel Gloor, John B. Miller, Rob Detmers, Toshinobu Machida, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5043–5062,Short summary
This study investigates the constraint provided by measurements of Xratio (XCH4/XCO2) from space on surface fluxes of CH4 and CO2. We apply the ratio inversion method described in Pandey et al. (2015) to Xratio retrievals from the GOSAT with the TM5-4DVAR inverse modeling system, to constrain the surface fluxes of CH4 and CO2 for 2009 and 2010. The results are compared to proxy CH4 inversions using model-derived-XCO2 mixing ratios from CarbonTracker and MACC.
M. K. van der Molen, R. A. M. de Jeu, W. Wagner, I. R. van der Velde, P. Kolari, J. Kurbatova, A. Varlagin, T. C. Maximov, A. V. Kononov, T. Ohta, A. Kotani, M. C. Krol, and W. Peters
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 605–624,Short summary
Boreal Eurasia contains extensive forests, which play an important role in the terrestrial carbon cycle. Droughts can modify this cycle considerably, although very few ground-based observations are available in the region. We test whether satellite-observed soil moisture may be used to improve carbon cycle models in this region. This paper explains when and where this works best. The interpretation of satellite soil moisture is best in summer conditions, and is hampered by snow, ice and ponding.
S. X. Fang, P. P. Tans, M. Steinbacher, L. X. Zhou, and T. Luan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5301–5313,Short summary
The identification of atmospheric CO2 observation data which are minimally influenced by very local emissions/removals is essential for trend analysis and for the estimation of regional sources and sinks. We compared four data filtering regimes based on the observation records at Lin'an station in China, and found that the use of meteorological parameters was the most favorable. This conclusion will aid regional data selection at the Lin'an station.
J. M. Barlow, P. I. Palmer, L. M. Bruhwiler, and P. Tans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13739–13758,Short summary
The major results from our analysis include (1) a significant revision to previously reported estimates of phase changes in the seasonal cycle atmospheric CO2, which are more closely related to changes in the terrestrial biosphere; and (2) an indirect observation that is consistent with high northern latitude ecosystems progressively taking up more CO2 during spring and early summer.
C. Le Quéré, R. Moriarty, R. M. Andrew, J. G. Canadell, S. Sitch, J. I. Korsbakken, P. Friedlingstein, G. P. Peters, R. J. Andres, T. A. Boden, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, R. F. Keeling, P. Tans, A. Arneth, D. C. E. Bakker, L. Barbero, L. Bopp, J. Chang, F. Chevallier, L. P. Chini, P. Ciais, M. Fader, R. A. Feely, T. Gkritzalis, I. Harris, J. Hauck, T. Ilyina, A. K. Jain, E. Kato, V. Kitidis, K. Klein Goldewijk, C. Koven, P. Landschützer, S. K. Lauvset, N. Lefèvre, A. Lenton, I. D. Lima, N. Metzl, F. Millero, D. R. Munro, A. Murata, J. E. M. S. Nabel, S. Nakaoka, Y. Nojiri, K. O'Brien, A. Olsen, T. Ono, F. F. Pérez, B. Pfeil, D. Pierrot, B. Poulter, G. Rehder, C. Rödenbeck, S. Saito, U. Schuster, J. Schwinger, R. Séférian, T. Steinhoff, B. D. Stocker, A. J. Sutton, T. Takahashi, B. Tilbrook, I. T. van der Laan-Luijkx, G. R. van der Werf, S. van Heuven, D. Vandemark, N. Viovy, A. Wiltshire, S. Zaehle, and N. Zeng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 7, 349–396,Short summary
Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. We describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on a range of data and models and their interpretation by a broad scientific community.
K. C. Wells, D. B. Millet, N. Bousserez, D. K. Henze, S. Chaliyakunnel, T. J. Griffis, Y. Luan, E. J. Dlugokencky, R. G. Prinn, S. O'Doherty, R. F. Weiss, G. S. Dutton, J. W. Elkins, P. B. Krummel, R. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, E. A. Kort, S. C. Wofsy, and T. Umezawa
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3179–3198,Short summary
This paper introduces a new inversion framework for N2O using GEOS-Chem and its adjoint, which we employed in a series of observing system simulation experiments to evaluate the source and sink constraints provided by surface and aircraft-based N2O measurements. We also applied a new approach for estimating a posteriori uncertainty for high-dimensional inversions, and used it to quantify the spatial and temporal resolution of N2O emission constraints achieved with the current observing network.
A. Berchet, I. Pison, F. Chevallier, J.-D. Paris, P. Bousquet, J.-L. Bonne, M. Y. Arshinov, B. D. Belan, C. Cressot, D. K. Davydov, E. J. Dlugokencky, A. V. Fofonov, A. Galanin, J. Lavrič, T. Machida, R. Parker, M. Sasakawa, R. Spahni, B. D. Stocker, and J. Winderlich
Biogeosciences, 12, 5393–5414,
A. Babenhauserheide, S. Basu, S. Houweling, W. Peters, and A. Butz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9747–9763,Short summary
We compare two different data assimilation systems for estimating sources and sinks of CO_2 from concentration measurements. The systems are CarbonTracker and TM5-4DVar, which have both been used in a number of scientific studies. We analyze the differences between both models as well as the sensitivity of the estimated sources and sinks to the observation coverage. The results provide a lower limit for the uncertainty of surface carbon fluxes with the current measurement network.
S. J. Allin, J. C. Laube, E. Witrant, J. Kaiser, E. McKenna, P. Dennis, R. Mulvaney, E. Capron, P. Martinerie, T. Röckmann, T. Blunier, J. Schwander, P. J. Fraser, R. L. Langenfelds, and W. T. Sturges
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6867–6877,Short summary
Stratospheric ozone protects life on Earth from harmful UV-B radiation. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are man-made compounds which act to destroy this barrier. This paper presents (1) the first measurements of the stratospheric δ(37Cl) of CFCs -11 and -113; (2) the first quantification of long-term trends in the tropospheric δ(37Cl) of CFCs -11, -12 and -113. This study provides a better understanding of source and sink processes associated with these destructive compounds.
C. Le Quéré, R. Moriarty, R. M. Andrew, G. P. Peters, P. Ciais, P. Friedlingstein, S. D. Jones, S. Sitch, P. Tans, A. Arneth, T. A. Boden, L. Bopp, Y. Bozec, J. G. Canadell, L. P. Chini, F. Chevallier, C. E. Cosca, I. Harris, M. Hoppema, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, A. K. Jain, T. Johannessen, E. Kato, R. F. Keeling, V. Kitidis, K. Klein Goldewijk, C. Koven, C. S. Landa, P. Landschützer, A. Lenton, I. D. Lima, G. Marland, J. T. Mathis, N. Metzl, Y. Nojiri, A. Olsen, T. Ono, S. Peng, W. Peters, B. Pfeil, B. Poulter, M. R. Raupach, P. Regnier, C. Rödenbeck, S. Saito, J. E. Salisbury, U. Schuster, J. Schwinger, R. Séférian, J. Segschneider, T. Steinhoff, B. D. Stocker, A. J. Sutton, T. Takahashi, B. Tilbrook, G. R. van der Werf, N. Viovy, Y.-P. Wang, R. Wanninkhof, A. Wiltshire, and N. Zeng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 7, 47–85,Short summary
Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from human activities (burning fossil fuels and cement production, deforestation and other land-use change) are set to rise again in 2014. This study (updated yearly) makes an accurate assessment of anthropogenic CO2 emissions and their redistribution between the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere in order to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change.
A. P. Ballantyne, R. Andres, R. Houghton, B. D. Stocker, R. Wanninkhof, W. Anderegg, L. A. Cooper, M. DeGrandpre, P. P. Tans, J. B. Miller, C. Alden, and J. W. C. White
Biogeosciences, 12, 2565–2584,
J. A. Fisher, S. R. Wilson, G. Zeng, J. E. Williams, L. K. Emmons, R. L. Langenfelds, P. B. Krummel, and L. P. Steele
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3217–3239,Short summary
The Southern Hemisphere (SH) serves as an important test bed for evaluating our understanding of the processes that drive the composition of the clean background atmosphere. Using data from two aircraft campaigns, combined with four atmospheric chemistry models, we find a large sensitivity in the remote SH to biogenic emissions and their subsequent chemistry and transport. Future model evaluation and measurement campaigns should prioritize reducing uncertainties in these processes.
A. Ghosh, P. K. Patra, K. Ishijima, T. Umezawa, A. Ito, D. M. Etheridge, S. Sugawara, K. Kawamura, J. B. Miller, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. B. Krummel, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, R. L. Langenfelds, C. M. Trudinger, J. W. C. White, B. Vaughn, T. Saeki, S. Aoki, and T. Nakazawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2595–2612,Short summary
Atmospheric CH4 increased from 900ppb to 1800ppb during the period 1900–2010 at a rate unprecedented in any observational records. We use bottom-up emissions and a chemistry-transport model to simulate CH4. The optimized global total CH4 emission, estimated from the model–observation differences, increased at fastest rate during 1940–1990. Using δ13C of CH4 measurements we attribute this emission increase to biomass burning. Total CH4 lifetime is shortened by 4% over the simulation period.
M. Combe, J. Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, H. G. Ouwersloot, C. M. J. Jacobs, and W. Peters
Biogeosciences, 12, 103–123,Short summary
This study investigates the interactions among the carbon, water and heat cycles above a maize field at the diurnal scale. We couple two land-surface schemes, corresponding to two different modelling approaches, to the same atmospheric boundary-layer (ABL) model. We find the simpler meteorological approach best reproduces the surface and upper-air observations. Finally, we show that the interaction of subsidence with ABL dynamics is key to explain the daytime atmospheric CO2 budget.
M. F. Schibig, M. Steinbacher, B. Buchmann, I. T. van der Laan-Luijkx, S. van der Laan, S. Ranjan, and M. C. Leuenberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 57–68,
M. Reuter, M. Buchwitz, M. Hilker, J. Heymann, O. Schneising, D. Pillai, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, H. Bösch, R. Parker, A. Butz, O. Hasekamp, C. W. O'Dell, Y. Yoshida, C. Gerbig, T. Nehrkorn, N. M. Deutscher, T. Warneke, J. Notholt, F. Hase, R. Kivi, R. Sussmann, T. Machida, H. Matsueda, and Y. Sawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13739–13753,Short summary
Current knowledge about the European terrestrial biospheric carbon sink relies upon bottom-up and global surface flux inverse model estimates using in situ measurements. Our analysis of five satellite data sets comprises a regional inversion designed to be insensitive to potential retrieval biases and transport errors. We show that the satellite-derived sink is larger (1.0±0.3GtC/a) than previous estimates (0.4±0.4GtC/a).
K. A. Masarie, W. Peters, A. R. Jacobson, and P. P. Tans
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 6, 375–384,Short summary
Observation Package (ObsPack) is a framework designed to bring together atmospheric greenhouse gas measurements from a variety of sampling platforms, prepare them with specific applications in mind, and package and distribute them in a self-consistent and well-documented product. The framework includes a unique distribution stategy designed to improve communication between product users and data providers. The concepts presented are general and may be easily applied to other scientific data.
X. Tian, Z. Xie, Y. Liu, Z. Cai, Y. Fu, H. Zhang, and L. Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13281–13293,Short summary
A new carbon cycle data assimilation system (Tan-Tracker) is developed based on an advanced hybrid assimilation approach, as a part of the preparation for the launch of the Chinese carbon dioxide observation satellite (TanSat). Tan-Tracker adopts a joint data assimilation framework to simultaneously estimate CO2 concentrations and CFs and thus gradually reduce the uncertainty in the CO2 concentration evolution through continuously fitting model CO2 concentration simulations to the observations.
A. Fraser, P. I. Palmer, L. Feng, H. Bösch, R. Parker, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. B. Krummel, and R. L. Langenfelds
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12883–12895,Short summary
Satellite measurements of CO2 and CH4 can be subject to regional systematic errors that can consequently compromise their ability to infer robust flux estimates of these two gases. We develop a method to use retrieved ratios of CH4 and CO2 that are less affected by systematic error. We show that additional in situ data are needed to anchor these observed ratios so they can simultaneously infer fluxes of CO2 and CH4. We argue the ratio data will provide a more faithful description of true fluxes.
I. R. van der Velde, J. B. Miller, K. Schaefer, G. R. van der Werf, M. C. Krol, and W. Peters
Biogeosciences, 11, 6553–6571,
F. Jiang, H. M. Wang, J. M. Chen, T. Machida, L. X. Zhou, W. M. Ju, H. Matsueda, and Y. Sawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10133–10144,
M. Inoue, I. Morino, O. Uchino, Y. Miyamoto, T. Saeki, Y. Yoshida, T. Yokota, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, S. C. Biraud, T. Machida, J. V. Pittman, E. A. Kort, T. Tanaka, S. Kawakami, Y. Sawa, K. Tsuboi, and H. Matsueda
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2987–3005,
Q. Zhu, Q. Zhuang, D. Henze, K. Bowman, M. Chen, Y. Liu, Y. He, H. Matsueda, T. Machida, Y. Sawa, and W. Oechel
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
L. Bruhwiler, E. Dlugokencky, K. Masarie, M. Ishizawa, A. Andrews, J. Miller, C. Sweeney, P. Tans, and D. Worthy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8269–8293,
D. Bozhinova, M. K. van der Molen, I. R. van der Velde, M. C. Krol, S. van der Laan, H. A. J. Meijer, and W. Peters
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7273–7290,
C. Le Quéré, G. P. Peters, R. J. Andres, R. M. Andrew, T. A. Boden, P. Ciais, P. Friedlingstein, R. A. Houghton, G. Marland, R. Moriarty, S. Sitch, P. Tans, A. Arneth, A. Arvanitis, D. C. E. Bakker, L. Bopp, J. G. Canadell, L. P. Chini, S. C. Doney, A. Harper, I. Harris, J. I. House, A. K. Jain, S. D. Jones, E. Kato, R. F. Keeling, K. Klein Goldewijk, A. Körtzinger, C. Koven, N. Lefèvre, F. Maignan, A. Omar, T. Ono, G.-H. Park, B. Pfeil, B. Poulter, M. R. Raupach, P. Regnier, C. Rödenbeck, S. Saito, J. Schwinger, J. Segschneider, B. D. Stocker, T. Takahashi, B. Tilbrook, S. van Heuven, N. Viovy, R. Wanninkhof, A. Wiltshire, and S. Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 6, 235–263,
E. Saikawa, R. G. Prinn, E. Dlugokencky, K. Ishijima, G. S. Dutton, B. D. Hall, R. Langenfelds, Y. Tohjima, T. Machida, M. Manizza, M. Rigby, S. O'Doherty, P. K. Patra, C. M. Harth, R. F. Weiss, P. B. Krummel, M. van der Schoot, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, S. Aoki, T. Nakazawa, and J. W. Elkins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4617–4641,
S. X. Fang, L. X. Zhou, P. P. Tans, P. Ciais, M. Steinbacher, L. Xu, and T. Luan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2541–2554,
A. E. Andrews, J. D. Kofler, M. E. Trudeau, J. C. Williams, D. H. Neff, K. A. Masarie, D. Y. Chao, D. R. Kitzis, P. C. Novelli, C. L. Zhao, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. M. Lang, M. J. Crotwell, M. L. Fischer, M. J. Parker, J. T. Lee, D. D. Baumann, A. R. Desai, C. O. Stanier, S. F. J. De Wekker, D. E. Wolfe, J. W. Munger, and P. P. Tans
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 647–687,
R. L. Thompson, F. Chevallier, A. M. Crotwell, G. Dutton, R. L. Langenfelds, R. G. Prinn, R. F. Weiss, Y. Tohjima, T. Nakazawa, P. B. Krummel, L. P. Steele, P. Fraser, S. O'Doherty, K. Ishijima, and S. Aoki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1801–1817,
Y. Tohjima, M. Kubo, C. Minejima, H. Mukai, H. Tanimoto, A. Ganshin, S. Maksyutov, K. Katsumata, T. Machida, and K. Kita
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1663–1677,
D. Helmig, V. Petrenko, P. Martinerie, E. Witrant, T. Röckmann, A. Zuiderweg, R. Holzinger, J. Hueber, C. Thompson, J. W. C. White, W. Sturges, A. Baker, T. Blunier, D. Etheridge, M. Rubino, and P. Tans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1463–1483,
X. Dou, B. Chen, T. A. Black, R. S. Jassal, M. Che, and Y. Liu
Revised manuscript not accepted
C. Cressot, F. Chevallier, P. Bousquet, C. Crevoisier, E. J. Dlugokencky, A. Fortems-Cheiney, C. Frankenberg, R. Parker, I. Pison, R. A. Scheepmaker, S. A. Montzka, P. B. Krummel, L. P. Steele, and R. L. Langenfelds
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 577–592,
B. W. LaFranchi, G. Pétron, J. B. Miller, S. J. Lehman, A. E. Andrews, E. J. Dlugokencky, B. Hall, B. R. Miller, S. A. Montzka, W. Neff, P. C. Novelli, C. Sweeney, J. C. Turnbull, D. E. Wolfe, P. P. Tans, K. R. Gurney, and T. P. Guilderson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11101–11120,
P. Peylin, R. M. Law, K. R. Gurney, F. Chevallier, A. R. Jacobson, T. Maki, Y. Niwa, P. K. Patra, W. Peters, P. J. Rayner, C. Rödenbeck, I. T. van der Laan-Luijkx, and X. Zhang
Biogeosciences, 10, 6699–6720,
M. Inoue, I. Morino, O. Uchino, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Yoshida, T. Yokota, T. Machida, Y. Sawa, H. Matsueda, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, A. E. Andrews, S. C. Biraud, T. Tanaka, S. Kawakami, and P. K. Patra
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9771–9788,
S. Basu, S. Guerlet, A. Butz, S. Houweling, O. Hasekamp, I. Aben, P. Krummel, P. Steele, R. Langenfelds, M. Torn, S. Biraud, B. Stephens, A. Andrews, and D. Worthy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8695–8717,
F. Deng, J. M. Chen, Y. Pan, W. Peters, R. Birdsey, K. McCullough, and J. Xiao
Biogeosciences, 10, 5335–5348,
V. V. Petrenko, P. Martinerie, P. Novelli, D. M. Etheridge, I. Levin, Z. Wang, T. Blunier, J. Chappellaz, J. Kaiser, P. Lang, L. P. Steele, S. Hammer, J. Mak, R. L. Langenfelds, J. Schwander, J. P. Severinghaus, E. Witrant, G. Petron, M. O. Battle, G. Forster, W. T. Sturges, J.-F. Lamarque, K. Steffen, and J. W. C. White
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7567–7585,
I. T. van der Laan-Luijkx, S. van der Laan, C. Uglietti, M. F. Schibig, R. E. M. Neubert, H. A. J. Meijer, W. A. Brand, A. Jordan, J. M. Richter, M. Rothe, and M. C. Leuenberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1805–1815,
A. Fraser, P. I. Palmer, L. Feng, H. Boesch, A. Cogan, R. Parker, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, R. L. Langenfelds, S. O'Doherty, R. G. Prinn, L. P. Steele, M. van der Schoot, and R. F. Weiss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5697–5713,
Y. Miyamoto, M. Inoue, I. Morino, O. Uchino, T. Yokota, T. Machida, Y. Sawa, H. Matsueda, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, A. E. Andrews, and P. K. Patra
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5265–5275,
K. Tsuboi, H. Matsueda, Y. Sawa, Y. Niwa, M. Nakamura, D. Kuboike, K. Saito, H. Ohmori, S. Iwatsubo, H. Nishi, Y. Hanamiya, K. Tsuji, and Y. Baba
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1257–1270,
M. Krol, W. Peters, P. Hooghiemstra, M. George, C. Clerbaux, D. Hurtmans, D. McInerney, F. Sedano, P. Bergamaschi, M. El Hajj, J. W. Kaiser, D. Fisher, V. Yershov, and J.-P. Muller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4737–4747,
C. Crevoisier, D. Nobileau, R. Armante, L. Crépeau, T. Machida, Y. Sawa, H. Matsueda, T. Schuck, T. Thonat, J. Pernin, N. A. Scott, and A. Chédin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4279–4289,
H. Chen, A. Karion, C. W. Rella, J. Winderlich, C. Gerbig, A. Filges, T. Newberger, C. Sweeney, and P. P. Tans
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1031–1040,
S. C. Biraud, M. S. Torn, J. R. Smith, C. Sweeney, W. J. Riley, and P. P. Tans
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 751–763,
A. Karion, C. Sweeney, S. Wolter, T. Newberger, H. Chen, A. Andrews, J. Kofler, D. Neff, and P. Tans
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 511–526,
G. R. van der Werf, W. Peters, T. T. van Leeuwen, and L. Giglio
Clim. Past, 9, 289–306,
A. Wada, H. Matsueda, S. Murayama, S. Taguchi, A. Kamada, M. Nosaka, K. Tsuboi, and Y. Sawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 12119–12132,
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and in situ data and comparison to OCO-2 version 7Data assimilation of CrIS NH3 satellite observations for improving spatiotemporal NH3 distributions in LOTOS-EUROSOn the cross-tropopause transport of water by tropical convective overshoots: a mesoscale modelling study constrained by in situ observations during the TRO-Pico field campaign in BrazilEffects of ozone–vegetation interactions on meteorology and air quality in China using a two-way coupled land–atmosphere modelThe drivers and health risks of unexpected surface ozone enhancements over the Sichuan Basin, China, in 2020Estimating 2010–2015 anthropogenic and natural methane emissions in Canada using ECCC surface and GOSAT satellite observationsAssessing representativity of NH3 measurements influenced by boundary-layer dynamics and turbulent dispersion of a nearby emission sourceTechnical note: AQMEII4 Activity 1: evaluation of wet and dry deposition schemes as an integral part of regional-scale air quality modelsEvaluating the impact of storage-and-release on aircraft-based mass-balance methodology using a regional air-quality modelThe regional impact of urban emissions on air quality in Europe: the role of the urban canopy effectsA new inverse modeling approach for emission sources based on the DDM-3D and 3DVAR techniques: an application to air quality forecasts in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei regionAssessing urban methane emissions using column-observing portable Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers and a novel Bayesian inversion frameworkEvidence of a recent decline in UK emissions of hydrofluorocarbons determined by the InTEM inverse model and atmospheric measurementsVehicle-induced turbulence and atmospheric pollutionA comparative study to reveal the influence of typhoons on the transport, production and accumulation of O3 in the Pearl River Delta, ChinaSensitivity to the sources of uncertainties in the modeling of atmospheric CO2 concentration within and in the vicinity of ParisEstimating Upper Silesian coal mine methane emissions from airborne in situ observations and dispersion modelingAnalysis of CO2 spatio-temporal variations in China using a weather–biosphere online coupled modelMobile monitoring of urban air quality at high spatial resolution by low-cost sensors: impacts of COVID-19 pandemic lockdownLinking global terrestrial CO2 fluxes and environmental drivers: inferences from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 satellite and terrestrial biospheric modelsUncertainties in the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) emission inventory of greenhouse gasesUsing TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) measurements and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) CO modelling to understand the contribution of meteorology and emissions to an extreme air pollution event in IndiaGlobal methane budget and trend, 2010–2017: complementarity of inverse analyses using in situ (GLOBALVIEWplus CH4 ObsPack) and satellite (GOSAT) observationsCOVID-19 lockdowns highlight a risk of increasing ozone pollution in European urban areasLarge-eddy simulation of traffic-related air pollution at a very high resolution in a mega-city: evaluation against mobile sensors and insights for influencing factorsTechnical note: Emission mapping of key sectors in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, using satellite-derived urban land use dataImpact of western Pacific subtropical high on ozone pollution over eastern ChinaHigh-resolution hybrid inversion of IASI ammonia columns to constrain US ammonia emissions using the CMAQ adjoint modelSimulation of radon-222 with the GEOS-Chem global model: emissions, seasonality, and convective transportRegional CO2 fluxes from 2010 to 2015 inferred from GOSAT XCO2 retrievals using a new version of the Global Carbon Assimilation SystemThe friagem event in the central Amazon and its influence on micrometeorological variables and atmospheric chemistryModeling atmospheric ammonia using agricultural emissions with improved spatial variability and temporal dynamicsQuantifying methane emissions from Queensland's coal seam gas producing Surat Basin using inventory data and a regional Bayesian inversionErrors in top-down estimates of emissions using a known sourceThe impact of urban land-surface on extreme air pollution over central EuropeImpacts of future land use and land cover change on mid-21st-century surface ozone air quality: distinguishing between the biogeophysical and biogeochemical effectsWhat have we missed when studying the impact of aerosols on surface ozone via changing photolysis rates?Stratospheric impact on the Northern Hemisphere winter and spring ozone interannual variability in the troposphereDesign and evaluation of CO2 observation network to optimize surface CO2 fluxes in Asia using observation system simulation experimentsOzone pollution over China and India: seasonality and sourcesInfluences of oceanic ozone deposition on tropospheric photochemistryInvestigating the regional contributions to air pollution in Beijing: a dispersion modelling study using CO as a tracerEvaluation of NU-WRF model performance on air quality simulation under various model resolutions – an investigation within the framework of MICS-Asia Phase IIIUrban canopy meteorological forcing and its impact on ozone and PM2.5: role of vertical turbulent transport
Anja Ražnjević, Chiel van Heerwaarden, Bart van Stratum, Arjan Hensen, Ilona Velzeboer, Pim van den Bulk, and Maarten Krol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6489–6505,Short summary
Mobile measurement techniques (e.g., instruments placed in cars) are often employed to identify and quantify individual sources of greenhouse gases. Due to road restrictions, those observations are often sparse (temporally and spatially). We performed high-resolution simulations of plume dispersion, with realistic weather conditions encountered in the field, to reproduce the measurement process of a methane plume emitted from an oil well and provide additional information about the plume.
Alice E. Ramsden, Anita L. Ganesan, Luke M. Western, Matthew Rigby, Alistair J. Manning, Amy Foulds, James L. France, Patrick Barker, Peter Levy, Daniel Say, Adam Wisher, Tim Arnold, Chris Rennick, Kieran M. Stanley, Dickon Young, and Simon O'Doherty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3911–3929,Short summary
Quantifying methane emissions from different sources is a key focus of current research. We present a method for estimating sectoral methane emissions that uses ethane as a tracer for fossil fuel methane. By incorporating variable ethane : methane emission ratios into this model, we produce emissions estimates with improved uncertainty characterisation. This method will be particularly useful for studying methane emissions in areas with complex distributions of sources.
Ying Li, Xiangjun Zhao, Xuejiao Deng, and Jinhui Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3861–3873,Short summary
This study finds a new phenomenon of weak wind deepening (WWD) associated with the peripheral circulation of typhoon and gives the influence mechanism of WWD on its contribution to daily variation during sustained ozone episodes. The WWD provides the premise for pollution accumulation in the whole PBL and continued enhancement of ground-level ozone via vertical mixing processes. These findings could benefit the daily daytime ozone forecast in the PRD region and other areas.
Tia R. Scarpelli, Daniel J. Jacob, Shayna Grossman, Xiao Lu, Zhen Qu, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Yuzhong Zhang, Frances Reuland, Deborah Gordon, and John R. Worden
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3235–3249,Short summary
We present a spatially explicit version of the national inventories of oil, gas, and coal methane emissions as submitted by individual countries to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2021. We then use atmospheric modeling to compare our inventory emissions to atmospheric methane observations with the goal of identifying potential under- and overestimates of oil–gas methane emissions in the national inventories.
Xiaomeng Wu, Daoyuan Yang, Ruoxi Wu, Jiajun Gu, Yifan Wen, Shaojun Zhang, Rui Wu, Renjie Wang, Honglei Xu, K. Max Zhang, Ye Wu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1939–1950,Short summary
Our work pioneered land-use machine learning methods for developing link-level emission inventories, utilizing hourly traffic profiles, including volume, speed, and fleet mix, obtained from the governmental intercity highway monitoring network in the "capital circles" of China. This research provides a platform to realize the near-real-time process of establishing high-resolution vehicle emission inventories for policy makers to engage in sophisticated traffic management.
Chenchao Zhan and Min Xie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1351–1371,Short summary
The changes of land use and anthropogenic heat (AH) derived from urbanization can affect meteorology and in turn O3 evolution. In this study, we briefly describe the general features of O3 pollution in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) based on in situ observational data. Then, the impacts of land use and anthropogenic heat on O3 via changing the meteorological factors and local circulations are investigated in this region using the WRF-Chem model.
Hélène Peiro, Sean Crowell, Andrew Schuh, David F. Baker, Chris O'Dell, Andrew R. Jacobson, Frédéric Chevallier, Junjie Liu, Annmarie Eldering, David Crisp, Feng Deng, Brad Weir, Sourish Basu, Matthew S. Johnson, Sajeev Philip, and Ian Baker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1097–1130,Short summary
Satellite CO2 observations are constantly improved. We study an ensemble of different atmospheric models (inversions) from 2015 to 2018 using separate ground-based data or two versions of the OCO-2 satellite. Our study aims to determine if different satellite data corrections can yield different estimates of carbon cycle flux. A difference in the carbon budget between the two versions is found over tropical Africa, which seems to show the impact of corrections applied in satellite data.
Shelley van der Graaf, Enrico Dammers, Arjo Segers, Richard Kranenburg, Martijn Schaap, Mark W. Shephard, and Jan Willem Erisman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 951–972,Short summary
CrIS NH3 satellite observations are assimilated into the LOTOS-EUROS model using two different methods. In the first method the data are used to fit spatially varying NH3 emission time factors. In the second method a local ensemble transform Kalman filter is used. Compared to in situ observations, combining both methods led to the most significant improvements in the modeled concentrations and deposition, illustrating the usefulness of CrIS NH3 to improve the spatiotemporal distribution of NH3.
Abhinna K. Behera, Emmanuel D. Rivière, Sergey M. Khaykin, Virginie Marécal, Mélanie Ghysels, Jérémie Burgalat, and Gerhard Held
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 881–901,Short summary
Deep convection overshooting the stratosphere's contribution to the global stratospheric water budget is still being quantified. We ran three different cloud-resolving simulations of an observed case of overshoots in Bauru during the TRO-Pico balloon campaign in the context of upscaling the impact of overshoots at a large scale. These simulations, which have been validated with balloon-borne and S-band radar measurements, shed light on the local-scale variability and composition of overshoots.
Jiachen Zhu, Amos P. K. Tai, and Steve Hung Lam Yim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 765–782,Short summary
This study assessed O3 damage to plant and the subsequent effects on meteorology and air quality in China, whereby O3, meteorology, and vegetation can co-evolve with each other. We provided comprehensive understanding about how O3–vegetation impacts adversely affect plant growth and crop production, and contribute to global warming and severe O3 air pollution in China. Our findings clearly pinpoint the need to consider the O3 damage effects in both air quality studies and climate change studies.
Youwen Sun, Hao Yin, Xiao Lu, Justus Notholt, Mathias Palm, Cheng Liu, Yuan Tian, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18589–18608,Short summary
This study uses high-resolution nested-grid GEOS-Chem simulation, the eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) machine learning method, and the exposure–response relationship to determine the drivers and evaluate the health risks of the unexpected surface O3 enhancements over the Sichuan Basin in 2020. These unexpected O3 enhancements were induced by meteorological anomalies and caused dramatically high health risks.
Sabour Baray, Daniel J. Jacob, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Jian-Xiong Sheng, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Dylan B. A. Jones, A. Anthony Bloom, and Robert McLaren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18101–18121,Short summary
We use 2010–2015 surface and satellite observations to disentangle methane from anthropogenic and natural sources in Canada. Using a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem), the mismatch between modelled and observed methane concentrations can be used to infer emissions according to Bayesian statistics. Compared to prior knowledge, we show higher anthropogenic emissions attributed to energy and/or agriculture in Western Canada and lower natural emissions from Boreal wetlands.
Ruben B. Schulte, Margreet C. van Zanten, and Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We present a fine scale simulation framework, utilizing large-eddy simulations, to assess the representativity of NH3 measurements in proximity of emission sources. We find that the minimum required distance between measurements and a emission source differs for concentration and flux measurements, ranging from 0.5–2.5 km and 1–3.5 km respectively. The simulation framework presented here proves a powerful and versatile tool for future NH3 research at high spatio-temporal resolution.
Stefano Galmarini, Paul Makar, Olivia E. Clifton, Christian Hogrefe, Jesse O. Bash, Roberto Bellasio, Roberto Bianconi, Johannes Bieser, Tim Butler, Jason Ducker, Johannes Flemming, Alma Hodzic, Christopher D. Holmes, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Richard Kranenburg, Aurelia Lupascu, Juan Luis Perez-Camanyo, Jonathan Pleim, Young-Hee Ryu, Roberto San Jose, Donna Schwede, Sam Silva, and Ralf Wolke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15663–15697,Short summary
This technical note presents the research protocols for phase 4 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII4). This initiative has three goals: (i) to define the state of wet and dry deposition in regional models, (ii) to evaluate how dry deposition influences air concentration and flux predictions, and (iii) to identify the causes for prediction differences. The evaluation compares LULC-specific dry deposition and effective conductances and fluxes.
Sepehr Fathi, Mark Gordon, Paul A. Makar, Ayodeji Akingunola, Andrea Darlington, John Liggio, Katherine Hayden, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15461–15491,Short summary
We have investigated the accuracy of aircraft-based mass balance methodologies through computer model simulations of the atmosphere and air quality at a regional high-resolution scale. We have defined new quantitative metrics to reduce emission retrieval uncertainty by evaluating top-down mass balance estimates against the known simulated meteorology and input emissions. We also recommend methodologies and flight strategies for improved retrievals in future aircraft-based studies.
Peter Huszar, Jan Karlický, Jana Marková, Tereza Nováková, Marina Liaskoni, and Lukáš Bartík
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14309–14332,Short summary
Urban areas are strong hot spots of emissions influencing local and regional air quality. Cities furthermore influence the meteorological conditions due to their characteristic surface properties and geometry. We found that if these latter effects are not included in the quantification of the impact of urban emissions on regional air quality, this impact will be overestimated, and this overestimation is mainly due to the enhanced turbulence that is present in cities compared to rural areas.
Xinghong Cheng, Zilong Hao, Zengliang Zang, Zhiquan Liu, Xiangde Xu, Shuisheng Wang, Yuelin Liu, Yiwen Hu, and Xiaodan Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13747–13761,Short summary
We develop a new inversion method of emission sources based on sensitivity analysis and the three-dimension variational technique. The novel explicit observation operator matrix between emission sources and the receptor’s concentrations is established. Then this method is applied to a typical heavy haze episode in North China, and spatiotemporal variations of SO2, NO2, and O3 concentrations simulated using a posterior emission sources are compared with results using an a priori inventory.
Taylor S. Jones, Jonathan E. Franklin, Jia Chen, Florian Dietrich, Kristian D. Hajny, Johannes C. Paetzold, Adrian Wenzel, Conor Gately, Elaine Gottlieb, Harrison Parker, Manvendra Dubey, Frank Hase, Paul B. Shepson, Levi H. Mielke, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13131–13147,Short summary
Methane emissions from leaks in natural gas pipes are often a large source in urban areas, but they are difficult to measure on a city-wide scale. Here we use an array of innovative methane sensors distributed around the city of Indianapolis and a new method of combining their data with an atmospheric model to accurately determine the magnitude of these emissions, which are about 70 % larger than predicted. This method can serve as a framework for cities trying to account for their emissions.
Alistair J. Manning, Alison L. Redington, Daniel Say, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, Peter G. Simmonds, Martin K. Vollmer, Jens Mühle, Jgor Arduini, Gerard Spain, Adam Wisher, Michela Maione, Tanja J. Schuck, Kieran Stanley, Stefan Reimann, Andreas Engel, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, Christina M. Harth, Peter K. Salameh, Ray F. Weiss, Ray Gluckman, Peter N. Brown, John D. Watterson, and Tim Arnold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12739–12755,Short summary
This paper estimates UK emissions of important greenhouse gases (hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)) using high-quality atmospheric observations and atmospheric modelling. We compare these estimates with those submitted by the UK to the United Nations. We conclude that global concentrations of these gases are still increasing. Our estimates for the UK are 73 % of those reported and that the UK emissions are now falling, demonstrating an impact of UK government policy.
Paul A. Makar, Craig Stroud, Ayodeji Akingunola, Junhua Zhang, Shuzhan Ren, Philip Cheung, and Qiong Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12291–12316,Short summary
Vehicle pollutant emissions occur in an environment where upward transport can be enhanced due to the turbulence created by the vehicles as they move through the atmosphere. An approach for including these turbulence effects in regional air pollution forecast models has been derived from theoretical, observation, and higher-resolution modeling. The enhanced mixing, which occurs in the immediate vicinity of roadways, changes pollutant concentrations on the regional to continental scale.
Kun Qu, Xuesong Wang, Yu Yan, Jin Shen, Teng Xiao, Huabin Dong, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11593–11612,Short summary
Typhoons above the Northwest Pacific frequently lead to severe ambient ozone pollution in the Pearl River Delta, China, in autumn and summer. However, typhoons do not enhance ozone transport, production and accumulation at the same time, and differences also exist between these influences in two seasons. Through systematic comparisons, we revealed the complex interactions between local meteorology and ozone processes, which is essential for understanding the causes of regional ozone pollution.
Jinghui Lian, François-Marie Bréon, Grégoire Broquet, Thomas Lauvaux, Bo Zheng, Michel Ramonet, Irène Xueref-Remy, Simone Kotthaus, Martial Haeffelin, and Philippe Ciais
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10707–10726,Short summary
Currently there is growing interest in monitoring city-scale CO2 emissions based on atmospheric CO2 measurements, atmospheric transport modeling, and inversion technique. We analyze the various sources of uncertainty that impact the atmospheric CO2 modeling and that may compromise the potential of this method for the monitoring of CO2 emission over Paris. Results suggest selection criteria for the assimilation of CO2 measurements into the inversion system that aims at retrieving city emissions.
Julian Kostinek, Anke Roiger, Maximilian Eckl, Alina Fiehn, Andreas Luther, Norman Wildmann, Theresa Klausner, Andreas Fix, Christoph Knote, Andreas Stohl, and André Butz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8791–8807,Short summary
Abundant mining and industrial activities in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin lead to large emissions of the potent greenhouse gas methane. This study quantifies these emissions with continuous, high-precision airborne measurements and dispersion modeling. Our emission estimates are in line with values reported in the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR 2017) but significantly lower than values reported in the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR v4.3.2).
Xinyi Dong, Man Yue, Yujun Jiang, Xiao-Ming Hu, Qianli Ma, Jingjiao Pu, and Guangqiang Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7217–7233,Short summary
The dynamics of CO2 has received considerable attention in the literature, yet uncertainties remain. We applied an online coupled weather-biosphere model to simulate biosphere processes and meteorology simultaneously to characterize CO2 dynamics in China. Anthropogenic emission was more influential in upper air, and the biosphere flux played a more important role in surface CO2, suggesting a significant influence of the boundary layer thermal structure on the accumulation and depletion of CO2.
Shibao Wang, Yun Ma, Zhongrui Wang, Lei Wang, Xuguang Chi, Aijun Ding, Mingzhi Yao, Yunpeng Li, Qilin Li, Mengxian Wu, Ling Zhang, Yongle Xiao, and Yanxu Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7199–7215,Short summary
Mobile monitoring with low-cost sensors is a promising approach to garner high-spatial-resolution observations representative of the community scale. We develop a grid analysis method to obtain 50 m resolution maps of major air pollutants (CO, NO2, and O3) based on GIS technology. Our results demonstrate the sensing power of mobile monitoring for urban air pollution, which provides detailed information for source attribution and accurate traceability at the urban micro-scale.
Zichong Chen, Junjie Liu, Daven K. Henze, Deborah N. Huntzinger, Kelley C. Wells, Stephen Sitch, Pierre Friedlingstein, Emilie Joetzjer, Vladislav Bastrikov, Daniel S. Goll, Vanessa Haverd, Atul K. Jain, Etsushi Kato, Sebastian Lienert, Danica L. Lombardozzi, Patrick C. McGuire, Joe R. Melton, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Benjamin Poulter, Hanqin Tian, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Sönke Zaehle, and Scot M. Miller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6663–6680,Short summary
NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) satellite observes atmospheric CO2 globally. We use a multiple regression and inverse model to quantify the relationships between OCO-2 and environmental drivers within individual years for 2015–2018 and within seven global biomes. Our results point to limitations of current space-based observations for inferring environmental relationships but also indicate the potential to inform key relationships that are very uncertain in process-based models.
Efisio Solazzo, Monica Crippa, Diego Guizzardi, Marilena Muntean, Margarita Choulga, and Greet Janssens-Maenhout
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5655–5683,Short summary
We conducted an extensive analysis of the structural uncertainty of the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) emission inventory of greenhouse gases, which adds a much needed reliability dimension to the accuracy of the emission estimates. The study undertakes in-depth analyses of the implication of aggregating emissions from different sources and/or countries on the accuracy. Results are presented for all emissions sectors according to IPCC definitions.
Ashique Vellalassery, Dhanyalekshmi Pillai, Julia Marshall, Christoph Gerbig, Michael Buchwitz, Oliver Schneising, and Aparnna Ravi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5393–5414,Short summary
We investigate factors contributing to the severe and persistent air quality degradation in northern India that has worsened during every winter over the last decade. This is achieved by implementing atmospheric modelling and using recently available Sentinel-5 P satellite data for carbon monoxide. We see a minimal role of biomass burning, except for the state of Punjab. The aim is to focus on residential and industrial emission reduction strategies to tackle air pollution over northern India.
Xiao Lu, Daniel J. Jacob, Yuzhong Zhang, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Lu Shen, Zhen Qu, Tia R. Scarpelli, Hannah Nesser, Robert M. Yantosca, Jianxiong Sheng, Arlyn Andrews, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, A. Anthony Bloom, and Shuang Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4637–4657,Short summary
We use an analytical solution to the Bayesian inverse problem to quantitatively compare and combine the information from satellite and in situ observations, and to estimate global methane budget and their trends over the 2010–2017 period. We find that satellite and in situ observations are to a large extent complementary in the inversion for estimating global methane budget, and reveal consistent corrections of regional anthropogenic and wetland methane emissions relative to the prior inventory.
Stuart K. Grange, James D. Lee, Will S. Drysdale, Alastair C. Lewis, Christoph Hueglin, Lukas Emmenegger, and David C. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4169–4185,Short summary
The changes in mobility across Europe due to the COVID-19 lockdowns had consequences for air quality. We compare what was experienced to estimates of "what would have been" without the lockdowns. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), an important vehicle-sourced pollutant, decreased by a third. However, ozone (O3) increased in response to lower NO2. Because NO2 is decreasing over time, increases in O3 can be expected in European urban areas and will require management to avoid future negative outcomes.
Yanxu Zhang, Xingpei Ye, Shibao Wang, Xiaojing He, Lingyao Dong, Ning Zhang, Haikun Wang, Zhongrui Wang, Yun Ma, Lei Wang, Xuguang Chi, Aijun Ding, Mingzhi Yao, Yunpeng Li, Qilin Li, Ling Zhang, and Yongle Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2917–2929,Short summary
Urban air quality varies drastically at street scale, but traditional methods are too coarse to resolve it. We develop a 10 m resolution air quality model and apply it for traffic-related carbon monoxide air quality in Nanjing megacity. The model reveals a detailed geographical dispersion pattern of air pollution in and out of the road network and agrees well with a validation dataset. The model can be a vigorous part of the smart city system and inform urban planning and air quality management.
Trang Thi Quynh Nguyen, Wataru Takeuchi, Prakhar Misra, and Sachiko Hayashida
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2795–2818,Short summary
This study provides annual emissions of transportation, manufacturing industries and construction, and residential areas at 1 km resolution from 2009 to 2016 for Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Our originality is our use of satellite-derived urban land use morphological maps. These maps which are based on building height provided by a coarse-resolution satellite-derived digital surface model (DSM) and urban built-up area classified from Landsat images allow spatial disaggregation of annual emissions.
Zhongjing Jiang, Jing Li, Xiao Lu, Cheng Gong, Lin Zhang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2601–2613,Short summary
This study demonstrates that the intensity of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH), a major synoptic pattern in the northern Pacific during summer, can induce a dipole change in surface ozone pollution over eastern China. Ozone concentration increases in the north and decreases in the south during the strong WPSH phase, and vice versa. The change in chemical processes associated with the WPSH change plays a decisive role, whereas the natural emission of ozone precursors accounts for ~ 30 %.
Yilin Chen, Huizhong Shen, Jennifer Kaiser, Yongtao Hu, Shannon L. Capps, Shunliu Zhao, Amir Hakami, Jhih-Shyang Shih, Gertrude K. Pavur, Matthew D. Turner, Daven K. Henze, Jaroslav Resler, Athanasios Nenes, Sergey L. Napelenok, Jesse O. Bash, Kathleen M. Fahey, Gregory R. Carmichael, Tianfeng Chai, Lieven Clarisse, Pierre-François Coheur, Martin Van Damme, and Armistead G. Russell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2067–2082,Short summary
Ammonia (NH3) emissions can exert adverse impacts on air quality and ecosystem well-being. NH3 emission inventories are viewed as highly uncertain. Here we optimize the NH3 emission estimates in the US using an air quality model and NH3 measurements from the IASI satellite instruments. The optimized NH3 emissions are much higher than the National Emissions Inventory estimates in April. The optimized NH3 emissions improved model performance when evaluated against independent observation.
Bo Zhang, Hongyu Liu, James H. Crawford, Gao Chen, T. Duncan Fairlie, Scott Chambers, Chang-Hee Kang, Alastair G. Williams, Kai Zhang, David B. Considine, Melissa P. Sulprizio, and Robert M. Yantosca
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1861–1887,Short summary
We simulate atmospheric 222Rn using the GEOS-Chem model to improve understanding of 222Rn emissions and characterize convective transport in the model. We demonstrate the potential of a customized global 222Rn emission scenario to improve simulated surface 222Rn concentrations and seasonality. We assess convective transport using observed 222Rn vertical profiles. Results have important implications for using chemical transport models to interpret the transport of trace gases and aerosols.
Fei Jiang, Hengmao Wang, Jing M. Chen, Weimin Ju, Xiangjun Tian, Shuzhuang Feng, Guicai Li, Zhuoqi Chen, Shupeng Zhang, Xuehe Lu, Jane Liu, Haikun Wang, Jun Wang, Wei He, and Mousong Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1963–1985,Short summary
We present a 6-year inversion from 2010 to 2015 for the global and regional carbon fluxes using only the GOSAT XCO2 retrievals. We find that the XCO2 retrievals could significantly improve the modeling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations and that the inferred interannual variations in the terrestrial carbon fluxes in most land regions have a better relationship with the changes in severe drought area or leaf area index, or are more consistent with the previous estimates about drought impact.
Guilherme F. Camarinha-Neto, Julia C. P. Cohen, Cléo Q. Dias-Júnior, Matthias Sörgel, José Henrique Cattanio, Alessandro Araújo, Stefan Wolff, Paulo A. F. Kuhn, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Luciana V. Rizzo, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 339–356,Short summary
It was observed that friagem phenomena (incursion of cold waves from the high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere to the Amazon region), very common in the dry season of the Amazon region, produced significant changes in microclimate and atmospheric chemistry. Moreover, the effects of the friagem change the surface O3 and CO2 mixing ratios and therefore interfere deeply in the microclimatic conditions and the chemical composition of the atmosphere above the rainforest.
Xinrui Ge, Martijn Schaap, Richard Kranenburg, Arjo Segers, Gert Jan Reinds, Hans Kros, and Wim de Vries
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 16055–16087,Short summary
This article is about improving the modeling of agricultural ammonia emissions. By considering land use, meteorology and agricultural practices, ammonia emission totals officially reported by countries are distributed in space and time. We illustrated the first step for a better understanding of the variability of ammonia emission, with the possibility of being applied at a European scale, which is of great significance for ammonia budget research and future policy-making.
Ashok K. Luhar, David M. Etheridge, Zoë M. Loh, Julie Noonan, Darren Spencer, Lisa Smith, and Cindy Ong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15487–15511,Short summary
With the sharp rise in coal seam gas (CSG) production in Queensland’s Surat Basin, there is much interest in quantifying methane emissions from this area and from unconventional gas production in general. We develop and apply a regional Bayesian inverse model that uses hourly methane concentration data from two sites and modelled backward dispersion to quantify emissions. The model requires a narrow prior and suggests that the emissions from the CSG areas are 33% larger than bottom-up estimates.
Wayne M. Angevine, Jeff Peischl, Alice Crawford, Christopher P. Loughner, Ilana B. Pollack, and Chelsea R. Thompson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11855–11868,Short summary
Emissions of air pollutants must be known for a wide variety of applications. Different methods of estimating emissions often disagree substantially. In this study, we apply standard methods to a well-known source, a power plant. We explore the uncertainty implied by the different answers that come from the different methods, different samples taken over several years, and different pollutants. We find that the overall uncertainty of emissions estimates is about 30 %.
Peter Huszar, Jan Karlický, Jana Ďoubalová, Tereza Nováková, Kateřina Šindelářová, Filip Švábik, Michal Belda, Tomáš Halenka, and Michal Žák
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11655–11681,Short summary
The paper shows how extreme meteorological conditions change due to the urban land-cover forcing and how this translates to the impact on the extreme air pollution over central European cities. It focuses on ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 μm and shows that, while for the extreme daily maximum 8 h ozone, changes are same as for the mean ones, much larger modifications are calculated for extreme NO2 and PM2.5 compared to their mean changes.
Lang Wang, Amos P. K. Tai, Chi-Yung Tam, Mehliyar Sadiq, Peng Wang, and Kevin K. W. Cheung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11349–11369,Short summary
We investigate the effects of future land use and land cover change (LULCC) on surface ozone air quality worldwide and find that LULCC can significantly influence ozone in North America and Europe via modifying surface energy balance, boundary-layer meteorology, and regional circulation. The strength of such “biogeophysical effects” of LULCC is strongly dependent on forest type and generally greater than the “biogeochemical effects” via changing deposition and emission fluxes alone.
Jinhui Gao, Ying Li, Bin Zhu, Bo Hu, Lili Wang, and Fangwen Bao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10831–10844,Short summary
Light extinction of aerosols can decease surface ozone mainly via reducing photochemical production of ozone. However, it also leads to high levels of ozone aloft being entrained down to the surface which partly counteracts the reduction in surface ozone. The impact of aerosols is more sensitive to local ozone, which suggests that while controlling the levels of aerosols, controlling the local ozone precursors is an effective way to suppress the increase of ozone over China at present.
Junhua Liu, Jose M. Rodriguez, Luke D. Oman, Anne R. Douglass, Mark A. Olsen, and Lu Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6417–6433,Short summary
Our paper quantifies and identifies the importance of stratospheric ozone influence on the tropospheric ozone IAV in Northern Hemisphere mid-high latitudes. Our analysis provides an in-depth understanding of how 3-D dynamics influences the O3 redistribution in the troposphere. These findings are particularly important considering the potential changes in these dynamical conditions in the future as a result of climate change
Jun Park and Hyun Mee Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5175–5195,Short summary
Observation network experiments were conducted to optimize the surface CO2 flux in Asia. The impacts of the redistribution of and additions to the existing observation network were evaluated. The addition experiments revealed that considering both the normalized self-sensitivity and ecoregion information can yield better simulated surface CO2 fluxes compared to random addition. This study provides useful information for future observation network design to estimate the surface CO2 flux.
Meng Gao, Jinhui Gao, Bin Zhu, Rajesh Kumar, Xiao Lu, Shaojie Song, Yuzhong Zhang, Beixi Jia, Peng Wang, Gufran Beig, Jianlin Hu, Qi Ying, Hongliang Zhang, Peter Sherman, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4399–4414,Short summary
A regional fully coupled meteorology–chemistry model, Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem), was employed to study the seasonality of ozone (O3) pollution and its sources in both China and India.
Ryan J. Pound, Tomás Sherwen, Detlev Helmig, Lucy J. Carpenter, and Mat J. Evans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4227–4239,Short summary
Ozone is an important pollutant with impacts on health and the environment. Ozone is lost to plants, land and the oceans. Loss to the ocean is slow compared to all other types of land cover and has not received as much attention. We build on previous work to more accurately model ozone loss to the ocean. We find changes in the concentration of ozone over the oceans, notably the Southern Ocean, which improves model performance.
Marios Panagi, Zoë L. Fleming, Paul S. Monks, Matthew J. Ashfold, Oliver Wild, Michael Hollaway, Qiang Zhang, Freya A. Squires, and Joshua D. Vande Hey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2825–2838,Short summary
In this paper, using dispersion modelling with emission inventories it was determined that on average 45 % of the total CO pollution that affects Beijing is transported from other areas. About half of the CO comes from beyond the immediate surrounding areas. Finally three classification types of pollution were identified and used to analyse the APHH winter campaign. The results can inform targeted control measures to be implemented in Beijing and the other regions to tackle air quality problems.
Zhining Tao, Mian Chin, Meng Gao, Tom Kucsera, Dongchul Kim, Huisheng Bian, Jun-ichi Kurokawa, Yuesi Wang, Zirui Liu, Gregory R. Carmichael, Zifa Wang, and Hajime Akimoto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2319–2339,Short summary
One goal of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) Phase III is to identify strengths and weaknesses of current air quality models to provide insights into reducing uncertainties. This study identified that a 15 km grid would be the optimal horizontal resolution in terms of performance and resource usage to capture average and extreme air quality over East Asia and is thus suggested for use in future MICS-Asia modeling activities if the investigation domain remains the same.
Peter Huszar, Jan Karlický, Jana Ďoubalová, Kateřina Šindelářová, Tereza Nováková, Michal Belda, Tomáš Halenka, Michal Žák, and Petr Pišoft
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1977–2016,Short summary
Urban surfaces alter meteorological conditions which consequently alter air pollution due to modified transport and chemical reactions. Here, we focus on a major component of this influence, enhanced vertical eddy diffusion. Using a regional climate model coupled to a chemistry transport model, we investigate how different representations of turbulent transport translate to urban canopy impact on ozone and PM2.5 concentrations and whether turbulence remains the most important component.
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