Articles | Volume 14, issue 4
Research article 18 Feb 2014
Research article | 18 Feb 2014
Black carbon emissions from in-use ships: a California regional assessment
G. M. Buffaloe et al.
No articles found.
Bjorn Stevens, Sandrine Bony, David Farrell, Felix Ament, Alan Blyth, Christopher Fairall, Johannes Karstensen, Patricia K. Quinn, Sabrina Speich, Claudia Acquistapace, Franziska Aemisegger, Anna Lea Albright, Hugo Bellenger, Eberhard Bodenschatz, Kathy-Ann Caesar, Rebecca Chewitt-Lucas, Gijs de Boer, Julien Delanoë, Leif Denby, Florian Ewald, Benjamin Fildier, Marvin Forde, Geet George, Silke Gross, Martin Hagen, Andrea Hausold, Karen J. Heywood, Lutz Hirsch, Marek Jacob, Friedhelm Jansen, Stefan Kinne, Daniel Klocke, Tobias Kölling, Heike Konow, Marie Lothon, Wiebke Mohr, Ann Kristin Naumann, Louise Nuijens, Léa Olivier, Robert Pincus, Mira Pöhlker, Gilles Reverdin, Gregory Roberts, Sabrina Schnitt, Hauke Schulz, A. Pier Siebesma, Claudia Christine Stephan, Peter Sullivan, Ludovic Touzé-Peiffer, Jessica Vial, Raphaela Vogel, Paquita Zuidema, Nicola Alexander, Lyndon Alves, Sophian Arixi, Hamish Asmath, Gholamhossein Bagheri, Katharina Baier, Adriana Bailey, Dariusz Baranowski, Alexandre Baron, Sébastien Barrau, Paul A. Barrett, Frédéric Batier, Andreas Behrendt, Arne Bendinger, Florent Beucher, Sebastien Bigorre, Edmund Blades, Peter Blossey, Olivier Bock, Steven Böing, Pierre Bosser, Denis Bourras, Pascale Bouruet-Aubertot, Keith Bower, Pierre Branellec, Hubert Branger, Michal Brennek, Alan Brewer, Pierre-Etienne Brilouet, Björn Brügmann, Stefan A. Buehler, Elmo Burke, Ralph Burton, Radiance Calmer, Jean-Christophe Canonici, Xavier Carton, Gregory Cato Jr., Jude Andre Charles, Patrick Chazette, Yanxu Chen, Michal T. Chilinski, Thomas Choularton, Patrick Chuang, Shamal Clarke, Hugh Coe, Céline Cornet, Pierre Coutris, Fleur Couvreux, Susanne Crewell, Timothy Cronin, Zhiqiang Cui, Yannis Cuypers, Alton Daley, Gillian M. Damerell, Thibaut Dauhut, Hartwig Deneke, Jean-Philippe Desbios, Steffen Dörner, Sebastian Donner, Vincent Douet, Kyla Drushka, Marina Dütsch, André Ehrlich, Kerry Emanuel, Alexandros Emmanouilidis, Jean-Claude Etienne, Sheryl Etienne-Leblanc, Ghislain Faure, Graham Feingold, Luca Ferrero, Andreas Fix, Cyrille Flamant, Piotr Jacek Flatau, Gregory R. Foltz, Linda Forster, Iulian Furtuna, Alan Gadian, Joseph Galewsky, Martin Gallagher, Peter Gallimore, Cassandra Gaston, Chelle Gentemann, Nicolas Geyskens, Andreas Giez, John Gollop, Isabelle Gouirand, Christophe Gourbeyre, Dörte de Graaf, Geiske E. de Groot, Robert Grosz, Johannes Güttler, Manuel Gutleben, Kashawn Hall, George Harris, Kevin C. Helfer, Dean Henze, Calvert Herbert, Bruna Holanda, Antonio Ibanez-Landeta, Janet Intrieri, Suneil Iyer, Fabrice Julien, Heike Kalesse, Jan Kazil, Alexander Kellman, Abiel T. Kidane, Ulrike Kirchner, Marcus Klingebiel, Mareike Körner, Leslie Ann Kremper, Jan Kretzschmar, Ovid Krüger, Wojciech Kumala, Armin Kurz, Pierre L'Hégaret, Matthieu Labaste, Tom Lachlan-Cope, Arlene Laing, Peter Landschützer, Theresa Lang, Diego Lange, Ingo Lange, Clément Laplace, Gauke Lavik, Rémi Laxenaire, Caroline Le Bihan, Mason Leandro, Nathalie Lefevre, Marius Lena, Donald Lenschow, Qiang Li, Gary Lloyd, Sebastian Los, Niccolò Losi, Oscar Lovell, Christopher Luneau, Przemyslaw Makuch, Szymon Malinowski, Gaston Manta, Eleni Marinou, Nicholas Marsden, Sebastien Masson, Nicolas Maury, Bernhard Mayer, Margarette Mayers-Als, Christophe Mazel, Wayne McGeary, James C. McWilliams, Mario Mech, Melina Mehlmann, Agostino Niyonkuru Meroni, Theresa Mieslinger, Andreas Minikin, Peter Minnett, Gregor Möller, Yanmichel Morfa Avalos, Caroline Muller, Ionela Musat, Anna Napoli, Almuth Neuberger, Christophe Noisel, David Noone, Freja Nordsiek, Jakub L. Nowak, Lothar Oswald, Douglas J. Parker, Carolyn Peck, Renaud Person, Miriam Philippi, Albert Plueddemann, Christopher Pöhlker, Veronika Pörtge, Ulrich Pöschl, Lawrence Pologne, Michał Posyniak, Marc Prange, Estefanía Quiñones Meléndez, Jule Radtke, Karim Ramage, Jens Reimann, Lionel Renault, Klaus Reus, Ashford Reyes, Joachim Ribbe, Maximilian Ringel, Markus Ritschel, Cesar B. Rocha, Nicolas Rochetin, Johannes Röttenbacher, Callum Rollo, Haley Royer, Pauline Sadoulet, Leo Saffin, Sanola Sandiford, Irina Sandu, Michael Schäfer, Vera Schemann, Imke Schirmacher, Oliver Schlenczek, Jerome Schmidt, Marcel Schröder, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Andrea Sealy, Christoph J. Senff, Ilya Serikov, Samkeyat Shohan, Elizabeth Siddle, Alexander Smirnov, Florian Späth, Branden Spooner, M. Katharina Stolla, Wojciech Szkółka, Simon P. de Szoeke, Stéphane Tarot, Eleni Tetoni, Elizabeth Thompson, Jim Thomson, Lorenzo Tomassini, Julien Totems, Alma Anna Ubele, Leonie Villiger, Jan von Arx, Thomas Wagner, Andi Walther, Ben Webber, Manfred Wendisch, Shanice Whitehall, Anton Wiltshire, Allison A. Wing, Martin Wirth, Jonathan Wiskandt, Kevin Wolf, Ludwig Worbes, Ethan Wright, Volker Wulfmeyer, Shanea Young, Chidong Zhang, Dongxiao Zhang, Florian Ziemen, Tobias Zinner, and Martin Zöger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
The EUREC4A field campaign, designed to test hypothesized mechanisms by which clouds respond to warming and benchmark next generation Earth-system models, is presented. EUREC4A comprised roughly five weeks of measurements in the downstream winter trades of the North Atlantic – eastward and south-eastward of Barbados. It was the first campaign that attempted to characterize the full range of processes and scales influencing tradewind clouds.
Kevin J. Sanchez, Bo Zhang, Hongyu Liu, Georges Saliba, Chia-Li Chen, Savannah L. Lewis, Lynn M. Russell, Michael A. Shook, Ewan C. Crosbie, Luke D. Ziemba, Matthew D. Brown, Taylor J. Shingler, Claire E. Robinson, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Edward L. Winstead, Carolyn Jordan, Patricia K. Quinn, Timothy S. Bates, Jack Porter, Thomas G. Bell, Eric S. Saltzman, Michael J. Behrenfeld, and Richard H. Moore
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 831–851,Short summary
Models describing atmospheric airflow were combined with satellite measurements representative of marine phytoplankton and other meteorological variables. These combined variables were compared to measured aerosol to identify upwind influences on aerosol concentrations. Results indicate that phytoplankton production rates upwind impact the aerosol mass. Also, results suggest that the condensation of mass onto short-lived large sea spray particles may be a significant sink of aerosol mass.
Megan S. Claflin, Demetrios Pagonis, Zachary Finewax, Anne V. Handschy, Douglas A. Day, Wyatt L. Brown, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jose L. Jimenez, Paul J. Ziemann, Joost de Gouw, and Brian M. Lerner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 133–152,Short summary
We have developed a field-deployable gas chromatograph with thermal desorption preconcentration and detector switching between two high-resolution mass spectrometers for in situ measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This system combines chromatography with both proton transfer and electron ionization to offer fast time response and continuous molecular speciation. This technique was applied during the 2018 ATHLETIC campaign to characterize VOC emissions in an indoor environment.
Michael J. Lawler, Savannah L. Lewis, Lynn M. Russell, Patricia K. Quinn, Timothy S. Bates, Derek J. Coffman, Lucia M. Upchurch, and Eric S. Saltzman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 16007–16022,Short summary
This work describes new measurements of aerosol (particles) composition over the North Atlantic Ocean. It provides concentrations of polysaccharide material likely made from organisms in the surface ocean and improves our understanding of the relative importance of such fresh biogenic material compared to more recalcitrant organic carbon in forming marine organic aerosol. We aim ultimately to understand the role that ocean biology plays in cloud formation in marine regions.
Cuiqi Zhang, Yue Zhang, Martin J. Wolf, Leonid Nichman, Chuanyang Shen, Timothy B. Onasch, Longfei Chen, and Daniel J. Cziczo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13957–13984,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) is considered the second most important global warming agent. However, the role of BC aerosol–cloud–climate interactions in the cirrus formation remains uncertain. Our study of selected BC types and sizes suggests that increases in diameter, compactness, and/or surface oxidation of BC particles lead to more efficient ice nucleation (IN) via pore condensation freezing (PCF) pathways，and that coatings of common secondary organic aerosol (SOA) materials can inhibit ice formation.
Patricia K. Quinn, Elizabeth Thompson, Derek J. Coffman, Sunil Baidar, Ludovic Bariteau, Timothy S. Bates, Sebastien Bigorre, Alan Brewer, Gijs de Boer, Simon P. de Szoeke, Kyla Drushka, Gregory R. Foltz, Janet Intrieri, Suneil Iyer, Chris W. Fairall, Cassandra J. Gaston, Friedhelm Jansen, James E. Johnson, Ovid O. Krüger, Richard D. Marchbanks, Kenneth P. Moran, David Noone, Sergio Pezoa, Robert Pincus, Albert J. Plueddemann, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Estefania Quinones Melendez, Haley M. Royer, Malgorzata Szczodrak, Jim Thomson, Lucia M. Upchurch, Chidong Zhang, Dongxiao Zhang, and Paquita Zuidema
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ESSDShort summary
ATOMIC took place in the northwest tropical Atlantic during January and February of 2020 to gather information on shallow atmospheric convection, the effects of aerosols and clouds on the ocean surface energy budget, and mesoscale oceanic processes. Measurements made from the NOAA RV Ronald H. Brown and assets it deployed (instrumented mooring and uncrewed seagoing vehicles) are described herein to advance widespread use of the data by the ATOMIC and broader research communities.
Lawrence I. Kleinman, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Kouji Adachi, Peter R. Buseck, Sonya Collier, Manvendra K. Dubey, Anna L. Hodshire, Ernie Lewis, Timothy B. Onasch, Jeffery R. Pierce, John Shilling, Stephen R. Springston, Jian Wang, Qi Zhang, Shan Zhou, and Robert J. Yokelson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13319–13341,Short summary
Aerosols from wildfires affect the Earth's temperature by absorbing light or reflecting it back into space. This study investigates time-dependent chemical, microphysical, and optical properties of aerosols generated by wildfires in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Wildfire smoke plumes were traversed by an instrumented aircraft at locations near the fire and up to 3.5 h travel time downwind. Although there was no net aerosol production, aerosol particles grew and became more efficient scatters.
Chenyang Bi, Jordan E. Krechmer, Graham O. Frazier, Wen Xu, Andrew T. Lambe, Megan S. Claflin, Brian M. Lerner, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Manjula R. Canagaratna, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Measurement techniques that can achieve molecular characterizations are necessary to understand the differences of fate and transport within isomers produced in the atmospheric oxidation process. In this work, we develop an instrument to conduct isomer-resolved measurements of particle-phase organics. We assess the number of isomers per chemical formula in atmospherically-relevant samples and examine the feasibility of extending the use of an existing instrument to a broader range of analytes.
Christopher D. Cappa, Christopher Y. Lim, David H. Hagan, Matthew Coggon, Abigail Koss, Kanako Sekimoto, Joost de Gouw, Timothy B. Onasch, Carsten Warneke, and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8511–8532,Short summary
Smoke from combustion of a wide range of biomass fuels (e.g., leaves, twigs, logs, peat, and dung) was photochemically aged in a small chamber for up to 8 d of equivalent atmospheric aging. Upon aging, the particle chemical composition and ability to absorb sunlight changed owing to reactions in both the gas and particulate phases. We developed a model to explain the observations and used this to derive insights into the aging of smoke in the atmosphere.
Anna L. Hodshire, Emily Ramnarine, Ali Akherati, Matthew L. Alvarado, Delphine K. Farmer, Shantanu H. Jathar, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Chantelle R. Lonsdale, Timothy B. Onasch, Stephen R. Springston, Jian Wang, Yang Wang, Lawrence I. Kleinman, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Biomass burning emits particles and vapors that can impact both health and climate. Here, we investigate the role of dilution in the evolution of aerosol size and composition in observed US wildfire smoke plumes. Centers of plumes dilute more slowly than edges. We see differences in concentrations and composition between the centers and edges both in the first measurement and in subsequent measurements. Our findings support the hypothesis that plume dilution influences smoke aging.
Ziyue Li, Emma L. D'Ambro, Siegfried Schobesberger, Cassandra J. Gaston, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Jiumeng Liu, John E. Shilling, Joel A. Thornton, and Christopher D. Cappa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2489–2512,Short summary
We discuss the development and application of a robust clustering method for the interpretation of compound-specific organic aerosol thermal desorption profiles. We demonstrate the utility of clustering for analysis and interpretation of the composition and volatility of secondary organic aerosol. We show that the thermal desorption profiles are represented by only 9–13 distinct clusters, with the number of clusters obtained dependent on the precursor and formation conditions.
Crystal D. McClure, Christopher Y. Lim, David H. Hagan, Jesse H. Kroll, and Christopher D. Cappa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1531–1547,Short summary
We characterized various optical, chemical, and physical properties of particles produced from combustion of a variety of different biomass fuels, many representative of those found in the western US. We find that many properties scale with the ratio between bulk average organic aerosol and black carbon mass concentrations, although there are some properties that do not.
Matthew M. Coggon, Christopher Y. Lim, Abigail R. Koss, Kanako Sekimoto, Bin Yuan, Jessica B. Gilman, David H. Hagan, Vanessa Selimovic, Kyle J. Zarzana, Steven S. Brown, James M. Roberts, Markus Müller, Robert Yokelson, Armin Wisthaler, Jordan E. Krechmer, Jose L. Jimenez, Christopher Cappa, Jesse H. Kroll, Joost de Gouw, and Carsten Warneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14875–14899,Short summary
Wildfire emissions significantly contribute to adverse air quality; however, the chemical processes that lead to hazardous pollutants, such as ozone, are not fully understood. In this study, we describe laboratory experiments where we simulate the atmospheric chemistry of smoke emitted from a range of biomass fuels. We show that certain understudied compounds, such as furans and phenolic compounds, are significant contributors to pollutants formed as a result of typical atmospheric oxidation.
Christopher Y. Lim, David H. Hagan, Matthew M. Coggon, Abigail R. Koss, Kanako Sekimoto, Joost de Gouw, Carsten Warneke, Christopher D. Cappa, and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12797–12809,Short summary
Wildfires are a large source of gases and particles to the atmosphere, both of which impact human health and climate. The amount and composition of particles from wildfires can change with time in the atmosphere; however, the impact of aging is not well understood. In a series of controlled laboratory experiments, we show that the particles are oxidized and a significant fraction of the gas-phase carbon (24 %–56 %) is converted to particle mass over the course of several days in the atmosphere.
Alex K. Y. Lee, Max G. Adam, John Liggio, Shao-Meng Li, Kun Li, Megan D. Willis, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Travis W. Tokarek, Charles A. Odame-Ankrah, Hans D. Osthoff, Kevin Strawbridge, and Jeffery R. Brook
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12209–12219,Short summary
This work provides the first direct field evidence that anthropogenic organo-nitrate contributed up to half of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass that was freshly produced within the emission plumes of oil sands facilities in Alberta, Canada. The findings illustrate the central role of organo-nitrate in SOA production from the oil and gas industry, with relevance for other urban and industrial regions with significant intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) and NOx emissions.
Leonid Nichman, Martin Wolf, Paul Davidovits, Timothy B. Onasch, Yue Zhang, Doug R. Worsnop, Janarjan Bhandari, Claudio Mazzoleni, and Daniel J. Cziczo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12175–12194,Short summary
Previous studies showed widespread ice nucleation activity of soot. In this systematic study we investigated the factors that affect the heterogeneous ice nucleation activity of soot surrogates in the cirrus cloud regime. Our observations are consistent with an ice nucleation mechanism of pore condensation followed by freezing. The results show significant variations in ice nucleation activity as a function of size, morphology, and surface chemistry of the black-carbon-containing particles.
Emma L. D'Ambro, Siegfried Schobesberger, Cassandra J. Gaston, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Ben H. Lee, Jiumeng Liu, Alla Zelenyuk, David Bell, Christopher D. Cappa, Taylor Helgestad, Ziyue Li, Alex Guenther, Jian Wang, Matthew Wise, Ryan Caylor, Jason D. Surratt, Theran Riedel, Noora Hyttinen, Vili-Taneli Salo, Galib Hasan, Theo Kurtén, John E. Shilling, and Joel A. Thornton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11253–11265,Short summary
Isoprene is the most abundantly emitted reactive organic gas globally, and thus it is important to understand its fate and role in aerosol formation and growth. A major product of its oxidation is an epoxydiol, IEPOX, which can be efficiently taken up by acidic aerosol to generate substantial amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We present chamber experiments exploring the properties of IEPOX SOA and reconcile discrepancies between field, laboratory, and model studies of this process.
Ingeborg E. Nielsen, Henrik Skov, Andreas Massling, Axel C. Eriksson, Manuel Dall'Osto, Heikki Junninen, Nina Sarnela, Robert Lange, Sonya Collier, Qi Zhang, Christopher D. Cappa, and Jacob K. Nøjgaard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10239–10256,Short summary
Measurements of the chemical composition of sub-micrometer aerosols were carried out in northern Greenland during the Arctic haze (February–May) where concentrations are high due to favorable conditions for long-range transport. Sulfate was the dominant aerosol (66 %), followed by organic matter (24 %). The highest black carbon concentrations where observed in February. Source apportionment yielded three factors: a primary factor (12 %), an Arctic haze factor (64 %) and a marine factor (22 %).
Kun Li, John Liggio, Patrick Lee, Chong Han, Qifan Liu, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9715–9731,Short summary
A new oxidation flow reactor was developed and applied to study the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from precursors associated with oil-sands (OS) operations. The results reveal that the SOA yields from OS precursors are related to the volatilities of precursors and that open-pit mining is the main source of SOA formed from oil sands. In addition, cyclic alkanes are found to play an important role in SOA formation from oil-sands precursors.
Julia Perim de Faria, Ulrich Bundke, Andrew Freedman, Timothy B. Onasch, and Andreas Petzold
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
An evaluation of the performance and accuracy of a Cavity Attenuated Phase-Shift Single Scattering Albedo Monitor (CAPS PMssa, Aerodyne Res. Inc.) was conducted in an optical closure study with proven technologies for aerosol particle optical property measurements: This study demonstrates that the CAPS PMssa is a robust and reliable instrument for the direct measurement of the particle scattering and extinction coefficients and thus SSA.
Ali Akherati, Christopher D. Cappa, Michael J. Kleeman, Kenneth S. Docherty, Jose L. Jimenez, Stephen M. Griffith, Sebastien Dusanter, Philip S. Stevens, and Shantanu H. Jathar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4561–4594,Short summary
Unburned and partially burned organic compounds emitted from fossil fuel and biomass combustion can react in the atmosphere in the presence of sunlight to form particles. In this work, we use an air pollution model to examine the influence of these organic compounds released by motor vehicles and fires on fine particle pollution in southern California.
Daniel C. Anderson, Jessica Pavelec, Conner Daube, Scott C. Herndon, Walter B. Knighton, Brian M. Lerner, J. Robert Roscioli, Tara I. Yacovitch, and Ezra C. Wood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2845–2860,Short summary
San Antonio is one of the largest cities in the United States and is in non-attainment of the 8 h ozone standard. Using the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory, we made observations of ozone and its precursors at three sites in the San Antonio region to determine the main drivers of its production. We found that compounds produced by plants were the dominant organic compound for ozone production and that to limit ozone production at the study site, emissions of nitrogen oxides should be reduced.
Travis W. Tokarek, Charles A. Odame-Ankrah, Jennifer A. Huo, Robert McLaren, Alex K. Y. Lee, Max G. Adam, Megan D. Willis, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Cristian Mihele, Andrea Darlington, Richard L. Mittermeier, Kevin Strawbridge, Katherine L. Hayden, Jason S. Olfert, Elijah G. Schnitzler, Duncan K. Brownsey, Faisal V. Assad, Gregory R. Wentworth, Alex G. Tevlin, Douglas E. J. Worthy, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Jeffrey R. Brook, and Hans D. Osthoff
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17819–17841,Short summary
Measurements of air pollutants at a ground site near Fort McKay in the Athabasca oil sands region in the summer of 2013 are presented. A large number of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) were observed; these molecules were shown previously to generate atmospheric particles downwind of the region. A principal component analysis was performed to identify major pollution source types, including which source(s) is(are) associated with IVOC emissions (e.g., freshly mined bitumen).
Liqing Hao, Olga Garmash, Mikael Ehn, Pasi Miettinen, Paola Massoli, Santtu Mikkonen, Tuija Jokinen, Pontus Roldin, Pasi Aalto, Taina Yli-Juuti, Jorma Joutsensaari, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17705–17716,Short summary
An aerosol mass spectrometer was used to characterize aerosol chemical composition during new particle formation periods. The time profiles of mass concentrations and chemical composition of observed aerosol particles are subjected to joint effects of boundary layer dilution, atmospheric chemistry and aerosol mixing in different boundary layers. During the nighttime, the increase in organic aerosol mass correlated well with the increase in condensed highly oxygenated organic molecules' mass.
Mark Gordon, Paul A. Makar, Ralf M. Staebler, Junhua Zhang, Ayodeji Akingunola, Wanmin Gong, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14695–14714,Short summary
This work uses aircraft-based measurements of smokestack plumes carried out in northern Alberta in 2013. These measurements are used to test equations used to predict how high in the air smokestack plumes rise. It is important to predict plume rise height accurately as it tells us how far downwind pollutants are carried and what air quality can be expected at the surface. We found that the equations that are typically used significantly underestimate the plume rise at this location.
Ziyue Li, Katherine A. Smith, and Christopher D. Cappa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14585–14608,Short summary
We investigated the influence of relative humidity (RH) on the heterogeneous oxidation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles by OH radicals. We observed significantly faster volume loss and compositional change of SOA at high RH, showing that viscosity differences determine compositional changes, but variability in either the uptake coefficient or the fragmentation probability are required to explain the difference in volume loss between low and high RH.
Sailaja Eluri, Christopher D. Cappa, Beth Friedman, Delphine K. Farmer, and Shantanu H. Jathar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13813–13838,Short summary
As oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) are increasingly used to study aerosol formation and evolution in laboratory and field environments, there is a need to develop models that can be used to interpret OFR data. In this work, we evaluate two coupled chemistry and thermodynamic models to simulate secondary organic aerosol formation (SOA) from diluted diesel exhaust and explore the sources, pathways, and processes important to SOA formation.
Craig A. Stroud, Paul A. Makar, Junhua Zhang, Michael D. Moran, Ayodeji Akingunola, Shao-Meng Li, Amy Leithead, Katherine Hayden, and May Siu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13531–13545,Short summary
It is shown that using measurement-derived volatile organic compound (VOC) and organic aerosol (OA) emissions in the GEM-MACH air quality model provides better overall predictions compared to using bottom-up emission inventories. This work was done to better constrain the fugitive organic emissions from the Athabasca oil sands region, which are a challenge to estimate with bottom-up emission approaches. We use observations from the 2013 Joint Oil Sands Monitoring study.
Sara D. Forestieri, Taylor M. Helgestad, Andrew T. Lambe, Lindsay Renbaum-Wolff, Daniel A. Lack, Paola Massoli, Eben S. Cross, Manvendra K. Dubey, Claudio Mazzoleni, Jason S. Olfert, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Andrew Freedman, Paul Davidovits, Timothy B. Onasch, and Christopher D. Cappa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12141–12159,Short summary
We characterized optical properties of flame-derived black carbon particles and interpret our observations through the use of Mie theory and Rayleigh–Debye–Gans theory. We determined that the mass absorption coefficient is independent of particle collapse and use this to derive theory- and wavelength-specific refractive indices for black carbon (BC). We demonstrate the inadequacy of Mie theory and suggest an alternative approach for atmospheric models to better represent light absorption by BC.
Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Peter R. Buseck, Kouji Adachi, Timothy B. Onasch, Stephen R. Springston, and Lawrence Kleinman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11289–11301,Short summary
This paper presents the first direct atmospheric observations of the formation and evolution of tar balls (TBs) in forest fires collected during the Department of Energy’s Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP). We quantify, for the first time, the TB mass fraction in the BB plumes and show that this mass fraction increases from less than 1 % to 50 % within the first couple of hours of plume aging. Using Mie theory we find that TBs are consistent with being weak light absorbers.
Sara D. Forestieri, Sean M. Staudt, Thomas M. Kuborn, Katharine Faber, Christopher R. Ruehl, Timothy H. Bertram, and Christopher D. Cappa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10985–11005,Short summary
Our work establishes how surface tension reduction influences droplet growth and activation of simple sea spray mimics (NaCl coated with fatty acids). Fatty acids can substantially reduce droplet surface tension near activation but have limited impact on activation. Coating of NaCl by palmitic acid (a wax) impedes water uptake, but this impedance is removed if oleic acid (a liquid) is mixed in. The properties that surface-active compounds need to impact activation are theoretically examined.
Angela Benedetti, Jeffrey S. Reid, Peter Knippertz, John H. Marsham, Francesca Di Giuseppe, Samuel Rémy, Sara Basart, Olivier Boucher, Ian M. Brooks, Laurent Menut, Lucia Mona, Paolo Laj, Gelsomina Pappalardo, Alfred Wiedensohler, Alexander Baklanov, Malcolm Brooks, Peter R. Colarco, Emilio Cuevas, Arlindo da Silva, Jeronimo Escribano, Johannes Flemming, Nicolas Huneeus, Oriol Jorba, Stelios Kazadzis, Stefan Kinne, Thomas Popp, Patricia K. Quinn, Thomas T. Sekiyama, Taichu Tanaka, and Enric Terradellas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10615–10643,Short summary
Numerical prediction of aerosol particle properties has become an important activity at many research and operational weather centers. This development is due to growing interest from a diverse set of stakeholders, such as air quality regulatory bodies, aviation authorities, solar energy plant managers, climate service providers, and health professionals. This paper describes the advances in the field and sets out requirements for observations for the sustainability of these activities.
Junhua Zhang, Michael D. Moran, Qiong Zheng, Paul A. Makar, Pegah Baratzadeh, George Marson, Peter Liu, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10459–10481,Short summary
This paper discusses the development of new synthesized emissions inventories and the generation of air quality model-ready emissions files for the Athabasca Oil Sands Region of Alberta, Canada, using multiple emissions inventories, continuous emissions monitoring data, and inferred emission rates based on aircraft measurements. Novel facility-specific gridded spatial surrogate fields were generated to allocate emissions spatially within each huge mining facility.
Paul A. Makar, Ayodeji Akingunola, Julian Aherne, Amanda S. Cole, Yayne-abeba Aklilu, Junhua Zhang, Isaac Wong, Katherine Hayden, Shao-Meng Li, Jane Kirk, Ken Scott, Michael D. Moran, Alain Robichaud, Hazel Cathcart, Pegah Baratzedah, Balbir Pabla, Philip Cheung, Qiong Zheng, and Dean S. Jeffries
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9897–9927,Short summary
Complex computer model output was compared to and fused with observation data, to estimate potential damage due to acidifying precipitation for ecosystems in the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. Estimated deposition was compared to the maximum no-damage ecosystem capacity for sulfur and/or nitrogen uptake; these critical loads were exceeded, for areas between 10 000 and 330 000 square kilometres, depending on ecosystem type: ecosystem damage will occur at 2013 emission levels.
Kanako Sekimoto, Abigail R. Koss, Jessica B. Gilman, Vanessa Selimovic, Matthew M. Coggon, Kyle J. Zarzana, Bin Yuan, Brian M. Lerner, Steven S. Brown, Carsten Warneke, Robert J. Yokelson, James M. Roberts, and Joost de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9263–9281,Short summary
We found that on average 85 % of the VOC emissions from biomass burning across various fuels representative of the western US (including various coniferous and chaparral fuels) can be explained using only two emission profiles: (i) a high-temperature pyrolysis profile and (ii) a low-temperature pyrolysis profile. The high-temperature profile is quantitatively similar between different fuel types (r2 > 0.84), and likewise for the low-temperature profile.
Monika Aggarwal, James Whiteway, Jeffrey Seabrook, Lawrence Gray, Kevin Strawbridge, Peter Liu, Jason O'Brien, Shao-Meng Li, and Robert McLaren
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3829–3849,Short summary
Aircraft-based laser remote sensing measurements of atmospheric aerosol and ozone were conducted to study air pollution from the oil sands extraction industry in northern Alberta. The ozone mixing ratio measured in the polluted boundary layer air was equal to or less than the background ozone mixing ratio. The lidar measurements detected a layer of forest fire smoke above the surface boundary layer in which the measured ozone mixing ratio was substantially greater than the background amount.
Ayodeji Akingunola, Paul A. Makar, Junhua Zhang, Andrea Darlington, Shao-Meng Li, Mark Gordon, Michael D. Moran, and Qiong Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8667–8688,Short summary
We examine the manner in which air-quality models simulate lofting of buoyant plumes of emissions from stacks (plume rise) and the impact of the level of detail in algorithms simulating particles' variation in size (particle size distribution). The most commonly used plume rise algorithm underestimates the height of plumes compared to observations, while a revised algorithm has much better performance. A 12-bin size distribution reduced the forecast 2-bin size distribution bias error by 32 %.
Yue Zhang, Shachi Katira, Andrew Lee, Andrew T. Lambe, Timothy B. Onasch, Wen Xu, William A. Brooks, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Andrew Freedman, John T. Jayne, Doug R. Worsnop, Paul Davidovits, David Chandler, and Charles E. Kolb
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3479–3490,Short summary
We have adopted a new technique for measuring glass-forming properties of atmospherically relevant organic aerosols at submicron sizes and relatively low mass concentrations. Aerosol particles are deposited in the form of a thin film with interdigitated electrodes using electrostatic precipitation. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy is used to measure the kinetically controlled glass transition temperatures of glycerol and citric acid aerosols with three atmospheric relevant cooling rates.
Sabour Baray, Andrea Darlington, Mark Gordon, Katherine L. Hayden, Amy Leithead, Shao-Meng Li, Peter S. K. Liu, Richard L. Mittermeier, Samar G. Moussa, Jason O'Brien, Ralph Staebler, Mengistu Wolde, Doug Worthy, and Robert McLaren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7361–7378,Short summary
Methane emissions from major oil sands facilities in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of Alberta were measured in the summer of 2013 using two related aircraft mass-balance approaches. Tailings ponds and fugitive emissions of methane from open pit mines were found to be the major sources of methane in the region. Total methane emissions in the AOSR were measured to be ~ 20 tonnes of CH4 per hour, which is 48 % higher than the Canadian Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program Emissions Inventory.
Dean B. Atkinson, Mikhail Pekour, Duli Chand, James G. Radney, Katheryn R. Kolesar, Qi Zhang, Ari Setyan, Norman T. O'Neill, and Christopher D. Cappa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5499–5514,Short summary
We use in situ measurements of particle light extinction to assess the performance of a typical aerosol remote retrieval method. The retrieved fine-mode fraction of extinction, a property commonly used to characterize the anthropogenic influence on the aerosol optical depth, compares well with the in situ measurements as does the retrieved effective fine-mode radius, which characterizes the average size of the particles that contribute most to scattering.
Abigail R. Koss, Kanako Sekimoto, Jessica B. Gilman, Vanessa Selimovic, Matthew M. Coggon, Kyle J. Zarzana, Bin Yuan, Brian M. Lerner, Steven S. Brown, Jose L. Jimenez, Jordan Krechmer, James M. Roberts, Carsten Warneke, Robert J. Yokelson, and Joost de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3299–3319,Short summary
Non-methane organic gases (NMOGs) were detected by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF) during an extensive laboratory characterization of wildfire emissions. Identifications for PTR-ToF ion masses are proposed and supported by a combination of techniques. Overall excellent agreement with other instrumentation is shown. Scalable emission factors and ratios are reported for many newly reported reactive species. An analysis of chemical characteristics is presented.
Yuan Cheng, Shao-Meng Li, Mark Gordon, and Peter Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2653–2667,Short summary
An aircraft campaign was conducted over the Athabasca oil sands (OS) region to characterize refractory black carbon (rBC) particles as they were emitted from the sources and as they were transported downwind; rBC size distributions were consistent at different downwind distances from the source area whereas coating thicknesses on the rBC cores increased considerably as the OS plumes were transported downwind. These results provide insights into the evolution of BC aerosol in the real atmosphere.
Catalina Tsai, Max Spolaor, Santo Fedele Colosimo, Olga Pikelnaya, Ross Cheung, Eric Williams, Jessica B. Gilman, Brian M. Lerner, Robert J. Zamora, Carsten Warneke, James M. Roberts, Ravan Ahmadov, Joost de Gouw, Timothy Bates, Patricia K. Quinn, and Jochen Stutz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1977–1996,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) photolysis is an important source of hydroxyl radicals (OH). Vertical HONO fluxes, observed in the snow-free, wintertime Uintah Basin, Utah, USA, show that chemical formation of HONO on the ground closes the HONO budget. Under high NOx conditions, HONO formation is most likely due to photo-enhanced conversion of NO2 on the ground. Under moderate to low NO2 conditions, photolysis of HNO3 on the ground seems to be the most likely source of HONO.
Alex K. Y. Lee, Chia-Li Chen, Jun Liu, Derek J. Price, Raghu Betha, Lynn M. Russell, Xiaolu Zhang, and Christopher D. Cappa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15055–15067,Short summary
Understanding the mixing state of ambient black carbon (BC) and the chemical characteristics of its associated coatings is important to evaluate BC fate and environmental impacts. This study reports fresh secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation near traffic emissions during daytime. Our observations suggest that BC was unlikely the major condensation sink of SOA, and a portion of SOA condensed on BC surface was chemically different from other SOA particles that were externally mixed with BC.
Gouri Prabhakar, Caroline L. Parworth, Xiaolu Zhang, Hwajin Kim, Dominique E. Young, Andreas J. Beyersdorf, Luke D. Ziemba, John B. Nowak, Timothy H. Bertram, Ian C. Faloona, Qi Zhang, and Christopher D. Cappa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14747–14770,Short summary
This work assesses the processes that control the ambient concentrations of particulate nitrate in the the wintertime San Joaquin Valley of California through a combination of aircraft and surface measurements made during the DISCOVER-AQ study. We provide an observational demonstration of how nocturnal production and advection in aloft layers combines with daytime production and loss from entrainment and deposition to give rise to a distinct diurnal profile in surface nitrate concentrations.
Robert C. Rhew, Malte Julian Deventer, Andrew A. Turnipseed, Carsten Warneke, John Ortega, Steve Shen, Luis Martinez, Abigail Koss, Brian M. Lerner, Jessica B. Gilman, James N. Smith, Alex B. Guenther, and Joost A. de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13417–13438,Short summary
Alkenes emanate from both natural and anthropogenic sources and can contribute to atmospheric ozone production. This study measured
lightalkene (ethene, propene and butene) fluxes from a ponderosa pine forest using a novel relaxed eddy accumulation method, revealing much larger emissions than previously estimated and accounting for a significant fraction of OH reactivity. Emissions have a diurnal cycle related to sunlight and temperature, and the forest canopy appears to be the source.
Eben S. Cross, Leah R. Williams, David K. Lewis, Gregory R. Magoon, Timothy B. Onasch, Michael L. Kaminsky, Douglas R. Worsnop, and John T. Jayne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3575–3588,Short summary
Low-cost air quality sensor technologies offer new opportunities for fast and distributed measurements of air pollution, but a persistent characterization gap remains when it comes to evaluating sensor performance under realistic environmental sampling conditions. We present results from a newly developed integrated AQ-sensor system (ARISense) and demonstrate the utility of using high-dimensional model representation to improve the conversion of raw sensor signal to ambient concentration.
Nicola Zanca, Andrew T. Lambe, Paola Massoli, Marco Paglione, David R. Croasdale, Yatish Parmar, Emilio Tagliavini, Stefania Gilardoni, and Stefano Decesari
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10405–10421,Short summary
Simulating the composition of organic aerosol particles formed by chemical reactions in the atmosphere (secondary organic aerosol, SOA) is challenged by the enormous complexity of molecular species and chemical processes involved. We report spectroscopic (NMR) and chromatographic data for SOA samples obtained using a flow reactor designed to simulate photochemical ageing. We show that the composition of aged biogenic (monoterpene) SOA particles closely resembles that of ambient aerosols.
Abigail Koss, Bin Yuan, Carsten Warneke, Jessica B. Gilman, Brian M. Lerner, Patrick R. Veres, Jeff Peischl, Scott Eilerman, Rob Wild, Steven S. Brown, Chelsea R. Thompson, Thomas Ryerson, Thomas Hanisco, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jason M. St. Clair, Mitchell Thayer, Frank N. Keutsch, Shane Murphy, and Joost de Gouw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2941–2968,Short summary
Oil and gas extraction activity can cause air quality issues through emission of reactive chemicals. VOCs related to extraction operations in the United States were measured by PTR-ToF-MS from aircraft during the SONGNEX campaign in March–April 2015. The detailed analysis in this work provides a guide to interpreting PTR-ToF measurements in oil- and gas-producing regions, and it includes fundamental observations of VOC speciation and mixing ratios.
John Liggio, Samar G. Moussa, Jeremy Wentzell, Andrea Darlington, Peter Liu, Amy Leithead, Katherine Hayden, Jason O'Brien, Richard L. Mittermeier, Ralf Staebler, Mengistu Wolde, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8411–8427,Short summary
The emission and formation of gaseous organic acids from the oil sands industry in Canada is explored through aircraft measurements directly over and downwind wind of industrial facilities. Results demonstrated that the formation of organic acids through atmospheric chemical reactions dominated over the direct emissions from mining activities but could not be explicitly modeled. The results highlight the need for improved understanding of photochemical mechanisms leading to these species.
Andrew Lambe, Paola Massoli, Xuan Zhang, Manjula Canagaratna, John Nowak, Conner Daube, Chao Yan, Wei Nie, Timothy Onasch, John Jayne, Charles Kolb, Paul Davidovits, Douglas Worsnop, and William Brune
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2283–2298,Short summary
This work enables the study of NOx-influenced secondary organic aerosol formation chemistry in oxidation flow reactors to an extent that was not previously possible. The method uses reactions of exited oxygen O(1D) radicals (formed from ozone photolysis at 254 nm or nitrous oxide photolysis at 185 nm) with nitrous oxide (N2O) to produce NO. We demonstrate proof of concept using chemical ionization mass spectrometer measurements to detect gas-phase oxidation products of isoprene and
Jianlin Hu, Shantanu Jathar, Hongliang Zhang, Qi Ying, Shu-Hua Chen, Christopher D. Cappa, and Michael J. Kleeman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5379–5391,Short summary
Organic aerosol is a major constituent of ultrafine particulate matter (PM0.1). In this study, a source-oriented air quality model was used to simulate the concentrations and sources of primary and secondary organic aerosols in PM0.1 in California for a 9-year modeling period to provide useful information for epidemiological studies to further investigate the associations with health outcomes.
Ellis Shipley Robinson, Timothy B. Onasch, Douglas Worsnop, and Neil M. Donahue
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1139–1154,
Shan Zhou, Sonya Collier, Daniel A. Jaffe, Nicole L. Briggs, Jonathan Hee, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Lawrence Kleinman, Timothy B. Onasch, and Qi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2477–2493,Short summary
Wildfire plumes in the western US were sampled at a high-elevation site in summer 2013. Three distinct BBOA types were identified, representing biomass burning OA with different degrees of atmospheric processing. Analysis of consecutive BB plumes transported from the same fire source showed that photooxidation led to enhanced mass fractions of aged BBOAs but negligible net OA production. A possible reason is that SOA formation was almost entirely balanced by BBOA volatilization during transport.
Brian M. Lerner, Jessica B. Gilman, Kenneth C. Aikin, Elliot L. Atlas, Paul D. Goldan, Martin Graus, Roger Hendershot, Gabriel A. Isaacman-VanWertz, Abigail Koss, William C. Kuster, Richard A. Lueb, Richard J. McLaughlin, Jeff Peischl, Donna Sueper, Thomas B. Ryerson, Travis W. Tokarek, Carsten Warneke, Bin Yuan, and Joost A. de Gouw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 291–313,Short summary
Whole air sampling followed by analysis by gas chromatography is a common technique for characterization of trace volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere. We describe a new automated gas chromatograph–mass spectrograph which uses a Stirling cooler for sample preconcentration at −165 °C without the need for a cryogen such as liquid nitrogen. We also discuss potential sources of artifacts from our electropolished stainless steel sampling system and present results from two field campaigns.
Janarjan Bhandari, Swarup China, Timothy Onasch, Lindsay Wolff, Andrew Lambe, Paul Davidovits, Eben Cross, Adam Ahern, Jason Olfert, Manvendra Dubey, and Claudio Mazzoleni
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Soot particles emitted during the incomplete burning activities, absorb solar radiation and contribute to global warming. Light absorption by soot is also affected by its structure. To investigate whether the soot particle changes its structure or not, we used thermodenuding technique in which soot particles were passed through a heated tube (275 0C). Our study found only minor restructuring of soot suggesting no significant biases in absorption by the modification of soot structure alone.
Yuemei Han, Craig A. Stroud, John Liggio, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13929–13944,Short summary
This study investigates the acidity effect on the yield and chemical composition of α-pinene secondary organic aerosol based on a series of laboratory experiments performed using a photochemical reaction chamber under high- and low-NOx conditions. We have found that the acidity effect largely depends on NOx level and the inorganic acidity has a significant role to play in determining various organic aerosol chemical properties such as mass yields, oxidation state, and organic nitrate content.
Maria Zatko, Joseph Erbland, Joel Savarino, Lei Geng, Lauren Easley, Andrew Schauer, Timothy Bates, Patricia K. Quinn, Bonnie Light, David Morison, Hans D. Osthoff, Seth Lyman, William Neff, Bin Yuan, and Becky Alexander
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13837–13851,Short summary
This manuscript presents chemical and optical observations collected in the air and snow during UBWOS2014 in eastern Utah. These observations are used to calculate fluxes of reactive nitrogen associated with snow nitrate photolysis. Snow-sourced reactive nitrogen fluxes are compared to reactive nitrogen emission inventories to find that snow-sourced reactive nitrogen is a minor contributor to the reactive nitrogen budget, and thus wintertime ground-level ozone formation, in the Uintah Basin.
Petri Tiitta, Ari Leskinen, Liqing Hao, Pasi Yli-Pirilä, Miika Kortelainen, Julija Grigonyte, Jarkko Tissari, Heikki Lamberg, Anni Hartikainen, Kari Kuuspalo, Aki-Matti Kortelainen, Annele Virtanen, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, Mika Komppula, Simone Pieber, André S. H. Prévôt, Timothy B. Onasch, Douglas R. Worsnop, Hendryk Czech, Ralf Zimmermann, Jorma Jokiniemi, and Olli Sippula
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13251–13269,Short summary
Real-time measurements of OA aging and SOA formation from logwood combustion were conducted under dark and UV oxidation. Substantial SOA formation was observed in all experiments, leading to twice the initial OA mass emphasizing the importance of the burning conditions for the aging processes. The results prove that emissions are subject to intensive chemical processing in the atmosphere; e.g. the most of the POA was found to become oxidized after the ozone addition, forming aged POA.
Chao Yan, Wei Nie, Mikko Äijälä, Matti P. Rissanen, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Paola Massoli, Heikki Junninen, Tuija Jokinen, Nina Sarnela, Silja A. K. Häme, Siegfried Schobesberger, Francesco Canonaco, Lei Yao, André S. H. Prévôt, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Mikko Sipilä, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12715–12731,Short summary
Highly oxidized multifunctional compounds (HOMs) are known to have a significant contribution to secondary aerosol formation, yet their dominating formation pathways remain unclear in the atmosphere. We apply positive matrix factorization (PMF) on HOM data, and successfully retrieve factors representing different formation pathways. The results improve our understanding of HOM formation, and provide new perspectives on using PMF to study the variation of short-lived specie.
M. Dale Stokes, Grant Deane, Douglas B. Collins, Christopher Cappa, Timothy Bertram, Abigail Dommer, Steven Schill, Sara Forestieri, and Mathew Survilo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4257–4267,Short summary
A small breaking wave and foam simulator has been fabricated that allows the continuous analysis of the produced marine aerosols. Based on the original Marine Aerosol Reference Tank (MART) the miniature version allows the culturing of delicate planktonic organisms because it operates without a large, sheer-inducing pump. This allows the study of marine aerosol production and the effects of biologically controlled seawater chemistry under controlled and repeatable experimental conditions.
Jordan E. Krechmer, Michael Groessl, Xuan Zhang, Heikki Junninen, Paola Massoli, Andrew T. Lambe, Joel R. Kimmel, Michael J. Cubison, Stephan Graf, Ying-Hsuan Lin, Sri H. Budisulistiorini, Haofei Zhang, Jason D. Surratt, Richard Knochenmuss, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jose-Luis Jimenez, and Manjula R. Canagaratna
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3245–3262,
Sara D. Forestieri, Gavin C. Cornwell, Taylor M. Helgestad, Kathryn A. Moore, Christopher Lee, Gordon A. Novak, Camille M. Sultana, Xiaofei Wang, Timothy H. Bertram, Kimberly A. Prather, and Christopher D. Cappa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9003–9018,Short summary
Hygroscopic growth factors at 85 % relative humidity (GF(85 %)) were quantified along with particle composition for primary sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles generated in marine aerosol reference tanks (MARTs) from seawater in which two independent phytoplankton blooms were induced. The observed 5 to 15 % depression in the GF(85 %) values (relative to pure sea salt) is consistent with the large observed volume fractions of non-refractory organic matter (NR-OM) comprising the SSA.
Carsten Warneke, Michael Trainer, Joost A. de Gouw, David D. Parrish, David W. Fahey, A. R. Ravishankara, Ann M. Middlebrook, Charles A. Brock, James M. Roberts, Steven S. Brown, Jonathan A. Neuman, Brian M. Lerner, Daniel Lack, Daniel Law, Gerhard Hübler, Iliana Pollack, Steven Sjostedt, Thomas B. Ryerson, Jessica B. Gilman, Jin Liao, John Holloway, Jeff Peischl, John B. Nowak, Kenneth C. Aikin, Kyung-Eun Min, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Martin G. Graus, Mathew Richardson, Milos Z. Markovic, Nick L. Wagner, André Welti, Patrick R. Veres, Peter Edwards, Joshua P. Schwarz, Timothy Gordon, William P. Dube, Stuart A. McKeen, Jerome Brioude, Ravan Ahmadov, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Jack J. Lin, Athanasios Nenes, Glenn M. Wolfe, Thomas F. Hanisco, Ben H. Lee, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Joel A. Thornton, Frank N. Keutsch, Jennifer Kaiser, Jingqiu Mao, and Courtney D. Hatch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3063–3093,Short summary
In this paper we describe the experimental approach, the science goals and early results of the NOAA SENEX campaign, which was focused on studying the interactions between biogenic and anthropogenic emissions to form secondary pollutants. During SENEX, the NOAA WP-3D aircraft conducted 20 research flights between 27 May and 10 July 2013 based out of Smyrna, TN. The SENEX flights included day- and nighttime flights in the Southeast as well as flights over areas with intense shale gas extraction.
Vitali E. Fioletov, Chris A. McLinden, Alexander Cede, Jonathan Davies, Cristian Mihele, Stoyka Netcheva, Shao-Meng Li, and Jason O'Brien
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2961–2976,
Bin Yuan, Abigail Koss, Carsten Warneke, Jessica B. Gilman, Brian M. Lerner, Harald Stark, and Joost A. de Gouw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2735–2752,Short summary
We present the development of a hydronium (H3O+) time of flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (H3O+ ToF-CIMS). We characterize the humidity dependence of the reagent ions and VOC signals in details. The low mass cutoff issue of RF-only quadrupole leads to unusual humidity dependence of reagent ions. The new H3O+ ToF-CIMS was successfully deployed on the NOAA WP-3D research aircraft for the SONGNEX campaign in 2015 and some initial results from the SONGNEX campaign are presented.
Alma Hodzic, Prasad S. Kasibhatla, Duseong S. Jo, Christopher D. Cappa, Jose L. Jimenez, Sasha Madronich, and Rokjin J. Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7917–7941,Short summary
The global budget and spatial distribution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are highly uncertain in chemistry-climate models, which reflects our inability to characterize all phases of the OA lifecycle. We have performed global model simulations with the newly proposed formation and removal processes (photolysis and heterogeneous chemistry) and shown that SOA is a far more dynamic system, with 4 times stronger production rates and more efficient removal mechanisms, than assumed in models.
Alex K. Y. Lee, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, W. Richard Leaitch, Shao-Meng Li, Steve J. Sjostedt, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, John Liggio, and Anne Marie Macdonald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6721–6733,Short summary
Substantial biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) formation was investigated in a coniferous forest mountain region in Whistler, British Columbia. A largely biogenic aerosol growth episode was observed, providing a unique opportunity to investigate BSOA formation chemistry in a forested environment. In particular, our observations provide insights into the relative importance of different oxidation mechanisms between day and night.
Christopher D. Cappa, Katheryn R. Kolesar, Xiaolu Zhang, Dean B. Atkinson, Mikhail S. Pekour, Rahul A. Zaveri, Alla Zelenyuk, and Qi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6511–6535,Short summary
Measurements of size-dependent aerosol optical properties at visible wavelengths made during the 2010 CARES study are reported on, with a special focus on the characterization of supermicron particles. The relationships with and dependence upon particle composition, particle size, photochemical aging, water uptake and heating are discussed, along with broader implications of these in situ measurements for the interpretation of remote sensing products.
Dominique E. Young, Hwajin Kim, Caroline Parworth, Shan Zhou, Xiaolu Zhang, Christopher D. Cappa, Roger Seco, Saewung Kim, and Qi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5427–5451,Short summary
Aerosol chemistry and the sources and processes driving the observed temporal and diurnal variations of PM were studied in a polluted urban environment during winter 2013. These results were compared to a similar campaign from winter 2010. Meteorology strongly influenced PM composition, both directly and indirectly. Nighttime reactions played a more important role in 2013 and the influence from a nighttime formed residual layer that mixed down in the morning was also much more intense in 2013.
Christopher D. Cappa, Shantanu H. Jathar, Michael J. Kleeman, Kenneth S. Docherty, Jose L. Jimenez, John H. Seinfeld, and Anthony S. Wexler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3041–3059,Short summary
Losses of vapors to walls of chambers can negatively bias SOA formation measurements, consequently leading to low predicted SOA concentrations in air quality models. Here, we show that accounting for such vapor losses leads to substantial increases in the predicted amount of SOA formed from VOCs and to notable increases in the O : C atomic ratio in two US regions. Comparison with a variety of observational data suggests generally improved model performance when vapor wall losses are accounted for.
G. M. Wolfe, J. Kaiser, T. F. Hanisco, F. N. Keutsch, J. A. de Gouw, J. B. Gilman, M. Graus, C. D. Hatch, J. Holloway, L. W. Horowitz, B. H. Lee, B. M. Lerner, F. Lopez-Hilifiker, J. Mao, M. R. Marvin, J. Peischl, I. B. Pollack, J. M. Roberts, T. B. Ryerson, J. A. Thornton, P. R. Veres, and C. Warneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2597–2610,Short summary
This study uses airborne trace gas observations acquired over the southeast US to examine how both natural (isoprene) and anthropogenic (NOx) emissions influence the production of formaldehyde (HCHO). We find a 3-fold increase in HCHO yield between rural and polluted environments. State-of-the-science chemical mechanisms are generally able to reproduce this behavior. These results add confidence to global hydrocarbon emission inventories constrained by spaceborne HCHO observations.
S. H. Jathar, C. D. Cappa, A. S. Wexler, J. H. Seinfeld, and M. J. Kleeman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2309–2322,Short summary
Multi-generational chemistry schemes applied in regional models do not increase secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass production relative to traditional "two-product" schemes when both models are fitted to the same chamber data. The multi-generational chemistry schemes do change the predicted composition of SOA and the source attribution of SOA.
Bin Yuan, John Liggio, Jeremy Wentzell, Shao-Meng Li, Harald Stark, James M. Roberts, Jessica Gilman, Brian Lerner, Carsten Warneke, Rui Li, Amy Leithead, Hans D. Osthoff, Robert Wild, Steven S. Brown, and Joost A. de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2139–2153,Short summary
We describe high-resolution measurements of nitrated phenols using a time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ToF-CIMS). Strong diurnal profiles were observed for nitrated phenols, with concentration maxima at night. Box model simulations were able to reproduce the measured nitrated phenols.
L. Xu, L. R. Williams, D. E. Young, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, P. Massoli, E. Fortner, P. Chhabra, S. Herndon, W. A. Brooks, J. T. Jayne, D. R. Worsnop, A. C. Aiken, S. Liu, K. Gorkowski, M. K. Dubey, Z. L. Fleming, S. Visser, A. S. H. Prévôt, and N. L. Ng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1139–1160,Short summary
We investigate the spatial distribution of submicron aerosol in the greater London area as part of the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project in winter 2012. Although the concentrations of organic aerosol (OA) are similar between a rural and an urban site, the OA sources are different. We also examine the volatility of submicron aerosol at the rural site and find that the non-volatile organics have similar sources or have undergone similar chemical processing as refractory black carbon.
R. J. Wild, P. M. Edwards, T. S. Bates, R. C. Cohen, J. A. de Gouw, W. P. Dubé, J. B. Gilman, J. Holloway, J. Kercher, A. R. Koss, L. Lee, B. M. Lerner, R. McLaren, P. K. Quinn, J. M. Roberts, J. Stutz, J. A. Thornton, P. R. Veres, C. Warneke, E. Williams, C. J. Young, B. Yuan, K. J. Zarzana, and S. S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 573–583,Short summary
High wintertime ozone levels have been observed in the Uintah Basin, Utah, a sparsely populated rural region with intensive oil and gas operations. The reactive nitrogen budget plays an important role in tropospheric ozone formation, and we find that nighttime chemistry has a large effect on its partitioning. Much of the oxidation of reactive nitrogen during a high-ozone year occurred via heterogeneous uptake onto aerosol at night, keeping NOx at concentrations comparable to a low-ozone year.
J. B. Gilman, B. M. Lerner, W. C. Kuster, P. D. Goldan, C. Warneke, P. R. Veres, J. M. Roberts, J. A. de Gouw, I. R. Burling, and R. J. Yokelson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13915–13938,Short summary
A comprehensive suite of instruments was used to quantify the emissions of over 200 organic and inorganic gases from 56 laboratory burns of 18 different biomass fuel types common in the southeastern, southwestern, or northern United States. Emission ratios relative to carbon monoxide (CO) are used to characterize the composition of gases emitted by mass; OH reactivity; and potential secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors for the three different U.S. fuel regions presented here.
M. W. Shephard, C. A. McLinden, K. E. Cady-Pereira, M. Luo, S. G. Moussa, A. Leithead, J. Liggio, R. M. Staebler, A. Akingunola, P. Makar, P. Lehr, J. Zhang, D. K. Henze, D. B. Millet, J. O. Bash, L. Zhu, K. C. Wells, S. L. Capps, S. Chaliyakunnel, M. Gordon, K. Hayden, J. R. Brook, M. Wolde, and S.-M. Li
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5189–5211,Short summary
This study provides direct validations of Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite retrieved profiles against coincident aircraft profiles of carbon monoxide, ammonia, methanol, and formic acid, all of which are of interest for air quality. The comparisons are performed over the Canadian oil sands region during an intensive field campaign in support of the Joint Canada-Alberta Implementation Plan for the Oil Sands Monitoring (JOSM). Initial model evaluations are also provided.
Y. Liu, J. Liggio, R. Staebler, and S.-M. Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13569–13584,Short summary
This work for the first time demonstrated that organonitrogen compounds (NOC) can be formed efficiently via the uptake of ammonia by newly formed secondary organic aerosol using a smog chamber equipped with a HR-ToF-AMS. Based on the measured kinetics, this study suggests that light absorption by NOC in atmospheric particles may be important in regions where the BC contribution is minimal and NOC from ammonia should be considered with respect to overall deposition of nitrogen to ecosystems.
D. M. Lienhard, A. J. Huisman, U. K. Krieger, Y. Rudich, C. Marcolli, B. P. Luo, D. L. Bones, J. P. Reid, A. T. Lambe, M. R. Canagaratna, P. Davidovits, T. B. Onasch, D. R. Worsnop, S. S. Steimer, T. Koop, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13599–13613,Short summary
New data of water diffusivity in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) material and organic/inorganic model mixtures is presented over an extensive temperature range. Our data suggest that water diffusion in SOA is sufficiently fast so that it is unlikely to have significant consequences on the direct climatic effect under tropospheric conditions. Glass formation in SOA is unlikely to restrict homogeneous ice nucleation.
S. Carbone, T. Onasch, S. Saarikoski, H. Timonen, K. Saarnio, D. Sueper, T. Rönkkö, L. Pirjola, A. Häyrinen, D. Worsnop, and R. Hillamo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4803–4815,Short summary
The purpose of this study was to develop a method for the quantification of trace metal content in black carbon aerosol in real time, such as combustion-related emissions, by using the SP-AMS. The properties of 13 different trace metals (Na, Al, Ca, V, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Ba) were investigated in a controlled laboratory experiment. The results from the laboratory tests were applied to study fine particles in emissions of a heavy-fuel-oil-fired heating station.
M. Rinaldi, S. Gilardoni, M. Paglione, S. Sandrini, S. Fuzzi, P. Massoli, P. Bonasoni, P. Cristofanelli, A. Marinoni, V. Poluzzi, and S. Decesari
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11327–11340,Short summary
This work highlights the important contribution of organic aerosols to the composition of submicron particles at remote mountain sites. Moreover, it confirms the importance of regional-scale physical and chemical processes and of transboundary transport in determining the background aerosol composition at rural European sites.
M. Gordon, S.-M. Li, R. Staebler, A. Darlington, K. Hayden, J. O'Brien, and M. Wolde
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3745–3765,Short summary
Aircraft-based measurements of air pollutants from sources in the Canadian oil sands were made during a summer intensive field campaign in 2013. This paper describes the top-down emission rate retrieval algorithm (TERRA) to determine facility emissions of pollutants, using SO2 and CH4 as examples. Uncertainty of the emission rates estimated with TERRA is estimated as less than 30%, which is primarily due to the unknown SO2 and CH4 mixing ratios near the surface below the lowest flight level.
S. Eckhardt, B. Quennehen, D. J. L. Olivié, T. K. Berntsen, R. Cherian, J. H. Christensen, W. Collins, S. Crepinsek, N. Daskalakis, M. Flanner, A. Herber, C. Heyes, Ø. Hodnebrog, L. Huang, M. Kanakidou, Z. Klimont, J. Langner, K. S. Law, M. T. Lund, R. Mahmood, A. Massling, S. Myriokefalitakis, I. E. Nielsen, J. K. Nøjgaard, J. Quaas, P. K. Quinn, J.-C. Raut, S. T. Rumbold, M. Schulz, S. Sharma, R. B. Skeie, H. Skov, T. Uttal, K. von Salzen, and A. Stohl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9413–9433,Short summary
The concentrations of sulfate, black carbon and other aerosols in the Arctic are characterized by high values in late winter and spring (so-called Arctic Haze) and low values in summer. Models have long been struggling to capture this seasonality. In this study, we evaluate sulfate and BC concentrations from different updated models and emissions against a comprehensive pan-Arctic measurement data set. We find that the models improved but still struggle to get the maximum concentrations.
L. Lee, P. J. Wooldridge, J. deGouw, S. S. Brown, T. S. Bates, P. K. Quinn, and R. C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9313–9325,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol affects both the environment and human health. We characterized the aerosol composition in Uintah Basin by measuring the concentration of nitrooxy group moiety which is produced through chemical interaction of volatile organic compounds and NOx emitted largely from local human activity. We found nitrooxy compounds to be a persistent, if not dominant, portion of fine aerosol mass. Similar results may be expected from emissions due to traffic in cities.
K. R. Kolesar, C. Chen, D. Johnson, and C. D. Cappa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9327–9343,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol from the dark ozonolysis of α‑pinene was formed at a range of mass loadings from 1 to 800μg m-3. The amount of mass loss during evaporation in a thermodenuder was found to be independent of mass loading. A kinetic model of evaporation was fit to the observations and good agreement was obtained when the particle was either composed of dimers that decompose into semi-volatile monomers or when it was composed of low-volatility compounds that evaporate directly.
S. H. Jathar, C. D. Cappa, A. S. Wexler, J. H. Seinfeld, and M. J. Kleeman
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2553–2567,Short summary
Multi-generational oxidation of organic vapors can significantly alter the mass, chemical composition and properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Here, we implement a semi-explicit, constrained multi-generational oxidation model of Cappa and Wilson (2012) in a 3-D air quality model. When compared with results from a current-generation SOA model, we predict similar mass concentrations of SOA but a different chemical composition. O:C ratios of SOA are in line with those measured globally.
P. R. Veres, J. M. Roberts, R. J. Wild, P. M. Edwards, S. S. Brown, T. S. Bates, P. K. Quinn, J. E. Johnson, R. J. Zamora, and J. de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8101–8114,Short summary
In this paper laboratory work is documented establishing iodide ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (I- CIMS) as a sensitive method for the unambiguous detection of peroxynitric acid (HO2NO2; PNA). A dynamic calibration source for HO2NO2, HO2, and HONO was developed and calibrated using a novel total NOy detector (NOy CaRDS). The ambient observations of HO2NO2 using I- CIMS made during the 2013 and 2014 Uintah Basin Wintertime Ozone Study (UBWOS) are presented.
A. R. Koss, J. de Gouw, C. Warneke, J. B. Gilman, B. M. Lerner, M. Graus, B. Yuan, P. Edwards, S. S. Brown, R. Wild, J. M. Roberts, T. S. Bates, and P. K. Quinn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5727–5741,Short summary
Extraction of natural gas and oil is associated with a range of possible atmospheric environmental issues. Here we present an analysis of gas-phase hydrocarbon measurements taken in an oil and natural gas extraction area in Utah during a period of high wintertime ozone. We are able to constrain important chemical parameters related to emission sources and rates, hydrocarbon photochemistry, and VOC composition.
D. B. Atkinson, J. G. Radney, J. Lum, K. R. Kolesar, D. J. Cziczo, M. S. Pekour, Q. Zhang, A. Setyan, A. Zelenyuk, and C. D. Cappa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4045–4061,Short summary
This work describes an analysis of measurements of the influence of water uptake on the light-scattering properties of sub- and supermicron-sized particles as observed in the Sacramento, CA, USA region during the 2010 CARES field campaign. The observations are used to derive campaign-average effective hygroscopicity parameters for submicron oxygenated organic aerosol and for supermicron particles, and the influence of chloride displacement reactions on particle hygroscopicity is examined.
A. T. Lambe, P. S. Chhabra, T. B. Onasch, W. H. Brune, J. F. Hunter, J. H. Kroll, M. J. Cummings, J. F. Brogan, Y. Parmar, D. R. Worsnop, C. E. Kolb, and P. Davidovits
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3063–3075,Short summary
We compared the chemistry and yields of SOA generated from OH oxidation of gas-phase precursors in a flow reactor (high OH, short residence time) and environmental chambers (low OH, long residence time). We find that chemical composition of SOA produced in the flow reactor and in chambers is similar. SOA yields measured in the flow reactor are lower than in chambers. Seed particles increase the yield of SOA produced in the flow reactor and may account in part for higher SOA yields in chambers.
B. Yuan, P. R. Veres, C. Warneke, J. M. Roberts, J. B. Gilman, A. Koss, P. M. Edwards, M. Graus, W. C. Kuster, S.-M. Li, R. J. Wild, S. S. Brown, W. P. Dubé, B. M. Lerner, E. J. Williams, J. E. Johnson, P. K. Quinn, T. S. Bates, B. Lefer, P. L. Hayes, J. L. Jimenez, R. J. Weber, R. Zamora, B. Ervens, D. B. Millet, B. Rappenglück, and J. A. de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1975–1993,Short summary
In this work, secondary formation of formic acid at an urban site and a site in an oil and gas production region is studied. We investigated various gas phase formation pathways of formic acid, including those recently proposed, using a box model. The contributions from aerosol-related processes, fog events and air-snow exchange to formic acid are also quantified.
A. K. Y. Lee, M. D. Willis, R. M. Healy, T. B. Onasch, and J. P. D. Abbatt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1823–1841,Short summary
Understanding the impact of black carbon (BC) particles on human health and radiative forcing requires knowledge of the BC mixing state. This work investigates the mixing state of BC and other aerosol species in a typical urban area using a single particle mass spectrometry technique. Our results provide quantitative insight into the physical and chemical nature of BC-containing particles near emission and can be used as a basis for our developing understanding of BC evolution in the atmosphere.
C. Warneke, P. Veres, S. M. Murphy, J. Soltis, R. A. Field, M. G. Graus, A. Koss, S.-M. Li, R. Li, B. Yuan, J. M. Roberts, and J. A. de Gouw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 411–420,
I. Nuaaman, S.-M. Li, K. L. Hayden, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. Sueper, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, P. K. Quinn, and R. McLaren
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
In this paper, we focus on the measurement and reporting of mass concentrations of particulate chloride and sea salt in a marine area off the coast of California using a High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. We outline a method of deconvolving the total aerosol chloride mass into refractory and non-refractory components, previously not reported in the literature. This can be important in regions where refractory sea salt aerosols can contribute to the aerosol chloride signal measured with t
R. Ahmadov, S. McKeen, M. Trainer, R. Banta, A. Brewer, S. Brown, P. M. Edwards, J. A. de Gouw, G. J. Frost, J. Gilman, D. Helmig, B. Johnson, A. Karion, A. Koss, A. Langford, B. Lerner, J. Olson, S. Oltmans, J. Peischl, G. Pétron, Y. Pichugina, J. M. Roberts, T. Ryerson, R. Schnell, C. Senff, C. Sweeney, C. Thompson, P. R. Veres, C. Warneke, R. Wild, E. J. Williams, B. Yuan, and R. Zamora
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 411–429,Short summary
High 2013 wintertime O3 pollution events associated with oil/gas production within the Uinta Basin are studied using a 3D model. It's able quantitatively to reproduce these events using emission estimates of O3 precursors based on ambient measurements (top-down approach), but unable to reproduce them using a recent bottom-up emission inventory for the oil/gas industry. The role of various physical and meteorological processes, chemical species and pathways contributing to high O3 are quantified.
M. R. Canagaratna, J. L. Jimenez, J. H. Kroll, Q. Chen, S. H. Kessler, P. Massoli, L. Hildebrandt Ruiz, E. Fortner, L. R. Williams, K. R. Wilson, J. D. Surratt, N. M. Donahue, J. T. Jayne, and D. R. Worsnop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 253–272,Short summary
Atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O:C), hydrogen-to-carbon (H:C), and organic mass-to-organic carbon (OM:OC) ratios of ambient organic aerosol (OA) species provide key constraints for understanding their sources and impacts. Here an improved method for obtaining accurate O:C, H:C, and OM:OC with a widely used aerosol mass spectrometer is developed. These results imply that OA is more oxidized than previously estimated and indicate the need for new chemical mechanisms that simulate ambient oxidation.
P. S. Chhabra, A. T. Lambe, M. R. Canagaratna, H. Stark, J. T. Jayne, T. B. Onasch, P. Davidovits, J. R. Kimmel, and D. R. Worsnop
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1–18,Short summary
Authors of this publication used acetate chemical ionization mass spectrometry (acetate-CIMS) to measure experimental products of alpha-pinene and naphthalene oxidation formed in a flow reactor. Acetate-CIMS instrumentation is selective toward carboxylic acid compounds which are readily formed in atmospheric photooxidation processes. Spectral information was used to identify previously measured products of both systems and to estimate their volatilities.
M. D. Willis, A. K. Y. Lee, T. B. Onasch, E. C. Fortner, L. R. Williams, A. T. Lambe, D. R. Worsnop, and J. P. D. Abbatt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4507–4516,
B. H. Samset, G. Myhre, A. Herber, Y. Kondo, S.-M. Li, N. Moteki, M. Koike, N. Oshima, J. P. Schwarz, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, N. Bellouin, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, S. J. Ghan, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, J. E. Penner, M. Schulz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, and K. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12465–12477,Short summary
Far from black carbon (BC) emission sources, present climate models are unable to reproduce flight measurements. By comparing recent models with data, we find that the atmospheric lifetime of BC may be overestimated in models. By adjusting modeled BC concentrations to measurements in remote regions - over oceans and at high altitudes - we arrive at a reduced estimate for BC radiative forcing over the industrial era.
Y. Liu, L. Huang, S.-M. Li, T. Harner, and J. Liggio
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12195–12207,
R. Li, C. Warneke, M. Graus, R. Field, F. Geiger, P. R. Veres, J. Soltis, S.-M. Li, S. M. Murphy, C. Sweeney, G. Pétron, J. M. Roberts, and J. de Gouw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3597–3610,
C. Warneke, F. Geiger, P. M. Edwards, W. Dube, G. Pétron, J. Kofler, A. Zahn, S. S. Brown, M. Graus, J. B. Gilman, B. M. Lerner, J. Peischl, T. B. Ryerson, J. A. de Gouw, and J. M. Roberts
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10977–10988,
K. C. Kaku, J. S. Reid, N. T. O'Neill, P. K. Quinn, D. J. Coffman, and T. F. Eck
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3399–3412,
Y. Liu, S.-M. Li, and J. Liggio
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9201–9211,
M. Gordon, A. Vlasenko, R. M. Staebler, C. Stroud, P. A. Makar, J. Liggio, S.-M. Li, and S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9087–9097,
T. R. Dallmann, T. B. Onasch, T. W. Kirchstetter, D. R. Worton, E. C. Fortner, S. C. Herndon, E. C. Wood, J. P. Franklin, D. R. Worsnop, A. H. Goldstein, and R. A. Harley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7585–7599,
S. Gilardoni, P. Massoli, L. Giulianelli, M. Rinaldi, M. Paglione, F. Pollini, C. Lanconelli, V. Poluzzi, S. Carbone, R. Hillamo, L. M. Russell, M. C. Facchini, and S. Fuzzi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6967–6981,
A. Setyan, C. Song, M. Merkel, W. B. Knighton, T. B. Onasch, M. R. Canagaratna, D. R. Worsnop, A. Wiedensohler, J. E. Shilling, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6477–6494,
M. Paglione, S. Saarikoski, S. Carbone, R. Hillamo, M. C. Facchini, E. Finessi, L. Giulianelli, C. Carbone, S. Fuzzi, F. Moretti, E. Tagliavini, E. Swietlicki, K. Eriksson Stenström, A. S. H. Prévôt, P. Massoli, M. Canaragatna, D. Worsnop, and S. Decesari
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5089–5110,
T. P. Riedel, G. M. Wolfe, K. T. Danas, J. B. Gilman, W. C. Kuster, D. M. Bon, A. Vlasenko, S.-M. Li, E. J. Williams, B. M. Lerner, P. R. Veres, J. M. Roberts, J. S. Holloway, B. Lefer, S. S. Brown, and J. A. Thornton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3789–3800,
M. Chin, T. Diehl, Q. Tan, J. M. Prospero, R. A. Kahn, L. A. Remer, H. Yu, A. M. Sayer, H. Bian, I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. N. Holben, S. G. Howell, B. J. Huebert, N. C. Hsu, D. Kim, T. L. Kucsera, R. C. Levy, M. I. Mishchenko, X. Pan, P. K. Quinn, G. L. Schuster, D. G. Streets, S. A. Strode, O. Torres, and X.-P. Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3657–3690,
J. C. Corbin, B. Sierau, M. Gysel, M. Laborde, A. Keller, J. Kim, A. Petzold, T. B. Onasch, U. Lohmann, and A. A. Mensah
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2591–2603,
C. D. Cappa, E. J. Williams, D. A. Lack, G. M. Buffaloe, D. Coffman, K. L. Hayden, S. C. Herndon, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, P. Massoli, R. McLaren, I. Nuaaman, T. B. Onasch, and P. K. Quinn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1337–1352,
S. Zhou, L. Gonzalez, A. Leithead, Z. Finewax, R. Thalman, A. Vlasenko, S. Vagle, L.A. Miller, S.-M. Li, S. Bureekul, H. Furutani, M. Uematsu, R. Volkamer, and J. Abbatt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1371–1384,
H. Grythe, J. Ström, R. Krejci, P. Quinn, and A. Stohl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1277–1297,
L. R. Williams, L. A. Gonzalez, J. Peck, D. Trimborn, J. McInnis, M. R. Farrar, K. D. Moore, J. T. Jayne, W. A. Robinson, D. K. Lewis, T. B. Onasch, M. R. Canagaratna, A. Trimborn, M. T. Timko, G. Magoon, R. Deng, D. Tang, E. de la Rosa Blanco, A. S. H. Prévôt, K. A. Smith, and D. R. Worsnop
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3271–3280,
D. A. Lack and J. M. Langridge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10535–10543,
J. R. Brook, P. A. Makar, D. M. L. Sills, K. L. Hayden, and R. McLaren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10461–10482,
P. M. Edwards, C. J. Young, K. Aikin, J. deGouw, W. P. Dubé, F. Geiger, J. Gilman, D. Helmig, J. S. Holloway, J. Kercher, B. Lerner, R. Martin, R. McLaren, D. D. Parrish, J. Peischl, J. M. Roberts, T. B. Ryerson, J. Thornton, C. Warneke, E. J. Williams, and S. S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8955–8971,
T. S. Bates, P. K. Quinn, J. E. Johnson, A. Corless, F. J. Brechtel, S. E. Stalin, C. Meinig, and J. F. Burkhart
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2115–2120,
A. Petzold, J. A. Ogren, M. Fiebig, P. Laj, S.-M. Li, U. Baltensperger, T. Holzer-Popp, S. Kinne, G. Pappalardo, N. Sugimoto, C. Wehrli, A. Wiedensohler, and X.-Y. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8365–8379,
S. Chen, W. H. Brune, A. T. Lambe, P. Davidovits, and T. B. Onasch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5017–5031,
S. Lance, T. Raatikainen, T. B. Onasch, D. R. Worsnop, X.-Y. Yu, M. L. Alexander, M. R. Stolzenburg, P. H. McMurry, J. N. Smith, and A. Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5049–5062,
A. Petzold, T. Onasch, P. Kebabian, and A. Freedman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1141–1151,
L. Ahlm, K. M. Shakya, L. M. Russell, J. C. Schroder, J. P. S. Wong, S. J. Sjostedt, K. L. Hayden, J. Liggio, J. J. B. Wentzell, H. A. Wiebe, C. Mihele, W. R. Leaitch, and A. M. Macdonald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3393–3407,
J. Liggio and S.-M. Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2989–3002,
D. A. Lack, R. Bahreini, J. M. Langridge, J. B. Gilman, and A. M. Middlebrook
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2415–2422,
S. B. Dalsøren, B. H. Samset, G. Myhre, J. J. Corbett, R. Minjares, D. Lack, and J. S. Fuglestvedt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1941–1955,
C. D. Cappa, X. Zhang, C. L. Loza, J. S. Craven, L. D. Yee, and J. H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1591–1606,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Validation of aerosol backscatter profiles from Raman lidar and ceilometer using balloon-borne measurementsImpacts of coagulation on the appearance time method for new particle growth rate evaluation and their correctionsPM2.5 surface concentrations in southern West African urban areas based on sun photometer and satellite observationsObservations on aerosol optical properties and scavenging during cloud eventsAssessing the vertical structure of Arctic aerosols using balloon-borne measurementsAn overview of the ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) project: aerosol–cloud–radiation interactions in the southeast Atlantic basinMeasurement report: aerosol hygroscopic properties extended to 600 nm in the urban environmentSpatiotemporal variation and trends in equivalent black carbon in the Helsinki metropolitan area in FinlandCharacteristics of sub-10 nm particle emissions from in-use commercial aircraft observed at Narita International AirportThe CLoud–Aerosol–Radiation Interaction and Forcing: Year 2017 (CLARIFY-2017) measurement campaignMeasurement report: quantifying source contribution of fossil fuels and biomass-burning black carbon aerosol in the southeastern margin of the Tibetan PlateauThe electrical activity of Saharan dust as perceived from surface electric field observationsLong-term measurement of sub-3 nm particles and their precursor gases in the boreal forestVariability in the mass absorption cross section of black carbon (BC) aerosols is driven by BC internal mixing state at a central European background site (Melpitz, Germany) in winterOptical and hygroscopic properties of black carbon influenced by particle microphysics at the top of the anthropogenically polluted boundary layerMeasurement report: Properties of aerosol and gases in the vertical profile during the LAPSE-RATE campaignAircraft vertical profiles during summertime regional and Saharan dust scenarios over the north-western Mediterranean basin: aerosol optical and physical propertiesAfrican dust particles over the western Caribbean – Part I: Impact on air quality over the Yucatán PeninsulaDirect measurements of black carbon fluxes in central Beijing using the eddy covariance methodMeasurements to determine the mixing state of black carbon emitted from the 2017–2018 California wildfires and urban Los AngelesWhat can we learn about urban air quality with regard to the first outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic? A case study from central EuropeMeasurement report: Source and mixing state of black carbon aerosol in the North China Plain: implications for radiative effectThe potential role of organics in new particle formation and initial growth in the remote tropical upper troposphereImpacts of long-range transport of aerosols on marine-boundary-layer clouds in the eastern North AtlanticInfluence of vegetation on occurrence and time distributions of regional new aerosol particle formation and growthQuantifying bioaerosol concentrations in dust clouds through online UV-LIF and mass spectrometry measurements at the Cape Verde Atmospheric ObservatoryNew particle formation at urban and high-altitude remote sites in the south-eastern Iberian PeninsulaCharacterization of submicron organic particles in Beijing during summertime: comparison between SP-AMS and HR-AMSThe characterization of Taklamakan dust properties using a multiwavelength Raman polarization lidar in Kashi, ChinaFrom a polar to a marine environment: has the changing Arctic led to a shift in aerosol light scattering properties?Atmospheric new particle formation characteristics in the Arctic as measured at Mount Zeppelin, Svalbard, from 2016 to 2018Rapid evolution of aerosol particles and their optical properties downwind of wildfires in the western USDistinct aerosol effects on cloud-to-ground lightning in the plateau and basin regions of Sichuan, Southwest ChinaSpatial and temporal representativeness of point measurements for nitrogen dioxide pollution levels in citiesVertical variability of the properties of highly aged biomass burning aerosol transported over the southeast Atlantic during CLARIFY-2017Large contribution of organics to condensational growth and formation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the remote marine boundary layerDecennial time trends and diurnal patterns of particle number concentrations in a central European city between 2008 and 2018Roles of climate variability on the rapid increases of early winter haze pollution in North China after 2010Drivers of cloud droplet number variability in the summertime in the southeastern United StatesRoll vortices induce new particle formation bursts in the planetary boundary layerDeposition of light-absorbing particles in glacier snow of the Sunderdhunga Valley, the southern forefront of Central HimalayaLarge-scale ion generation for precipitation of atmospheric aerosolsAerosol light absorption and the role of extremely low volatility organic compoundsSize-resolved particle number emissions in Beijing determined from measured particle size distributionsEffects of marine fuel sulfur restrictions on particle number concentrations and size distributions in ship plumes at the Baltic SeaDaytime aerosol optical depth above low-level clouds is similar to that in adjacent clear skies at the same heights: airborne observation above the southeast AtlanticAbsorption closure in highly aged biomass burning smokeAerosol pollution maps and trends over Germany with hourly data at four rural background stations from 2009 to 2018Measurement report: Cloud Processes and the Transport of Biological Emissions Regulate Southern Ocean Particle and Cloud Condensation Nuclei ConcentrationsDominant synoptic patterns associated with the decay process of PM2.5 pollution episodes around Beijing
Simone Brunamonti, Giovanni Martucci, Gonzague Romanens, Yann Poltera, Frank G. Wienhold, Maxime Hervo, Alexander Haefele, and Francisco Navas-Guzmán
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2267–2285,Short summary
Lidar (light detection and ranging) is a class of remote-sensing instruments that are widely used for the monitoring of aerosol properties in the lower levels of the atmosphere, yet their measurements are affected by several sources of uncertainty. Here we present the first comparison of two lidar systems against a fully independent instrument carried by meteorological balloons. We show that both lidars achieve a good agreement with the high-precision balloon measurements up to 6 km altitude.
Runlong Cai, Chenxi Li, Xu-Cheng He, Chenjuan Deng, Yiqun Lu, Rujing Yin, Chao Yan, Lin Wang, Jingkun Jiang, Markku Kulmala, and Juha Kangasluoma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2287–2304,Short summary
Growth rate determines the survival probability of atmospheric new particles and hence their impacts. We clarify the impacts of coagulation on the values retrieved by the appearance time method, which is widely used for growth rate evaluation. A new formula with coagulation correction is proposed based on derivation and tested using both models and atmospheric data. We show that the sub-3 nm particle growth rate in polluted environments may be overestimated without the coagulation correction.
Jean-François Léon, Aristide Barthélémy Akpo, Mouhamadou Bedou, Julien Djossou, Marleine Bodjrenou, Véronique Yoboué, and Cathy Liousse
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1815–1834,Short summary
We have investigated the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and its relation to PM2.5 surface concentrations in southern West Africa based on in situ observations (2015–2017 period) and MODIS satellite data (2003–2019). MODIS AODs are validated using a regional network of handheld and automatic sun photometers. Satellite-derived PM2.5 shows an increasing trend during the short dry period that is possibly linked to the increase in anthropogenic emission over this area.
Antti Ruuskanen, Sami Romakkaniemi, Harri Kokkola, Antti Arola, Santtu Mikkonen, Harri Portin, Annele Virtanen, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, Mika Komppula, and Ari Leskinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1683–1695,Short summary
The study focuses mainly on cloud-scavenging efficiency of absorbing particulate matter (mainly black carbon) but additionally covers cloud-scavenging efficiency of scattering particles and statistics of cloud condensation nuclei. The main findings give insight into how black carbon is distributed in different particle sizes and the sensitivity to cloud scavenged. The main findings are useful for large-scale modelling for evaluating cloud scavenging.
Jessie M. Creamean, Gijs de Boer, Hagen Telg, Fan Mei, Darielle Dexheimer, Matthew D. Shupe, Amy Solomon, and Allison McComiskey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1737–1757,Short summary
Arctic clouds play a role in modulating sea ice extent. Importantly, aerosols facilitate cloud formation, and thus it is crucial to understand the interactions between aerosols and clouds. Vertical measurements of aerosols and clouds are needed to tackle this issue. We present results from balloon-borne measurements of aerosols and clouds over the course of 2 years in northern Alaska. These data shed light onto the vertical distributions of aerosols relative to clouds spanning multiple seasons.
Jens Redemann, Robert Wood, Paquita Zuidema, Sarah J. Doherty, Bernadette Luna, Samuel E. LeBlanc, Michael S. Diamond, Yohei Shinozuka, Ian Y. Chang, Rei Ueyama, Leonhard Pfister, Ju-Mee Ryoo, Amie N. Dobracki, Arlindo M. da Silva, Karla M. Longo, Meloë S. Kacenelenbogen, Connor J. Flynn, Kristina Pistone, Nichola M. Knox, Stuart J. Piketh, James M. Haywood, Paola Formenti, Marc Mallet, Philip Stier, Andrew S. Ackerman, Susanne E. Bauer, Ann M. Fridlind, Gregory R. Carmichael, Pablo E. Saide, Gonzalo A. Ferrada, Steven G. Howell, Steffen Freitag, Brian Cairns, Brent N. Holben, Kirk D. Knobelspiesse, Simone Tanelli, Tristan S. L'Ecuyer, Andrew M. Dzambo, Ousmane O. Sy, Greg M. McFarquhar, Michael R. Poellot, Siddhant Gupta, Joseph R. O'Brien, Athanasios Nenes, Mary Kacarab, Jenny P. S. Wong, Jennifer D. Small-Griswold, Kenneth L. Thornhill, David Noone, James R. Podolske, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Peter Pilewskie, Hong Chen, Sabrina P. Cochrane, Arthur J. Sedlacek, Timothy J. Lang, Eric Stith, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Richard A. Ferrare, Sharon P. Burton, Chris A. Hostetler, David J. Diner, Felix C. Seidel, Steven E. Platnick, Jeffrey S. Myers, Kerry G. Meyer, Douglas A. Spangenberg, Hal Maring, and Lan Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1507–1563,Short summary
Southern Africa produces significant biomass burning emissions whose impacts on regional and global climate are poorly understood. ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) is a 5-year NASA investigation designed to study the key processes that determine these climate impacts. The main purpose of this paper is to familiarize the broader scientific community with the ORACLES project, the dataset it produced, and the most important initial findings.
Chuanyang Shen, Gang Zhao, Weilun Zhao, Ping Tian, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1375–1388,Short summary
Submicron particles larger than 300 nm dominate the aerosol light extinction and mass concentration in the urban environment. Aerosol hygroscopic properties extended to 600 nm were investigated at an urban site. Our results find that there exists a large fraction of a less hygroscopic group above 300 nm, and the hygroscopicity in this size range is enhanced significantly with the development of pollution levels. The hygroscopicity variation contributes greatly to the low visibility.
Krista Luoma, Jarkko V. Niemi, Minna Aurela, Pak Lun Fung, Aku Helin, Tareq Hussein, Leena Kangas, Anu Kousa, Topi Rönkkö, Hilkka Timonen, Aki Virkkula, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1173–1189,Short summary
This study combined black carbon measurements from 15 Finnish sites that represented different environments (traffic, detached housing area, urban background, and regional background). The seasonal and diurnal variations in the black carbon concentration were associated with local emissions from traffic and residential wood burning. The study observed decreasing trends in the black carbon concentration and associated them with decreases in traffic emissions.
Nobuyuki Takegawa, Yoshiko Murashima, Akihiro Fushimi, Kentaro Misawa, Yuji Fujitani, Katsumi Saitoh, and Hiromu Sakurai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1085–1104,Short summary
The characterization of particle emissions from aircraft is important for the assessment of the aviation impacts on climate and human health. We conducted field observations of aerosols near a runway at Narita International Airport in February 2018. We investigated particle number emissions from in-use commercial aircraft under real-world operating conditions, and we found the significance of sub-10 nm size ranges in take-off plumes for both total and non-volatile particles.
Jim M. Haywood, Steven J. Abel, Paul A. Barrett, Nicolas Bellouin, Alan Blyth, Keith N. Bower, Melissa Brooks, Ken Carslaw, Haochi Che, Hugh Coe, Michael I. Cotterell, Ian Crawford, Zhiqiang Cui, Nicholas Davies, Beth Dingley, Paul Field, Paola Formenti, Hamish Gordon, Martin de Graaf, Ross Herbert, Ben Johnson, Anthony C. Jones, Justin M. Langridge, Florent Malavelle, Daniel G. Partridge, Fanny Peers, Jens Redemann, Philip Stier, Kate Szpek, Jonathan W. Taylor, Duncan Watson-Parris, Robert Wood, Huihui Wu, and Paquita Zuidema
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1049–1084,Short summary
Every year, the seasonal cycle of biomass burning from agricultural practices in Africa creates a huge plume of smoke that travels many thousands of kilometres over the Atlantic Ocean. This study provides an overview of a measurement campaign called the cloud–aerosol–radiation interaction and forcing for year 2017 (CLARIFY-2017) and documents the rationale, deployment strategy, observations, and key results from the campaign which utilized the heavily equipped FAAM atmospheric research aircraft.
Huikun Liu, Qiyuan Wang, Li Xing, Yong Zhang, Ting Zhang, Weikang Ran, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 973–987,Short summary
We conducted black carbon (BC) source apportionment on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) by an improved aethalometer model with the site-dependent Ångström exponent and BC mass absorption cross section (MAC). The result shows that the biomass-burning BC on the TP is slightly higher than fossil fuel BC, mainly from cross-border transportation instead of the local region, and the BC radiative effect is lower than that in the southwestern Himalaya but higher than that on the northeastern TP.
Vasiliki Daskalopoulou, Sotirios A. Mallios, Zbigniew Ulanowski, George Hloupis, Anna Gialitaki, Ioanna Tsikoudi, Konstantinos Tassis, and Vassilis Amiridis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 927–949,Short summary
This research highlights the detection of charged Saharan dust in Greece and provides indications of charge separation in the plumes through the first-ever co-located ground electric field measurements and sophisticated lidar observations. We provide a robust methodology for the extraction of a fair-weather proxy field used to assess the effect of lofted dust particles to the electric field and insert a realistic modelling aspect to the charge accumulation areas within electrically active dust.
Juha Sulo, Nina Sarnela, Jenni Kontkanen, Lauri Ahonen, Pauli Paasonen, Tiia Laurila, Tuija Jokinen, Juha Kangasluoma, Heikki Junninen, Mikko Sipilä, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Katrianne Lehtipalo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 695–715,Short summary
In this study, we analyzed over 5 years of sub-3 nm particle concentrations and their precursor vapors, identifying atmoshperic vapors important to the formation of these particles in the boreal forest. We also observed seasonal differences in both particle and precursor vapor concentrations and the formation pathways of these particles. Our results confirm the importance of organic vapors in atmospheric aerosol formation and highlight key seasonal differences that require further study.
Jinfeng Yuan, Robin Lewis Modini, Marco Zanatta, Andreas B. Herber, Thomas Müller, Birgit Wehner, Laurent Poulain, Thomas Tuch, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel-Beer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 635–655,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) aerosols contribute substantially to climate warming due to their unique light absorption capabilities. We performed field measurements at a central European background site in winter and found that variability in the absorption efficiency of BC particles is driven mainly by their internal mixing state. Our results suggest that, at this site, knowing the BC mixing state is sufficient to describe BC light absorption enhancements due to the lensing effect in good approximation.
Shuo Ding, Dantong Liu, Kang Hu, Delong Zhao, Ping Tian, Fei Wang, Ruijie Li, Yichen Chen, Hui He, Mengyu Huang, and Deping Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 681–694,Short summary
In this study, we for the first time characterized the detailed black carbon (BC) microphysics at a mountain site located at the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) influenced by surface emission over the North China Plain. We investigated the optical and hygroscopic properties of BC at this level as influenced by microphysical properties. Such information will constrain the impacts of BC in influencing the PBL dynamics and low-level cloud formation over anthropogenically polluted regions.
David Brus, Jani Gustafsson, Ville Vakkari, Osku Kemppinen, Gijs de Boer, and Anne Hirsikko
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 517–533,Short summary
This paper summarizes Finnish Meteorological Institute and Kansas State University unmanned aerial vehicle measurements during the summer 2018 Lower Atmospheric Process Studies at Elevation – a Remotely-piloted Aircraft Team Experiment (LAPSE-RATE) campaign in the San Luis Valley, providing an overview of the rotorcraft deployed, payloads, scientific goals and flight strategies and presenting observations of atmospheric thermodynamics and aerosol and gas parameters in the vertical column.
Jesús Yus-Díez, Marina Ealo, Marco Pandolfi, Noemí Perez, Gloria Titos, Griša Močnik, Xavier Querol, and Andrés Alastuey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 431–455,Short summary
Here we describe the vertical profiles of extensive (scattering and absorption) and intensive (e.g. albedo and asymmetry parameter) aerosol optical properties from coupling ground-based measurements from two sites in north-eastern Spain and airborne measurements performed with an aircraft. We analyse different aerosol layers along the vertical profile for a regional pollution episode and a Saharan dust intrusion. The results show a change with height depending on the different measured layers.
Carolina Ramírez-Romero, Alejandro Jaramillo, María F. Córdoba, Graciela B. Raga, Javier Miranda, Harry Alvarez-Ospina, Daniel Rosas, Talib Amador, Jong Sung Kim, Jacqueline Yakobi-Hancock, Darrel Baumgardner, and Luis A. Ladino
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 239–253,Short summary
Field measurements were conducted to confirm the arrival of African dust on the Yucatàn Peninsula. Aerosol particles were monitored at ground level by different online and off-line sensors. Several particulate matter peaks were observed with a relative increase in their levels of up to 500 % with respect to background conditions. Based on the chemical composition, back trajectories, vertical profiles, reanalysis, and satellite images, it was found that the peaks are linked to African dust.
Rutambhara Joshi, Dantong Liu, Eiko Nemitz, Ben Langford, Neil Mullinger, Freya Squires, James Lee, Yunfei Wu, Xiaole Pan, Pingqing Fu, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Qiang Zhang, Ruili Wu, Oliver Wild, Michael Flynn, Hugh Coe, and James Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 147–162,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) is a component of particulate matter which has significant effects on climate and human health. Sources of BC include biomass burning, transport, industry and domestic cooking and heating. In this study, we measured BC emissions in Beijing, finding a dominance of traffic emissions over all other sources. The quantitative method presented here has benefits for revising widely used emissions inventories and for understanding BC sources with impacts on air quality and climate.
Joseph Ko, Trevor Krasowsky, and George Ban-Weiss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15635–15664,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) is the second strongest climate forcing pollutant in the atmosphere, after carbon dioxide. Here, we seek to understand how BC microphysical properties vary with atmospheric contexts, as these properties can influence its radiative forcing. Consistent with previous studies, we found that biomass burning BC had thicker coatings and larger core diameters than fossil fuel BC. We also present evidence to show that atmospheric aging also increases BC coating thickness.
Imre Salma, Máté Vörösmarty, András Zénó Gyöngyösi, Wanda Thén, and Tamás Weidinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15725–15742,Short summary
Motor vehicle road traffic in Budapest was reduced by approximately 50% of its ordinary level due to COVID-19. In parallel, concentrations of most criteria air pollutants declined by 30–60%. Change rates of NO and NO2 with relative change in traffic intensity were the largest, total particle number concentration showed considerable dependency, while particulate matter mass concentrations did not appear to be related to urban traffic. Concentrations of O3 showed an increasing tendency.
Qiyuan Wang, Li Li, Jiamao Zhou, Jianhuai Ye, Wenting Dai, Huikun Liu, Yong Zhang, Renjian Zhang, Jie Tian, Yang Chen, Yunfei Wu, Weikang Ran, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15427–15442,Short summary
Recently, China has promulgated a series of regulations to reduce air pollutants. The decreased black carbon (BC) and co-emitted pollutants could affect the interactions between BC and other aerosols, which in turn results in changes in BC. Herein, we re-assessed the characteristics of BC of a representative pollution site in northern China in the final year of the Chinese
Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Air Pollution.
Agnieszka Kupc, Christina J. Williamson, Anna L. Hodshire, Jan Kazil, Eric Ray, T. Paul Bui, Maximilian Dollner, Karl D. Froyd, Kathryn McKain, Andrew Rollins, Gregory P. Schill, Alexander Thames, Bernadett B. Weinzierl, Jeffrey R. Pierce, and Charles A. Brock
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15037–15060,Short summary
Tropical upper troposphere over the Atlantic and Pacific oceans is a major source region of new particles. These particles are associated with the outflow from deep convection. We investigate the processes that govern the formation of these particles and their initial growth and show that none of the formation schemes commonly used in global models are consistent with observations. Using newer schemes indicates that organic compounds are likely important as nucleating and initial growth agents.
Yuan Wang, Xiaojian Zheng, Xiquan Dong, Baike Xi, Peng Wu, Timothy Logan, and Yuk L. Yung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14741–14755,Short summary
A recent aircraft field campaign near the Azores in the summer of 2017 provides ample observations of aerosols and clouds with detailed vertical information. This study utilizes those observational data in combination with the aerosol-aware large-eddy simulations and aerosol reanalysis data to examine the significance of the long-range-transported aerosol effect on marine-boundary-layer clouds. It is the first time that the ACE-ENA aircraft campaign data are used for this topic.
Imre Salma, Wanda Thén, Pasi Aalto, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Anikó Kern, Zoltán Barcza, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The distribution of monthly mean nucleation frequency possessed a characteristic pattern. Its shape was compared to those of environmental variables including vegetation-derived properties. The spring maximum in the occurrence frequency often overlapped with the positive T anomaly. The link between the heat stress and the occurrence minimum in summer could not be proved, while association between the occurrence frequency and vegetation growth dynamics was clearly identified in spring.
Douglas Morrison, Ian Crawford, Nicholas Marsden, Michael Flynn, Katie Read, Luis Neves, Virginia Foot, Paul Kaye, Warren Stanley, Hugh Coe, David Topping, and Martin Gallagher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14473–14490,Short summary
We provide conservative estimates of the concentrations of bacteria within transatlantic dust clouds, originating from the African continent. We observe significant seasonal differences in the overall concentrations of particles but no seasonal variation in the ratio between bacteria and dust. With bacteria contributing to ice formation at warmer temperatures than dust, our observations should improve the accuracy of climate models.
Juan Andrés Casquero-Vera, Hassan Lyamani, Lubna Dada, Simo Hakala, Pauli Paasonen, Roberto Román, Roberto Fraile, Tuukka Petäjä, Francisco José Olmo-Reyes, and Lucas Alados-Arboledas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14253–14271,Short summary
New particle formation was investigated at two stations located close to each other but at different altitudes: urban and high-altitude sites. Results show that sulfuric acid is able to explain a minimal fraction contribution to the observed growth rates and point to the availability of volatile organic compounds as the main factor controlling NPF events at both sites. A closer analysis of the NPF events that were observed at high-altitude sites during a Saharan dust episode was carried out.
Junfeng Wang, Jianhuai Ye, Dantong Liu, Yangzhou Wu, Jian Zhao, Weiqi Xu, Conghui Xie, Fuzhen Shen, Jie Zhang, Paul E. Ohno, Yiming Qin, Xiuyong Zhao, Scot T. Martin, Alex K. Y. Lee, Pingqing Fu, Daniel J. Jacob, Qi Zhang, Yele Sun, Mindong Chen, and Xinlei Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14091–14102,Short summary
We compared the organics in total submicron matter and those coated on BC cores during summertime in Beijing and found large differences between them. Traffic-related OA was associated significantly with BC, while cooking-related OA did not coat BC. In addition, a factor likely originated from primary biomass burning OA was only identified in BC-containing particles. Such a unique BBOA requires further field and laboratory studies to verify its presence and elucidate its properties and impacts.
Qiaoyun Hu, Haofei Wang, Philippe Goloub, Zhengqiang Li, Igor Veselovskii, Thierry Podvin, Kaitao Li, and Mikhail Korenskiy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13817–13834,Short summary
This study presents the characteristics of Taklamakan dust particles derived from lidar measurements collected in the dust aerosol observation field campaign. It provides comprehensive parameters for Taklamakan dust properties and vertical distributions of Taklamakan dust. This paper also points out the importance of polluted dust which was frequently observed in the field campaign. The results contribute to improving knowledge about dust and reducing uncertainties in the climatic model.
Dominic Heslin-Rees, Maria Burgos, Hans-Christen Hansson, Radovan Krejci, Johan Ström, Peter Tunved, and Paul Zieger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13671–13686,Short summary
Aerosol particles are one important key player in the Arctic climate. Using long-term measurements of particle light scattering from an observatory on Svalbard, this study investigates the reasons behind an observed shift towards larger particles seen in the last 2 decades. We find that increases in sea spray are the most likely cause. Air masses from the south-west have increased significantly, suggestive of a potential mechanism, whilst the retreat in sea ice has a marginal influence.
Haebum Lee, Kwangyul Lee, Chris Rene Lunder, Radovan Krejci, Wenche Aas, Jiyeon Park, Ki-Tae Park, Bang Yong Lee, Young Jun Yoon, and Kihong Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13425–13441,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) contributes to enhance the number of particles in the ambient atmosphere, affecting local air quality and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration. This study investigated NPF characteristics in the Arctic and showed that although formation and growth rates of nanoparticles were much lower than those in continental areas, NPF occurrence frequency was comparable and marine biogenic sources played important roles in production of condensing vapors for NPF.
Lawrence I. Kleinman, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Kouji Adachi, Peter R. Buseck, Sonya Collier, Manvendra K. Dubey, Anna L. Hodshire, Ernie Lewis, Timothy B. Onasch, Jeffery R. Pierce, John Shilling, Stephen R. Springston, Jian Wang, Qi Zhang, Shan Zhou, and Robert J. Yokelson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13319–13341,Short summary
Aerosols from wildfires affect the Earth's temperature by absorbing light or reflecting it back into space. This study investigates time-dependent chemical, microphysical, and optical properties of aerosols generated by wildfires in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Wildfire smoke plumes were traversed by an instrumented aircraft at locations near the fire and up to 3.5 h travel time downwind. Although there was no net aerosol production, aerosol particles grew and became more efficient scatters.
Pengguo Zhao, Zhanqing Li, Hui Xiao, Fang Wu, Youtong Zheng, Maureen C. Cribb, Xiaoai Jin, and Yunjun Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13379–13397,Short summary
We discussed the different aerosol effects on lightning in plateau and basin regions of Sichuan, southwestern China. In the plateau area, the aerosol concentration is low, and aerosols (via microphysical effects) inhibit the process of warm rain and stimulate convection and lightning activity. In the basin region, however, aerosols tend to show a significant radiative effect (reducing the solar radiation reaching the surface by absorbing and scattering) and inhibit the lightning.
Ying Zhu, Jia Chen, Xiao Bi, Gerrit Kuhlmann, Ka Lok Chan, Florian Dietrich, Dominik Brunner, Sheng Ye, and Mark Wenig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13241–13251,Short summary
Average NO2 concentration of on-street mobile measurements (MMs) near the monitoring stations (MSs) was found to be considerably higher than the MSs data. The common measurement height (H) and distance (D) of the MSs result in 27 % lower average concentrations in total than the concentration of our MMs. Another 21 % difference remained after correcting the influence of the measuring H and D. This result makes our city-wide measurements for capturing the full range of concentrations necessary.
Huihui Wu, Jonathan W. Taylor, Kate Szpek, Justin M. Langridge, Paul I. Williams, Michael Flynn, James D. Allan, Steven J. Abel, Joseph Pitt, Michael I. Cotterell, Cathryn Fox, Nicholas W. Davies, Jim Haywood, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12697–12719,Short summary
Airborne measurements of highly aged biomass burning aerosols (BBAs) over the remote southeast Atlantic provide unique aerosol parameters for climate models. Our observations demonstrate the persistence of strongly absorbing BBAs across wide regions of the South Atlantic. We also found significant vertical variation in the single-scattering albedo of these BBAs, as a function of relative chemical composition and size. Aerosol properties in the marine BL are suggested to be separated from the FT.
Guangjie Zheng, Chongai Kuang, Janek Uin, Thomas Watson, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12515–12525,Short summary
Condensational growth of Aitken-mode particles is a major source of cloud condensation nuclei in the remote marine boundary layer. It has been long thought that over remote oceans, condensation growth is dominated by sulfate that derives from ocean-emitted dimethyl sulfide. In this study, we present the first long-term observational evidence that, contrary to conventional thinking, organics play an even more important role than sulfate in particle growth over remote oceans throughout the year.
Santtu Mikkonen, Zoltán Németh, Veronika Varga, Tamás Weidinger, Ville Leinonen, Taina Yli-Juuti, and Imre Salma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12247–12263,Short summary
We determined decennial statistical time trends and diurnal statistical patterns of atmospheric particle number concentrations in various relevant size fractions in the city centre of Budapest in an interval of 2008–2018. The mean overall decrease rate of particles in different size fractions was approximately −5 % scaled for the 10-year measurement interval. The decline can be interpreted as a consequence of the decreased anthropogenic emissions in the city.
Yijia Zhang, Zhicong Yin, and Huijun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12211–12221,Short summary
Haze events in early winter in North China exhibited rapid growth after 2010, which was completely different from the slow decline observed before 2010. However, global warming and anthropogenic emissions could not explain this trend reversal well, which was puzzling. Our study found that four climate factors, exhibiting completely opposite trends before and after 2010, effectively drove the trend reversal of the haze pollution in North China.
Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Athanasios Nenes, Jack J. Lin, Charles A. Brock, Joost A. de Gouw, Jin Liao, Ann M. Middlebrook, and André Welti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12163–12176,Short summary
The number concentration of droplets in clouds in the summertime in the southeastern United States is influenced by aerosol variations but limited by the strong competition for supersaturated water vapor. Concurrent variations in vertical velocity magnify the response of cloud droplet number to aerosol increases by up to a factor of 5. Omitting the covariance of vertical velocity with aerosol number may therefore bias estimates of the cloud albedo effect from aerosols.
Janne Lampilahti, Hanna Elina Manninen, Katri Leino, Riikka Väänänen, Antti Manninen, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Tuomo Nieminen, Matti Leskinen, Joonas Enroth, Marja Bister, Sergej Zilitinkevich, Juha Kangasluoma, Heikki Järvinen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11841–11854,Short summary
In this work, by using co-located airborne and ground-based measurements, we show that counter-rotating horizontal circulations in the planetary boundary layer (roll vortices) frequently enhance regional new particle formation or induce localized bursts of new particle formation. These observations can be explained by the ability of the rolls to efficiently lift low-volatile vapors emitted from the surface to the top of the boundary layer where new particle formation is more favorable.
Jonas Svensson, Johan Ström, Henri Honkonen, Eija Asmi, Nathaniel B. Dkhar, Shresth Tayal, Ved P. Sharma, Rakesh Hooda, Matti Leppäranta, Hans-Werner Jacobi, Heikki Lihavainen, and Antti Hyvärinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Light-absorbing particles specifically affect snow melt in the Himalaya. Through measurements of the constituents in glacier snow pits from Indian Himalaya our investigations show that different snow layers display striking similarities. These similarities can be characterized by a deposition constant. Our results further indicate that mineral dust can be responsible for the majority of light absorption in the snow in this part of the Himalaya.
Shaoxiang Ma, He Cheng, Jiacheng Li, Maoyuan Xu, Dawei Liu, and Kostya Ostrikov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11717–11727,Short summary
Our work suggests that a large corona discharge system is an efficient and possibly economically sustainable way to increase the ion density in the open air and control the precipitation of atmospheric aerosols. Once the system is installed on a mountaintop, it will generate lots of charged nuclei, which may trigger water precipitation or fog elimination within a certain region in the downwind directions.
Antonios Tasoglou, Evangelos Louvaris, Kalliopi Florou, Aikaterini Liangou, Eleni Karnezi, Christos Kaltsonoudis, Ningxin Wang, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11625–11637,Short summary
A month-long set of summertime measurements in a remote area in the Mediterranean is used to quantify aerosol absorption. The measured light absorption was two or more times higher than that of fresh black carbon. The absorption enhancement due to the coating of black carbon cores by other aerosol components could explain only part of this absorption enhancement. The rest was due to brown carbon, mostly in the form of extremely low volatility organic compounds.
Jenni Kontkanen, Chenjuan Deng, Yueyun Fu, Lubna Dada, Ying Zhou, Jing Cai, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Simo Hakala, Tom V. Kokkonen, Zhuohui Lin, Yongchun Liu, Yonghong Wang, Chao Yan, Tuukka Petäjä, Jingkun Jiang, Markku Kulmala, and Pauli Paasonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11329–11348,Short summary
To estimate the impacts of atmospheric aerosol particles on air quality, knowledge of size distributions of particles emitted from anthropogenic sources is needed. We introduce a new method for determining size-resolved particle number emissions from measured particle size distributions. We apply our method to data measured in Beijing, China. We find that particle number emissions at our site are dominated by emissions of particles smaller than 30 nm, originating mainly from traffic.
Sami Seppälä, Joel Kuula, Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen, Sanna Saarikoski, Topi Rönkkö, Jorma Keskinen, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Effects of fuel sulfur content restrictions implemented by the International Maritime Organization at the Baltic Sea, in July 2010 and January 2015, on the particle properties of ship exhaust plumes and ambient aerosol were studied. The restrictions reduced the particle number concentrations and median particle size in plumes and number concentrations in the ambient aerosol. These changes may improve human health in coastal areas and decrease the cooling effect of the exhaust emissions of ships.
Yohei Shinozuka, Meloë S. Kacenelenbogen, Sharon P. Burton, Steven G. Howell, Paquita Zuidema, Richard A. Ferrare, Samuel E. LeBlanc, Kristina Pistone, Stephen Broccardo, Jens Redemann, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Sabrina P. Cochrane, Marta Fenn, Steffen Freitag, Amie Dobracki, Michal Segal-Rosenheimer, and Connor J. Flynn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11275–11285,Short summary
To help satellite retrieval of aerosols and studies of their radiative effects, we demonstrate that daytime aerosol optical depth over low-level clouds is similar to that in neighboring clear skies at the same heights. Based on recent airborne lidar and sun photometer observations above the southeast Atlantic, the mean AOD difference at 532 nm is between 0 and -0.01, when comparing the cloudy and clear sides of cloud edges, with each up to 20 km wide.
Jonathan W. Taylor, Huihui Wu, Kate Szpek, Keith Bower, Ian Crawford, Michael J. Flynn, Paul I. Williams, James Dorsey, Justin M. Langridge, Michael I. Cotterell, Cathryn Fox, Nicholas W. Davies, Jim M. Haywood, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11201–11221,Short summary
Every year, huge plumes of smoke hundreds of miles wide travel over the south Atlantic Ocean from fires in central and southern Africa. These plumes absorb the sun’s energy and warm the climate. We used airborne optical instrumentation to determine how absorbing the smoke was as well as the relative importance of black and brown carbon. We also tested different ways of simulating these properties that could be used in a climate model.
Jost Heintzenberg, Wolfram Birmili, Bryan Hellack, Gerald Spindler, Thomas Tuch, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10967–10984,Short summary
A total of 10 years of hourly aerosol and gas data at four rural German stations have been combined with hourly back trajectories to the stations and inventories of the European Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), yielding emission maps and trends over Germany for PM10, particle number concentrations, and equivalent black carbon (eBC). The maps reflect aerosol emissions modified with atmospheric processes during transport between sources and receptor sites.
Kevin J. Sanchez, Gregory C. Roberts, Georges Saliba, Lynn M. Russell, Cynthia Twohy, Michael J. Reeves, Ruhi S. Humphries, Melita D. Keywood, Jason P. Ward, and Ian M. McRobert
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Measurements of particles and their properties were made from aircraft over the Southern Ocean. Aerosol transported from the Antarctic coast is shown to greatly enhances the particle concentrations over the Southern Ocean. The occurrence of precipitation was shown to be associated with the lowest particle concentrations over the Southern Ocean. These particles are important due to their ability to enhance cloud droplet concentrations, resulting in more sunlight being reflected by the clouds.
Xiaoyan Wang, Renhe Zhang, Yanke Tan, and Wei Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The physical mechanism of synoptic patterns affecting the decay process of air pollution episodes are investigate in this work. Three dominate circulation pattern are identified, which usually decrease the ambient PM2.5 concentrations by 27 %~ 41 % after they arrived around Beijing. Emission reductions led to a 4.3~5.7 μg/(m3.yr) decrease in PM2.5 concentrations around Beijing during 2014 to 2020.
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