Articles | Volume 19, issue 13
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Large-scale dynamics of tropical cyclone formation associated with ITCZ breakdown
Department of Mathematics, Sichuan University, Sichuan, China
Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
No articles found.
The-Anh Vu and Chanh Kieu
Tropical cyclone (TC) formation has been well documented to possess distinct clusters globally. Using theoretical analyses and numerical simulations, this study proposes a new mechanism for global TC clustering, which is a result of tropical large-scale dynamics even in the absence of zonal sea surface temperature (SST) variations. Our findings offer a new understanding into the role of tropical waves in producing global TC clusters beyond traditional explanations based on zonal SST anomalies.
Related subject area
Subject: Dynamics | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling and Data Analysis | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Investigating multiscale meteorological controls and impact of soil moisture heterogeneity on radiation fog in complex terrain using semi-idealised simulationsEffect of the boundary layer low-level jet on fast fog spatial propagationMediterranean tropical-like cyclone forecasts and analysis using the ECMWF ensemble forecasting system with physical parameterization perturbationsUsing synthetic case studies to explore the spread and calibration of ensemble atmospheric dispersion forecastsMeteorological modeling sensitivity to parameterizations and satellite-derived surface datasets during the 2017 Lake Michigan Ozone StudyTrajectory enhancement of low-earth orbiter thermodynamic retrievals to predict convection: a simulation experimentLagrangian transport simulations using the extreme convection parameterization: an assessment for the ECMWF reanalysesBetter-constrained climate sensitivity when accounting for dataset dependency on pattern effect estimatesDetermination of the chemical equator from GEOS-Chem model simulation: a focus on the tropical western Pacific regionUncertainty in parameterized convection remains a key obstacle for estimating surface fluxes of carbon dioxideAntarctic atmospheric Richardson number from radiosonde measurements and AMPSDivergent convective outflow in large-eddy simulationsImpact of the Guinea Coast upwelling on atmospheric dynamics, precipitation and pollutant transport over Southern West AfricaModulation of daily PM2.5 concentrations over China in winter by large-scale circulation and climate changeLarge–Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flux Patterns over Oasis SurfaceModeling of street-scale pollutant dispersion by coupled simulation of chemical reaction, aerosol dynamics, and CFDDaytime along-valley winds in the Himalayas as simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modelEvolution of squall line variability and error growth in an ensemble of large eddy simulationsClimatology and variability of air mass transport from the boundary layer to the Asian monsoon anticycloneEvaluation and bias correction of probabilistic volcanic ash forecastsThe representation of the trade winds in ECMWF forecasts and reanalyses during EUREC4AModeling approaches for atmospheric ion–dipole collisions: all-atom trajectory simulations and central field methodsParameterizing the aerodynamic effect of trees in street canyons for the street network model MUNICH using the CFD model Code_SaturneQuantifying the impact of meteorological uncertainty on emission estimates and the risk to aviation using source inversion for the Raikoke 2019 eruptionAcceleration of the southern African easterly jet driven by the radiative effect of biomass burning aerosols and its impact on transport during AEROCLO-sAThe Sun's role in decadal climate predictability in the North AtlanticFuture projections of daily haze-conducive and clear weather conditions over the North China Plain using a perturbed parameter ensembleRefining an ensemble of volcanic ash forecasts using satellite retrievals: Raikoke 2019Ship-based estimates of momentum transfer coefficient over sea ice and recommendations for its parameterizationRevising the definition of anthropogenic heat flux from buildings: role of human activities and building storage heat fluxAn assessment of tropopause characteristics of the ERA5 and ERA-Interim meteorological reanalysesDistinct evolutions of haze pollution from winter to the following spring over the North China Plain: role of the North Atlantic sea surface temperature anomaliesThe foehn effect during easterly flow over SvalbardEffect of rainfall-induced diabatic heating over southern China on the formation of wintertime haze on the North China PlainAnthropogenic aerosol effects on tropospheric circulation and sea surface temperature (1980–2020): separating the role of zonally asymmetric forcingsLightning-ignited wildfires and long continuing current lightning in the Mediterranean Basin: preferential meteorological conditionsIdentifying source regions of air masses sampled at the tropical high-altitude site of Chacaltaya using WRF-FLEXPART and cluster analysisModelling spatiotemporal variations of the canopy layer urban heat island in Beijing at the neighbourhood scaleDispersion of particulate matter (PM2.5) from wood combustion for residential heating: optimization of mitigation actions based on large-eddy simulationsMeasurement report: Effect of wind shear on PM10 concentration vertical structure in the urban boundary layer in a complex terrainThe effect of forced change and unforced variability in heat waves, temperature extremes, and associated population risk in a CO2-warmed worldConvective self–aggregation in a mean flowThe potential for geostationary remote sensing of NO2 to improve weather predictionRobust winter warming over Eurasia under stratospheric sulfate geoengineering – the role of stratospheric dynamicsParameterizing the vertical downward dispersion of ship exhaust gas in the near fieldAnthropogenic aerosol forcing of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and the associated mechanisms in CMIP6 modelsSensitivities of the Madden–Julian oscillation forecasts to configurations of physics in the ECMWF global modelSensitivity of modeled Indian monsoon to Chinese and Indian aerosol emissionsThe spring transition of the North Pacific jet and its relation to deep stratosphere-to-troposphere mass transport over western North AmericaVery long-period oscillations in the atmosphere (0–110 km)
Dongqi Lin, Marwan Katurji, Laura E. Revell, Basit Khan, and Andrew Sturman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 14451–14479,Short summary
Accurate fog forecasting is difficult in a complex environment. Spatial variations in soil moisture could impact fog. Here, we carried out fog simulations with spatially different soil moisture in complex topography. The soil moisture was calculated using satellite observations. The results show that the spatial variations in soil moisture do not have a significant impact on where fog occurs but do impact how long fog lasts. This finding could improve fog forecasts in the future.
Shuqi Yan, Hongbin Wang, Xiaohui Liu, Fan Zu, and Duanyang Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13987–14002,Short summary
In this study, we quantitatively study the effect of the boundary layer low-level jet (BLLJ) on fast fog spatial propagation; i.e., the fog area expands very fast along a certain direction. The wind speed (10 m s−1) and direction (southeast) of the BLLJ core are consistent with fog propagation (9.6 m s−1). The BLLJ-induced temperature and moisture advections are possible reasons for fast fog propagation. The propagation speed would decrease by 6.4 m s−1 if these advections were turned off.
Miriam Saraceni, Lorenzo Silvestri, Peter Bechtold, and Paolina Bongioannini Cerlini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13883–13909,Short summary
This study focuses on three medicanes, tropical-like cyclones that form in the Mediterranean Sea, studied by ensemble forecasting. This involved multiple simulations of the same event by varying initial conditions and model physics parameters, especially related to convection, which showed comparable results. It is found that medicane development is influenced by the model's ability to predict precursor events and the interaction between upper and lower atmosphere dynamics and thermodynamics.
Andrew R. Jones, Susan J. Leadbetter, and Matthew C. Hort
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12477–12503,Short summary
The paper explores spread and calibration properties of ensemble atmospheric dispersion forecasts for hypothetical release events. Real-time forecasts from an ensemble weather prediction system were used to generate an ensemble of dispersion predictions and assessed against simulations produced using analysis meteorology. Results demonstrate good performance overall but highlight more skilful predictions for material released in the upper air compared with releases near the surface.
Jason A. Otkin, Lee M. Cronce, Jonathan L. Case, R. Bradley Pierce, Monica Harkey, Allen Lenzen, David S. Henderson, Zac Adelman, Tsengel Nergui, and Christopher R. Hain
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7935–7954,Short summary
We performed model simulations to assess the impact of different parameterization schemes, surface initialization datasets, and analysis nudging on lower-tropospheric conditions near Lake Michigan. Simulations were run with high-resolution, real-time datasets depicting lake surface temperatures, green vegetation fraction, and soil moisture. The most accurate results were obtained when using high-resolution sea surface temperature and soil datasets to constrain the model simulations.
Mark T. Richardson, Brian H. Kahn, and Peter Kalmus
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7699–7717,Short summary
Convection over land often triggers hours after a satellite last passed overhead and measured the state of the atmosphere, and during those hours the atmosphere can change greatly. Here we show that it is possible to reconstruct most of those changes by using weather forecast winds to predict where warm and moist air parcels will travel. The results can be used to better predict where precipitation is likely to happen in the hours after satellite measurements.
Lars Hoffmann, Paul Konopka, Jan Clemens, and Bärbel Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7589–7609,Short summary
Atmospheric convection plays a key role in tracer transport in the troposphere. Global meteorological forecasts and reanalyses typically have a coarse spatiotemporal resolution that does not adequately resolve the dynamics, transport, and mixing of air associated with storm systems or deep convection. We discuss the application of the extreme convection parameterization in a Lagrangian transport model to improve simulations of tracer transport from the boundary layer into the free troposphere.
Angshuman Modak and Thorsten Mauritsen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7535–7549,Short summary
We provide an improved estimate of equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) constrained based on the instrumental temperature record including the corrections for the pattern effect. The improved estimate factors in the uncertainty caused by the underlying sea-surface temperature datasets used in the estimates of pattern effect. This together with the inter-model spread lifts the corresponding IPCC AR6 estimate to 3.2 K [1.8 to 11.0], which is lower and better constrained than in past studies.
Xiaoyu Sun, Mathias Palm, Katrin Müller, Jonas Hachmeister, and Justus Notholt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7075–7090,Short summary
The tropical western Pacific (TWP) is an active interhemispheric transport region contributing significantly to the global climate. A method to determine the chemical equator was developed by model simulations of a virtual passive tracer to analyze transport in the tropics, with a focus on the TWP region. We compare the chemical equator with tropical rain belts and wind fields and obtain a vertical pattern of interhemispheric transport processes which shows tilt structure in certain seasons.
Andrew E. Schuh and Andrew R. Jacobson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6285–6297,Short summary
A comparison of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations resulting from two different atmospheric transport models showed large differences in predicted concentrations with significant space–time correlations. The vertical mixing of long-lived trace gases by convection was determined to be the main driver of these differences. The resulting uncertainty was deemed significant to the application of using atmospheric gradients of carbon dioxide to estimate surface fluxes of carbon dioxide.
Qike Yang, Xiaoqing Wu, Xiaodan Hu, Zhiyuan Wang, Chun Qing, Tao Luo, Pengfei Wu, Xianmei Qian, and Yiming Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6339–6355,Short summary
The AMPS-forecasted Richardson number was first comprehensively validated over the Antarctic continent. Some potential underlying reasons for the discrepancies between the forecasts and observations were analyzed. The underlying physical processes of triggering atmospheric turbulence in Antarctica were investigated. Our results suggest that the estimated Richardson number by the AMPS is reasonable and the turbulence conditions in Antarctica are well revealed.
Edward Groot and Holger Tost
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6065–6081,Short summary
It is shown that the outflow from cumulonimbus clouds or thunderstorms in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in idealized high-resolution simulations (LESs) depends linearly on the net amount of latent heat released by the cloud for fixed geometry of the clouds. However, it is shown that, in more realistic situations, convective organization and aggregation (collecting mechanisms of cumulonimbus clouds) affect the amount of outflow non-linearly through non-idealized geometry.
Gaëlle de Coëtlogon, Adrien Deroubaix, Cyrille Flamant, Laurent Menut, and Marco Gaetani
We test the hypothesis that sea temperature cooling along the southern coast of West Africa (coastal upwelling) plays an active role in the July rainfall cessation, using a numerical atmospheric model where the upwelling is dampened or intensified. The results clearly indicate that the upwelling strongly inhibits precipitation and reduces the transport of moisture and pollutants inland, which could contribute significantly to improving synoptic and seasonal forecasts in West Africa.
Zixuan Jia, Carlos Ordóñez, Ruth M. Doherty, Oliver Wild, Steven T. Turnock, and Fiona M. O'Connor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2829–2842,Short summary
This study investigates the influence of the winter large-scale circulation on daily concentrations of PM2.5 and their sensitivity to emissions. The new proposed circulation index can effectively distinguish different levels of air pollution and explain changes in PM2.5 sensitivity to emissions from local and surrounding regions. We then project future changes in PM2.5 concentrations using this index and find an increase in PM2.5 concentrations over the region due to climate change.
Bangjun Cao, Yaping Shao, Xianyu Yang, Xin Yin, and Shaofeng Liu
The scale differences is important for the transfer of knowledge from large eddy simulation (LES) to large-scale model. We propose a new scheme for surface flux calculation applicable to LES models. The scheme first computes fluxes using the eddy viscosity and diffusivity estimated from the closure scheme, then applies a MOST macroscopic constraint such that the fluxes averaged over the LES domain. The new scheme makes the transfer of knowledge from LES to large-scale model plausible.
Chao Lin, Yunyi Wang, Ryozo Ooka, Cédric Flageul, Youngseob Kim, Hideki Kikumoto, Zhizhao Wang, and Karine Sartelet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1421–1436,Short summary
In this study, SSH-aerosol, a modular box model that simulates the evolution of gas, primary, and secondary aerosols, is coupled with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, OpenFOAM and Code_Saturne. The transient dispersion of pollutants emitted from traffic in a street canyon of Greater Paris is simulated. The coupled model achieved better agreement in NO2 and PM10 with measurement data than the conventional CFD simulation which regards pollutants as passive scalars.
Johannes Mikkola, Victoria A. Sinclair, Marja Bister, and Federico Bianchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 821–842,Short summary
Local winds in four valleys located in the Nepal Himalayas are studied by means of high-resolution meteorological modelling. Well-defined daytime up-valley winds are simulated in all of the valleys with some variation in the flow depth and strength among the valleys and their parts. Parts of the valleys with a steep valley floor inclination (2–5°) are associated with weaker and shallower daytime up-valley winds compared with the parts that have nearly flat valley floors (< 1°).
Edward Groot and Holger Tost
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 565–585,Short summary
Thunderstorm systems play an important role in the dynamics of the Earth’s atmosphere, and some of them form a well-organised line: squall lines. Simulations of such squall lines with very small initial perturbations are compared to a reference simulation. The evolution of perturbations and processes amplifying them are analysed. It is shown that the formation of new secondary thunderstorm cells (after the initial primary cells) directly ahead of the line affects the spread strongly.
Matthias Nützel, Sabine Brinkop, Martin Dameris, Hella Garny, Patrick Jöckel, Laura L. Pan, and Mijeong Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15659–15683,Short summary
During the Asian summer monsoon season, a large high-pressure system is present at levels close to the tropopause above Asia. We analyse how air masses are transported from surface levels to this high-pressure system, which shows distinct features from the surrounding air masses. To this end, we employ multiannual data from two complementary models that allow us to analyse the climatology as well as the interannual and intraseasonal variability of these transport pathways.
Alice Crawford, Tianfeng Chai, Binyu Wang, Allison Ring, Barbara Stunder, Christopher P. Loughner, Michael Pavolonis, and Justin Sieglaff
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13967–13996,Short summary
This study describes the development of a workflow which produces probabilistic and quantitative forecasts of volcanic ash in the atmosphere. The workflow includes methods of incorporating satellite observations of the ash cloud into a modeling framework as well as verification statistics that can be used to guide further model development and provide information for risk-based approaches to flight planning.
Alessandro Carlo Maria Savazzi, Louise Nuijens, Irina Sandu, Geet George, and Peter Bechtold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13049–13066,Short summary
Winds are of great importance for the transport of energy and moisture in the atmosphere. In this study we use measurements from the EUREC4A field campaign and several model experiments to understand the wind bias in the forecasts produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. We are able to link the model errors to heights above 2 km and to the representation of the diurnal cycle of winds: the model makes the winds too slow in the morning and too strong in the evening.
Ivo Neefjes, Roope Halonen, Hanna Vehkamäki, and Bernhard Reischl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11155–11172,Short summary
Collisions between ionic and dipolar molecules and clusters facilitate the formation of atmospheric aerosol particles, which affect global climate and air quality. We compared often-used classical approaches for calculating ion–dipole collision rates with robust atomistic computer simulations. While classical approaches work for simple ions and dipoles only, our modeling approach can also efficiently calculate reasonable collision properties for more complex systems.
Alice Maison, Cédric Flageul, Bertrand Carissimo, Yunyi Wang, Andrée Tuzet, and Karine Sartelet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9369–9388,Short summary
This paper presents a parameterization of the tree crown effect on air flow and pollutant dispersion in a street network model used to simulate air quality at the street level. The new parameterization is built using a finer-scale model (computational fluid dynamics). The tree effect increases with the leaf area index and the crown volume fraction of the trees; the street horizontal velocity is reduced by up to 68 % and the vertical transfer into or out of the street by up to 23 %.
Natalie J. Harvey, Helen F. Dacre, Cameron Saint, Andrew T. Prata, Helen N. Webster, and Roy G. Grainger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8529–8545,Short summary
In the event of a volcanic eruption, airlines need to make decisions about which routes are safe to operate and ensure that airborne aircraft land safely. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the application of a statistical technique that best combines ash information from satellites and a suite of computer forecasts of ash concentration to provide a range of plausible estimates of how much volcanic ash emitted from a volcano is available to undergo long-range transport.
Jean-Pierre Chaboureau, Laurent Labbouz, Cyrille Flamant, and Alma Hodzic
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8639–8658,Short summary
Ground-based, spaceborne and rare airborne observations of biomass burning aerosols (BBAs) during the AEROCLO-sA field campaign in 2017 are complemented with convection-permitting simulations with online trajectories. The results show that the radiative effect of the BBA accelerates the southern African easterly jet and generates upward motions that transport the BBAs to higher altitudes and farther southwest.
Annika Drews, Wenjuan Huo, Katja Matthes, Kunihiko Kodera, and Tim Kruschke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7893–7904,Short summary
Solar irradiance varies with a period of approximately 11 years. Using a unique large chemistry–climate model dataset, we investigate the solar surface signal in the North Atlantic and European region and find that it changes over time, depending on the strength of the solar cycle. For the first time, we estimate the potential predictability associated with including realistic solar forcing in a model. These results may improve seasonal to decadal predictions of European climate.
Shipra Jain, Ruth M. Doherty, David Sexton, Steven Turnock, Chaofan Li, Zixuan Jia, Zongbo Shi, and Lin Pei
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7443–7460,Short summary
We provide a range of future projections of winter haze and clear conditions over the North China Plain (NCP) using multiple simulations from a climate model for the high-emission scenario (RCP8.5). The frequency of haze conducive weather is likely to increase whereas the frequency of clear weather is likely to decrease in future. The total number of hazy days for a given winter can be as much as ˜3.5 times higher than the number of clear days over the NCP.
Antonio Capponi, Natalie J. Harvey, Helen F. Dacre, Keith Beven, Cameron Saint, Cathie Wells, and Mike R. James
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6115–6134,Short summary
Forecasts of the dispersal of volcanic ash in the atmosphere are hampered by uncertainties in parameters describing the characteristics of volcanic plumes. Uncertainty quantification is vital for making robust flight-planning decisions. We present a method using satellite data to refine a series of volcanic ash dispersion forecasts and quantify these uncertainties. We show how we can improve forecast accuracy and potentially reduce the regions of high risk of volcanic ash relevant to aviation.
Piyush Srivastava, Ian M. Brooks, John Prytherch, Dominic J. Salisbury, Andrew D. Elvidge, Ian A. Renfrew, and Margaret J. Yelland
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4763–4778,Short summary
The parameterization of surface turbulent fluxes over sea ice remains a weak point in weather forecast and climate models. Recent theoretical developments have introduced more extensive physics but these descriptions are poorly constrained due to a lack of observation data. Here we utilize a large dataset of measurements of turbulent fluxes over sea ice to tune the state-of-the-art parameterization of wind stress, and compare it with a previous scheme.
Yiqing Liu, Zhiwen Luo, and Sue Grimmond
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4721–4735,Short summary
Anthropogenic heat emission from buildings is important for atmospheric modelling in cities. The current building anthropogenic heat flux is simplified by building energy consumption. Our research proposes a novel approach to determine ‘real’ building anthropogenic heat emission from the changes in energy balance fluxes between occupied and unoccupied buildings. We hope to provide new insights into future parameterisations of building anthropogenic heat flux in urban climate models.
Lars Hoffmann and Reinhold Spang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4019–4046,Short summary
We present an intercomparison of 2009–2018 lapse rate tropopause characteristics as derived from ECMWF's ERA5 and ERA-Interim reanalyses. Large-scale features are similar, but ERA5 shows notably larger variability, which we mainly attribute to UTLS temperature fluctuations due to gravity waves being better resolved by ECMWF's IFS forecast model. Following evaluation with radiosondes and GPS data, we conclude ERA5 will be a more suitable asset for tropopause-related studies in future work.
Linye Song, Shangfeng Chen, Wen Chen, Jianping Guo, Conglan Cheng, and Yong Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1669–1688,Short summary
This study shows that in most years when haze pollution (HP) over the North China Plain (NCP) is more (less) serious in winter, air conditions in the following spring are also worse (better) than normal. Conversely, there are some years when HP in the following spring is opposed to that in winter. It is found that North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies play important roles in HP evolution over the NCP. Thus North Atlantic SST is an important preceding signal for NCP HP evolution.
Anna A. Shestakova, Dmitry G. Chechin, Christof Lüpkes, Jörg Hartmann, and Marion Maturilli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1529–1548,Short summary
This article presents a comprehensive analysis of the easterly orographic wind episode which occurred over Svalbard on 30–31 May 2017. This wind caused a significant temperature rise on the lee side of the mountains and greatly intensified the snowmelt. This episode was investigated on the basis of measurements collected during the ACLOUD/PASCAL field campaigns with the help of numerical modeling.
Xiadong An, Lifang Sheng, Chun Li, Wen Chen, Yulian Tang, and Jingliang Huangfu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 725–738,Short summary
The North China Plain (NCP) suffered many periods of haze in winter during 1985–2015, related to the rainfall-induced diabatic heating over southern China. The haze over the NCP is modulated by an anomalous anticyclone caused by the Rossby wave and a north–south circulation (NSC) induced mainly by diabatic heating. As a Rossby wave source, rainfall-induced diabatic heating supports waves and finally strengthens the anticyclone over the NCP. These changes favor haze over the NCP.
Chenrui Diao, Yangyang Xu, and Shang-Ping Xie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18499–18518,Short summary
Anthropogenic aerosol (AA) emission has shown a zonal redistribution since the 1980s, with a decline in the Western Hemisphere (WH) high latitudes and an increase in the Eastern Hemisphere (EH) low latitudes. This study compares the role of zonally asymmetric forcings affecting the climate. The WH aerosol reduction dominates the poleward shift of the Hadley cell and the North Pacific warming, while the EH AA forcing is largely confined to the emission domain and induces local cooling responses.
Francisco J. Pérez-Invernón, Heidi Huntrieser, Sergio Soler, Francisco J. Gordillo-Vázquez, Nicolau Pineda, Javier Navarro-González, Víctor Reglero, Joan Montanyà, Oscar van der Velde, and Nikos Koutsias
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17529–17557,Short summary
Lightning-ignited fires tend to occur in remote areas and can spread significantly before suppression. Long continuing current (LCC) lightning, preferably taking place in dry thunderstorms, is believed to be the main precursor of lightning-ignited fires. We analyze fire databases of lightning-ignited fires in the Mediterranean basin and report the shared meteorological conditions of fire- and LCC-lightning-producing thunderstorms. These results can be useful to improve fire forecasting methods.
Diego Aliaga, Victoria A. Sinclair, Marcos Andrade, Paulo Artaxo, Samara Carbone, Evgeny Kadantsev, Paolo Laj, Alfred Wiedensohler, Radovan Krejci, and Federico Bianchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16453–16477,Short summary
We investigate the origin of air masses sampled at Mount Chacaltaya, Bolivia. Three-quarters of the measured air has not been influenced by the surface in the previous 4 d. However, it is rare that, at any given time, the sampled air has not been influenced at all by the surface, and often the sampled air has multiple origins. The influence of the surface is more prevalent during day than night. Furthermore, during the 6-month study, one-third of the air masses originated from Amazonia.
Michael Biggart, Jenny Stocker, Ruth M. Doherty, Oliver Wild, David Carruthers, Sue Grimmond, Yiqun Han, Pingqing Fu, and Simone Kotthaus
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13687–13711,Short summary
Heat-related illnesses are of increasing concern in China given its rapid urbanisation and our ever-warming climate. We examine the relative impacts that land surface properties and anthropogenic heat have on the urban heat island (UHI) in Beijing using ADMS-Urban. Air temperature measurements and satellite-derived land surface temperatures provide valuable means of evaluating modelled spatiotemporal variations. This work provides critical information for urban planners and UHI mitigation.
Tobias Wolf, Lasse H. Pettersson, and Igor Esau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12463–12477,Short summary
House heating by wood-burning stoves is cozy and needed in boreal cities, e.g., Bergen, Norway. But smoke (aerosols) from stoves may reduce urban air quality. It can be transported over long distance excessively polluting some neighborhoods. Who will suffer the most? Our modelling study looks at urban pollution in unprecedented meter-sized details tracing smoke pathways and turbulent dispersion in a typical city. We prototype effective policy scenarios to mitigate urban air quality problems.
Piotr Sekuła, Anita Bokwa, Jakub Bartyzel, Bogdan Bochenek, Łukasz Chmura, Michał Gałkowski, and Mirosław Zimnoch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12113–12139,Short summary
The wind shear generated on a local scale by the diversified relief’s impact can be a factor which significantly modifies the spatial pattern of PM10 concentration. The vertical profile of PM10 over a city located in a large valley during the events with high surface-level PM10 concentrations may show a sudden decrease with height not only due to the increase in wind speed, but also due to the change in wind direction alone. Vertical aerosanitary urban zones can be distinguished.
Jangho Lee, Jeffrey C. Mast, and Andrew E. Dessler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11889–11904,Short summary
This paper investigates the impact of global warming on heat and humidity extremes. There are three major findings in this study. We quantify how unforced variability in the climate impacts can lead to large variations where heat waves occur, we find that all heat extremes increase as the climate warms, especially between 1.5 and 2.0 °C of the average global warming, and we show that the economic inequity of facing extreme heat will worsen in a warmer world.
Hyunju Jung, Ann Kristin Naumann, and Bjorn Stevens
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10337–10345,Short summary
We analyze the behavior of organized convection in a large-scale flow by imposing a mean flow to idealized simulations. In the mean flow, organized convection initially propagates slower than the mean wind speed and becomes stationary. The initial upstream and downstream difference in surface fluxes becomes symmetric as the surface momentum flux acts as a drag, resulting in the stationarity. Meanwhile, the surface enthalpy flux has a minor role in the propagation of the convection.
Xueling Liu, Arthur P. Mizzi, Jeffrey L. Anderson, Inez Fung, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9573–9583,Short summary
Observations of winds in the planetary boundary layer remain sparse, making it challenging to simulate and predict the atmospheric conditions that are most important for describing and predicting urban air quality. Here we investigate the application of data assimilation of NO2 columns as will be observed from geostationary orbit to improve predictions and retrospective analysis of wind fields in the boundary layer.
Antara Banerjee, Amy H. Butler, Lorenzo M. Polvani, Alan Robock, Isla R. Simpson, and Lantao Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6985–6997,Short summary
We find that simulated stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could lead to warmer Eurasian winters alongside a drier Mediterranean and wetting to the north. These effects occur due to the strengthening of the Northern Hemisphere stratospheric polar vortex, which shifts the North Atlantic Oscillation to a more positive phase. We find the effects in our simulations to be much more significant than the wintertime effects of large tropical volcanic eruptions which inject much less sulfate aerosol.
Ronny Badeke, Volker Matthias, and David Grawe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5935–5951,Short summary
This work aims to describe the physical distribution of ship exhaust gases in the near field, e.g., inside of a harbor. Results were calculated with a mathematical model for different meteorological and technical conditions. It has been shown that large vessels like cruise ships have a significant effect of up to 55 % downward movement of exhaust gas, as they can disturb the ground near wind circulation. This needs to be considered in urban air pollution studies.
Taufiq Hassan, Robert J. Allen, Wei Liu, and Cynthia A. Randles
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5821–5846,Short summary
State-of-the-art climate models yield robust, externally forced changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), the bulk of which are due to anthropogenic aerosol perturbations to net surface shortwave radiation and sea surface temperature. AMOC-related feedbacks act to reinforce this aerosol-forced response, largely due to changes in sea surface salinity (and hence sea surface density), with temperature- and cloud-related feedbacks acting to mute the initial response.
Jun-Ichi Yano and Nils P. Wedi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4759–4778,Short summary
Sensitivities of forecasts of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) to various different configurations of the physics are examined with the global model of ECMWF's Integrated Forecasting System (IFS). The motivation for the study was to simulate the MJO as a nonlinear free wave. To emulate free dynamics in the IFS, various momentum dissipation terms (
friction) as well as diabatic heating were selectively turned off over the tropics for the range of the latitudes from 20° S to 20° N.
Peter Sherman, Meng Gao, Shaojie Song, Alex T. Archibald, Nathan Luke Abraham, Jean-François Lamarque, Drew Shindell, Gregory Faluvegi, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3593–3605,Short summary
The aims here are to assess the role of aerosols in India's monsoon precipitation and to determine the relative contributions from Chinese and Indian emissions using CMIP6 models. We find that increased sulfur emissions reduce precipitation, which is primarily dynamically driven due to spatial shifts in convection over the region. A significant increase in precipitation (up to ~ 20 %) is found only when both Indian and Chinese sulfate emissions are regulated.
Melissa L. Breeden, Amy H. Butler, John R. Albers, Michael Sprenger, and Andrew O'Neil Langford
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2781–2794,Short summary
Prior research has found a maximum in deep stratosphere-to-troposphere mass/ozone transport over the western United States in boreal spring, which can enhance surface ozone concentrations, reducing air quality. We find that the winter-to-summer evolution of the north Pacific jet increases the frequency of stratospheric intrusions that drive transport, helping explain the observed maximum. The El Niño–Southern Oscillation affects the timing of the spring jet transition and therefore transport.
Dirk Offermann, Christoph Kalicinsky, Ralf Koppmann, and Johannes Wintel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1593–1611,Short summary
Atmospheric oscillations with periods of up to several 100 years exist at altitudes up to 110 km. They are also seen in computer models (GCMs) of the atmospheric. They are often attributed to external influences from the sun, from the oceans, or from atmospheric constituents. This is difficult to verify as the atmosphere cannot be manipulated in an experiment. However, a GCM can be changed arbitrarily. Doing so, we find that long-period oscillations may be excited internally in the atmosphere.
Agee, E. M.: Note on itcz wave disturbances and formation of tropical storm anna, Mon. Weather Rev., 100, 733–737, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1972)100<0733:NOIWDA>2.3.CO;2, 1972. a
Aiyyer, A. R. and Molinari, J.: Evolution of mixed rossby-gravity waves in idealized mjo environments. J. Atmos. Sci., 60, 2837–2855, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(2003)060<2837:EOMRWI>2.0.CO;2, 2003. a
Avila, L. A. and Pasch, R. J.: Atlantic tropical systems of 1991, Mon. Weather Rev., 120, 2688–2696, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1992)120<2688:ATSO>2.0.CO;2, 1992. a
Bister, M. and Emanuel, K. A.: The genesis of hurricane guillermo: Texmex analyses and a modeling study, Mon. Weather Rev., 125, 2662–2682, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1997)125<2662:TGOHGT>2.0.CO;2, 1997.
Charney, J. G. and DeVore, J. G.: Multiple flow equilibria in the atmosphere and blocking, J. Atmos. Sci., 36, 1205–1216, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1979)036<1205:MFEITA>2.0.CO;2, 1979. a, b
Charney, J. G. and Stern, M. E.: On the stability of internal baroclinic jets in a rotating atmosphere, J. Atmos. Sci., 19, 159–172, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1962)019<0159:OTSOIB>2.0.CO;2, 1962. a
Chavas, D. R., Lin, N., Dong, W., and Lin, Y.: Observed Tropical Cyclone Size Revisited, J. Climate, 29, 2923–2939, 2016. a
Davis, C. A. and Bosart, L. F.: Baroclinically induced tropical cyclogenesis, Mon. Weather Rev., 131, 2730–2747, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2003)131<2730:BITC>2.0.CO;2, 2003. a
DeMaria, M.: The effect of vertical shear on tropical cyclone intensity change, J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 2076–2088, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1996)053<2076:TEOVSO>2.0.CO;2, 1996. a
Hack, J. J., Schubert, W. H., Stevens, D. E., and Kuo, H.-C.: Response of the hadley circulation to convective forcing in the ITCZ, J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 2957–2973, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1989)046<2957:ROTHCT>2.0.CO;2, 1989. a
Halverson, J., Black, M., Braun, S., Cecil, D., Goodman, M., Heymsfield, A., Heymsfield, G.,Hood, R., Krishnamurti, T., McFarquhar, G.,Mahoney, M. J., Molinari, J., Rogers, R., Turk, J., Velden, C., Zhang, D.-L., Zipser, E., and Kakar, R.: Nasa's tropical cloud systems and processes experiment, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 88, 867–882, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-88-6-867, 2007. a, b
Harr, P. A., Kalafsky, M. S., and Elsberry, R. L.: Environmental conditions prior to formation of a midget tropical cyclone during tcm-93, Mon. Weather Rev., 124, 1693–1710, 1996. a
Karyampudi, V. M. and Pierce, H. F.: Synoptic-scale influence of the saharan air layer on tropical cyclogenesis over the eastern atlantic, Mon. Weather Rev., 130, 3100–3128, 2002. a
Kieu, C. Q. and Zhang, D.-L.: An analytical model for the rapid intensification of tropical cyclones, Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 135, 1336–1349, 2009a.
Kieu, C. Q. and Zhang, D.-L.: Genesis of tropical storm eugene (2005) from merging vortices associated with itcz breakdowns. part ii: Roles of vortex merger and ambient potential vorticity, J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 1980–1996, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JAS2905.1, 2009b.
Legras, B. and Ghil, M.: Persistent anomalies, blocking and variations in atmospheric predictability, J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 433–471, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1985)042<0433:PABAVI>2.0.CO;2, 1985. a, b, c
Lussier III, L. L., Montgomery, M. T., and Bell, M. M.: The genesis of Typhoon Nuri as observed during the Tropical Cyclone Structure 2008 (TCS-08) field experiment – Part 3: Dynamics of low-level spin-up during the genesis, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8795–8812, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-8795-2014, 2014. a, b
Mark, L. and Holland, G. J.: On the interaction of tropical cyclones scale vortices, i: Observations, Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 119, 1347–1361, 1993. a
Molinari, J. and Vollaro, D.: Planetary- and synoptic-scale influences on eastern pacific tropical cyclogenesis, Mon. Weather Rev., 128, 3296–3307, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2000)128<3296:PASSIO>2.0.CO;2, 2000. a
Molinari, J., Knight, D., Dickinson, M., Vollaro, D., and Skubis, S.: Potential vorticity, easterly waves, and eastern pacific tropical cyclogenesis, Mon. Weather Rev., 125, 2699–2708, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1997)125<2699:PVEWAE>2.0.CO;2, 1997. a, b
Molinari, J., Moore, P., and Idone, V.: Convective structure of hurricanes as revealed by lightning locations, Mon. Weather Rev., 127, 520–534, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1999)127<0520:CSOHAR>2.0.CO;2, 1999. a
Molinari, J., Vollaro, D., Skubis, S. and Dickinson, M.: Origins and mechanisms of eastern pacific tropical cyclogenesis: A case study, Mon. Weather Rev., 128, 125–139, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2000)128<0125:OAMOEP>2.0.CO;2, 2000. a
Nakano, M., Sawada, M., Nasuno, T., and Satoh, M.: Intraseasonal variability and tropical cyclogenesis in the western North Pacific simulated by a global nonhydrostatic atmospheric model, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 565–571, 2015. a
Rambaldi, S. and Mo, K. C.: Forced stationary solutions in a barotropic channel: Multiple equilibria and theory of nonlinear resonance, J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 3135–3146, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1984)041<3135:FSSIAB>2.0.CO;2, 1984. a, b
Riehl, H. and Malkus, J. S.: On the heat balance in the equatorial trough zone, Geophysica, 6, 503–538, 1958. a
Ritchie, E. A. and Holland, G. J.: Scale interactions during the formation of typhoon irving, Mon. Weather Rev., 125, 1377–1396, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1997)125<1377:SIDTFO>2.0.CO;2, 1997. a, b, c
Schar, C.: Quasi-geostrophic Lee Cyclogenesis, J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 3044–3066, 1990. a
Shen, J., Tang, T., and Wang, L. L.: Spectral methods: algorithms, analysis and applications, Springer Science & Business Media, 472 p., 2011. a
Simpson, J., Ritchie, E. G., Holland, J., Halverson, J., and Stewart, S.: Mesoscale interactions in tropical cyclone genesis, Mon. Weather Rev., 125, 2643–2661, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1997)125<2643:MIITCG>2.0.CO;2, 1997. a, b
Tory, K. J. and Montgomery, M. T.: Internal influences on tropical cyclone formation, San Jose, Costa Rica, The Sixth WMO International Workshop on Tropical Cyclones (IWTC-VI), 20, 2006. a
Wang, Z., Montgomery, M. T., and Dunkerton, T. J.: Genesis of Pre–Hurricane Felix (2007). Part I: The Role of the Easterly Wave Critical Layer, J. Atmos. Sci., 67, 1711–1729, 2010. a
Wu, Y. and Shen, B.: An Evaluation of the Parallel Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition Method in Revealing the Role of Downscaling Processes Associated with African Easterly Waves in Tropical Cyclone Genesis, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 33, 1611–1628, 2016. a
Zehnder, J. A., Powell, D. M., and Ropp, D. L.: The interaction of easterly waves, orography, and the intertropical convergence zone in the genesis of eastern pacific tropical cyclones, Mon. Weather Rev., 127, 1566–1585, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1999)127<1566:TIOEWO>2.0.CO;2, 1999. a, b, c
Zhang, D.-L. and Bao, N.: Oceanic cyclogenesis as induced by a mesoscale convective system moving offshore. part i: A 90-h real-data simulation, Mon. Weather Rev., 124, 1449–1469, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1996)124<1449:OCAIBA>2.0.CO;2, 1996. a
Zhu, L., Zhang, D.-L., Cecelski, S. F., and Shen, X.: Genesis of Tropical Storm Debby (2006) within an African Easterly wave: Roles of the bottom-up and midlevel pouch processes, J. Atmos. Sci., 72, 2267–2285, 2015. a
This study presents an analytical model to study large-scale tropical cyclone (TC) formation that can help us understand the maximum capacity of the Earth's atmosphere to produce TCs. Using a barotropic model for the intertropical convergence zone and recent advances in nonlinear dynamical transition, it is found that the Earth's atmosphere can support a limited number of TCs at any given time (<12) in the current climate, thus providing new theoretical insights into the TC formation process.
This study presents an analytical model to study large-scale tropical cyclone (TC) formation...