Articles | Volume 17, issue 5
Research article 14 Mar 2017
Research article | 14 Mar 2017
Impact of vertical wind shear on roll structure in idealized hurricane boundary layers
Shouping Wang and Qingfang Jiang
Related subject area
Subject: Dynamics | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Very long-period oscillations in the atmosphere (0–110 km)Identification of molecular cluster evaporation rates, cluster formation enthalpies and entropies by Monte Carlo methodThe “urban meteorology island”: a multi-model ensemble analysisValidation of reanalysis Southern Ocean atmosphere trends using sea ice dataRevisiting the trend in the occurrences of the “warm Arctic–cold Eurasian continent” temperature patternA microphysics guide to cirrus – Part 2: Climatologies of clouds and humidity from observationsCeilometers as planetary boundary layer height detectors and a corrective tool for COSMO and IFS modelsUsing a coupled large-eddy simulation–aerosol radiation model to investigate urban haze: sensitivity to aerosol loading and meteorological conditionsSensitivity of modeled Indian Monsoon to Chinese and Indian aerosol emissionsConfinement of air in the Asian monsoon anticyclone and pathways of convective air to the stratosphere during the summer seasonThe Spring Transition of the North Pacific Jet and its Relation to Deep Stratosphere-to-Troposphere Mass Transport over Western North AmericaOn the climate sensitivity and historical warming evolution in recent coupled model ensemblesSurface processes in the 7 November 2014 medicane from air–sea coupled high-resolution numerical modellingHadley cell expansion in CMIP6 modelsAtmospheric teleconnection processes linking winter air stagnation and haze extremes in China with regional Arctic sea ice declineDehydration and low ozone in the tropopause layer over the Asian monsoon caused by tropical cyclones: Lagrangian transport calculations using ERA-Interim and ERA5 reanalysis dataCharacterization of the air–sea exchange mechanisms during a Mediterranean heavy precipitation event using realistic sea state modellingTransport of short-lived halocarbons to the stratosphere over the Pacific OceanA very high-resolution assessment and modelling of urban air qualitySurface temperature response to the major volcanic eruptions in multiple reanalysis data setsRole of eyewall and rainband eddy forcing in tropical cyclone intensificationA double ITCZ phenomenology of wind errors in the equatorial Atlantic in seasonal forecasts with ECMWF modelsAnalysis of total column CO2 and CH4 measurements in Berlin with WRF-GHGQuantifying the contribution of anthropogenic influence to the East Asian winter monsoon in 1960–2012Land cover and its transformation in the backward trajectory footprint region of the Amazon Tall Tower ObservatoryLarge-scale dynamics of tropical cyclone formation associated with ITCZ breakdownA numerical process study on the rapid transport of stratospheric air down to the surface over western North America and the Tibetan PlateauGlobal tropopause altitudes in radiosondes and reanalysesHeat transport pathways into the Arctic and their connections to surface air temperaturesTornado-scale vortices in the tropical cyclone boundary layer: numerical simulation with the WRF–LES frameworkDissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy in stably stratified sheared flowsTwo pathways of how remote SST anomalies drive the interannual variability of autumnal haze days in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, ChinaLong-term simulation of the boundary layer flow over the double-ridge site during the Perdigão 2017 field campaignAnthropogenic fine particulate matter pollution will be exacerbated in eastern China due to 21st century GHG warmingOn the role of thermal expansion and compression in large-scale atmospheric energy and mass transportsChanges in sea-surface temperature and atmospheric circulation patterns associated with reductions in Arctic sea ice cover in recent decadesA multi-model comparison of meteorological drivers of surface ozone over EuropeMulti-model comparison of urban heat island modelling approachesA statistical examination of the effects of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering on tropical storm genesisCan explicit convection improve modelled dust in summertime West Africa?Tropical atmospheric circulation response to the G1 sunshade geoengineering radiative forcing experimentMultivariate analysis of Kelvin wave seasonal variability in ECMWF L91 analysesSpatial and temporal variability of interhemispheric transport timesA new index for the wintertime southern hemispheric split jetMeteorological controls on atmospheric particulate pollution during hazard reduction burnsThe importance of vertical resolution in the free troposphere for modeling intercontinental plumesThe effects of sea spray and atmosphere–wave coupling on air–sea exchange during a tropical cycloneIncreasing persistent haze in Beijing: potential impacts of weakening East Asian winter monsoons associated with northwestern Pacific sea surface temperature trendsEnergy transport, polar amplification, and ITCZ shifts in the GeoMIP G1 ensembleMulti-model impacts of climate change on pollution transport from global emission source regions
Dirk Offermann, Christoph Kalicinsky, Ralf Koppmann, and Johannes Wintel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1593–1611,Short summary
Atmospheric oscillations with periods of up to several 100 years exist at altitudes up to 110 km. They are also seen in computer models (GCMs) of the atmospheric. They are often attributed to external influences from the sun, from the oceans, or from atmospheric constituents. This is difficult to verify as the atmosphere cannot be manipulated in an experiment. However, a GCM can be changed arbitrarily. Doing so, we find that long-period oscillations may be excited internally in the atmosphere.
Anna Shcherbacheva, Tracey Balehowsky, Jakub Kubečka, Tinja Olenius, Tapio Helin, Heikki Haario, Marko Laine, Theo Kurtén, and Hanna Vehkamäki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15867–15906,Short summary
Atmospheric new particle formation and cluster growth to aerosol particles is an important field of research, in particular due to the climate change phenomenon. Evaporation rates are very difficult to account for but they are important to explain the formation and growth of particles. Different quantum chemistry (QC) methods produce substantially different values for the evaporation rates. We propose a novel approach for inferring evaporation rates of clusters from available measurements.
Jan Karlický, Peter Huszár, Tereza Nováková, Michal Belda, Filip Švábik, Jana Ďoubalová, and Tomáš Halenka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15061–15077,Short summary
Cities are characterized by their impact on various meteorological variables. Our study aims to generalize these modifications into a single phenomenon – the urban meteorology island (UMI). A wide ensemble of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Regional Climate Model (RegCM) simulations investigated urban-induced modifications as individual UMI components. Significant changes are found in most of the discussed meteorological variables with a strong impact of specific model simulations.
William R. Hobbs, Andrew R. Klekociuk, and Yuhang Pan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14757–14768,Short summary
Reanalysis products are an invaluable tool for representing variability and long-term trends in regions with limited in situ data. However, validation of these products is difficult because of that lack of station data. Here we present a novel assessment of eight reanalyses over the polar Southern Ocean, leveraging the close relationship between trends in sea ice cover and surface air temperature, that provides clear guidance on the most reliable product for Antarctic research.
Lejiang Yu, Shiyuan Zhong, Cuijuan Sui, and Bo Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13753–13770,Short summary
The recent increasing trend of "warm Arctic, cold continents" has attracted much attention, but it remains debatable as to what forces are behind this phenomenon. Sea surface temperature (SST) over the central North Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans influences the trend. On an interdecadal timescale, the recent increase in the occurrences of the warm Arctic–cold Eurasia pattern is a fragment of the interdecadal variability of SST over the Atlantic Ocean and over the central Pacific Ocean.
Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, Nicole Spelten, Armin Afchine, David Fahey, Eric Jensen, Sergey Khaykin, Thomas Kuhn, Paul Lawson, Alexey Lykov, Laura L. Pan, Martin Riese, Andrew Rollins, Fred Stroh, Troy Thornberry, Veronika Wolf, Sarah Woods, Peter Spichtinger, Johannes Quaas, and Odran Sourdeval
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12569–12608,Short summary
To improve the representations of cirrus clouds in climate predictions, extended knowledge of their properties and geographical distribution is required. This study presents extensive airborne in situ and satellite remote sensing climatologies of cirrus and humidity, which serve as a guide to cirrus clouds. Further, exemplary radiative characteristics of cirrus types and also in situ observations of tropical tropopause layer cirrus and humidity in the Asian monsoon anticyclone are shown.
Leenes Uzan, Smadar Egert, Pavel Khain, Yoav Levi, Elyakom Vadislavsky, and Pinhas Alpert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12177–12192,Short summary
Detection of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height is crucial to various fields, from air pollution assessment to weather prediction. We examined the diurnal summer PBL height by eight ceilometers in Israel, radiosonde profiles, the global IFS, and regional COSMO models. Our analysis utilized the bulk Richardson number method, the parcel method, and the wavelet covariance transform method. A novel correction tool to improve model results against in-situ ceilometer measurements is introduced.
Jessica Slater, Juha Tonttila, Gordon McFiggans, Paul Connolly, Sami Romakkaniemi, Thomas Kühn, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11893–11906,Short summary
The feedback effect between aerosol particles, radiation and meteorology reduces turbulent motion and results in increased surface aerosol concentrations during Beijing haze. Observational analysis and regional modelling studies have examined the feedback effect but these studies are limited. In this work, we set up a high-resolution model for the Beijing environment to examine the sensitivity of the aerosol feedback effect to initial meteorological conditions and aerosol loading.
Peter Sherman, Meng Gao, Shaojie Song, Alex T. Archibald, Nathan Luke Abraham, Jean-François Lamarque, Drew Shindell, Gregory Faluvegi, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The aims here are to assess the role of aerosols on India's monsoon precipitation and to determine the relative contributions from Chinese and Indian emissions using CMIP6 models. We find that increased sulfur emissions reduce precipitation, which is primarily dynamically driven due to spatial shifts in convection over the region. A significant increase in precipitation (up to ~ 20 %) is found only when both Indian and Chinese sulfate emissions are regulated.
Bernard Legras and Silvia Bucci
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11045–11064,Short summary
The Asian monsoon is the most active region bringing surface compounds by convection to the stratosphere during summer. We study the transport pathways and the trapping within the upper-layer anticyclonic circulation. Above 15 km, the confinement can be represented by a uniform ascent over continental Asia of about 200 m per day and a uniform loss to other regions with a characteristic time of 2 weeks. We rule out the presence of a
chimneyproposed in previous studies over the Tibetan Plateau.
Melissa Leah Breeden, Amy Hawes Butler, John Robert Albers, Michael Sprenger, and Andrew O’Neil Langford
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Prior research has found a maximum in deep stratosphere-to-troposphere mass/ozone transport over the western United States in boreal spring, which can enhance surface ozone concentrations, reducing air quality. We find that the winter-to-summer evolution of the north Pacific jet increases the frequency of stratospheric intrusions that drive transport, helping explain the observed maximum. The El Niño-Southern Oscillation affects the timing of the spring jet transition and therefore transport.
Clare Marie Flynn and Thorsten Mauritsen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7829–7842,Short summary
The range of climate sensitivity of models participating in CMIP6 has increased relative to models participating in CMIP5 due to decreases in the total feedback parameter. This is caused by increases in the shortwave all-sky and clear-sky feedbacks, particularly over the Southern Ocean. These shifts between CMIP6 and CMIP5 did not arise by chance. Both CMIP5 and CMIP6 models are found to exhibit aerosol forcing that is too strong, causing too much cooling relative to observations.
Marie-Noëlle Bouin and Cindy Lebeaupin Brossier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6861–6881,Short summary
A coupled, kilometre-scale simulation of a medicane is used to assess the impact of the ocean feedback and role of surface fluxes. Sea surface temperature (SST) drop is much weaker than for tropical cyclones, resulting in no impact on the cyclone. Surface fluxes depend mainly on wind and SST for evaporation and on air temperature for sensible heat. Processes in the Mediterranean, like advection of continental air, rain evaporation and dry air intrusion, play a role in cyclone development.
Kevin M. Grise and Sean M. Davis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5249–5268,Short summary
As Earth's climate warms, the tropical overturning circulation (Hadley circulation) is projected to expand, potentially pushing subtropical dry zones further poleward. This study examines projections of the Hadley circulation from the latest generation of computer models and finds several notable differences from older models. For example, the Northern Hemisphere circulation has expanded northward at a greater rate in recent decades than would be expected from increasing greenhouse gases alone.
Yufei Zou, Yuhang Wang, Zuowei Xie, Hailong Wang, and Philip J. Rasch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4999–5017,Short summary
We analyze the relationship between winter air stagnation and pollution extremes over eastern China and preceding Arctic sea ice loss based on climate modeling and dynamic diagnoses. We find significant increases in both the probability and intensity of air stagnation extremes in the modeling result driven by regional sea ice and sea surface temperature changes over the Pacific sector of the Arctic. We reveal the considerable impact of the Arctic climate change on mid-latitude weather extremes.
Dan Li, Bärbel Vogel, Rolf Müller, Jianchun Bian, Gebhard Günther, Felix Ploeger, Qian Li, Jinqiang Zhang, Zhixuan Bai, Holger Vömel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4133–4152,Short summary
Low ozone and low water vapour signatures in the UTLS were investigated using balloon-borne measurements and trajectory calculations. The results show that deep convection in tropical cyclones over the western Pacific transports boundary air parcels with low ozone into the tropopause region. Subsequently, these air parcels are dehydrated when passing the lowest temperature region (< 190 K) during quasi-horizontal advection.
César Sauvage, Cindy Lebeaupin Brossier, Marie-Noëlle Bouin, and Véronique Ducrocq
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1675–1699,Short summary
Air–sea exchanges during Mediterranean heavy precipitation events are key and their representation must be improved for high-resolution weather forecasts. This study investigates the mechanisms acting at the air–sea interface during a case that occurred in southern France. To focus on the impact of sea state, we developed and used an original coupled air–wave model. Results show modifications of the forecast for the air–sea fluxes, the near-surface wind and the location of precipitation.
Michal T. Filus, Elliot L. Atlas, Maria A. Navarro, Elena Meneguz, David Thomson, Matthew J. Ashfold, Lucy J. Carpenter, Stephen J. Andrews, and Neil R. P. Harris
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1163–1181,Short summary
The effectiveness of transport of short-lived halocarbons to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere remains an important unknown in quantifying the supply of ozone-depleting substances to the stratosphere. In early 2014, a major field campaign in Guam in the western Pacific, involving UK and US research aircraft, sampled the tropical troposphere and lower stratosphere. The resulting measurements of CH3I, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 are compared here with calculations from a Lagrangian model.
Tobias Wolf, Lasse H. Pettersson, and Igor Esau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 625–647,Short summary
Exceedances of legal thresholds for urban air pollution are of wide concern. We demonstrate the usefulness of very high-resolution modelling for the assessment of air pollution in the urban space on the example of Bergen, Norway. Vulnerability maps highlight areas with high pollutant loading and pathways for pollutant dispersion. This supports the understanding of urban air pollution beyond existing, scarce monitoring networks and possibly the mitigation of impacts on the local population.
Masatomo Fujiwara, Patrick Martineau, and Jonathon S. Wright
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 345–374,Short summary
The global response of surface air temperature (SST) to the eruptions of Mount Agung in 1963, El Chichón in 1982, and Mount Pinatubo in 1991 is investigated using 11 global atmospheric reanalysis data sets. Multiple linear regression is applied, with a set of climatic indices orthogonalized, and the residuals are investigated. It is found that careful treatment of tropical SST variability is necessary to evaluate the surface response to volcanic eruptions in observations and reanalyses.
Ping Zhu, Bryce Tyner, Jun A. Zhang, Eric Aligo, Sundararaman Gopalakrishnan, Frank D. Marks, Avichal Mehra, and Vijay Tallapragada
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14289–14310,Short summary
Producing timely and accurate intensity forecasts of tropical cyclones (TCs) continues to be one of the most difficult challenges in numerical weather prediction. The difficulty stems from the fact that TC intensification is not only modulated by environmental conditions but also largely depends on TC internal dynamics. The study shows that asymmetric eyewall and rainband eddy forcing above the boundary layer plays an important role in spinning up a TC vortex including rapid intensification.
Jonathan K. P. Shonk, Teferi D. Demissie, and Thomas Toniazzo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11383–11399,Short summary
Modern climate models are affected by systematic biases that harm their ability to produce reliable seasonal forecasts and climate projections. In this study, we investigate causes of biases in wind patterns over the tropical Atlantic during northern spring in three related models. We find that the wind biases are associated with an increase in excess rainfall and convergence in the tropical western Atlantic at the start of April, leading to the redirection of trade winds away from the Equator.
Xinxu Zhao, Julia Marshall, Stephan Hachinger, Christoph Gerbig, Matthias Frey, Frank Hase, and Jia Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11279–11302,Short summary
The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), coupled with greenhouse gas (GHG) modules (WRF-GHG), is considered to be a suitable basis for precise GHG transport analysis in urban areas, especially when combined with differential column methodology (DCM). DCM is an effective method not only for comparing models to observations independently of biases caused, for example, by initial conditions, but also for detecting and understanding sources of GHG emissions quantitatively in urban areas.
Xin Hao, Shengping He, Huijun Wang, and Tingting Han
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9903–9911,Short summary
The East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) can be greatly influenced by many factors that can be classified as anthropogenic forcing and natural forcing. Our results show that the increasing anthropogenic emissions in the past decades may have contributed to the weakening of the EAWM, the frequency of occurrence of strong EAWM may have decreased by 45 % due to the anthropogenic forcing, and the anthropogenic forcing is a dominant contributor to the occurrence of a weak EAWM.
Christopher Pöhlker, David Walter, Hauke Paulsen, Tobias Könemann, Emilio Rodríguez-Caballero, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Céline Degrendele, Viviane R. Després, Florian Ditas, Bruna A. Holanda, Johannes W. Kaiser, Gerhard Lammel, Jošt V. Lavrič, Jing Ming, Daniel Pickersgill, Mira L. Pöhlker, Maria Praß, Nina Löbs, Jorge Saturno, Matthias Sörgel, Qiaoqiao Wang, Bettina Weber, Stefan Wolff, Paulo Artaxo, Ulrich Pöschl, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8425–8470,Short summary
The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) has been established to monitor the rain forest's biosphere–atmosphere exchange, which experiences the combined pressures from human-made deforestation and progressing climate change. This work is meant to be a reference study, which characterizes various geospatial properties of the ATTO footprint region and shows how the human-made transformation of Amazonia may impact future atmospheric observations at ATTO.
Quan Wang, Chanh Kieu, and The-Anh Vu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8383–8397,Short summary
This study presents an analytical model to study large-scale tropical cyclone (TC) formation that can help us understand the maximum capacity of the Earth's atmosphere to produce TCs. Using a barotropic model for the intertropical convergence zone and recent advances in nonlinear dynamical transition, it is found that the Earth's atmosphere can support a limited number of TCs at any given time (<12) in the current climate, thus providing new theoretical insights into the TC formation process.
Bojan Škerlak, Stephan Pfahl, Michael Sprenger, and Heini Wernli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6535–6549,Short summary
Upper-level fronts are often associated with the rapid transport of stratospheric air to the lower troposphere, leading to significantly enhanced ozone concentrations. This paper considers the multi-scale nature that is needed to bring stratospheric air down to the surface. The final transport step to the surface can be related to frontal zones and the associated vertical winds or to near-horizontal tracer transport followed by entrainment into a growing planetary boundary layer.
Tao Xian and Cameron R. Homeyer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5661–5678,Short summary
Global characteristics and trends in the tropopause (the boundary between troposphere and stratosphere) over a 35-year period (1981–2015) are evaluated using both observations and models. The use of two coordinate systems reveals previously undiagnosed changes in the tropopause altitude within the tropics and extratropics and these results have important implications for studies of climate and atmospheric composition (especially that related to stratosphere–troposphere exchange).
Daniel Mewes and Christoph Jacobi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3927–3937,Short summary
Horizontal moist static energy (MSE) transport patterns were extracted from reanalysis data using an artificial neuronal network for the winter months. The results show that during the last 30 years transport pathways that favour MSE transport through the North Atlantic are getting more frequent. This North Atlantic pathway is connected to positive temperature anomalies over the central Arctic, which implies a connection between Arctic amplification and the change in horizontal heat transport.
Liguang Wu, Qingyuan Liu, and Yubin Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2477–2487,Short summary
The tornado-scale vortex in the tropical cyclone boundary layer has been speculated in intense hurricanes. A numerical experiment is conducted using the Advanced Weather Research and Forecast model by incorporating the large-eddy simulation technique. The simulated tornado-scale vortex shows the similar features as revealed with the limited observational data. The presence of the tornado-scale vortex also leads to significant gradients in the near surface wind speed and wind gusts.
Sergej Zilitinkevich, Oleg Druzhinin, Andrey Glazunov, Evgeny Kadantsev, Evgeny Mortikov, Iryna Repina, and Yulia Troitskaya
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2489–2496,Short summary
We consider the budget of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in stably stratified flows. TKE is generated by velocity shear, then partially converted to potential energy, but basically cascades towards very small eddies and dissipates into heat. The TKE dissipation rate is vital for comprehending and modelling turbulent flows in geophysics, astrophysics, and engineering. Until now its dependence on static stability remained unclear. We define it theoretically and validate against experimental data.
Jing Wang, Zhiwei Zhu, Li Qi, Qiaohua Zhao, Jinhai He, and Julian X. L. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1521–1535,Short summary
Less attention has been paid to haze weather during the autumn season. Here, we unravel the mechanism of how SST anomalies over the subtropical North Atlantic and western North Pacific drive the interannual variability of the autumnal haze days in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region. The two pathways of SST anomaly forcings can result in an anticyclonic (cyclonic) anomaly over Northeast Asia, leading to a lower-level southerly (northerly) anomaly and in turn more (fewer) haze days in this region.
Johannes Wagner, Thomas Gerz, Norman Wildmann, and Kira Gramitzky
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1129–1146,Short summary
Long-term WRF-LES simulations were performed with a horizontal resolution of 200 m for a period of 49 days during the Perdigão campaign. Simulation results were used to characterize the meteorological conditions and to analyse characteristic flow patterns. It could be shown that thermally driven flows including low-level jets frequently occurred during the observation period. Model results were in very good agreement with observations in spite of the long simulation time.
Huopo Chen, Huijun Wang, Jianqi Sun, Yangyang Xu, and Zhicong Yin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 233–243,Short summary
Our results show that the anthropogenic air pollution over eastern China will increase considerably at the end of 21st century, even though we keep the aerosol emission constant throughout the experiment. Furthermore, estimation shows that the effect of climate change induced by the GHG warming can account for 11%–28% of the changes of anthropogenic air pollution days over this region.
Melville E. Nicholls and Roger A. Pielke Sr.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15975–16003,Short summary
The current understanding of atmospheric energy and mass transports is that the general circulation moves energy and mass from place to place in a relatively slow manner at the speed of the winds. This study challenges this view and provides evidence that considerable transfer can occur at the speed of sound. This transport mechanism is probably not adequately represented in current global models, which potentially could be a source of error that has yet to be evaluated.
Lejiang Yu and Shiyuan Zhong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14149–14159,Short summary
The Arctic sea ice has been declining at a rapid pace in recent decades, which has been attributed largely to global warming. Using a relatively novel statistical method called self-organizing maps (SOM), we show that a large portion of the autumn Arctic sea ice decline in the past four decades may be explained by atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with anomalous sea-surface temperature patterns over the North Pacific and North Atlantic through ocean–atmosphere interactions.
Noelia Otero, Jana Sillmann, Kathleen A. Mar, Henning W. Rust, Sverre Solberg, Camilla Andersson, Magnuz Engardt, Robert Bergström, Bertrand Bessagnet, Augustin Colette, Florian Couvidat, Cournelius Cuvelier, Svetlana Tsyro, Hilde Fagerli, Martijn Schaap, Astrid Manders, Mihaela Mircea, Gino Briganti, Andrea Cappelletti, Mario Adani, Massimo D'Isidoro, María-Teresa Pay, Mark Theobald, Marta G. Vivanco, Peter Wind, Narendra Ojha, Valentin Raffort, and Tim Butler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12269–12288,Short summary
This paper evaluates the capability of air-quality models to capture the observed relationship between surface ozone concentrations and meteorology over Europe. The air-quality models tended to overestimate the influence of maximum temperature and surface solar radiation. None of the air-quality models captured the strength of the observed relationship between ozone and relative humidity appropriately, underestimating the effect of relative humidity, a key factor in the ozone removal processes.
Jan Karlický, Peter Huszár, Tomáš Halenka, Michal Belda, Michal Žák, Petr Pišoft, and Jiří Mikšovský
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10655–10674,Short summary
Our work presents a comparison of modelled and observed urban-induced meteorological changes in long-term perspective using 10-year simulations. It contains an evaluation of models' urban parameterizations, investigations of the benefits of more sophisticated urban parameterizations with respect to simple approaches and evaluation of urban-induced meteorological changes from the perspective of pollutant dispersion.
Qin Wang, John C. Moore, and Duoying Ji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9173–9188,Short summary
(1) Genesis potential and ventilation indices are assessed in 6 ESMs running RCP4.5 and G4, in 6 tropical cyclone genesis basins. (2) Genesis potential is reasonably well parameterized by simple surface temperature, but other factors are important in different basins and models such as relative humidity and wind shear. (3) The Northern Hemisphere basins behave rather differently from the southern ones, and these dominate TC statistics. G4 leads to significantly fewer TCs globally than RCP4.5.
Alexander J. Roberts, Margaret J. Woodage, John H. Marsham, Ellie J. Highwood, Claire L. Ryder, Willie McGinty, Simon Wilson, and Julia Crook
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9025–9048,Short summary
The summer Saharan dust hotspot is seasonally tied to the occurrence of convective storms. Global weather and climate models parameterise convection and so are unable to represent their associated dust uplift (haboobs). However, this work shows that even when simulations represent convection explicitly: (1) dust fields are not strongly affected, (2) convective storms are too small, (3) haboobs are too weak and (4) the land surface (bare soil and soil moisture) is dominant in controlling dust.
Anboyu Guo, John C. Moore, and Duoying Ji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8689–8706,Short summary
This is an examination of both the zonal and meridional tropical circulations under G1 geoengineering using eight ESMs. Drivers of the changes are examined, with meridional temperature gradient being the dominant factor. The Hadley circulation is changed under G1 differently for each hemisphere, but changes are small compared with abrupt4xCO2. Changes in the Walker circulation are subtle but potentially important in some regions, and ENSO impacts circulations only slightly differently under G1.
Marten Blaauw and Nedjeljka Žagar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8313–8330,Short summary
The equatorial Kelvin wave (KW) is the most studied wave feature of the tropical atmosphere, yet not well quantified. Our study simultaneously analyses wind and temperature fields of KWs from ECMWF analyses without any prior data filtering. We provide the KW energy spectrum and its seasonal variability for three KW frequency ranges. We developed a webpage to show the spatial structure of KWs propagating in time through the ECMWF data, http://modes.fmf.uni-lj.si, updated on a daily basis.
Xiaokang Wu, Huang Yang, Darryn W. Waugh, Clara Orbe, Simone Tilmes, and Jean-Francois Lamarque
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7439–7452,Short summary
The seasonal and interannual variability of transport times from northern mid-latitudes into the southern hemisphere is examined using simulations of
agetracers. The largest variability occurs near the surface close to the tropical convergence zones, but the peak is further south and there is a smaller tropical–extratropical contrast for tracers with more rapid loss. Hence the variability of trace gases in the southern extratropics will vary with their chemical lifetime.
Stella Babian, Jens Grieger, and Ulrich Cubasch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6749–6760,Short summary
One of the most prominent asymmetric features of the southern hemispheric (SH) circulation is the split jet over Australia and New Zealand in austral winter. We propose a new, hemispherical index that is based on the principal components (PCs) of the zonal wind field for the SH winter. The new PC-based index (PSI) suggests that the SH split jet is strongly associated with the AAO. Furthermore, both flavors of ENSO and the PSA-1 pattern produce favorable conditions for a SH split event.
Giovanni Di Virgilio, Melissa Anne Hart, and Ningbo Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6585–6599,Short summary
Hazard reduction burns (HRBs) may prevent wildfires, but both generate PM2.5 air pollution. We identify the meteorological factors linked to high PM2.5 pollution & assess how they differ between HRB days with low vs. high PM2.5. Boundary layer, cloud cover, temperature & wind speed strongly influence PM2.5, with these factors being more variable & higher in magnitude during mornings & evenings of HRB days when PM2.5 remains low, indicating how HRB timing can be altered to reduce air pollution.
Jiawei Zhuang, Daniel J. Jacob, and Sebastian D. Eastham
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6039–6055,Short summary
Our work explains why current model simulations are unable to capture the intercontinental influences of pollution plumes that are often observed over some regions like California. Due to inadequate vertical grid resolution in these models, the plumes get diffused too rapidly during intercontinental transport. Increasing the vertical grid resolution greatly improves the simulation of plumes and considerably increases the estimate of local surface pollution influence.
Nikhil Garg, Eddie Yin Kwee Ng, and Srikanth Narasimalu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6001–6021,Short summary
This study investigated the effects of air–sea interaction on the life cycle of Hurricane Arthur (2014) that traversed through the North Atlantic Ocean. The study explored the role of ocean surface waves and sea-spray-mediated heat and momentum fluxes on the structure and intensity of the tropical cyclone. The sea spray fluxes were modelled using wave energy dissipation from a wave model, which reduced the amount of spray fluxes as compared to the empirical spray source generation function.
Lin Pei, Zhongwei Yan, Zhaobin Sun, Shiguang Miao, and Yao Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3173–3183,Short summary
This paper demonstrates the increasing frequency of persistent haze events (PHE) in Beijing based on updated observations and explores the associated changes in large-scale atmospheric circulations with possible links to the large-scale warming trend. We propose a more concrete observation-based mechanism for explaining how the local PHE in Beijing change with large-scale climate warming via the sea surface temperature anomaly in the northwestern Pacific.
Rick D. Russotto and Thomas P. Ackerman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2287–2305,Short summary
We analyzed climate model simulations to investigate what happens to the way the atmosphere moves heat around when the Sun is turned down to compensate for increased greenhouse gas concentrations. We found that the atmosphere transports less heat from the tropics to the poles, which helps us understand the patterns of warming or cooling at different latitudes. We also looked at the sources of uncertainty regarding changes in tropical rainfall patterns and found that clouds are the largest one.
Ruth M. Doherty, Clara Orbe, Guang Zeng, David A. Plummer, Michael J. Prather, Oliver Wild, Meiyun Lin, Drew T. Shindell, and Ian A. Mackenzie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14219–14237,Short summary
We investigate how climate change impacts global air pollution transport. To study transport changes, we use a carbon monoxide (CO) tracer species emitted from global sources. We find robust and consistent changes in CO-tracer distributions in climate change simulations performed by four chemistry–climate models in different seasons. We highlight the importance of the co-location of emission source regions and controlling transport processes in determining future pollution transport.
Atkins, B. W. and Zhang, J. W.: Mesoscale shallow convection in the atmosphere, Rev. Geophys., 34, 403–431, 1996.
Brown, R. A.: A secondary flow model for the planetary boundary layer, J. Atmos. Sci., 27, 742–757, 1970.
Brown, R. A.: On the physical mechanism of the inflection point instability, J. Atmos. Sci., 29, 984–986, 1972.
Bryan, G. H., Worsnop, R. P., Lundquist, J. K., and Zhang, J. A.: A simple method for simulating wind profiles in the boundary layer of tropical-cyclone, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 162, 475–502, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-016-0207-0, 2017.
Chlond, A.: Three-dimensional simulation of cloud street development during a cloud air outbreak, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 5, 161–200, 1992.
Conzemius, R. J. and Fedorovich, E.: Dynamics of sheared convective boundary layer entrainment. Part I: Methodological background and large-eddy simulations, J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 1151–1178, 2006.
Deardorff, J. W.: Stratocumulus-capped mixed layers derived from a three dimensional model, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 18, 495–527, 1980.
Donelan, M. A., Haus, B. K., Reul, B., Plant, W. J., Stiassnie, M., Graber, H. C., Brown, O. B., and Saltzman, E. S.: On the limiting aerodynamic roughness of the ocean in very strong winds, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L18306, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GL019460, 2004.
Foster, R. C.: Why rolls are prevalent in the hurricane boundary layer, J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 2647–2661, 2005.
Foster, R. C.: Signature of large aspect ratio roll vortices in synthetic aperture radar images of tropical cyclones, Oceanography, 26, 58–67, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2013.31, 2013.
Gao, K. and Ginis, I.: On the generation of roll vortices due to the inflection point instability of the hurricane boundary layer flow, J. Atmos. Sci., 71, 4292–4307, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-13-0362.1, 2014.
Gao, K. and Ginis, I.: On the equilibrium-state roll vortices and their effects in the hurricane boundary layer, J. Atmos. Sci., 73, 1205–1222, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-15-0089.1, 2016.
Glendening, J. W.: Lineal eddy features under strong shear conditions, J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 3430–3448, 1996.
Golaz, J.-C., Wang, S., Doyle, J. D., and Schmidt, J. M.: COAMPS™ LES: Model evaluation and analysis of second and third moment vertical velocity budgets, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 116, 487–517, 2005.
Golaz, J.-C., Doyle, J. D., and Wang, S.: One-way nested large-eddy simulation over the Askervein Hill, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 1, 1–6, https://doi.org/10.3894/JAMES.2009.1.6, 2009.
Green, B. W. and Zhang, F.: Idealized large-eddy simulations of a tropical cyclone-like boundary layer, J. Atmos. Sci., 72, 1743–1764, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-14-0244.1, 2015.
Jiang, Q. and Wang, S.: Aerosol Replenishment and cloud morphology: A VOCALS example, J. Atmos. Sci., 71, 300–311, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-13-0128.1, 2013.
Kazil, J., Feingold, G., and Yamaguchi, T.: Wind speed response of marine non-precipitating stratocumulus clouds over a diurnal cycle in cloud-system resolving simulations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5811–5839, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-5811-2016, 2016.
Kelly, M. and Wyngaard, J. C.: Two-dimensional spectra in the atmospheric boundary layer, J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 3066–3070, 2006.
Kepert, J. D., Schwendike, J., and Ramsay, H.: Why is the tropical cyclone boundary layer not “well mixed”, J. Atmos. Sci, 73, 957–973, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-15-0216.1, 2016.
Lilly, D. K.: On the instability of Ekman Boundary Flow, J. Atmos. Sci., 23, 481–494, 1966.
Lorsolo, S., Schroeder, J. L., and Dodge, P., and Marks Jr., F.: An observational study of hurricane boundary layer small-scale coherent structures, Mon. Weather Rev., 136, 2871–2893, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008MWR2273.1, 2008.
Moeng, C.-H. and Sullivan, P. P.: A comparison of shear- and buoyancy-driven planetary boundary layer flows, J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 999–1022, 1994.
Morrison, I., Bussinger, S., Marks, F., and Dodge, P.: An observational case for the prevalence of roll vortices in the hurricane boundary layer, J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 2662–2673, 2005.
Nakanishi, M. and Niino, H.: Large-eddy simulation of roll vortices in a hurricane boundary layer, J. Atmos. Sci., 69, 3558–3575, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-11-0237.1, 2012.
Nolan, D. S.: Instabilities in hurricane-like boundary layers, Dynam. Atmos. Oceans, 40, 209–236, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dynatmoce.2005.03.002, 2005.
Stull, R. B.: The energetics of entrainment across a density interface, J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 1260–1267, 1976.
Stull, R. B.: An introduction to boundary layer meteorology, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 666 pp., 1988.
Sullivan P. P. and Patton, E. G.: The effect of mesh resolution on convective boundary layer statistics and structures generated by large-eddy simulation, J. Atmos. Sci., 68, 2395–2415, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-10-05010.1, 2011.
Wang, S., Zheng, X., and Jiang, Q.: Strongly sheared stratocumulus convection: an observationally based large-eddy simulation study, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 5223–5235, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-5223-2012, 2012.
Willoughby, H. E.: Gradient balance in tropical cyclones, J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 265–274, 1990.
Wurman, J. and Winslow, J.: Intense sub-kilometre-scale boundary layer rolls observed in Hurricane Fran, Science, 280, 555–557, 1998.
Young, G. S., Kristovich, D. A. R., Hjelmfelt, M. R., and Foster, R. C.: Rolls, streets, waves, and more, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 83, 997–1001, 2002.
Zhang, A. J., Kastsaros, K. B., Black, P. G., Lehner, S. French, J. R., and Drennan, W. M.: Effects of roll vortices on turbulent fluxes in the hurricane boundary layer, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 128, 173–189, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-008-9281-2, 2008.
Zhu, P.: Simulation and parameterization of the turbulent transport in the hurricane boundary layer by large eddies, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D17104, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD009643, 2008.
Tropical cyclones are significantly influenced by the lowest part of atmosphere from sea surface to 1 km because strong winds interacting with ocean surface may provide significant energy to the storms. This work aims to understand how different wind intensity and shape may change the energy transfer. A numerical modeling technique is used to simulate the wind and energy transfer. It is found that the change in wind speed with height is particularly important in generating energy transport.
Tropical cyclones are significantly influenced by the lowest part of atmosphere from sea surface...