Articles | Volume 20, issue 4
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1887–1900, 2020
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-1887-2020
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1887–1900, 2020
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-1887-2020
Research article
19 Feb 2020
Research article | 19 Feb 2020

Dramatic increase in reactive volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from ships at berth after implementing the fuel switch policy in the Pearl River Delta Emission Control Area

Zhenfeng Wu et al.

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Cited articles

Agrawal, H., Welch, W. A., Miller, J. W., and Cocker, D. R.: Emission measurements from a crude oil tanker at sea, Environ. Sci. Technol., 42, 7098–7103, https://doi.org/10.1021/es703102y, 2008. 
Agrawal, H., Eden, R., Zhang, X. Q., Fine, P. M., Katzenstein, A., Miller, J. W., Ospital, J., Teffera, S., and Cocker, D. R.: Primary particulate matter from ocean-going engines in the southern California air basin, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 5398–5402, https://doi.org/10.1021/es8035016, 2009. 
Agrawal, H., Welch, W. A., Henningsen, S., Miller, J. W., and Cocker III, D. R.: Emissions from main propulsion engine on container ship at sea, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 115, D23205, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD013346, 2010. 
Atkinson, R.: Atmospheric chemistry of VOCs and NOx, Atmos. Environ., 34, 2063–2101, https://doi.org/10.1016/s1352-2310(99)00460-4, 2000. 
Carter, W. P. L.: Update maximum incremental reactivity scale and hydrocarbon bin reactivities for regulatory application, California Air Resources Board Contract 07-339, 2009. 
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As ship emissions impact air quality in coastal areas, ships are required to switch their fuel from high-sulfur residual fuel oil to low-sulfur diesel or heavy oil in emission control areas (ECA). Our study reveals that while this policy did result in a large drop in ship emissions of particulate matter and sulfur dioxide, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), however, became over 10 times larger and therefore risks ozone pollution control in harbor cities.
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