Articles | Volume 21, issue 19
13 Oct 2021
Research article | 13 Oct 2021
Formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosols derived from urban-lifestyle sources: vehicle exhaust and cooking emissions
Zirui Zhang et al.
No articles found.
Weilun Zhao, Gang Zhao, Ying Li, Song Guo, Nan Ma, Lizi Tang, Zirui Zhang, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6807–6817,Short summary
A new method to determine black carbon mass size distribution (BCMSD) was proposed using the size-resolved absorption coefficient measured by an aerodynamic aerosol classifier in tandem with an aethalometer. This new method fills the gap in the high-time-resolution measurement of BCMSD ranging from upper submicron particle sizes to larger than 1 µm. This method can be applied to field measurement of BCMSD extensively for better understanding BC aging and better estimating the BC climate effect.
Ruiqi Man, Zhijun Wu, Taomou Zong, Aristeidis Voliotis, Yanting Qiu, Johannes Größ, Dominik van Pinxteren, Limin Zeng, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12387–12399,Short summary
Regional and total deposition doses for different age groups were quantified based on explicit hygroscopicity measurements. We found that particle hygroscopic growth led to a reduction (~24 %) in the total dose. The deposition rate of hygroscopic particles was higher in the daytime, while hydrophobic particles exhibited a higher rate at night and during rush hours. The results will deepen the understanding of the impact of hygroscopicity and the mixing state on deposition patterns in the lungs.
Lizi Tang, Min Hu, Dongjie Shang, Xin Fang, Janjiong Mao, Wanyun Xu, Jiacheng Zhou, Weixiong Zhao, Yaru Wang, Chong Zhang, Yingjie Zhang, Jianlin Hu, Limin Zeng, Chunxiang Ye, Song Guo, and Zhijun Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
There was an evident distinction in the frequencies of NPF events at Nam Co station in the Tibetan Plateau with 15 % in pre-monsoon season and 80 % in monsoon season. The frequent NPF events in monsoon season resulted from the higher concentration of organic vapours, which was brought from northeast India by the strong southerly monsoon. It had increased significantly the amount of aerosol and CCN compared with those in pre-monsoon season, which may markedly affect the earth's radiation balance.
Gang Zhao, Tianyi Tan, Shuya Hu, Zhuofei Du, Dongjie Shang, Zhijun Wu, Song Guo, Jing Zheng, Wenfei Zhu, Mengren Li, Limin Zeng, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10861–10873,Short summary
Black carbon is the second strongest absorbing component in the atmosphere that exerts warming effects on climate. One critical challenge in quantifying the ambient black carbon's radiative effects is addressing the BC microphysical properties. In this study, the microphysical properties of the aged and fresh BC particles are synthetically analyzed under different atmospheres. The measurement results can be further used in models to help constrain the uncertainties of the BC radiative effects.
Kai Song, Song Guo, Yuanzheng Gong, Daqi Lv, Yuan Zhang, Zichao Wan, Tianyu Li, Wenfei Zhu, Hui Wang, Ying Yu, Rui Tan, Ruizhe Shen, Sihua Lu, Shuangde Li, Yunfa Chen, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9827–9841,Short summary
Emissions from four typical Chinese domestic cooking and fried chicken using four kinds of oils were investigated to illustrate the impact of cooking style and oil. Of the estimated SOA, 10.2 %–32.0 % could be explained by S/IVOC oxidation. Multiway principal component analysis (MPCA) emphasizes the importance of the unsaturated fatty acid-alkadienal volatile product mechanism (oil autoxidation) accelerated by the cooking and heating procedure.
Cuiqi Zhang, Zhijun Wu, Jingchuan Chen, Jie Chen, Lizi Tang, Wenfei Zhu, Xiangyu Pei, Shiyi Chen, Ping Tian, Song Guo, Limin Zeng, Min Hu, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7539–7556,Short summary
The immersion ice nucleation effectiveness of aerosols from multiple sources in the urban environment remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that the immersion ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentration increased dramatically during a dust event in an urban atmosphere. Pollutant aerosols, including inorganic salts formed through secondary transformation (SIA) and black carbon (BC), might not act as effective INPs under mixed-phase cloud conditions.
Yuanzheng Gong, Kai Song, Song Guo, Daqi Lv, Yuan Zhang, Zichao Wan, Wenfei Zhu, Hui Wang, Ying Yu, Rui Tan, Ruizhe Shen, Sihua Lu, Shuangde Li, and Yunfa Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Herein we applied thermal desorption comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (TD-GCxGC-MS) for synchronous analysis of gaseous and particulate organics emitted from cooking fumes. With a systematic 4-step qualitative procedure and precise quantitative and semi-quantitative method, 170 and 352 compounds from C2 (acetic acids) – C30 (squalene) occupying 95 % and 90 % of the total ion current for gaseous and particulate samples were identified and quantified.
Haoran Zhang, Nan Li, Keqin Tang, Hong Liao, Chong Shi, Cheng Huang, Hongli Wang, Song Guo, Min Hu, Xinlei Ge, Mindong Chen, Zhenxin Liu, Huan Yu, and Jianlin Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5495–5514,Short summary
We developed a new algorithm with low economic/technique costs to identify primary and secondary components of PM2.5. Our model was shown to be reliable by comparison with different observation datasets. We systematically explored the patterns and changes in the secondary PM2.5 pollution in China at large spatial and time scales. We believe that this method is a promising tool for efficiently estimating primary and secondary PM2.5, and has huge potential for future PM mitigation.
Yun Lin, Yuan Wang, Bowen Pan, Jiaxi Hu, Song Guo, Misti Levy Zamora, Pengfei Tian, Qiong Su, Yuemeng Ji, Jiayun Zhao, Mario Gomez-Hernandez, Min Hu, and Renyi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4951–4967,Short summary
Severe regional haze events, which are characterized by exceedingly high levels of fine particulate matter (PM), occur frequently in many developing countries (such as China and India), with profound implications for human health, weather, and climate. Our work establishes a synthetic view for the dominant regional features during severe haze events, unraveling rapid in situ PM production and inefficient transport, both of which are amplified by atmospheric stagnation.
Gang Zhao, Tianyi Tan, Yishu Zhu, Min Hu, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18055–18063,Short summary
In this study, the black carbon (BC) mixing state index (χ) is developed to quantify the dispersion of ambient black carbon aerosol mixing states based on binary systems of BC and other non-black carbon components. We demonstrate that the BC light absorption enhancement increases with χ for the same MR, which indicates that χ can be employed as a factor to constrain the light absorption enhancement of ambient BC.
Wenfei Zhu, Song Guo, Zirui Zhang, Hui Wang, Ying Yu, Zheng Chen, Ruizhe Shen, Rui Tan, Kai Song, Kefan Liu, Rongzhi Tang, Yi Liu, Shengrong Lou, Yuanju Li, Wenbin Zhang, Zhou Zhang, Shijin Shuai, Hongming Xu, Shuangde Li, Yunfa Chen, Min Hu, Francesco Canonaco, and Andre S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15065–15079,Short summary
The experiments of primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from urban lifestyle sources (cooking and vehicles) were conducted. The mass spectral features of primary organic aerosol (POA) and SOA were characterized by using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. This work, for the first time, establishes the vehicle and cooking SOA source profiles and can be further used as source constraints in the OA source apportionment in the ambient atmosphere.
Huan Song, Keding Lu, Can Ye, Huabin Dong, Shule Li, Shiyi Chen, Zhijun Wu, Mei Zheng, Limin Zeng, Min Hu, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13713–13727,Short summary
Secondary sulfate aerosols are an important component of fine particles in severe air pollution events. We calculated the sulfate formation rates via a state-of-the-art multiphase model constrained to the observed values. We showed that transition metals in urban aerosols contribute significantly to sulfate formation during haze periods and thus play an important role in mitigation strategies and public health measures in megacities worldwide.
Benjamin A. Nault, Duseong S. Jo, Brian C. McDonald, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Weiwei Hu, Jason C. Schroder, James Allan, Donald R. Blake, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Hugh Coe, Matthew M. Coggon, Peter F. DeCarlo, Glenn S. Diskin, Rachel Dunmore, Frank Flocke, Alan Fried, Jessica B. Gilman, Georgios Gkatzelis, Jacqui F. Hamilton, Thomas F. Hanisco, Patrick L. Hayes, Daven K. Henze, Alma Hodzic, James Hopkins, Min Hu, L. Greggory Huey, B. Thomas Jobson, William C. Kuster, Alastair Lewis, Meng Li, Jin Liao, M. Omar Nawaz, Ilana B. Pollack, Jeffrey Peischl, Bernhard Rappenglück, Claire E. Reeves, Dirk Richter, James M. Roberts, Thomas B. Ryerson, Min Shao, Jacob M. Sommers, James Walega, Carsten Warneke, Petter Weibring, Glenn M. Wolfe, Dominique E. Young, Bin Yuan, Qiang Zhang, Joost A. de Gouw, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11201–11224,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is an important aspect of poor air quality for urban regions around the world, where a large fraction of the population lives. However, there is still large uncertainty in predicting SOA in urban regions. Here, we used data from 11 urban campaigns and show that the variability in SOA production in these regions is predictable and is explained by key emissions. These results are used to estimate the premature mortality associated with SOA in urban regions.
Gang Zhao, Yishu Zhu, Zhijun Wu, Taomou Zong, Jingchuan Chen, Tianyi Tan, Haichao Wang, Xin Fang, Keding Lu, Chunsheng Zhao, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9995–10004,Short summary
New particle formation is thought to contribute half of the global cloud condensation nuclei. We find that the new particle formation is more likely to happen in the upper boundary layer than that at the ground, which can be partially explained by the aerosol–radiation interaction. Our study emphasizes the influence of aerosol–radiation interaction on the NPF.
Tianyi Tan, Min Hu, Zhuofei Du, Gang Zhao, Dongjie Shang, Jing Zheng, Yanhong Qin, Mengren Li, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, Song Guo, and Zhijun Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8499–8510,Short summary
Every year in the pre-monsoon season, the black carbon (BC) aerosols originated from biomass burning in southern Asia are easily transported to the Tibetan Plateau (TP) by the convenience of westerly wind. This study reveals that the BC aerosols in the aged biomass burning plumes strongly enhance the total light absorption over the TP, and the aging process during the long-range transport will further strengthen the radiative heating of those BC aerosols.
Kai Song, Song Guo, Haichao Wang, Ying Yu, Hui Wang, Rongzhi Tang, Shiyong Xia, Yuanzheng Gong, Zichao Wan, Daqi Lv, Rui Tan, Wenfei Zhu, Ruizhe Shen, Xin Li, Xuena Yu, Shiyi Chen, Liming Zeng, and Xiaofeng Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7917–7932,Short summary
Nitrated phenols (NPs) are crucial components of brown carbon. To comprehend the constitutes and sources of NPs in winter of Beijing, their concentrations were measured by a CI-LToF-MS. The secondary formation process was simulated by a box model. NPs were mainly influenced by primary emissions and regional transport. Primary emitted phenol rather than benzene oxidation was crucial in the heavy pollution episode in Beijing. This provides more insight into pollution control strategies of NPs.
Dandan Zhao, Jinyuan Xin, Chongshui Gong, Jiannong Quan, Yuesi Wang, Guiqian Tang, Yongxiang Ma, Lindong Dai, Xiaoyan Wu, Guangjing Liu, and Yongjing Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5739–5753,Short summary
The influence of aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) on the boundary layer structure is nonlinear. The threshold of the modification effects of ARF on the boundary layer structure was determined for the first time, highlighting that once ARF exceeded a certain value, the boundary layer would quickly stabilize and aggravate air pollution. This could provide useful information for relevant atmospheric-environment improvement measures and policies.
Jiayun Li, Liming Cao, Wenkang Gao, Lingyan He, Yingchao Yan, Yuexin He, Yuepeng Pan, Dongsheng Ji, Zirui Liu, and Yuesi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4521–4539,Short summary
For the first time, we investigated the highly time-resolved chemical characterization, sources and evolution of atmospheric submicron aerosols at a regional background site in the North China Plain (NCP) using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer and evaluated the seasonal differentials of photochemical and aqueous-phase processing on SOA composition and oxidation degree of OA. The results will help to understand air pollution in the NCP on a regional scale.
Jingchuan Chen, Zhijun Wu, Jie Chen, Naama Reicher, Xin Fang, Yinon Rudich, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3491–3506,Short summary
Asian mineral dust is a crucial contributor to global ice-nucleating particles (INPs), while its size-resolved information on freezing activity is extremely rare. Here we conducted the first known INP measurements of size-resolved airborne East Asian dust particles. An explicit size dependence of both INP concentration and surface ice-active-site density was observed. The new parameterizations can be widely applied in models to better characterize and predict ice nucleation activities of dust.
Yao Wang, Yue Zhao, Yuchen Wang, Jian-Zhen Yu, Jingyuan Shao, Ping Liu, Wenfei Zhu, Zhen Cheng, Ziyue Li, Naiqiang Yan, and Huayun Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2959–2980,Short summary
Organosulfates (OSs) are important constituents and tracers of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in the atmosphere. Here we characterized the OS species in ambient aerosols in Shanghai, China. We find that the contributions of OSs and SOAs to organic aerosols have increased in recent years and that OS production was largely controlled by the oxidant level (Ox), particularly in summer. We infer that mitigation of Ox pollution can effectively reduce the production of OSs and SOAs in eastern China.
Rongzhi Tang, Quanyang Lu, Song Guo, Hui Wang, Kai Song, Ying Yu, Rui Tan, Kefan Liu, Ruizhe Shen, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Spiro D. Jorga, Zhou Zhang, Wenbin Zhang, Shijin Shuai, and Allen L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2569–2583,Short summary
We performed chassis dynamometer experiments to investigate the emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation potential of intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) from an on-road Chinese gasoline vehicle. High IVOC emission factors (EFs) and distinct volatility distribution were recognized. Our results indicate that vehicular IVOCs contribute significantly to SOA, implying the importance of reducing IVOCs when making air pollution control policies in urban areas of China.
Christian Mark Garcia Salvador, Rongzhi Tang, Michael Priestley, Linjie Li, Epameinondas Tsiligiannis, Michael Le Breton, Wenfei Zhu, Limin Zeng, Hui Wang, Ying Yu, Min Hu, Song Guo, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1389–1406,Short summary
High-frequency online measurement of gas- and particle-phase nitro-aromatic compounds (NACs) at a rural site in China, heavily influenced by biomass burning events, enabled the analysis of the production pathway of NACs, including an explanation of strong persistence in the daytime. The contribution of secondary processes was significant, even during the dominant wintertime influence of primary emissions, suggesting the important role of regional secondary chemistry, i.e. photochemical smog.
Chao Peng, Yu Wang, Zhijun Wu, Lanxiadi Chen, Ru-Jin Huang, Weigang Wang, Zhe Wang, Weiwei Hu, Guohua Zhang, Maofa Ge, Min Hu, Xinming Wang, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13877–13903,
Yujue Wang, Min Hu, Nan Xu, Yanhong Qin, Zhijun Wu, Liwu Zeng, Xiaofeng Huang, and Lingyan He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13721–13734,Short summary
Field straw residue burning is a widespread type of biomass burning in Asia, while its emissions are poorly understood. In this study, we designed lab-controlled experiments to comprehensively investigate the emission factors, chemical compositions and light absorption properties of both water-soluble and water-insoluble carbonaceous aerosols emitted from straw burning. The results clearly highlight the significant influences of burning conditions and combustion efficiency on the emissions.
Jingyi Li, Haowen Zhang, Qi Ying, Zhijun Wu, Yanli Zhang, Xinming Wang, Xinghua Li, Yele Sun, Min Hu, Yuanhang Zhang, and Jianlin Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7291–7306,Short summary
Large gaps still exist in modeled and observed secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass loading and properties. Here we investigated the impacts of water partitioning into organic aerosol and nonideality of the organic–water mixture on SOA over eastern China using a regional 3D model. SOA is increased more significantly in humid and hot environments. Increases in SOA further cause an enhancement of the cooling effects of aerosols. It is crucial to consider the above processes in modeling SOA.
Jian Zhang, Lei Liu, Liang Xu, Qiuhan Lin, Hujia Zhao, Zhibin Wang, Song Guo, Min Hu, Dantong Liu, Zongbo Shi, Dao Huang, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5355–5372,Short summary
Northeast China faces severe air pollution in regional haze in wintertime. In this study, we revealed a contrasting formation mechanism of two typical haze events: Haze-I was induced by adverse meteorological conditions together with residential coal burning emissions; Haze-II was caused by agricultural biomass waste burning. In particular, we observed large numbers of tar balls as the primary brown carbon in northeast China.
Yuning Xie, Gehui Wang, Xinpei Wang, Jianmin Chen, Yubao Chen, Guiqian Tang, Lili Wang, Shuangshuang Ge, Guoyan Xue, Yuesi Wang, and Jian Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5019–5033,Short summary
As a result of strict emission control, nitrate-dominated PM2.5 in pollution episodes was observed in urban Beijing during the winter of 2017–2018. With the help of sufficient ammonia, particle pH could increase to near neutral (5.4) as particulate nitrate fraction increases. Further tests imply that airborne particle hygroscopicity would be enhanced at moderate RH in nitrate-dominated particles, and pH elevation will be accelerated when ammonia and particulate nitrate both increase.
Dandan Zhao, Guangjing Liu, Jinyuan Xin, Jiannong Quan, Yuesi Wang, Xin Wang, Lindong Dai, Wenkang Gao, Guiqian Tang, Bo Hu, Yongxiang Ma, Xiaoyan Wu, Lili Wang, Zirui Liu, and Fangkun Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4575–4592,Short summary
Under strong atmospheric oxidization capacity, haze pollution in the summer in Beijing was the result of the synergistic effect of the physicochemical process in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). With the premise of an extremely stable ABL structure, the formation of secondary aerosols dominated by nitrate was quite intense, driving the outbreak of haze pollution.
Jiaoping Xing, Longyi Shao, Wenbin Zhang, Jianfei Peng, Wenhua Wang, Shijin Shuai, Min Hu, and Daizhou Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2781–2794,Short summary
Our results highlight the contribution of gasoline-direct-injection (GDI) vehicles to aerosols, both primary and secondary. The major particles from GDI vehicles are organic and soot particles; they actively participate in chemical conversions in the atmosphere, leading to morphology and composition changes in hours. Rapid ageing could be attributable to the acid-catalysed mechanism and high concentrations of gaseous pollutants. These results would be beneficial for control of PM2.5 pollution.
Yu Wang, Ying Chen, Zhijun Wu, Dongjie Shang, Yuxuan Bian, Zhuofei Du, Sebastian H. Schmitt, Rong Su, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Patrick Schlag, Thorsten Hohaus, Aristeidis Voliotis, Keding Lu, Limin Zeng, Chunsheng Zhao, M. Rami Alfarra, Gordon McFiggans, Alfred Wiedensohler, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Yuanhang Zhang, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2161–2175,Short summary
Severe haze events, with high particulate nitrate (pNO3−) burden, frequently prevail in Beijing. In this study, we demonstrate a mutual-promotion effect between aerosol water uptake and pNO3− formation backed up by theoretical calculations and field observations throughout a typical pNO3−-dominated haze event in Beijing wintertime. This self-amplified mutual-promotion effect between aerosol water content and particulate nitrate can rapidly deteriorate air quality and degrade visibility.
Jingda Liu, Lili Wang, Mingge Li, Zhiheng Liao, Yang Sun, Tao Song, Wenkang Gao, Yonghong Wang, Yan Li, Dongsheng Ji, Bo Hu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yuesi Wang, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14477–14492,Short summary
We analyzed the surface ozone variation characteristics and quantified the impact of synoptic and local meteorological factors on northern China during the warm season based on multi-city, in situ ozone and meteorological data, as well as meteorological reanalysis. The results of quantitative exploration on synoptic and local meteorological factors influencing both interannual and day-to-day ozone variations will provide the scientific basis for evaluating emission reduction measures.
Misti Levy Zamora, Jianfei Peng, Min Hu, Song Guo, Wilmarie Marrero-Ortiz, Dongjie Shang, Jing Zheng, Zhuofei Du, Zhijun Wu, and Renyi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14329–14338,Short summary
Severe haze formation in Beijing during wintertime is attributed to explosive secondary aerosol formation including particle nucleation and subsequent particle growth. Organic matter is responsible for producing nucleation mode particles, while secondary organic and inorganic components jointly contribute to the high aerosol mass during haze episodes. High levels of gaseous precursors and stagnant air mass are responsible for fast secondary aerosol formation.
Gang Zhao, Tianyi Tan, Weilun Zhao, Song Guo, Ping Tian, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12875–12885,Short summary
Traditionally, the real part of the refractive index (RRI) of ambient aerosols is calculated by their chemical components. In this study, we demonstrate that the RRI is highly related to effective density rather than chemical components using field measurements. For the first time, a parameterization scheme for ambient aerosol RRI using effective density is proposed. This simple scheme is more reliable and ready to use in the calculation of aerosol optics and radiation.
Mingjin Tang, Chak K. Chan, Yong Jie Li, Hang Su, Qingxin Ma, Zhijun Wu, Guohua Zhang, Zhe Wang, Maofa Ge, Min Hu, Hong He, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12631–12686,Short summary
Hygroscopicity is one of the most important properties of aerosol particles, and a number of experimental techniques, which differ largely in principles, configurations and cost, have been developed to investigate hygroscopic properties of atmospherically relevant particles. Our paper provides a comprehensive and critical review of available techniques for aerosol hygroscopicity studies.
Yanhua Fang, Chunxiang Ye, Junxia Wang, Yusheng Wu, Min Hu, Weili Lin, Fanfan Xu, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12295–12307,Short summary
Year-long observations of PM2.5, gaseous pollutants, and meteorological parameters in Beijing were analysed to investigate sulfate formation. RH and O3 concentrations above thresholds of 45 % and 35 ppb, respectively, greatly accelerated sulfate formation. Ambient changes in RH and O3 contributed to variations in sulfate formation among different seasons and pollution levels. A shift from gas-phase to multiphase SO2 oxidation contributed to fast sulfate formation under polluted conditions.
Lia Chatzidiakou, Anika Krause, Olalekan A. M. Popoola, Andrea Di Antonio, Mike Kellaway, Yiqun Han, Freya A. Squires, Teng Wang, Hanbin Zhang, Qi Wang, Yunfei Fan, Shiyi Chen, Min Hu, Jennifer K. Quint, Benjamin Barratt, Frank J. Kelly, Tong Zhu, and Roderic L. Jones
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4643–4657,Short summary
This study validates the performance of a personal air quality monitor that integrates miniaturised sensors that measure physical and chemical parameters. Overall, the air pollution sensors showed excellent agreement with standard instrumentation in outdoor, indoor and commuting environments across seasons and different geographical settings. Hence, novel sensing technologies like the ones demonstrated here can revolutionise health studies by providing highly resolved reliable exposure metrics.
Yusi Liu, Guiqian Tang, Libo Zhou, Bo Hu, Baoxian Liu, Yunting Li, Shu Liu, and Yuesi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9531–9540,Short summary
Weak atmospheric dilution capability is a key factor leading to the frequent occurrence of serious air pollution. This study aims to analyze the mixing layer dilution capability of the atmosphere and to quantify the mixing layer PM2.5 transport flux. Our results showed the main controlling factors during the transition and heavy polluted period in Beijing. The results help in understanding the causes of air pollution and making decisions on prevention and control of air pollution.
Wenjie Wang, Xin Li, Min Shao, Min Hu, Limin Zeng, Yusheng Wu, and Tianyi Tan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9413–9429,Short summary
We quantitatively evaluated the relationship between photolysis frequencies and AOD based on 4 years of observational data in Beijing. This study concludes that the influence of aerosol on photolysis frequencies and thus on the rate of oxidation of VOCs and NOx to ozone is important for determining the atmospheric effects of controlling the precursor emissions of these two important air pollutants (aerosols and ozone).
Dongsheng Ji, Wenkang Gao, Willy Maenhaut, Jun He, Zhe Wang, Jiwei Li, Wupeng Du, Lili Wang, Yang Sun, Jinyuan Xin, Bo Hu, and Yuesi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8569–8590,Short summary
This study reveals an obvious decreasing trend in OC and EC concentrations in urban Beijing. Higher concentrations were related to air masses originating from the northeast sector at wind speeds of approximately 5 km h−1. The potential source regions of the carbonaceous aerosols stretched to broader areas in the northwestern and western regions where coal mining and coal-fired power generation activities are intensive, which is fairly consistent with the MEIC inventory for China.
Weijun Li, Lei Liu, Qi Yuan, Liang Xu, Yanhong Zhu, Bingbing Wang, Hua Yu, Xiaokun Ding, Jian Zhang, Dao Huang, Dantong Liu, Wei Hu, Daizhou Zhang, Pingqing Fu, Maosheng Yao, Min Hu, Xiaoye Zhang, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
The real state of individual primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) derived from natural sources is under mystery, although many studies well evaluate the morphology, mixing state, and elemental composition of anthropogenic particles. It induces that some studies mislead some anthropogenic particles into biological particles through electron microscopy. Here we firstly estimate the full database of individual PBAPs through two microscopic instruments. The database is good for research.
Yujue Wang, Min Hu, Yuchen Wang, Jing Zheng, Dongjie Shang, Yudong Yang, Ying Liu, Xiao Li, Rongzhi Tang, Wenfei Zhu, Zhuofei Du, Yusheng Wu, Song Guo, Zhijun Wu, Shengrong Lou, Mattias Hallquist, and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7649–7665,Short summary
Nitro-aromatic compounds (NACs), an important fraction in brown carbon, were comprehensively characterized in Beijing. The oxidation of anthropogenic VOCs represented more dominant sources of NACs than biomass burning. A transition of NO2 from low- to high-NOx regimes was observed. The contribution of aqueous-phase pathways to NAC formation increased at elevated RH. This work highlights secondary formation of NACs and influence factors in high NOx–anthropogenic VOC-dominated urban atmospheres.
Zongbo Shi, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Roy M. Harrison, Sue Grimmond, Siyao Yue, Tong Zhu, James Lee, Yiqun Han, Matthias Demuzere, Rachel E. Dunmore, Lujie Ren, Di Liu, Yuanlin Wang, Oliver Wild, James Allan, W. Joe Acton, Janet Barlow, Benjamin Barratt, David Beddows, William J. Bloss, Giulia Calzolai, David Carruthers, David C. Carslaw, Queenie Chan, Lia Chatzidiakou, Yang Chen, Leigh Crilley, Hugh Coe, Tie Dai, Ruth Doherty, Fengkui Duan, Pingqing Fu, Baozhu Ge, Maofa Ge, Daobo Guan, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Kebin He, Mathew Heal, Dwayne Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Michael Hollaway, Min Hu, Dongsheng Ji, Xujiang Jiang, Rod Jones, Markus Kalberer, Frank J. Kelly, Louisa Kramer, Ben Langford, Chun Lin, Alastair C. Lewis, Jie Li, Weijun Li, Huan Liu, Junfeng Liu, Miranda Loh, Keding Lu, Franco Lucarelli, Graham Mann, Gordon McFiggans, Mark R. Miller, Graham Mills, Paul Monk, Eiko Nemitz, Fionna O'Connor, Bin Ouyang, Paul I. Palmer, Carl Percival, Olalekan Popoola, Claire Reeves, Andrew R. Rickard, Longyi Shao, Guangyu Shi, Dominick Spracklen, David Stevenson, Yele Sun, Zhiwei Sun, Shu Tao, Shengrui Tong, Qingqing Wang, Wenhua Wang, Xinming Wang, Xuejun Wang, Zifang Wang, Lianfang Wei, Lisa Whalley, Xuefang Wu, Zhijun Wu, Pinhua Xie, Fumo Yang, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, Yuanhang Zhang, and Mei Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7519–7546,Short summary
APHH-Beijing is a collaborative international research programme to study the sources, processes and health effects of air pollution in Beijing. This introduction to the special issue provides an overview of (i) the APHH-Beijing programme, (ii) the measurement and modelling activities performed as part of it and (iii) the air quality and meteorological conditions during joint intensive field campaigns as a core activity within APHH-Beijing.
Zhenying Xu, Mingxu Liu, Minsi Zhang, Yu Song, Shuxiao Wang, Lin Zhang, Tingting Xu, Tiantian Wang, Caiqing Yan, Tian Zhou, Yele Sun, Yuepeng Pan, Min Hu, Mei Zheng, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5605–5613,
Liya Guo, Wenjun Gu, Chao Peng, Weigang Wang, Yong Jie Li, Taomou Zong, Yujing Tang, Zhijun Wu, Qinhao Lin, Maofa Ge, Guohua Zhang, Min Hu, Xinhui Bi, Xinming Wang, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2115–2133,Short summary
In this work, hygroscopic properties of eight Ca- and Mg-containing salts were systematically investigated using two complementary techniques. The results largely improve our knowledge of the physicochemical properties of mineral dust and sea salt aerosols.
Mingxu Liu, Xin Huang, Yu Song, Tingting Xu, Shuxiao Wang, Zhijun Wu, Min Hu, Lin Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Yuepeng Pan, Xuejun Liu, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17933–17943,
Dongjie Shang, Min Hu, Jing Zheng, Yanhong Qin, Zhuofei Du, Mengren Li, Jingyao Fang, Jianfei Peng, Yusheng Wu, Sihua Lu, and Song Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15687–15703,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) activities have a great impact on the particle number size distribution in the upper troposphere of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), which could affect regional and global climate. We found that the cloud condensation nuclei concentration was 2–8 times higher during BB influenced periods than during clean periods on the TP. An unexpectedly low new particle formation frequency was found in clean atmosphere on the TP, due to low concentrations of anthropogenic precursors, i.e., SO2.
Tuomo Nieminen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Pasi P. Aalto, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Urs Baltensperger, David C. S. Beddows, Johan Paul Beukes, Don Collins, Aijun Ding, Roy M. Harrison, Bas Henzing, Rakesh Hooda, Min Hu, Urmas Hõrrak, Niku Kivekäs, Kaupo Komsaare, Radovan Krejci, Adam Kristensson, Lauri Laakso, Ari Laaksonen, W. Richard Leaitch, Heikki Lihavainen, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Zoltán Németh, Wei Nie, Colin O'Dowd, Imre Salma, Karine Sellegri, Birgitta Svenningsson, Erik Swietlicki, Peter Tunved, Vidmantas Ulevicius, Ville Vakkari, Marko Vana, Alfred Wiedensohler, Zhijun Wu, Annele Virtanen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14737–14756,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols have diverse effects on air quality, human health, and global climate. One important source of aerosols is their formation via nucleation and growth in the atmosphere. We have analyzed long-term observations of regional new particle formation events around the globe and provide a comprehensive view on the characteristics of this phenomenon in diverse environments. The results are useful in developing more realistic representation of atmospheric aerosols in global models.
Michael Le Breton, Åsa M. Hallquist, Ravi Kant Pathak, David Simpson, Yujue Wang, John Johansson, Jing Zheng, Yudong Yang, Dongjie Shang, Haichao Wang, Qianyun Liu, Chak Chan, Tao Wang, Thomas J. Bannan, Michael Priestley, Carl J. Percival, Dudley E. Shallcross, Keding Lu, Song Guo, Min Hu, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13013–13030,Short summary
We apply state-of-the-art chemical characterization to determine the chloride radical production in Beijing via measurement of inorganic halogens at a semi-rural site. The high concentration of inorganic halogens, namely nitryl chloride, enables the production of chlorinated volatile organic compounds which are measured in both the gas and particle phases simultaneously. This enables the secondary production of aerosols via chlorine oxidation to be directly observed in ambient air.
Zhaofeng Tan, Franz Rohrer, Keding Lu, Xuefei Ma, Birger Bohn, Sebastian Broch, Huabin Dong, Hendrik Fuchs, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, Xin Li, Ying Liu, Yuhan Liu, Anna Novelli, Min Shao, Haichao Wang, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, Min Hu, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12391–12411,Short summary
We present the first wintertime OH, HO2, and RO2 measurements in Beijing, China. OH concentrations are nearly 2-fold larger than those observed in foreign cities during wintertime. The high OH and large OH reactivities indicate photochemical processes can be effective even during wintertime. A box model largely underestimated HO2 and RO2 concentrations during pollution episodes correlated with high NOx, indicating a deficit current chemistry in the high NOx regime.
Xiao-Feng Huang, Bei-Bing Zou, Ling-Yan He, Min Hu, André S. H. Prévôt, and Yuan-Hang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11563–11580,Short summary
A novel multilinear engine (ME-2) model was applied to the PM2.5 dataset observed in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) of China in 2015 and identified the sources of secondary sulfate (21 %), vehicle emissions (14 %), industrial emissions (13 %), secondary nitrate (11 %), biomass burning (11 %), secondary organic aerosol (7 %), coal burning (6 %), fugitive dust (5 %), ship emissions (3 %) and aged sea salt (2 %). The central PRD area was clearly identified as the key emission area in the PRD.
Yujue Wang, Min Hu, Song Guo, Yuchen Wang, Jing Zheng, Yudong Yang, Wenfei Zhu, Rongzhi Tang, Xiao Li, Ying Liu, Michael Le Breton, Zhuofei Du, Dongjie Shang, Yusheng Wu, Zhijun Wu, Yu Song, Shengrong Lou, Mattias Hallquist, and Jianzhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10693–10713,Short summary
The overall characteristics and concentrations of organosulfates (OSs) and nitrooxy-OSs (NOSs) were determined in summer in Beijing. This study provided direct observational evidence that OSs form via acid-catalyzed aqueous-phase reactions in the presence of acidic sulfate aerosols, and monoterpene NOSs form via nighttime NO3 oxidation. Using OSs and NOSs as examples, this work highlights the formation pathways of SOA via anthropogenic–biogenic interactions and organic–inorganic reactions.
Michael Le Breton, Yujue Wang, Åsa M. Hallquist, Ravi Kant Pathak, Jing Zheng, Yudong Yang, Dongjie Shang, Marianne Glasius, Thomas J. Bannan, Qianyun Liu, Chak K. Chan, Carl J. Percival, Wenfei Zhu, Shengrong Lou, David Topping, Yuchen Wang, Jianzhen Yu, Keding Lu, Song Guo, Min Hu, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10355–10371,Short summary
This paper utilizes a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer measuring gas and particle-phase organosulfates (OS) simultaneously during a field campaign in Beijing, China, and highlights how high time frequency online measurements enable a detailed analysis of dominant production mechanisms. We find that high aerosol acidity, organic precursor concentration and relative humidity promote the production of OS. The thermogram desorption reveals the potential for semi-volatile gas-phase OS.
Haichao Wang, Keding Lu, Song Guo, Zhijun Wu, Dongjie Shang, Zhaofeng Tan, Yujue Wang, Michael Le Breton, Shengrong Lou, Mingjin Tang, Yusheng Wu, Wenfei Zhu, Jing Zheng, Limin Zeng, Mattias Hallquist, Min Hu, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9705–9721,Short summary
N2O5, ClNO2, and particulate nitrate were measured simultaneously in Beijing, China, in 2016. The elevated N2O5 uptake coefficient and ClNO2 yield were determined, which suggest fast N2O5 uptake in Beijing. We highlight that the NO3 oxidation in nocturnal VOC degradation is efficient, with fast formation of organic nitrates. More studies are needed to investigate NO3–N2O5 chemistry and its contribution to secondary organic aerosol formation.
Zhuofei Du, Min Hu, Jianfei Peng, Wenbin Zhang, Jing Zheng, Fangting Gu, Yanhong Qin, Yudong Yang, Mengren Li, Yusheng Wu, Min Shao, and Shijin Shuai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9011–9023,Short summary
By combining approaches involving chassis dynamometer measurements and environmental chamber simulations, we find that gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles contribute more primary aerosol and secondary organic aerosol than port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles. Our results highlight the considerable potential contribution of GDI vehicles to urban air pollution, since the market share of GDI vehicles will dominate over that of PFI vehicles in the future.
Congbo Song, Yan Liu, Shida Sun, Luna Sun, Yanjie Zhang, Chao Ma, Jianfei Peng, Qian Li, Jinsheng Zhang, Qili Dai, Baoshuang Liu, Peng Wang, Yi Zhang, Ting Wang, Lin Wu, Min Hu, and Hongjun Mao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Vehicular emission is a key contributor to ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and NOx in Chinese megacities. Information on real-world emission factors (EFs) for a typical urban fleet is still limited. We found that improvement of fuel quality can significantly reduce feet-average EFs of VOCs (especially for BTEX). Our study provided implications for O3 control in China from the view of primary emission, and highlighted the importance of further control of evaporative emissions.
Mohammed S. Alam, Soheil Zeraati-Rezaei, Zhirong Liang, Christopher Stark, Hongming Xu, A. Rob MacKenzie, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3047–3058,Short summary
Diesel fuel, lubricating oil and diesel exhaust emissions all contain a very complex mixture of chemical compounds with diverse molecular structures. The GC × GC-ToF-MS analytical method is a very powerful way of separating and identifying those compounds. This paper describes the allocation of compounds into groups with similar molecular structures and chemical properties, which facilitates the intercomparison of very complex mixtures such as are found in diesel fuel, oil and emissions.
Rongzhi Tang, Zepeng Wu, Xiao Li, Yujue Wang, Dongjie Shang, Yao Xiao, Mengren Li, Limin Zeng, Zhijun Wu, Mattias Hallquist, Min Hu, and Song Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4055–4068,Short summary
We used CMB and the tracer yield method to apportion organic sources in Beijing. Vehicular emissions served as the dominant source, and the contributions of all the other primary sources decreased. One interesting result is that in contrast to the SOA from other regions in the world where biogenic SOA was dominant, anthropogenic SOA was the major contributor to SOA, implying that deducting anthropogenic VOC emissions is an efficient way to reduce SOA in Beijing.
Li-Ming Cao, Xiao-Feng Huang, Yuan-Yuan Li, Min Hu, and Ling-Yan He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1729–1743,Short summary
A TD-AMS (thermodenuder aerosol mass spectrometer) system was deployed to study the volatility of non-refractory PM1 species during winter in Shenzhen, China. The volatility of chemical species measured with the AMS varied, with nitrate showing the highest volatility. Organics showed semi-volatile characteristics, and five subtypes of OA resolved by PMF modeling presented different volatilities. The results can contribute to the understanding of the formation and ageing of submicron aerosols.
Pengfei Liang, Tong Zhu, Yanhua Fang, Yingruo Li, Yiqun Han, Yusheng Wu, Min Hu, and Junxia Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13921–13940,Short summary
The generalized linear regression model (GLM), even based only on meteorological parameters, could be satisfactory to estimate the contribution of meteorological conditions in reducing air pollution and hence the contribution of control strategies in reducing air pollution. Using the GLM, we found that the meteorological conditions and pollution control strategies contributed 30 % and 28 % to the reduction of the PM2.5 concentration during APEC 2014 and 38 % and 25 % during Parade 2015.
Jianfei Peng, Min Hu, Zhuofei Du, Yinhui Wang, Jing Zheng, Wenbin Zhang, Yudong Yang, Yanhong Qin, Rong Zheng, Yao Xiao, Yusheng Wu, Sihua Lu, Zhijun Wu, Song Guo, Hongjun Mao, and Shijin Shuai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10743–10752,Short summary
Through an environmental chamber approach, we find that a small increase in aromatic content in gasoline fuel will result in a large enhancement in the secondary organic aerosol formation from vehicle exhaust. The higher emissions of both monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic organic compounds from the high-aromatic fuel played an essential role. Our findings highlight the importance of more stringent regulation of gasoline aromatic content for air quality in urban areas.
Qingfeng Guo, Min Hu, Song Guo, Zhijun Wu, Jianfei Peng, and Yusheng Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10395–10403,Short summary
To characterize primary emissions over the eastern coast of China, a series of field campaigns were conducted. The high loadings of both BC and CO implied severe anthropogenic pollution over the areas. The slopes between BC and CO at different areas revealed the vehicular emission as the common source and the distinct fuel structures between North and South China. The comparisons of slopes and correlation coefficient among these areas can indicate the aging extent of BC at the macroscopic level.
Jianfei Peng, Min Hu, Song Guo, Zhuofei Du, Dongjie Shang, Jing Zheng, Jun Zheng, Limin Zeng, Min Shao, Yusheng Wu, Don Collins, and Renyi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10333–10348,Short summary
Rapid growth of BC particles was observed in Beijing using a new outdoor chamber, with an average growth rate of 26 ± 11 nm h−1. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounted for more than 90 % of the coating mass. The hygroscopic growth factor of BC particles increased to 1.06–1.08 upon ageing. The κ (kappa) values for BC particles were calculated as only 0.035, indicating that initial photochemical ageing of BC particles does not appreciably alter the particle hygroscopicity in Beijing.
Wei Hu, Min Hu, Wei-Wei Hu, Jing Zheng, Chen Chen, Yusheng Wu, and Song Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9979–10000,Short summary
Seasonal changes in chemical compositions, sources, and evolution for submicron aerosols in the megacity Beijing were investigated based on high-resolution AMS measurements. Carbonaceous fraction (OA+BC) constituted over 50 % of PM1 in autumn due to primary emissions, while SNA contributed 60 % to PM1 in other seasons. Secondary components (OOA+SNA) contributed ~ 60–80 % to PM1, suggesting that secondary formation played an important role in PM pollution. OA was in a relatively high oxidation state.
Jing Zheng, Min Hu, Zhuofei Du, Dongjie Shang, Zhaoheng Gong, Yanhong Qin, Jingyao Fang, Fangting Gu, Mengren Li, Jianfei Peng, Jie Li, Yuqia Zhang, Xiaofeng Huang, Lingyan He, Yusheng Wu, and Song Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6853–6864,Short summary
By monitoring aerosol properties as a function of high-resolution chemical composition, this study sheds light on the evolution processes of particles in the Tibetan Plateau background environment during the pre-monsoon season. A positive matrix factorization analysis integrated with a mesoscale meteorological model clearly shows that the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau was affected by air pollutants transported from active biomass burning areas in South Asia.
Huan Yao, Yu Song, Mingxu Liu, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Douglas Lowe, Gordon McFiggans, Tingting Xu, Pin Du, Jianfeng Li, Yusheng Wu, Min Hu, Chun Zhao, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5205–5219,
Yuxuan Zhang, Hang Su, Simonas Kecorius, Zhibin Wang, Min Hu, Tong Zhu, Kebin He, Alfred Wiedensohler, Qiang Zhang, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The light absorption of black carbon (BC) strongly depends on their mixing state. By now, the BC mixing state in the atmosphere is still unclear. In this work, we have investigated the comprehensive characterization of BC mixing state at a polluted regional background site of the North China Plain (NCP) based on in site measurements. we found that BC aerosols of the NCP were fully aged, suggesting a strong optical and climate effect of BC on the regional scale in northern China.
Wei Hu, Min Hu, Wei-Wei Hu, Hongya Niu, Jing Zheng, Yusheng Wu, Wentai Chen, Chen Chen, Lingyu Li, Min Shao, Shaodong Xie, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13213–13230,Short summary
An Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight AMS was deployed at a suburban site in the Sichuan Basin, southwestern China, under high emission intensity, and unique geographical and adverse meteorological conditions. OA was the most abundant component (36 %) in PM1, characterized by a relatively high oxidation state. The contributions of BBOA and BC to PM1 were high in primary emission episodes, highlighting the critical influence of biomass burning.
B. Quennehen, J.-C. Raut, K. S. Law, N. Daskalakis, G. Ancellet, C. Clerbaux, S.-W. Kim, M. T. Lund, G. Myhre, D. J. L. Olivié, S. Safieddine, R. B. Skeie, J. L. Thomas, S. Tsyro, A. Bazureau, N. Bellouin, M. Hu, M. Kanakidou, Z. Klimont, K. Kupiainen, S. Myriokefalitakis, J. Quaas, S. T. Rumbold, M. Schulz, R. Cherian, A. Shimizu, J. Wang, S.-C. Yoon, and T. Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10765–10792,Short summary
This paper evaluates the ability of six global models and one regional model in reproducing short-lived pollutants (defined here as ozone and its precursors, aerosols and black carbon) concentrations over Asia using satellite, ground-based and airborne observations. Key findings are that models homogeneously reproduce the trace gas observations although nitrous oxides are underestimated, whereas the aerosol distributions are heterogeneously reproduced, implicating important uncertainties.
Qiao Zhu, Ling-Yan He, Xiao-Feng Huang, Li-Ming Cao, Zhao-Heng Gong, Chuan Wang, Xin Zhuang, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10283–10297,Short summary
An high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, together with other relevant instruments, was deployed at two of China's national background sites in northern and southern China in the spring season, in order to characterize submicron aerosol composition and sources. The findings indicated that possible sources might not only include emissions from the Chinese mainland but also include emissions from ocean-going cargo ships and biomass burning in neighboring countries.
Nan Ma, Chunsheng Zhao, Jiangchuan Tao, Zhijun Wu, Simonas Kecorius, Zhibin Wang, Johannes Größ, Hongjian Liu, Yuxuan Bian, Ye Kuang, Monique Teich, Gerald Spindler, Konrad Müller, Dominik van Pinxteren, Hartmut Herrmann, Min Hu, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8593–8607,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) is one of main sources of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the atmosphere. Based on in situ measurements, we found that CCN activity of newly formed particles largely differs in different NPF events. It is therefore difficult to find a simple parameterization of CCN activity for NPF events. Using a fixed size-resolved activation ratio curve or critical diameter is very likely to result in large biases up to 50 % in the calculated NCCN during NPF events.
Yuxuan Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, Simonas Kecorius, Zhibin Wang, Zhijun Wu, Min Hu, Tong Zhu, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Kebin He
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1833–1843,Short summary
We develop a novel method in this work for in situ measurements of the morphology and effective density of ambient In-BC cores using a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer and a single-particle soot photometer. We find that In-BC cores hardly transform the morphology of BC into a void-free sphere. Taking the morphology and density of ambient In-BC cores into account, our work provides a new insight into the enhancement of light absorption for In-BC particles in the atmosphere.
Z. J. Wu, J. Zheng, D. J. Shang, Z. F. Du, Y. S. Wu, L. M. Zeng, A. Wiedensohler, and M. Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1123–1138,Short summary
Most pre-existing measurements lack a linkage between particle hygroscopicity and chemical composition with a high time resolution in China. Our work provided a general overview of particle hygroscopicity and its closure with chemical composition on the basis of HTDMA and AMS measurements. An increase in particle hygroscopicity with increasing air pollution level was found, as well as a quick transformation from external mixtures to internal mixtures for pre-existing particles during NPF events.
W. W. Hu, P. Campuzano-Jost, B. B. Palm, D. A. Day, A. M. Ortega, P. L. Hayes, J. E. Krechmer, Q. Chen, M. Kuwata, Y. J. Liu, S. S. de Sá, K. McKinney, S. T. Martin, M. Hu, S. H. Budisulistiorini, M. Riva, J. D. Surratt, J. M. St. Clair, G. Isaacman-Van Wertz, L. D. Yee, A. H. Goldstein, S. Carbone, J. Brito, P. Artaxo, J. A. de Gouw, A. Koss, A. Wisthaler, T. Mikoviny, T. Karl, L. Kaser, W. Jud, A. Hansel, K. S. Docherty, M. L. Alexander, N. H. Robinson, H. Coe, J. D. Allan, M. R. Canagaratna, F. Paulot, and J. L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11807–11833,Short summary
This work summarized all the studies reporting isoprene epoxydiols-derived secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA) measured globally by aerosol mass spectrometer and compare them with modeled gas-phase IEPOX, with results suggestive of the importance of IEPOX-SOA for regional and global OA budgets. A real-time tracer of IEPOX-SOA is thoroughly evaluated for the first time by combing multiple field and chamber studies. A quick and easy empirical method on IEPOX-SOA estimation is also presented.
Y. Liu, B. Yuan, X. Li, M. Shao, S. Lu, Y. Li, C.-C. Chang, Z. Wang, W. Hu, X. Huang, L. He, L. Zeng, M. Hu, and T. Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3045–3062,
M. Wang, M. Shao, W. Chen, S. Lu, Y. Liu, B. Yuan, Q. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C.-C. Chang, B. Wang, L. Zeng, M. Hu, Y. Yang, and Y. Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1489–1502,
J. F. Peng, M. Hu, Z. B. Wang, X. F. Huang, P. Kumar, Z. J. Wu, S. Guo, D. L. Yue, D. J. Shang, Z. Zheng, and L. Y. He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10249–10265,
K. D. Lu, F. Rohrer, F. Holland, H. Fuchs, T. Brauers, A. Oebel, R. Dlugi, M. Hu, X. Li, S. R. Lou, M. Shao, T. Zhu, A. Wahner, Y. H. Zhang, and A. Hofzumahaus
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4979–4999,
Z. B. Wang, M. Hu, J. Y. Sun, Z. J. Wu, D. L. Yue, X. J. Shen, Y. M. Zhang, X. Y. Pei, Y. F. Cheng, and A. Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12495–12506,
Z. B. Wang, M. Hu, D. Mogensen, D. L. Yue, J. Zheng, R. Y. Zhang, Y. Liu, B. Yuan, X. Li, M. Shao, L. Zhou, Z. J. Wu, A. Wiedensohler, and M. Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11157–11167,
Z. B. Wang, M. Hu, Z. J. Wu, D. L. Yue, L. Y. He, X. F. Huang, X. G. Liu, and A. Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10159–10170,
W. W. Hu, M. Hu, B. Yuan, J. L. Jimenez, Q. Tang, J. F. Peng, W. Hu, M. Shao, M. Wang, L. M. Zeng, Y. S. Wu, Z. H. Gong, X. F. Huang, and L. Y. He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10095–10112,
B. Yuan, W. W. Hu, M. Shao, M. Wang, W. T. Chen, S. H. Lu, L. M. Zeng, and M. Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8815–8832,
S. Guo, M. Hu, Q. Guo, X. Zhang, J. J. Schauer, and R. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8303–8314,
Z. B. Wang, M. Hu, Z. J. Wu, D. L. Yue, J. Zheng, R. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Pei, P. Paasonen, M. Dal Maso, M. Boy, and A. Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Laboratory Studies | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)The Urmia playa as a source of airborne dust and ice-nucleating particles – Part 2: Unraveling the relationship between soil dust composition and ice nucleation activityWinter brown carbon over six of China's megacities: light absorption, molecular characterization, and improved source apportionment revealed by multilayer perceptron neural networkChamber investigation of the formation and transformation of secondary organic aerosol in mixtures of biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compoundsNot all types of secondary organic aerosol mix: two phases observed when mixing different secondary organic aerosol typesComprehensive characterization of particulate intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from heavy-duty diesel vehicles using two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometryMeasurement report: Investigation of pH- and particle-size-dependent chemical and optical properties of water-soluble organic carbon: implications for its sources and aging processesThe influence of the addition of isoprene on the volatility of particles formed from the photo-oxidation of anthropogenic–biogenic mixturesSignificant formation of sulfate aerosols contributed by the heterogeneous drivers of dust surfaceParticle-phase processing of α-pinene NO3 secondary organic aerosol in the darkChemical characteristics and sources of PM2.5 in Hohhot, a semi-arid city in northern China: insight from the COVID-19 lockdownThe positive effect of formaldehyde on the photocatalytic renoxification of nitrate on TiO2 particlesIdentification of highly oxygenated organic molecules and their role in aerosol formation in the reaction of limonene with nitrate radicalChemical characterization of organic compounds involved in iodine-initiated new particle formation from coastal macro-algal emissionA comprehensive study on hygroscopic behaviour and nitrate depletion of NaNO3 and dicarboxylic acid mixtures: implications for nitrate depletion in tropospheric aerosolsSecondary organic aerosols from OH oxidation of cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes as an important Si source in the atmosphereEffects of OH radical and SO2 concentrations on photochemical reactions of mixed anthropogenic organic gasesEffects of the sample matrix on the photobleaching and photodegradation of toluene-derived secondary organic aerosol compoundsFunctionality-based formation of secondary organic aerosol from m-xylene photooxidationChemical composition of secondary organic aerosol particles formed from mixtures of anthropogenic and biogenic precursorsA novel pathway of atmospheric sulfate formation through carbonate radicalsA sulfuric acid nucleation potential model for the atmosphereOptical and chemical properties and oxidative potential of aqueous-phase products from OH and 3C∗-initiated photooxidation of eugenolThe relationship between PM2.5 and anticyclonic wave activity during summer over the United StatesIron from coal combustion particles dissolves much faster than mineral dust under simulated atmospheric acidic conditionsCellulose in atmospheric particulate matter at rural and urban sites across France and SwitzerlandKinetics, SOA yields, and chemical composition of secondary organic aerosol from β-caryophyllene ozonolysis with and without nitrogen oxides between 213 and 313 KChemical transformation of α-pinene-derived organosulfate via heterogeneous OH oxidation: implications for sources and environmental fates of atmospheric organosulfatesAqueous chemical bleaching of 4-nitrophenol brown carbon by hydroxyl radicals; products, mechanism, and light absorptionIsothermal evaporation of α-pinene secondary organic aerosol particles formed under low-NOx and high-NOx conditionsSecondary organic aerosol formation from camphene oxidation: measurements and modelingTechnical note: Real-time diagnosis of the hygroscopic growth micro-dynamics of nanoparticles with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopySingle-particle Raman spectroscopy for studying physical and chemical processes of atmospheric particlesAre reactive oxygen species (ROS) a suitable metric to predict toxicity of carbonaceous aerosol particles?Secondary organic aerosol and organic nitrogen yields from the nitrate radical (NO3) oxidation of alpha-pinene from various RO2 fatesSecondary organic aerosol formation from the oxidation of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane at atmospherically relevant OH concentrationsAqueous secondary organic aerosol formation from the direct photosensitized oxidation of vanillin in the absence and presence of ammonium nitrateEvolution of volatility and composition in sesquiterpene-mixed and α-pinene secondary organic aerosol particles during isothermal evaporationPotential new tracers and their mass fraction in the emitted PM10 from the burning of household waste in stovesSynergetic effects of NH3 and NOx on the production and optical absorption of secondary organic aerosol formation from toluene photooxidationChemical composition of nanoparticles from α-pinene nucleation and the influence of isoprene and relative humidity at low temperatureTechnical note: Adsorption and desorption equilibria from statistical thermodynamics and rates from transition state theoryNighttime chemistry of biomass burning emissions in urban areas: A dual mobile chamber studyMass spectral characterization of secondary organic aerosol from urban cooking and vehicular sourcesAn organic crystalline state in ageing atmospheric aerosol proxies: spatially resolved structural changes in levitated fatty acid particlesPhotolytically induced changes in composition and volatility of biogenic secondary organic aerosol from nitrate radical oxidation during night-to-day transitionThe driving factors of new particle formation and growth in the polluted boundary layerExploring the composition and volatility of secondary organic aerosols in mixed anthropogenic and biogenic precursor systemsAcidity and the multiphase chemistry of atmospheric aqueous particles and cloudsChemical composition, optical properties, and oxidative potential of water- and methanol-soluble organic compounds emitted from the combustion of biomass materials and coalPhotodegradation of atmospheric chromophores: changes in oxidation state and photochemical reactivity
Nikou Hamzehpour, Claudia Marcolli, Kristian Klumpp, Debora Thöny, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14931–14956,Short summary
Dust aerosols from dried lakebeds contain mineral particles, as well as soluble salts and (bio-)organic compounds. Here, we investigate ice nucleation (IN) activity of dust samples from Lake Urmia playa, Iran. We find high IN activity of the untreated samples that decreases after organic matter removal but increases after removing soluble salts and carbonates, evidencing inhibiting effects of soluble salts and carbonates on the IN activity of organic matter and minerals, especially microcline.
Diwei Wang, Zhenxing Shen, Qian Zhang, Yali Lei, Tian Zhang, Shasha Huang, Jian Sun, Hongmei Xu, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14893–14904,Short summary
The optical properties and molecular structure of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) in winter of several megacities in China were analyzed, and the source contribution of brown carbon was improved by using positive matrix factorization coupled with a multilayer perceptron neural network. These results can provide a basis for the more effective control of BrC to reduce its impacts on regional climates and human health.
Aristeidis Voliotis, Mao Du, Yu Wang, Yunqi Shao, M. Rami Alfarra, Thomas J. Bannan, Dawei Hu, Kelly L. Pereira, Jaqueline F. Hamilton, Mattias Hallquist, Thomas F. Mentel, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14147–14175,Short summary
Mixing experiments are crucial and highly beneficial for our understanding of atmospheric chemical interactions. However, interpretation quickly becomes complex, and both the experimental design and evaluation need to be scrutinised carefully. Advanced online and offline compositional measurements can reveal substantial additional information to aid in the interpretation of yield data, including components uniquely found in mixtures and property changes in SOA formed from mixtures of VOCs.
Fabian Mahrt, Long Peng, Julia Zaks, Yuanzhou Huang, Paul E. Ohno, Natalie R. Smith, Florence K. A. Gregson, Yiming Qin, Celia L. Faiola, Scot T. Martin, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Markus Ammann, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13783–13796,Short summary
The number of condensed phases in mixtures of different secondary organic aerosol (SOA) types determines their impact on air quality and climate. Here we observe the number of phases in individual particles that contain mixtures of two different types of SOA. We find that SOA mixtures can form one- or two-phase particles, depending on the difference in the average oxygen-to-carbon (O / C) ratios of the two SOA types that are internally mixed within individual particles.
Xiao He, Xuan Zheng, Shaojun Zhang, Xuan Wang, Ting Chen, Xiao Zhang, Guanghan Huang, Yihuan Cao, Liqiang He, Xubing Cao, Yuan Cheng, Shuxiao Wang, and Ye Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13935–13947,Short summary
With the use of two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC ToF-MS), we successfully give a comprehensive characterization of particulate intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) emitted from heavy-duty diesel vehicles. I/SVOCs are speciated, identified, and quantified based on the patterns of the mass spectrum, and the gas–particle partitioning is fully addressed.
Yuanyuan Qin, Juanjuan Qin, Xiaobo Wang, Kang Xiao, Ting Qi, Yuwei Gao, Xueming Zhou, Shaoxuan Shi, Jingnan Li, Jingsi Gao, Ziyin Zhang, Jihua Tan, Yang Zhang, and Rongzhi Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13845–13859,Short summary
Deep interrogation of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in aerosols is critical and challenging considering its involvement in many key aerosol-associated chemical reactions. This work examined how the chemical structures (functional groups) and optical properties (UV/fluorescence properties) of WSOC were affected by pH and particle size. We found that the pH- and particle-size-dependent behaviors could be used to reveal the structures, sources, and aging of aerosol WSOC.
Aristeidis Voliotis, Mao Du, Yu Wang, Yunqi Shao, Thomas J. Bannan, Michael Flynn, Spyros N. Pandis, Carl J. Percival, M. Rami Alfarra, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13677–13693,Short summary
The addition of a low-yield precursor to the reactive mixture of aVOC and bVOC can increase or decrease the SOA volatility that is system-dependent. Therefore, the SOA volatility of the mixtures cannot always be predicted based on the additivity. In complex mixtures the formation of lower-volatility products likely outweighs the formation of products with higher volatility. The unique products of each mixture contribute significantly to the signal, suggesting interactions can be important.
Tao Wang, Yangyang Liu, Hanyun Cheng, Zhenzhen Wang, Hongbo Fu, Jianmin Chen, and Liwu Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13467–13493,Short summary
This study compared the gas-phase, aqueous-phase, and heterogeneous SO2 oxidation pathways by combining laboratory work with a modelling study. The heterogeneous oxidation, particularly that induced by the dust surface drivers, presents positive implications for the removal of airborne SO2 and formation of sulfate aerosols. This work highlighted the atmospheric significance of heterogeneous oxidation and suggested a comparison model to evaluate the following heterogeneous laboratory research.
David M. Bell, Cheng Wu, Amelie Bertrand, Emelie Graham, Janne Schoonbaert, Stamatios Giannoukos, Urs Baltensperger, Andre S. H. Prevot, Ilona Riipinen, Imad El Haddad, and Claudia Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13167–13182,Short summary
A series of studies designed to investigate the evolution of organic aerosol were performed in an atmospheric simulation chamber, using a common oxidant found at night (NO3). The chemical composition steadily changed from its initial composition via different chemical reactions that were taking place inside of the aerosol particle. These results show that the composition of organic aerosol steadily changes during its lifetime in the atmosphere.
Haijun Zhou, Tao Liu, Bing Sun, Yongli Tian, Xingjun Zhou, Feng Hao, Xi Chun, Zhiqiang Wan, Peng Liu, Jingwen Wang, and Dagula Du
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12153–12166,Short summary
A single year’s offline measurement was conducted in Hohhot to reveal the chemical characteristics and sources of PM2.5 in a semi-arid region. We believe that our study makes a significant contribution to the literature because relatively few studies have focused on the chemical composition and sources of PM2.5 with offline measurements. A knowledge gap exists concerning how chemical composition and sources respond to implemented control measures for aerosols, particularly in a semi-arid region.
Yuhan Liu, Xuejiao Wang, Jing Shang, Weiwei Xu, Mengshuang Sheng, and Chunxiang Ye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11347–11358,Short summary
In this study, the influence of HCHO on renoxification on nitrate-doped TiO2 particles is investigated by using an experimental chamber. Mass NOx release is suggested to follow the NO−3-NO3·-HNO3-NOx pathway, with HCHO involved in the transformation of NO3· to HNO3 through hydrogen abstraction. Our proposed reaction mechanism by which HCHO promotes photocatalytic renoxification is helpful for deeply understanding the atmospheric photochemical processes and nitrogen cycling.
Yindong Guo, Hongru Shen, Iida Pullinen, Hao Luo, Sungah Kang, Luc Vereecken, Hendrik Fuchs, Mattias Hallquist, Ismail-Hakki Acir, Ralf Tillmann, Franz Rohrer, Jürgen Wildt, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, Defeng Zhao, and Thomas F. Mentel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11323–11346,Short summary
The oxidation of limonene, a common volatile emitted by trees and chemical products, by NO3, a nighttime oxidant, forms many highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOM), including C10-30 compounds. Most of the HOM are second-generation organic nitrates, in which carbonyl-substituted C10 nitrates accounted for a major fraction. Their formation can be explained by chemistry of peroxy radicals. HOM, especially low-volatile ones, play an important role in nighttime new particle formation and growth.
Yibei Wan, Xiangpeng Huang, Chong Xing, Qiongqiong Wang, Xinlei Ge, and Huan Yu
The organic compounds involved in continental new particle formation have been investigated in depth in last two decades. In contrast, no prior work has studied the exact chemical composition of organic compounds and their role in the coastal new particle formation. We present an important complementary study to the ongoing laboratory and field researches of iodine nucleation in coastal atmosphere. This study provided a more complete story of coastal I-NPF from low-tide macroalgal emission.
Shuaishuai Ma, Qiong Li, and Yunhong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10955–10970,Short summary
The nitrate phase state can play a critical role in determining the occurrence and extent of nitrate depletion in internally mixed NaNO3–DCA particles, which may be instructive for relevant aerosol reaction systems. Besides, organic acids have a potential to deplete nitrate based on the comprehensive consideration of acidity, particle-phase state, droplet water activity, and HNO3 gas-phase diffusion.
Chong Han, Hongxing Yang, Kun Li, Patrick Lee, John Liggio, Amy Leithead, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10827–10839,Short summary
We presented yields and compositions of Si-containing SOAs generated from the reaction of cVMSs (D3–D6) with OH radicals. NOx played a negative role in cVMS SOA formation, while ammonium sulfate seeds enhanced D3–D5 SOA yields at short photochemical ages under high-NOx conditions. The aerosol mass spectra confirmed that the components of cVMS SOAs significantly relied on OH exposure. A global cVMS-derived SOA source strength was estimated in order to understand SOA formation potentials of cVMSs.
Junling Li, Kun Li, Hao Zhang, Xin Zhang, Yuanyuan Ji, Wanghui Chu, Yuxue Kong, Yangxi Chu, Yanqin Ren, Yujie Zhang, Haijie Zhang, Rui Gao, Zhenhai Wu, Fang Bi, Xuan Chen, Xuezhong Wang, Weigang Wang, Hong Li, and Maofa Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10489–10504,Short summary
Ozone formation is enhanced by higher OH concentration and higher temperature but is influenced little by SO2. SO2 can largely enhance the particle formation. Organo-sulfates and organo-nitrates are detected in the formed particles, and the presence of SO2 can promote the formation of organo-sulfates. The results provide a scientific basis for systematically evaluating the effects of SO2, OH concentration, and temperature on the oxidation of mixed organic gases in the atmosphere.
Alexandra L. Klodt, Marley Adamek, Monica Dibley, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, and Rachel E. O'Brien
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10155–10171,Short summary
We investigated photochemistry of a secondary organic aerosol under three different conditions: in a dilute aqueous solution mimicking cloud droplets, in a solution of concentrated ammonium sulfate mimicking deliquesced aerosol, and in an organic matrix mimicking dry organic aerosol. We find that rate and mechanisms of photochemistry depend sensitively on these conditions, suggesting that the same organic aerosol compounds will degrade at different rates depending on their local environment.
Yixin Li, Jiayun Zhao, Mario Gomez-Hernandez, Michael Lavallee, Natalie M. Johnson, and Renyi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9843–9857,Short summary
Here we elucidate the production of COOs and their roles in SOA and brown carbon formation from m-xylene oxidation by simultaneously monitoring the evolution of gas-phase products and aerosol properties in an environmental chamber. A kinetic framework is developed to predict SOA production from the concentrations and uptake coefficients for COOs. This functionality-based approach reproduces SOA formation from m-xylene oxidation well and is applicable to VOC oxidation for other species.
Yunqi Shao, Aristeidis Voliotis, Mao Du, Yu Wang, Kelly Pereira, Jacqueline Hamilton, M. Rami Alfarra, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9799–9826,Short summary
This study explored the chemical properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) that formed from photo-oxidation of single and mixed biogenic and anthropogenic precursors. We showed that SOA chemical properties in a mixed vapour system are mainly affected by the higher-yield precursor's oxidation products and products from cross-product formation. This study also identifies potential tracer compounds in a mixed vapour system that might be used in SOA source attribution in future ambient studies.
Yangyang Liu, Yue Deng, Jiarong Liu, Xiaozhong Fang, Tao Wang, Kejian Li, Kedong Gong, Aziz U. Bacha, Iqra Nabi, Qiuyue Ge, Xiuhui Zhang, Christian George, and Liwu Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9175–9197,Short summary
Both CO2 and carbonate salt work as the precursor of carbonate radicals, which largely promotes sulfate formation during the daytime. This study provides the first indication that the carbonate radical not only plays a role as an intermediate in tropospheric anion chemistry but also as a strong oxidant for the surface processing of trace gas in the atmosphere. CO2, carbponate radicals, and sulfate receive attention from those looking at the environment, atmosphere, aerosol, and photochemistry.
Jack S. Johnson and Coty N. Jen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8287–8297,Short summary
Sulfuric acid nucleation forms particles in Earth's atmosphere that influence cloud formation and climate. This study introduces the Nucleation Potential Model, which simplifies the diverse reactions between sulfuric acid and numerous precursor gases to predict nucleation rates. Results show that the model is capable of estimating the potency and concentration of mixtures of precursor gases from laboratory and field observations and can be used to model nucleation across diverse environments.
Xudong Li, Ye Tao, Longwei Zhu, Shuaishuai Ma, Shipeng Luo, Zhuzi Zhao, Ning Sun, Xinlei Ge, and Zhaolian Ye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7793–7814,Short summary
This work has, for the first time, investigated the optical and chemical properties and oxidative potential of aqueous-phase photooxidation products of eugenol (a biomass-burning-emitted compound) and elucidated the interplay among these properties. Large mass yields exceeding 100 % were found, and the aqueous processing is a source of BrC (likely relevant with humic-like substances). We also show that aqueous processing can produce species that are more toxic than that of its precursor.
Ye Wang, Natalie Mahowald, Peter Hess, Wenxiu Sun, and Gang Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7575–7592,Short summary
PM2.5 is positively related to anticyclonic wave activity (AWA) changes close to the observing sites. Changes between current and future climates in AWA can explain up to 75 % of PM2.5 variability at some stations using a linear regression model. Our analysis indicates that higher PM2.5 concentrations occur when a positive AWA anomaly is prominent, which could be critical for understanding how pollutants respond to changing atmospheric circulation and for developing robust pollution projections.
Clarissa Baldo, Akinori Ito, Michael D. Krom, Weijun Li, Tim Jones, Nick Drake, Konstantin Ignatyev, Nicholas Davidson, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6045–6066,Short summary
High ionic strength relevant to the aerosol-water enhanced proton-promoted dissolution of iron in coal fly ash (up to 7 times) but suppressed oxalate-promoted dissolution at low pH (< 3). Fe in coal fly ash dissolved up to 7 times faster than in Saharan dust at low pH. A global model with the updated dissolution rates of iron in coal fly ash suggested a larger contribution of pyrogenic dissolved Fe over regions with a strong impact from fossil fuel combustions.
Adam Brighty, Véronique Jacob, Gaëlle Uzu, Lucille Borlaza, Sébastien Conil, Christoph Hueglin, Stuart K. Grange, Olivier Favez, Cécile Trébuchon, and Jean-Luc Jaffrezo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6021–6043,Short summary
With an revised analytical method and long-term sampling strategy, we have been able to elucidate much more information about atmospheric plant debris, a poorly understood class of particulate matter. We found weaker seasonal patterns at urban locations compared to rural locations and significant interannual variability in concentrations between previous years and 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic. This suggests a possible man-made influence on plant debris concentration and source strength.
Linyu Gao, Junwei Song, Claudia Mohr, Wei Huang, Magdalena Vallon, Feng Jiang, Thomas Leisner, and Harald Saathoff
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6001–6020,Short summary
We study secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from β-caryophyllene (BCP) ozonolysis with and without nitrogen oxides over 213–313 K in the simulation chamber. The yields and the rate constants were determined at 243–313 K. Chemical compositions varied at different temperatures, indicating a strong impact on the BCP ozonolysis pathways. This work helps to better understand the SOA from BCP ozonolysis for conditions representative of the real atmosphere from the boundary layer to the upper troposphere.
Rongshuang Xu, Sze In Madeleine Ng, Wing Sze Chow, Yee Ka Wong, Yuchen Wang, Donger Lai, Zhongping Yao, Pui-Kin So, Jian Zhen Yu, and Man Nin Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5685–5700,Short summary
To date, while over a hundred organosulfates (OSs) have been detected in atmospheric aerosols, many of them are still unidentified, with unknown precursors and formation processes. We found the heterogeneous OH oxidation of an α-pinene-derived organosulfate (C10H17O5SNa, αpOS-249, αpOS-249) can proceed at an efficient rate and transform into more oxygenated OSs, which have been commonly detected in atmospheric aerosols and α-pinene-derived SOA in chamber studies.
Bartłomiej Witkowski, Priyanka Jain, and Tomasz Gierczak
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5651–5663,Short summary
This article describes a comprehensive investigation of the aqueous oxidation of 4-nitrophenol (4NP) by hydroxyl radicals (OH). The reaction was carried out in a laboratory photoreactor. We report the formation of key intermediates under different pH conditions and the evolution of the light absorption of the reaction solution. The results provide new insights into the formation and removal (chemical bleaching) of light-absorbing organic aerosols (atmospheric brown carbon).
Zijun Li, Angela Buchholz, Luis M. F. Barreira, Arttu Ylisirniö, Liqing Hao, Iida Pullinen, Siegfried Schobesberger, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Interaction between NOx and biogenic emissions can be important in suburban areas. Our study showed that the addition of NOx during α-pinene SOA formation produced considerable amounts of organic nitrates and affected the composition of non-nitrated organic compounds. The compositional difference consequently altered the primary type of aqueous-phase processes during the isothermal particle evaporation.
Qi Li, Jia Jiang, Isaac K. Afreh, Kelley C. Barsanti, and David R. Cocker III
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3131–3147,Short summary
Chamber-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields from camphene are reported for the first time. The role of peroxy radicals (RO2) was investigated using chemically detailed box models. We observed higher SOA yields (up to 64 %) in the experiments with added NOx than without due to the formation of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) when NOx is present. This work can improve the representation of camphene in air quality models and provide insights into other monoterpene studies.
Xiuli Wei, Haosheng Dai, Huaqiao Gui, Jiaoshi Zhang, Yin Cheng, Jie Wang, Yixin Yang, Youwen Sun, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3097–3109,Short summary
We demonstrated the usage of the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique to characterize in real time the hygroscopic growth properties of nanoparticles and their phase transition micro-dynamics at the molecular level. We first realize real-time measurements of water content and dry nanoparticle mass to characterize hygroscopic growth factors. We then identify in real time the hydration interactions and the dynamic hygroscopic growth process of the functional groups.
Zhancong Liang, Yangxi Chu, Masao Gen, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3017–3044,Short summary
The properties and fate of individual airborne particles can be significantly different, leading to distinct environmental impacts (e.g., climate and human health). While many instruments only analyze an ensemble of these particles, single-particle Raman spectroscopy enables unambiguous characterization of individual particles. This paper comprehensively reviews the applications of such a technique in studying atmospheric particles, especially for their physicochemical processing.
Zhi-Hui Zhang, Elena Hartner, Battist Utinger, Benjamin Gfeller, Andreas Paul, Martin Sklorz, Hendryk Czech, Bin Xia Yang, Xin Yi Su, Gert Jakobi, Jürgen Orasche, Jürgen Schnelle-Kreis, Seongho Jeong, Thomas Gröger, Michal Pardo, Thorsten Hohaus, Thomas Adam, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Yinon Rudich, Ralf Zimmermann, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1793–1809,Short summary
Using a novel setup, we comprehensively characterized the formation of particle-bound reactive oxygen species (ROS) in anthropogenic and biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). We found that more than 90 % of all ROS components in both SOA types have a short lifetime. Our results also show that photochemical aging promotes particle-bound ROS production and enhances the oxidative potential of the aerosols. We found consistent results between chemical-based and biological-based ROS analyses.
Kelvin H. Bates, Guy J. P. Burke, James D. Cope, and Tran B. Nguyen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1467–1482,Short summary
The main nighttime sink of α-pinene, a hydrocarbon abundantly emitted by plants, is reaction with NO3 to form nitrooxy peroxy radicals (nRO2). Using uniquely designed chamber experiments, we show that this reaction is a major source of organic aerosol when nRO2 reacts with other nRO2 and forms a nitrooxy hydroperoxide when nRO2 reacts with HO2. Under ambient conditions these pathways are key loss processes of atmospheric reactive nitrogen in areas with mixed biogenic and anthropogenic influence.
Sophia M. Charan, Yuanlong Huang, Reina S. Buenconsejo, Qi Li, David R. Cocker III, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 917–928,Short summary
In this study, we investigate the secondary organic aerosol formation potential of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), which is used as a tracer for volatile chemical products and measured in high concentrations both outdoors and indoors. By performing experiments in different types of reactors, we find that D5’s aerosol formation is highly dependent on OH, and, at low OH concentrations or exposures, D5 forms little aerosol. We also reconcile results from other studies.
Beatrix Rosette Go Mabato, Yan Lyu, Yan Ji, Yong Jie Li, Dan Dan Huang, Xue Li, Theodora Nah, Chun Ho Lam, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 273–293,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) is a global phenomenon that releases large quantities of pollutants such as phenols and aromatic carbonyls into the atmosphere. These compounds can form secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) which play an important role in the Earth’s energy budget. In this work, we demonstrated that the direct irradiation of vanillin (VL) could generate aqueous SOA (aqSOA) such as oligomers. In the presence of nitrate, VL photo-oxidation can also form nitrated compounds.
Zijun Li, Angela Buchholz, Arttu Ylisirniö, Luis Barreira, Liqing Hao, Siegfried Schobesberger, Taina Yli-Juuti, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18283–18302,Short summary
We compared the evolution of two types of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles during isothermal evaporation. The sesquiterpene SOA particles demonstrated higher resilience to evaporation than α-pinene SOA particles generated under comparable conditions. In-depth analysis showed that under high-relative-humidity conditions, particulate water drove the evolution of particulate constituents by reducing the particle viscosity and initiating chemical aqueous-phase processes.
András Hoffer, Ádám Tóth, Beatrix Jancsek-Turóczi, Attila Machon, Aida Meiramova, Attila Nagy, Luminita Marmureanu, and András Gelencsér
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17855–17864,Short summary
Due to the widespread use of plastics high amounts of waste are burned in households worldwide, emitting vast amounts of PM10 and PAHs into the atmosphere. In this work different types of common plastics were burned in the laboratory with a view to identifying potentially specific tracer compounds and determining their emission factors. The compounds found were also successfully identified in atmospheric PM10 samples, indicating their potential use as ambient tracers for illegal waste burning.
Shijie Liu, Dandan Huang, Yiqian Wang, Si Zhang, Xiaodi Liu, Can Wu, Wei Du, and Gehui Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17759–17773,Short summary
A series of chamber experiments was performed to probe the individual and common effects of NH3 and NOx on toluene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation through OH photooxidation. The synergetic effects of NH3 and NOx on the toluene SOA concentration and optical absorption were observed. The higher-volatility products formed in the presence of NOx could precipitate into the particle phase when NH3 was added. The formation pathways of N-containing OAs through NOx or NH3 are also discussed.
Lucía Caudillo, Birte Rörup, Martin Heinritzi, Guillaume Marie, Mario Simon, Andrea C. Wagner, Tatjana Müller, Manuel Granzin, Antonio Amorim, Farnoush Ataei, Rima Baalbaki, Barbara Bertozzi, Zoé Brasseur, Randall Chiu, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Loïc Gonzalez Carracedo, Xu-Cheng He, Victoria Hofbauer, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan P. Lee, Brandon Lopez, Naser G. A. Mahfouz, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Ruby Marten, Dario Massabò, Roy L. Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Antti Onnela, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Ana A. Piedehierro, Meredith Schervish, Wiebke Scholz, Benjamin Schulze, Jiali Shen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Yuri Stozhkov, Mihnea Surdu, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, Ping Tian, António Tomé, Steffen Vogt, Mingyi Wang, Dongyu S. Wang, Stefan K. Weber, André Welti, Wang Yonghong, Wu Yusheng, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Kristina Höhler, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Ottmar Möhler, Harald Saathoff, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Neil M. Donahue, Andreas Kürten, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17099–17114,Short summary
We performed experiments in the CLOUD chamber at CERN at low temperatures to simulate new particle formation in the upper free troposphere (at −30 ºC and −50 ºC). We measured the particle and gas phase and found that most of the compounds present in the gas phase are detected as well in the particle phase. The major compounds in the particles are C8–10 and C18–20. Specifically, we showed that C5 and C15 compounds are detected in a mixed system with isoprene and α-pinene at −30 ºC, 20 % RH.
Daniel A. Knopf and Markus Ammann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15725–15753,Short summary
Adsorption on and desorption of gas molecules from solid or liquid surfaces or interfaces represent the initial interaction of gas-to-condensed-phase processes that can define the physicochemical evolution of the condensed phase. We apply a thermodynamic and microscopic treatment of these multiphase processes to evaluate how adsorption and desorption rates and surface accommodation depend on the choice of adsorption model and standard states with implications for desorption energy and lifetimes.
Spiro D. Jorga, Kalliopi Florou, Christos Kaltsonoudis, John K. Kodros, Christina Vasilakopoulou, Manuela Cirtog, Axel Fouqueau, Bénédicte Picquet-Varrault, Athanasios Nenes, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15337–15349,Short summary
We test the hypothesis that significant secondary organic aerosol production can take place even during winter nights through the oxidation of the emitted organic vapors by the nitrate radicals produced during the reaction of ozone and nitrogen oxides. Our experiments, using as a starting point the ambient air of an urban area with high biomass burning activity, demonstrate that, even with sunlight, there is 20 %–70 % additional organic aerosol formed in a few hours.
Wenfei Zhu, Song Guo, Zirui Zhang, Hui Wang, Ying Yu, Zheng Chen, Ruizhe Shen, Rui Tan, Kai Song, Kefan Liu, Rongzhi Tang, Yi Liu, Shengrong Lou, Yuanju Li, Wenbin Zhang, Zhou Zhang, Shijin Shuai, Hongming Xu, Shuangde Li, Yunfa Chen, Min Hu, Francesco Canonaco, and Andre S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15065–15079,Short summary
The experiments of primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from urban lifestyle sources (cooking and vehicles) were conducted. The mass spectral features of primary organic aerosol (POA) and SOA were characterized by using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. This work, for the first time, establishes the vehicle and cooking SOA source profiles and can be further used as source constraints in the OA source apportionment in the ambient atmosphere.
Adam Milsom, Adam M. Squires, Jacob A. Boswell, Nicholas J. Terrill, Andrew D. Ward, and Christian Pfrang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15003–15021,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols can be solid, semi-solid or liquid. This phase state may impact key aerosol processes such as oxidation and water uptake, affecting cloud droplet formation and urban air pollution. We have observed a solid crystalline organic phase in a levitated proxy for cooking emissions, oleic acid. Spatially resolved structural changes were followed during ageing by X-ray scattering, revealing phase gradients, aggregate products and a markedly reduced ozonolysis reaction rate.
Cheng Wu, David M. Bell, Emelie L. Graham, Sophie Haslett, Ilona Riipinen, Urs Baltensperger, Amelie Bertrand, Stamatios Giannoukos, Janne Schoonbaert, Imad El Haddad, Andre S. H. Prevot, Wei Huang, and Claudia Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14907–14925,Short summary
Night-time reactions of biogenic volatile organic compounds and nitrate radicals can lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (BSOANO3). Here, we study the impacts of light exposure on the BSOANO3 from three biogenic precursors. Our results suggest that photolysis causes photodegradation of a substantial fraction of BSOANO3, changes the chemical composition and bulk volatility, and might be a potentially important loss pathway of BSOANO3 during the night-to-day transition.
Mao Xiao, Christopher R. Hoyle, Lubna Dada, Dominik Stolzenburg, Andreas Kürten, Mingyi Wang, Houssni Lamkaddam, Olga Garmash, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Andrea Baccarini, Mario Simon, Xu-Cheng He, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Lauri R. Ahonen, Rima Baalbaki, Paulus S. Bauer, Lisa Beck, David Bell, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Dexian Chen, Randall Chiu, António Dias, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Hamish Gordon, Victoria Hofbauer, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Janne Lampilahti, Chuan Ping Lee, Zijun Li, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Ruby Marten, Serge Mathot, Roy L. Mauldin, Wei Nie, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Veronika Pospisilova, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti Rissanen, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wagner, Yonghong Wang, Lena Weitz, Daniela Wimmer, Yusheng Wu, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qing Ye, Qiaozhi Zha, Xueqin Zhou, Antonio Amorim, Ken Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Armin Hansel, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Richard C. Flagan, Markku Kulmala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jasper Kirkby, Neil M. Donahue, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, and Josef Dommen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14275–14291,Short summary
Experiments at CLOUD show that in polluted environments new particle formation (NPF) is largely driven by the formation of sulfuric acid–base clusters, stabilized by amines, high ammonia concentrations or lower temperatures. While oxidation products of aromatics can nucleate, they play a minor role in urban NPF. Our experiments span 4 orders of magnitude variation of observed NPF rates in ambient conditions. We provide a framework based on NPF and growth rates to interpret ambient observations.
Aristeidis Voliotis, Yu Wang, Yunqi Shao, Mao Du, Thomas J. Bannan, Carl J. Percival, Spyros N. Pandis, M. Rami Alfarra, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14251–14273,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from mixtures of volatile precursors can be affected by the molecular interactions of the products. Composition and volatility measurements of SOA formed from mixtures of anthropogenic and biogenic precursors reveal processes that can increase or decrease the SOA volatility. The unique products of the mixture were more oxygenated and less volatile than those from either precursor. Analytical context is provided to explore the SOA volatility in mixtures.
Andreas Tilgner, Thomas Schaefer, Becky Alexander, Mary Barth, Jeffrey L. Collett Jr., Kathleen M. Fahey, Athanasios Nenes, Havala O. T. Pye, Hartmut Herrmann, and V. Faye McNeill
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13483–13536,Short summary
Feedbacks of acidity and atmospheric multiphase chemistry in deliquesced particles and clouds are crucial for the tropospheric composition, depositions, climate, and human health. This review synthesizes the current scientific knowledge on these feedbacks using both inorganic and organic aqueous-phase chemistry. Finally, this review outlines atmospheric implications and highlights the need for future investigations with respect to reducing emissions of key acid precursors in a changing world.
Tao Cao, Meiju Li, Chunlin Zou, Xingjun Fan, Jianzhong Song, Wanglu Jia, Chiling Yu, Zhiqiang Yu, and Ping'an Peng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13187–13205,Short summary
Brown carbon (BrC) fractions derived from biomass burning and coal combustion including water- and methanol-soluble organic carbon were comprehensively characterized for their optical and chemical properties, as well as oxidative potential. Moreover, the key components or functional groups that were responsible for the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation capacity of BrC were also discussed. These findings are useful for estimation of their environmental, climate, and health impacts.
Zhen Mu, Qingcai Chen, Lixin Zhang, Dongjie Guan, and Hao Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11581–11591,Short summary
Sunlight affects the life and chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols and thus alters air quality. This study demonstrated that the photo-aging process not only changed the chemical compositions of chromophoric aerosols but also changed the roles of the chromophoric organic matter in the photo-aging process of aerosol. This study adds to our understanding of how sunlight affects chromophoric aerosol aging.
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We comprehensively investigated the mass growth potential, oxidation degree, formation pathway, and mass spectra features of typical urban-lifestyle secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) including vehicle SOAs and cooking SOAs. The mass spectra we acquired could provide necessary references to estimate the mass fractions of vehicle and cooking SOAs in the atmosphere, which would greatly decrease the uncertainty in air quality evaluation and health risk assessment in urban areas.
We comprehensively investigated the mass growth potential, oxidation degree, formation pathway,...