Articles | Volume 18, issue 22
Research article 19 Nov 2018
Research article | 19 Nov 2018
Transport, mixing and feedback of dust, biomass burning and anthropogenic pollutants in eastern Asia: a case study
Derong Zhou et al.
No articles found.
Yuliang Liu, Wei Nie, Yuanyuan Li, Dafeng Ge, Chong Liu, Zhengning Xu, Liangduo Chen, Tianyi Wang, Lei Wang, Peng Sun, Ximeng Qi, Jiaping Wang, Zheng Xu, Jian Yuan, Chao Yan, Yanjun Zhang, Dandan Huang, Zhe Wang, Neil M. Donahue, Douglas Worsnop, Xuguang Chi, Mikael Ehn, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14789–14814,Short summary
Oxygenated organic molecules (OOMs) are crucial intermediates linking volatile organic compounds to secondary organic aerosols. Using nitrate time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry in eastern China, we performed positive matrix factorization (PMF) on binned OOM mass spectra. We reconstructed over 1000 molecules from 14 derived PMF factors and identified about 72 % of the observed OOMs as organic nitrates, highlighting the decisive role of NOx in OOM formation in populated areas.
Shuzhuang Feng, Fei Jiang, Zheng Wu, Hengmao Wang, Wei He, Yang Shen, Lingyu Zhang, Yanhua Zheng, Chenxi Lou, Ziqiang Jiang, and Weimin Ju
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
We document the system development and application of a Regional multi-Air Pollutant Assimilation System (RAPAS v1.0). This system is developed to optimize gridded source emissions of CO, SO2, NOx, primary PM2.5 and coarse PM10 on regional scale via simultaneously assimilating surface measurements of CO, SO2, NO2, PM2.5 and PM10. A series of sensitivity experiments demonstrate the advantage of "two-step" inversion strategy and the robustness of the system in estimating the emissions.
Qi En Zhong, Chunlei Cheng, Zaihua Wang, Lei Li, Mei Li, Dafeng Ge, Lei Wang, Yuanyuan Li, Wei Nie, Xuguang Chi, Aijun Ding, Suxia Yang, Duohong Chen, and Zhen Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Particulate amines play important roles in new particle formation, aerosol acidity and hygroscopicity. Most of the field observations did not distinguish the different behavior of each type amine under the same ambient influencing factors. In this study two amine-containing single particles exhibited different mixing states and disparate enrichment of secondary organics, which provide insights into the discriminated fates of organics during the formation and evolution processes.
Markku Kulmala, Tom V. Kokkonen, Juha Pekkanen, Sami Paatero, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8313–8322,Short summary
The eastern part of China as a whole is practically a gigacity with 650 million inhabitants. The gigacity, with its emissions, processes in the pollution cocktail and numerous feedbacks and interactions, has a crucial and big impact on regional air quality and on global climate. A large-scale research and innovation program is needed to meet the interlinked grand challenges in this gigacity and to serve as a platform for finding pathways for sustainable development of the globe.
Hanna Lappalainen, Tuukka Petäjä, Timo Vihma, Jouni Räisänen, Alexander Baklanov, Sergey Chalov, Igor Esau, Ekaterina Ezhova, Matti Leppäranta, Dmitry Pozdnyakov, Jukka Pumpanen, Meinrat O. Andreae, Michael Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Jianhui Bai, Igor Bashmachnikov, Boris Belan, Federico Bianchi, Boris Biskaborn, Michael Boy, Jaana Bäck, Bin Cheng, Natalia Ye Chubarova, Jonathan Duplissy, Egor Dyukarev, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Martin Forsius, Martin Heimann, Sirkku Juhola, Vladimir Konovalov, Igor Konovalov, Pavel Konstantinov, Kajar Koster, Elena Lapsina, Anna Lintunen, Alexander Mahura, Risto Makkonen, Svetlana Malkhazova, Ivan Mammarella, Stefano Mammola, Stephany Mazon, Outi Meinander, Eugene Mikhailov, Victoria Miles, Stanislav Myslenko, Dimitry Orlov, Jean-Daniel Paris, Robertta Pirazzini, Olga Popovicheva, Jouni Pulliainen, Kimmo Rautiainen, Torsten Sachs, Vladimir Shevchenko, Andrey Skorokhod, Andreas Stohl, Elli Suhonen, Erik S. Thomson, Marina Tsidilina, Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen, Petteri Uotila, Aki Virkkula, Nadezhda Voropay, Tobias Wolf, Sayaka Yasunaka, Jiahua Zhang, Yubao Qui, Aijun Ding, Huadong Guo, Valery Bondur, Nikolay Kasimov, Sergey Zilitinkevich, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We summarize results during the last five years in the Northern Eurasian region, especially from Russia, and introduce recent observations on the air quality in the urban environments in China. Although the scientific knowledge in these regions has increased, there are still gaps in our understanding of large-scale climate-Earth surface interactions and feedbacks. This arises from limitations in research infrastructures and integrative data analyses, hindering a comprehensive system analysis.
Shibao Wang, Yun Ma, Zhongrui Wang, Lei Wang, Xuguang Chi, Aijun Ding, Mingzhi Yao, Yunpeng Li, Qilin Li, Mengxian Wu, Ling Zhang, Yongle Xiao, and Yanxu Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7199–7215,Short summary
Mobile monitoring with low-cost sensors is a promising approach to garner high-spatial-resolution observations representative of the community scale. We develop a grid analysis method to obtain 50 m resolution maps of major air pollutants (CO, NO2, and O3) based on GIS technology. Our results demonstrate the sensing power of mobile monitoring for urban air pollution, which provides detailed information for source attribution and accurate traceability at the urban micro-scale.
Yanxu Zhang, Xingpei Ye, Shibao Wang, Xiaojing He, Lingyao Dong, Ning Zhang, Haikun Wang, Zhongrui Wang, Yun Ma, Lei Wang, Xuguang Chi, Aijun Ding, Mingzhi Yao, Yunpeng Li, Qilin Li, Ling Zhang, and Yongle Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2917–2929,Short summary
Urban air quality varies drastically at street scale, but traditional methods are too coarse to resolve it. We develop a 10 m resolution air quality model and apply it for traffic-related carbon monoxide air quality in Nanjing megacity. The model reveals a detailed geographical dispersion pattern of air pollution in and out of the road network and agrees well with a validation dataset. The model can be a vigorous part of the smart city system and inform urban planning and air quality management.
Fei Jiang, Hengmao Wang, Jing M. Chen, Weimin Ju, Xiangjun Tian, Shuzhuang Feng, Guicai Li, Zhuoqi Chen, Shupeng Zhang, Xuehe Lu, Jane Liu, Haikun Wang, Jun Wang, Wei He, and Mousong Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1963–1985,Short summary
We present a 6-year inversion from 2010 to 2015 for the global and regional carbon fluxes using only the GOSAT XCO2 retrievals. We find that the XCO2 retrievals could significantly improve the modeling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations and that the inferred interannual variations in the terrestrial carbon fluxes in most land regions have a better relationship with the changes in severe drought area or leaf area index, or are more consistent with the previous estimates about drought impact.
Yang Yang, Yu Zhao, Lei Zhang, Jie Zhang, Xin Huang, Xuefen Zhao, Yan Zhang, Mengxiao Xi, and Yi Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1191–1209,Short summary
We conducted new NOx emission estimation based on the satellite-derived NO2 column constraint and found reduced emissions compared to previous estimates for a developed region in east China. The subsequent improvement in air quality modeling was demonstrated based on available ground observations. With multiple emission reduction cases for various pollutants, we explored the effective control approaches for ozone and inorganic aerosol pollution.
Ying Jiang, Likun Xue, Rongrong Gu, Mengwei Jia, Yingnan Zhang, Liang Wen, Penggang Zheng, Tianshu Chen, Hongyong Li, Ye Shan, Yong Zhao, Zhaoxin Guo, Yujian Bi, Hengde Liu, Aijun Ding, Qingzhu Zhang, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12115–12131,Short summary
We analyzed the characteristics and sources of HONO in the upper boundary layer and lower free troposphere in the North China Plain, based on the field measurements at Mount Tai. Higher-than-expected levels and broad daytime peaks of HONO were observed. Without presence of ground surfaces, aerosol surface plays a key role in the heterogeneous HONO formation at high altitudes. Models without additional HONO sources largely
underestimatedthe oxidation processes in the elevation atmospheres.
Jill S. Johnson, Leighton A. Regayre, Masaru Yoshioka, Kirsty J. Pringle, Steven T. Turnock, Jo Browse, David M. H. Sexton, John W. Rostron, Nick A. J. Schutgens, Daniel G. Partridge, Dantong Liu, James D. Allan, Hugh Coe, Aijun Ding, David D. Cohen, Armand Atanacio, Ville Vakkari, Eija Asmi, and Ken S. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9491–9524,Short summary
We use over 9000 monthly aggregated grid-box measurements of aerosol to constrain the uncertainty in the HadGEM3-UKCA climate model. Measurements of AOD, PM2.5, particle number concentrations, sulfate and organic mass concentrations are compared to 1 million
variantsof the model using an implausibility metric. Despite many compensating effects in the model, the procedure constrains the probability distributions of many parameters, and direct radiative forcing uncertainty is reduced by 34 %.
Rong Tang, Xin Huang, Derong Zhou, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6177–6191,Short summary
Biomass-burning-induced large areas of dark char (i.e.
surface darkening) could influence the radiative energy balance. During the harvest season in eastern China, satellite retrieval shows that surface albedo was significantly decreased. Observational evidence of meteorological perturbations from the surface darkening is identified, which is further examined by model simulation. This work highlights the importance of burning-induced albedo change in weather forecast and regional climate.
Men Xia, Xiang Peng, Weihao Wang, Chuan Yu, Peng Sun, Yuanyuan Li, Yuliang Liu, Zhengning Xu, Zhe Wang, Zheng Xu, Wei Nie, Aijun Ding, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6147–6158,Short summary
ClNO2 and Cl2 can be photolyzed by sunlight to produce a highly reactive Cl atom which affects air quality and climate. We observed high ClNO2 and Cl2 concentrations during a recent field study in east China. We analyzed the data and proposed a new hypothesis on the Cl2 production mechanism. Yields of ClNO2 and Cl2 from N2O2 uptake were parameterized using observational constraints, and they can be used in air quality models to improve simulations of atmospheric photochemistry and air quality.
Zhi-Zhen Ni, Kun Luo, Yang Gao, Xiang Gao, Fei Jiang, Cheng Huang, Jian-Ren Fan, Joshua S. Fu, and Chang-Hong Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5963–5976,Short summary
The Weather Research Forecast with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model was used to simulate spatial and temporal O3 evolution in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region. Various atmospheric processes were analyzed to determine the influential factors of ozone formation through the integrated process rate method. This paper provides insight into urban O3 formation and dispersion during tropical cyclone events and supports the Model Intercomparison Study Asia Phase III (MICS-Asia Phase III).
Yi Zeng, Minghuai Wang, Chun Zhao, Siyu Chen, Zhoukun Liu, Xin Huang, and Yang Gao
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2125–2147,Short summary
Dust aerosol can impact many processes of the Earth system, but large uncertainties still remain in dust simulations. In this study, we investigated dust simulation sensitivity to two dust emission schemes and three dry deposition schemes using WRF-Chem. An optimal combination of dry deposition scheme and dust emission scheme has been identified to best simulate the dust storm in comparison with observation. Our results highlight the importance of dry deposition schemes for dust simulation.
Yu Zhao, Mengchen Yuan, Xin Huang, Feng Chen, and Jie Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4275–4294,Short summary
We estimated the ammonia emissions based on the constant emission factors and those characterizing the agricultural processes for the Yangtze River Delta, China. The discrepancies between the two estimates and their causes were analyzed. Based on ground and satellite observations, the two estimates were evaluated with air quality modeling. This work indicates ways to improve the emission estimation and helps better understand the necessity of multi-pollutant control strategy.
Jun Ge, Andrew J. Pitman, Weidong Guo, Beilei Zan, and Congbin Fu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 515–533,Short summary
We investigate the impact of revegetation on the hydrology of the Loess Plateau based on high-resolution simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We find that past revegetation has caused decreased runoff and soil moisture with increased evapotranspiration as well as little response from rainfall. WRF suggests that further revegetation could aggravate this water imbalance. We caution that further revegetation might be unsustainable in this region.
Zheng Xu, Yuliang Liu, Wei Nie, Peng Sun, Xuguang Chi, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6737–6748,Short summary
We evaluated the performance of HONO measurement by a wet-denuder--ion0chromatography system (WD/IC, MARGA). We found significant artificial HONO formed from the reaction of NO2 oxidizing SO2 in the denuder solution. High ambient NH3 would elevate the pH of the denuder solution and promote the overestimation of HONO. A method was established to correct the HONO measurement by WD/IC instruments.
Yicheng Shen, Aki Virkkula, Aijun Ding, Krista Luoma, Helmi Keskinen, Pasi P. Aalto, Xuguang Chi, Ximeng Qi, Wei Nie, Xin Huang, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Veli-Matti Kerminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15483–15502,Short summary
Long-term cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration (NCCN) data are scarce; there are a lot more data on aerosol optical properties (AOPs). It is therefore valuable to derive parameterizations for estimating NCCN from AOP measurements. With the new parameterization NCCN can be estimated from backscatter fraction, scattering Ångström exponent, and total light-scattering coefficient. The NCCN–AOP relationships depend on the geometric mean diameter and the width of the size distribution.
Yuliang Liu, Wei Nie, Zheng Xu, Tianyi Wang, Ruoxian Wang, Yuanyuan Li, Lei Wang, Xuguang Chi, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13289–13308,Short summary
We conducted 1-year continuous measurement of HONO at the SORPES station. We obtained seasonal and diurnal variations of HONO and evaluated the contribution of HONO photolysis to OH radical and the missing daytime source of HONO. We separated the sources of nocturnal HONO into four parts: combustion emissions, soil emission, formation on ground and formation on aerosol, and estimate their contribution semi-quantitatively. The results highlighted ever-changing contributions of HONO sources.
Jun Zhang, Xinfeng Wang, Rui Li, Shuwei Dong, Yingnan Zhang, Penggang Zheng, Min Li, Tianshu Chen, Yuhong Liu, Likun Xue, Wei Nie, Aijun Ding, Mingjin Tang, Xuehua Zhou, Lin Du, Qingzhu Zhang, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
This study presents the concentrations, variation characteristics, and key influencing factors of particulate organic nitrates at four urban and rural sites in eastern China. The effects of anthropogenic activities (i.e. biomass burning and coal combustion) and meteorological conditions (in particular the humidity) on the secondary formation of organic nitrates have been investigated. The results highlight the greater role of SO2 in organic nitrate chemistry than previously assumed.
Hengmao Wang, Fei Jiang, Jun Wang, Weimin Ju, and Jing M. Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12067–12082,Short summary
The differences in inverted global and regional carbon fluxes from GOSAT and OCO-2 XCO2 from 1 January to 31 December 2015 are studied. We find significant differences for inverted terrestrial carbon fluxes on both global and regional scales. Overall, GOSAT XCO2 has a better performance than OCO-2, and GOSAT data can effectively improve carbon flux estimates in the Northern Hemisphere, while OCO-2 data, with the specific version used in this study, show only slight improvement.
Aijun Ding, Xin Huang, Wei Nie, Xuguang Chi, Zheng Xu, Longfei Zheng, Zhengning Xu, Yuning Xie, Ximeng Qi, Yicheng Shen, Peng Sun, Jiaping Wang, Lei Wang, Jianning Sun, Xiu-Qun Yang, Wei Qin, Xiangzhi Zhang, Wei Cheng, Weijing Liu, Liangbao Pan, and Congbin Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11791–11801,Short summary
Based on continuous measurement at the SORPES statin in Nanjing, eastern China, we report the trend of PM2.5 and relevant chemical species there during 2011–2018. We found significant reduction of PM2.5 in both winter and early summer due to emission reduction of fossil-fuel combustion and open biomass burning, respectively. Reduction of fossil-fuel combustions contributed to 76 % of the wintertime PM2.5 decrease, with the remaining 24 % being caused by the change of meteorology.
Ka Lok Chan, Zhuoru Wang, Aijun Ding, Klaus-Peter Heue, Yicheng Shen, Jing Wang, Feng Zhang, Yining Shi, Nan Hao, and Mark Wenig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10051–10071,Short summary
The paper presents long-term observations of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO) in Nanjing using a MAX-DOAS instrument. The measurements were performed from April 2013 to February 2017. The MAX-DOAS measurements of NO2 and HCHO are used to validate OMI satellite observations and to investigate the influences of region transport of air pollutants on the air quality in Nanjing.
Xiao-Lu Ling, Cong-Bin Fu, Zong-Liang Yang, and Wei-Dong Guo
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3119–3133,Short summary
Observation and simulation can provide the temporal and spatial variation of vegetation characteristics, while they are not satisfactory for understanding the mechanism of the exchange between ecosystems and atmosphere. Data assimilation (DA) can combine the observation and models via mathematical statistical analysis. Results show that the ensemble adjust Kalman filter (EAKF) is the optimal algorithm. In addition, models perform better when the DA accepts a higher proportion of observations.
Qiuji Ding, Jianning Sun, Xin Huang, Aijun Ding, Jun Zou, Xiuqun Yang, and Congbin Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7759–7774,Short summary
Aerosol plays an important role in advection–radiation fog formation in eastern China though stabilizing atmospheric stratification and enhancing onshore flow. For the fog–haze episode in December 2013, the effect of aerosol–radiation interaction overwhelmed that of aerosol–cloud interaction. Light-absorbing aerosol like black carbon was more crucial than scattering aerosols. This paper highlights the importance of interaction among aerosol, regional circulation and boundary layer.
Xufei Liu, Xiaopu Lyu, Yu Wang, Fei Jiang, and Hai Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5127–5145,
Anna Katinka Petersen, Guy P. Brasseur, Idir Bouarar, Johannes Flemming, Michael Gauss, Fei Jiang, Rostislav Kouznetsov, Richard Kranenburg, Bas Mijling, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Matthieu Pommier, Arjo Segers, Mikhail Sofiev, Renske Timmermans, Ronald van der A, Stacy Walters, Ying Xie, Jianming Xu, and Guangqiang Zhou
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1241–1266,Short summary
An operational multi-model forecasting system for air quality is providing daily forecasts of ozone, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter for 37 urban areas of China. The paper presents the evaluation of the different forecasts performed during the first year of operation.
Xiaopu Lyu, Nan Wang, Hai Guo, Likun Xue, Fei Jiang, Yangzong Zeren, Hairong Cheng, Zhe Cai, Lihui Han, and Ying Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3025–3042,Short summary
Through analyses on the synoptic systems, pollution characteristics of O3 precursors, and modeling of local O3 formation and processes influencing O3 level, we found that this O3 pollution event was induced by a uniform pressure field over the Shandong Peninsula and also aggravated by a low-pressure trough in the last few days. This finding indicated that the NCP might be an O3 source region, which exported photochemical pollution to the adjoining regions or even to the neighboring countries.
Guy P. Brasseur, Ying Xie, Anna Katinka Petersen, Idir Bouarar, Johannes Flemming, Michael Gauss, Fei Jiang, Rostislav Kouznetsov, Richard Kranenburg, Bas Mijling, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Matthieu Pommier, Arjo Segers, Mikhail Sofiev, Renske Timmermans, Ronald van der A, Stacy Walters, Jianming Xu, and Guangqiang Zhou
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 33–67,Short summary
An operational multi-model forecasting system for air quality provides daily forecasts of ozone, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter for 37 urban areas in China. The paper presents an intercomparison of the different forecasts performed during a specific period of time and highlights recurrent differences between the model output. Pathways to improve the forecasts by the multi-model system are suggested.
Mingxu Liu, Xin Huang, Yu Song, Tingting Xu, Shuxiao Wang, Zhijun Wu, Min Hu, Lin Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Yuepeng Pan, Xuejun Liu, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17933–17943,
Zhen Peng, Lili Lei, Zhiquan Liu, Jianning Sun, Aijun Ding, Junmei Ban, Dan Chen, Xingxia Kou, and Kekuan Chu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17387–17404,Short summary
An EnKF system was developed to simultaneously assimilate multiple surface measurements, including PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, O3, and CO, via the joint adjustment of ICs and source emissions. Large improvements were achieved in the first 24 h forecast for PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and CO during an extreme haze episode that occurred in early October 2014 over the North China Plain, but no improvements were achieved for NO2 and O3.
Peng Sun, Wei Nie, Xuguang Chi, Yuning Xie, Xin Huang, Zheng Xu, Ximeng Qi, Zhengning Xu, Lei Wang, Tianyi Wang, Qi Zhang, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17177–17190,Short summary
A total of 2 years of online measurement of particulate nitrate was conducted at the SORPES station in the western Yangtze River Delta, eastern China. Nitrate was found to be the major driver of haze pollution and behaved differently in different seasons. In summer, thermodynamic equilibrium and photochemical processes controlled nitrate formation. In winter, N2O5 hydrolysis was demonstrated to be a major contributor to the nitrate episodes.
Tuomo Nieminen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Pasi P. Aalto, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Urs Baltensperger, David C. S. Beddows, Johan Paul Beukes, Don Collins, Aijun Ding, Roy M. Harrison, Bas Henzing, Rakesh Hooda, Min Hu, Urmas Hõrrak, Niku Kivekäs, Kaupo Komsaare, Radovan Krejci, Adam Kristensson, Lauri Laakso, Ari Laaksonen, W. Richard Leaitch, Heikki Lihavainen, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Zoltán Németh, Wei Nie, Colin O'Dowd, Imre Salma, Karine Sellegri, Birgitta Svenningsson, Erik Swietlicki, Peter Tunved, Vidmantas Ulevicius, Ville Vakkari, Marko Vana, Alfred Wiedensohler, Zhijun Wu, Annele Virtanen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14737–14756,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols have diverse effects on air quality, human health, and global climate. One important source of aerosols is their formation via nucleation and growth in the atmosphere. We have analyzed long-term observations of regional new particle formation events around the globe and provide a comprehensive view on the characteristics of this phenomenon in diverse environments. The results are useful in developing more realistic representation of atmospheric aerosols in global models.
Ximeng Qi, Aijun Ding, Pontus Roldin, Zhengning Xu, Putian Zhou, Nina Sarnela, Wei Nie, Xin Huang, Anton Rusanen, Mikael Ehn, Matti P. Rissanen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Michael Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11779–11791,Short summary
In this study we simulate the HOM concentrations and discuss their roles in NPF at a remote boreal forest site in Finland and a suburban site in eastern China. We found that sulfuric acid and HOM organonitrate concentrations in the gas phase are significantly higher but other HOM monomers and dimers from monoterpene oxidation are lower in eastern China. This study highlights the need for molecular-scale measurements in improving the understanding of NPF mechanisms in polluted areas.
Jun Wang, Ning Zeng, Meirong Wang, Fei Jiang, Jingming Chen, Pierre Friedlingstein, Atul K. Jain, Ziqiang Jiang, Weimin Ju, Sebastian Lienert, Julia Nabel, Stephen Sitch, Nicolas Viovy, Hengmao Wang, and Andrew J. Wiltshire
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10333–10345,Short summary
Based on the Mauna Loa CO2 records and TRENDY multi-model historical simulations, we investigate the different impacts of EP and CP El Niños on interannual carbon cycle variability. Composite analysis indicates that the evolutions of CO2 growth rate anomalies have three clear differences in terms of precursors (negative and neutral), amplitudes (strong and weak), and durations of peak (Dec–Apr and Oct–Jan) during EP and CP El Niños, respectively. We further discuss their terrestrial mechanisms.
Filippo Xausa, Pauli Paasonen, Risto Makkonen, Mikhail Arshinov, Aijun Ding, Hugo Denier Van Der Gon, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10039–10054,Short summary
Our project describes the feasibility of implementing particle number emissions taken from the GAINS model in global climate modeling through a simulation with the ECHAM-HAM global climate model. The results from the simulations have important implications regarding modeled particle number concentrations and future climate effects. Our findings represent an important starting point for further simulations concerning climate effects derived from anthropogenic particle emissions on a global scale.
Yuxuan Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, Haiyan Li, Meng Li, Xin Zhang, Aijun Ding, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9879–9896,Short summary
The light absorption of BC-containing particles strongly depends on their aging process in the atmosphere. Whether and how the aging degree and light absorption capability of BC-containing particles will change with air pollution development is still unclear. Our results reveal that under a more polluted environment, the BC-containing particles are characterized not only by higher BC mass concentrations but also by more coating materials on BC surfaces and thus higher light absorption capacity.
Jiaping Wang, Wei Nie, Yafang Cheng, Yicheng Shen, Xuguang Chi, Jiandong Wang, Xin Huang, Yuning Xie, Peng Sun, Zheng Xu, Ximeng Qi, Hang Su, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9061–9074,Short summary
An optimized segregation method is applied to estimate light absorption of brown carbon (BrC) in Nanjing. This study highlights the considerable contribution of BrC to light absorption in the Yangtze River Delta region, China, and depicts its long-term profile in this region for the first time. Lagrangian modeling and the chemical signature observed at the site suggested that open biomass burning and residential emissions are the dominant sources influencing BrC in the two highest BrC seasons.
Yicheng Shen, Aki Virkkula, Aijun Ding, Jiaping Wang, Xuguang Chi, Wei Nie, Ximeng Qi, Xin Huang, Qiang Liu, Longfei Zheng, Zheng Xu, Tuukka Petäjä, Pasi P. Aalto, Congbin Fu, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5265–5292,Short summary
Aerosol optical properties (AOPs) were measured at SORPES, a regional background station in Nanjing, China from June 2013 to May 2015. The aerosol was highly scattering. The single-scattering albedo in Nanjing appears to be slightly higher than at several other sites. The data do not suggest any significant contribution to absorption by brown carbon. The sources of high values are mainly in eastern China. During pollution episodes, pollutant concentrations increased gradually but decreased fast.
Zhi-zhen Ni, Kun Luo, Yang Gao, Fei Jiang, Xiang Gao, Jian-ren Fan, and Chang-hong Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
A unique mechanism was found to modulate the high ozone episodes in Hangzhou during G20 summit: Driven by tropical cyclone convergence, prevailing north winds brought in emission sources; with invasion of tropical cycle, subsidence air and stagnant weather was induced, as well as the urban heat island effect, intensifying the ozone enhancement. Different atmospheric processes were further analyzed to elucidate the control factors of ozone formation through integrated process rate method.
Han Han, Jane Liu, Huiling Yuan, Bingliang Zhuang, Ye Zhu, Yue Wu, Yuhan Yan, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4251–4276,Short summary
Imported African ozone peaks in the Asian middle and upper troposphere in March. The seasonality of African ozone influence on Asia is mainly driven by the seasonal swing of the ITCZ, the Hadley circulation, and the northern subtropical westerlies. The stronger the ITCZ over Africa in a boreal winter is, the more African ozone is transported to Asia that winter. The convective divergence over the ITCZ and the Somali jet are drivers of interhemispheric transport of African ozone.
Hao Wang, Xiaopu Lyu, Hai Guo, Yu Wang, Shichun Zou, Zhenhao Ling, Xinming Wang, Fei Jiang, Yangzong Zeren, Wenzhuo Pan, Xiaobo Huang, and Jin Shen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4277–4295,Short summary
While oceanic air is generally thought to be clean, the air pollution over waters in proximity to the coasts is not well recognized. This research indicated that ozone was higher over South China Sea (SCS) than that in the adjacent continental area, while continental anticyclone, tropical cyclone and land breeze favored O3 formation over SCS. In addition, weaker NO titration and stronger atmospheric oxidative capacity led to higher O3 production efficiency over SCS.
Zilin Wang, Xin Huang, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2821–2834,Short summary
Black carbon has great importance in aerosol–boundary layer interaction (the
dome effect). Key factors like vertical profile and aging of aerosol, and underlying surface, are explored with a meteorology–chemistry coupled model. We found the effect to be sensitive to altitude of aerosol and can be intensified by aging processes. The effect is also more substantial in rural areas. China’s air quality would benefit from black carbon reduction from elevated sources and domestic combustion.
Jun Wang, Ning Zeng, Meirong Wang, Fei Jiang, Hengmao Wang, and Ziqiang Jiang
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 1–14,Short summary
Behaviors of terrestrial ecosystems differ in different El Niños. We analyze terrestrial carbon cycle responses to two extreme El Niños (2015/16 and 1997/98), and find large differences. We find that global land–atmosphere carbon flux anomaly was about 2 times smaller in 2015/16 than in 1997/98 event, without the obvious lagged response. Then we illustrate the climatic and biological mechanisms of the different terrestrial carbon cycle responses in 2015/16 and 1997/98 El Niños regionally.
Chengzhi Xing, Cheng Liu, Shanshan Wang, Ka Lok Chan, Yang Gao, Xin Huang, Wenjing Su, Chengxin Zhang, Yunsheng Dong, Guangqiang Fan, Tianshu Zhang, Zhenyi Chen, Qihou Hu, Hang Su, Zhouqing Xie, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14275–14289,Short summary
Vertical profiles of the aerosol extinction coefficient and NO2 and HCHO concentrations were retrieved from MAX-DOAS measurement, while vertical distribution of O3 was obtained using ozone lidar. The measured O3 vertical distribution indicates that the ozone production not only occurs at surface level but also at higher altitudes (about 1.1 km), which are not directly related to horizontal and vertical transportation but are mainly influenced by the abundance of VOCs in the lower troposphere.
Zhongfeng Xu, Ying Han, and Congbin Fu
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3805–3820,Short summary
The paper develops a multivariable integrated evaluation (MVIE) method for evaluating the overall performance of a climate model in simulating multiple fields. MVIE takes multiple statistics of multiple variables into account and is expected to provide a more accurate and comprehensive evaluation of model performance. Moreover, a multivariable integrated evaluation index (MIEI) is also developed to concisely summarize model performance and facilitate multi-model intercomparison and ranking.
Mingjin Tang, Xin Huang, Keding Lu, Maofa Ge, Yongjie Li, Peng Cheng, Tong Zhu, Aijun Ding, Yuanhang Zhang, Sasho Gligorovski, Wei Song, Xiang Ding, Xinhui Bi, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11727–11777,Short summary
We provide a comprehensive and critical review of laboratory studies of heterogeneous uptake of OH, NO3, O3, and their directly related species by mineral dust particles. The atmospheric importance of heterogeneous uptake as sinks for these species is also assessed. In addition, we have outlined major open questions and challenges in this field and discussed research strategies to address them.
Caihong Xu, Min Wei, Jianmin Chen, Chao Zhu, Jiarong Li, Ganglin Lv, Xianmang Xu, Lulu Zheng, Guodong Sui, Weijun Li, Bing Chen, Wenxing Wang, Qingzhu Zhang, Aijun Ding, and Abdelwahid Mellouki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11247–11260,Short summary
Fungi are ubiquitous throughout the near-surface atmosphere, where they represent an important component of primary biological aerosol particles. The diversity and composition of the fungal communities varied over the different seasons between the fine (PM2.5) and submicron (PM1) particles at the summit of Mt. Tai located in the North China Plain, China. This work may serve as an important reference for the fungal contribution to primary biological aerosol particles.
Jiarong Li, Xinfeng Wang, Jianmin Chen, Chao Zhu, Weijun Li, Chengbao Li, Lu Liu, Caihong Xu, Liang Wen, Likun Xue, Wenxing Wang, Aijun Ding, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9885–9896,Short summary
Cloud events at Mt. Tai were investigated for the chemical composition and size distribution of cloud droplets. An obvious rise in pH was found for elevated NH+4 during the last decade. Higher PM2.5 levels resulted in higher concentrations of water-soluble ions, smaller sizes and higher numbers of cloud droplets. The mechanism of cloud-droplet formation and the mass transfer between aerosol–gas–cloud phases were summarized to enrich the knowledge of cloud chemical and microphysical properties.
Yuqin Liu, Gerrit de Leeuw, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jiahua Zhang, Putian Zhou, Wei Nie, Ximeng Qi, Juan Hong, Yonghong Wang, Aijun Ding, Huadong Guo, Olaf Krüger, Markku Kulmala, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5623–5641,Short summary
The aerosol effects on warm cloud parameters over the Yangtze River Delta are systematically examined using multi-sensor retrievals. This study shows that the COT–CDR and CWP–CDR relationships are not unique, but are affected by atmospheric aerosol loading. CDR and cloud fraction show different behaviours for low and high AOD. Aerosol–cloud interaction (ACI) is stronger for clouds mixed with smoke aerosol than for clouds mixed with dust. Meteorological conditions play an important role in ACI.
Xueqian Wang, Weidong Guo, Bo Qiu, Ye Liu, Jianning Sun, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4989–4996,Short summary
Land use or cover change is a fundamental anthropogenic forcing for climate change. Based on field observations, we quantified the contributions of different factors to surface temperature change and deepened the understanding of its mechanisms. We found evaporative cooling plays the most important role in the temperature change, while radiative forcing, which is traditionally emphasized, is not significant. This study provided firsthand evidence to verify the model results in IPCC AR5.
Wei Nie, Juan Hong, Silja A. K. Häme, Aijun Ding, Yugen Li, Chao Yan, Liqing Hao, Jyri Mikkilä, Longfei Zheng, Yuning Xie, Caijun Zhu, Zheng Xu, Xuguang Chi, Xin Huang, Yang Zhou, Peng Lin, Annele Virtanen, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Mikael Ehn, Jianzhen Yu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3659–3672,Short summary
HULIS are demonstrated to be important low-volatility, or even extremely low volatility, compounds in the organic aerosol phase. This sheds new light on the connection between atmospheric HULIS and ELVOCs. The interaction between HULIS and ammonium sulfate was found to decrease the volatility of the HULIS part in HULIS-AS mixed samples, indicating multiphase processes have the potential to lower the volatility of organic compounds in the aerosol phase.
Jiaping Wang, Aki Virkkula, Yuan Gao, Shuncheng Lee, Yicheng Shen, Xuguang Chi, Wei Nie, Qiang Liu, Zheng Xu, Xin Huang, Tao Wang, Long Cui, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2653–2671,Short summary
Multi-year observations at a coastal station in Hong Kong reveals that aerosol optical properties showed clear temporal variations according to the dominant sources of aerosols. LPDM modeling and correlation analysis gave similar signals about the freshness of aerosols during different seasons. Fresh emissions of particles from nearby cities and ship exhausts affected light optical properties and particle size in summer and aged air mass in winter caused larger variability of light extinction.
Jenni Kontkanen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Lauri Ahonen, Juha Kangasluoma, Hanna E. Manninen, Jani Hakala, Clémence Rose, Karine Sellegri, Shan Xiao, Lin Wang, Ximeng Qi, Wei Nie, Aijun Ding, Huan Yu, Shanhu Lee, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2163–2187,Short summary
The concentrations of ~1–3 nm particles were investigated at nine sites around the world. Sub-3 nm particle concentrations were highest at the sites with strong anthropogenic influence. Electrically neutral particles dominated sub-3 nm particle concentrations in polluted environments and in boreal forest during spring and summer. Sub-3 nm particle concentrations were observed to be determined by the availability of precursor vapors rather than the sink caused by preexisting aerosol particles.
Bingliang Zhuang, Tijian Wang, Jane Liu, Shu Li, Min Xie, Yong Han, Pulong Chen, Qiduo Hu, Xiu-qun Yang, Congbin Fu, and Jialei Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1143–1160,Short summary
The observed near-surface aerosol optical properties in urban Nanjing are analysed from March 2014 to February 2016. Substantial analysis in the key optical properties of the surface aerosol fill the gaps in the study on aerosols in Nanjing, even in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD). Relationships between the aerosol extinction coefficient (single scattering albedo) and atmospheric visibility are also carried out in different seasons to figure out the effect of aerosol on the visibility in Nanjing, YRD.
Lei Yao, Ming-Yi Wang, Xin-Ke Wang, Yi-Jun Liu, Hang-Fei Chen, Jun Zheng, Wei Nie, Ai-Jun Ding, Fu-Hai Geng, Dong-Fang Wang, Jian-Min Chen, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14527–14543,Short summary
We present the development of a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) method, utilizing protonated ethanol as reagent ions to simultaneously detect atmospheric gaseous amines (C1 to C6) and amides (C1 to C6). Deployment of this ethanol HR-ToF-CIMS has been demonstrated in a field campaign in urban Shanghai, China, detecting amines (from a few pptv to hundreds of pptv) and amides (from tens of pptv to a few ppbv).
Hanna K. Lappalainen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Theo Kurten, Aleksander Baklanov, Anatoly Shvidenko, Jaana Bäck, Timo Vihma, Pavel Alekseychik, Meinrat O. Andreae, Stephen R. Arnold, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Boris Belan, Leonid Bobylev, Sergey Chalov, Yafang Cheng, Natalia Chubarova, Gerrit de Leeuw, Aijun Ding, Sergey Dobrolyubov, Sergei Dubtsov, Egor Dyukarev, Nikolai Elansky, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Igor Esau, Nikolay Filatov, Mikhail Flint, Congbin Fu, Olga Glezer, Aleksander Gliko, Martin Heimann, Albert A. M. Holtslag, Urmas Hõrrak, Juha Janhunen, Sirkku Juhola, Leena Järvi, Heikki Järvinen, Anna Kanukhina, Pavel Konstantinov, Vladimir Kotlyakov, Antti-Jussi Kieloaho, Alexander S. Komarov, Joni Kujansuu, Ilmo Kukkonen, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Ari Laaksonen, Tuomas Laurila, Heikki Lihavainen, Alexander Lisitzin, Alexsander Mahura, Alexander Makshtas, Evgeny Mareev, Stephany Mazon, Dmitry Matishov, Vladimir Melnikov, Eugene Mikhailov, Dmitri Moisseev, Robert Nigmatulin, Steffen M. Noe, Anne Ojala, Mari Pihlatie, Olga Popovicheva, Jukka Pumpanen, Tatjana Regerand, Irina Repina, Aleksei Shcherbinin, Vladimir Shevchenko, Mikko Sipilä, Andrey Skorokhod, Dominick V. Spracklen, Hang Su, Dmitry A. Subetto, Junying Sun, Arkady Y. Terzhevik, Yuri Timofeyev, Yuliya Troitskaya, Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen, Viacheslav I. Kharuk, Nina Zaytseva, Jiahua Zhang, Yrjö Viisanen, Timo Vesala, Pertti Hari, Hans Christen Hansson, Gennady G. Matvienko, Nikolai S. Kasimov, Huadong Guo, Valery Bondur, Sergej Zilitinkevich, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14421–14461,Short summary
After kick off in 2012, the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) program has expanded fast and today the multi-disciplinary research community covers ca. 80 institutes and a network of ca. 500 scientists from Europe, Russia, and China. Here we introduce scientific topics relevant in this context. This is one of the first multi-disciplinary overviews crossing scientific boundaries, from atmospheric sciences to socio-economics and social sciences.
Lei Sun, Likun Xue, Tao Wang, Jian Gao, Aijun Ding, Owen R. Cooper, Meiyun Lin, Pengju Xu, Zhe Wang, Xinfeng Wang, Liang Wen, Yanhong Zhu, Tianshu Chen, Lingxiao Yang, Yan Wang, Jianmin Chen, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10637–10650,Short summary
We compiled the available observations of surface O3 at Mt. Tai – the highest mountain in the North China Plain, and found a significant increase of O3 concenrations from 2003 to 2015. The observed O3 increase was mainly due to the increase of O3 precursors, especially VOCs. Our analysis shows that controlling NOx alone, in the absence of VOC controls, is not sufficient to reduce regional O3 levels in North China in a short period.
Xin Huang, Aijun Ding, Lixia Liu, Qiang Liu, Ke Ding, Xiaorui Niu, Wei Nie, Zheng Xu, Xuguang Chi, Minghuai Wang, Jianning Sun, Weidong Guo, and Congbin Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10063–10082,Short summary
We conducted a comprehensive modelling work to understand the impact of biomass burning on synoptic weather during agricultural burning season in East China. We demonstrated that the numerical model with fire emission, chemical processes, and aerosol–meteorology online coupled could reproduce the change of air temperature and precipitation induced by air pollution during this event. This study highlights the importance of including human activities in numerical-model-based weather forecast.
Weidong Guo, Xueqian Wang, Jianning Sun, Aijun Ding, and Jun Zou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9875–9890,Short summary
Basic characteristics of land–atmosphere interactions at four neighboring sites with different underlying surfaces in southern China, a typical monsoon region, are analyzed systematically. Despite the same climate background, the differences in land surface characteristics like albedo and aerodynamic roughness length due to land use/cover change exert distinct influences on the surface radiative budget and energy allocation and result in differences of near-surface micrometeorological elements.
Shipeng Zhang, Minghuai Wang, Steven J. Ghan, Aijun Ding, Hailong Wang, Kai Zhang, David Neubauer, Ulrike Lohmann, Sylvaine Ferrachat, Toshihiko Takeamura, Andrew Gettelman, Hugh Morrison, Yunha Lee, Drew T. Shindell, Daniel G. Partridge, Philip Stier, Zak Kipling, and Congbin Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2765–2783,Short summary
The variation of aerosol indirect effects (AIE) in several climate models is investigated across different dynamical regimes. Regimes with strong large-scale ascent are shown to be as important as stratocumulus regimes in studying AIE. AIE over regions with high monthly large-scale surface precipitation rate contributes the most to the total aerosol indirect forcing. These results point to the need to reduce the uncertainty in AIE in different dynamical regimes.
Xin Huang, Luxi Zhou, Aijun Ding, Ximeng Qi, Wei Nie, Minghuai Wang, Xuguang Chi, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Pontus Roldin, Anton Rusanen, Markku Kulmala, and Michael Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2477–2492,Short summary
By combining a regional model and a box model, this study simulates new particle formation in Nanjing, China, when the air masses were affected by anthropogenic activities, biogenic emissions, or mixed ocean and continental sources. The simulations reveal that biogenic organic compounds play a vital role in growth of newly formed clusters. This novel combination of two models makes it possible to accomplish new particle formation simulation without direct measurements of all chemical species.
M. Kulmala, H. K. Lappalainen, T. Petäjä, T. Kurten, V.-M. Kerminen, Y. Viisanen, P. Hari, S. Sorvari, J. Bäck, V. Bondur, N. Kasimov, V. Kotlyakov, G. Matvienko, A. Baklanov, H. D. Guo, A. Ding, H.-C. Hansson, and S. Zilitinkevich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13085–13096,Short summary
The Pan-European Experiment (PEEX) is introduced. PEEX is a multidisciplinary, multiscale and multicomponent research, research infrastructure and capacity-building program. This paper outlines the mission, vision and objectives of PEEX and introduces its main components, including the research agenda, research infrastructure, knowledge transfer and potential impacts on society. The paper also summarizes the main scientific questions that PEEX is going to tackle in the future.
X. M. Qi, A. J. Ding, W. Nie, T. Petäjä, V.-M. Kerminen, E. Herrmann, Y. N. Xie, L. F. Zheng, H. Manninen, P. Aalto, J. N. Sun, Z. N. Xu, X. G. Chi, X. Huang, M. Boy, A. Virkkula, X.-Q. Yang, C. B. Fu, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12445–12464,Short summary
We report 2 years of measurements of submicron particles at the SORPES station and provide a comprehensive understanding of main factors controlling temporal variation of the aerosol size distribution and NPF in eastern China. The number concentrations of total particles at Nanjing were comparable to other Chinese megacities but the frequency of NPF was much higher. Year-to-year differences of meteorological conditions could significantly influence the seasonal cycle of NPF and growth.
A. Virkkula, X. Chi, A. Ding, Y. Shen, W. Nie, X. Qi, L. Zheng, X. Huang, Y. Xie, J. Wang, T. Petäjä, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4415–4427,Short summary
Aerosol optical properties were measured with a seven-wavelength aethalometer and a three-wavelength nephelometer in Nanjing, China, in September 2013–January 2015. The aethalometer compensation parameter k depended on the backscatter fraction, measured with an independent method, the integrating nephelometer. The compensation parameter decreased with increasing single-scattering albedo.
K. Ding, J. Liu, A. Ding, Q. Liu, T. L. Zhao, J. Shi, Y. Han, H. Wang, and F. Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2843–2866,Short summary
1. High CO abundances of 300-550 ppbv is shown in aircraft MOZAIC data between 700 and 300 hPa over East Asia in three episodes. Correspondingly, elevated CO is observed in satellite MOPITT data at similar altitudes. 2. GEOS-Chem and FLEXPART simulations reveal distinct uplifting processes for CO from fires and anthropogenic sources in the cases. 3. Topography in East Asia affects uplifting of CO in different ways. 4. The new version 5 MOPITT data can help diagnose vertical transport of CO.
H. Zheng, Y. Li, J. M. Chen, T. Wang, Q. Huang, W. X. Huang, L. H. Wang, S. M. Li, W. P. Yuan, X. Zheng, S. P. Zhang, Z. Q. Chen, and F. Jiang
Biogeosciences, 12, 1131–1150,Short summary
Ecological models often suffer from substantial biases due to inaccurate simulations of complex ecological processes. We introduce a set of scaling factors (parameters) for an ecological model on the basis of plant functional type (PFT) and latitudes. A global carbon assimilation system (GCAS-DOM) is developed by employing a dual optimization method (DOM) to invert the time-dependent ecological model parameter state and the net carbon flux state on 1 degree grid cells simultaneously.
W. Nie, A. J. Ding, Y. N. Xie, Z. Xu, H. Mao, V.-M. Kerminen, L. F. Zheng, X. M. Qi, X. Huang, X.-Q. Yang, J. N. Sun, E. Herrmann, T. Petäjä, M. Kulmala, and C. B. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1147–1159,
L. K. Xue, T. Wang, J. Gao, A. J. Ding, X. H. Zhou, D. R. Blake, X. F. Wang, S. M. Saunders, S. J. Fan, H. C. Zuo, Q. Z. Zhang, and W. X. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13175–13188,
F. Jiang, H. M. Wang, J. M. Chen, T. Machida, L. X. Zhou, W. M. Ju, H. Matsueda, and Y. Sawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10133–10144,
E. Herrmann, A. J. Ding, V.-M. Kerminen, T. Petäjä, X. Q. Yang, J. N. Sun, X. M. Qi, H. Manninen, J. Hakala, T. Nieminen, P. P. Aalto, M. Kulmala, and C. B. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2169–2183,
A. J. Ding, C. B. Fu, X. Q. Yang, J. N. Sun, T. Petäjä, V.-M. Kerminen, T. Wang, Y. Xie, E. Herrmann, L. F. Zheng, W. Nie, Q. Liu, X. L. Wei, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10545–10554,
L. K. Xue, T. Wang, J. Gao, A. J. Ding, X. H. Zhou, D. R. Blake, X. F. Wang, S. M. Saunders, S. J. Fan, H. C. Zuo, Q. Z. Zhang, and W. X. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
F. Jiang, H. W. Wang, J. M. Chen, L. X. Zhou, W. M. Ju, A. J. Ding, L. X. Liu, and W. Peters
Biogeosciences, 10, 5311–5324,
A. J. Ding, C. B. Fu, X. Q. Yang, J. N. Sun, L. F. Zheng, Y. N. Xie, E. Herrmann, W. Nie, T. Petäjä, V.-M. Kerminen, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5813–5830,
E. Herrmann, A. J. Ding, T. Petäjä, X. Q. Yang, J. N. Sun, X. M. Qi, H. Manninen, J. Hakala, T. Nieminen, P. P. Aalto, V.-M. Kerminen, M. Kulmala, and C. B. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)What rainfall rates are most important to wet removal of different aerosol types?A weather regime characterisation of winter biomass aerosol transport from southern Africa15-year variability of desert dust optical depth on global and regional scalesDipole pattern of summer ozone pollution in the east of China and its connection with climate variabilityAerosol absorption in global models from AeroCom phase IIIA black carbon peak and its sources in the free troposphere of Beijing induced by cyclone lifting and transport from central ChinaCompeting effects of aerosol reductions and circulation changes for future improvements in Beijing hazeUnderstanding the surface temperature response and its uncertainty to CO2, CH4, black carbon, and sulfateSurface deposition of marine fog and its treatment in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modelAssessing the potential efficacy of marine cloud brightening for cooling Earth using a simple heuristic modelAerosol effects on electrification and lightning discharges in a multicell thunderstorm simulated by the WRF-ELEC modelThe response of the Amazon ecosystem to the photosynthetically active radiation fields: integrating impacts of biomass burning aerosol and clouds in the NASA GEOS Earth system model“Warm cover”: precursory strong signals for haze pollution hidden in the middle troposphereThe MAPM (Mapping Air Pollution eMissions) method for inferring particulate matter emissions maps at city scale from in situ concentration measurements: description and demonstration of capabilityCharacteristics of surface energy balance and atmospheric circulation during hot-and-polluted episodes and their synergistic relationships with urban heat islands over the Pearl River Delta regionInfluence of sea salt aerosols on the development of Mediterranean tropical-like cyclonesQuantification of uncertainties in the assessment of an atmospheric release source applied to the autumn 2017 106Ru eventForecasting and identifying the meteorological and hydrological conditions favoring the occurrence of severe hazes in Beijing and Shanghai using deep learningImproving prediction of trans-boundary biomass burning plume dispersion: from northern peninsular Southeast Asia to downwind western North Pacific OceanConstant Flux Layers with Gravitational Settling: with links to aerosols, fog and deposition velocities over waterHyperfine-Resolution Mapping of On-Road Vehicle Emissions with Comprehensive Traffic Monitoring and Intelligent Transportation SystemDecadal changes of connections among late-spring snow cover in West Siberia, summer Eurasia teleconnection and O3-related meteorology in North ChinaBetter representation of dust can improve climate models with too weak an African monsoonReduced light absorption of black carbon (BC) and its influence on BC-boundary-layer interactions during “APEC Blue”Present and future aerosol impacts on Arctic climate change in the GISS-E2.1 Earth system modelEvaluation of natural aerosols in CRESCENDO Earth system models (ESMs): mineral dustOn the contribution of fast and slow responses to precipitation changes caused by aerosol perturbationsImpact of modified turbulent diffusion of PM2.5 aerosol in WRF-Chem simulations in Eastern ChinaExploring the uncertainties in the aviation soot-cirrus effectGlobal–regional nested simulation of particle number concentration by combing microphysical processes with an evolving organic aerosol moduleMolecular scale description of interfacial mass transfer in phase separated aqueous secondary organic aerosolElevated 3D structures of PM2.5 and impact of complex terrain-forcing circulations on heavy haze pollution over Sichuan Basin, ChinaModelling the size distribution of aggregated volcanic ash and implications for operational atmospheric dispersion modellingImproved representation of the global dust cycle using observational constraints on dust properties and abundanceContribution of the world's main dust source regions to the global cycle of desert dustEffect of volcanic emissions on clouds during the 2008 and 2018 Kilauea degassing eventsWintertime direct radiative effects due to black carbon (BC) over the Indo-Gangetic Plain as modelled with new BC emission inventories in CHIMEREFuture changes in Beijing haze events under different anthropogenic aerosol emission scenariosPresent-day radiative effect from radiation-absorbing aerosols in snowSeasonal variation in atmospheric pollutants transport in central Chile: dynamics and consequencesNon-equilibrium interplay between gas–particle partitioning and multiphase chemical reactions of semi-volatile compounds: mechanistic insights and practical implications for atmospheric modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsAerosol acidity and liquid water content regulate the dry deposition of inorganic reactive nitrogenEnhanced light absorption and reduced snow albedo due to internally mixed mineral dust in grains of snowCoral-reef-derived dimethyl sulfide and the climatic impact of the loss of coral reefsHow Asian aerosols impact regional surface temperatures across the globeAir quality deterioration episode associated with typhoon over the complex topographic environment in central TaiwanCombining POLDER-3 satellite observations and WRF-Chem numerical simulations to derive biomass burning aerosol properties over the Southeast Atlantic regionAerosol dynamics and dispersion of radioactive particlesDevelopment and intercity transferability of land-use regression models for predicting ambient PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and O3 concentrations in northern TaiwanConstraints on global aerosol number concentration, SO2 and condensation sink in UKESM1 using ATom measurements
Yong Wang, Wenwen Xia, and Guang J. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16797–16816,Short summary
This study developed a novel approach to detect what rainfall rates climatologically are most efficient for wet removal of different aerosol types and applied it to a global climate model (GCM). Results show that light rain has disproportionate control on aerosol wet scavenging, with distinct rain rates for different aerosol sizes. The approach can be applied to other GCMs to better understand the aerosol wet scavenging by rainfall, which is important to better simulate aerosols.
Marco Gaetani, Benjamin Pohl, Maria del Carmen Alvarez Castro, Cyrille Flamant, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16575–16591,Short summary
During the dry austral winter, biomass fires in tropical Africa emit large amounts of smoke in the atmosphere, with large impacts on climate and air quality. The study of the relationship between atmospheric circulation and smoke transport shows that midlatitude atmospheric disturbances may deflect the smoke from tropical Africa towards southern Africa. Understanding the distribution of the smoke in the region is crucial for climate modelling and air quality monitoring.
Stavros-Andreas Logothetis, Vasileios Salamalikis, Antonis Gkikas, Stelios Kazadzis, Vassilis Amiridis, and Andreas Kazantzidis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16499–16529,Short summary
This study investigates the temporal trends of dust optical depth (DOD; 550 nm) on global, regional and seasonal scales over a 15-year period (2003–2017) using the MIDAS (ModIs Dust AeroSol) dataset. The findings of this study revealed that the DOD was increased across the central Sahara and the Arabian Peninsula, with opposite trends over the eastern and western Sahara, the Thar and Gobi deserts, in the Bodélé Depression, and in the southern Mediterranean.
Xiaoqing Ma and Zhicong Yin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16349–16361,Short summary
Severe ozone pollution frequently occurred in the east of China and obviously damages human health. The meteorological conditions effectively affect the variations in ozone pollution by modulating the natural emissions of ozone precursors and photochemical reactions in the atmosphere. In this study, a south–north dipole pattern of summer-mean ozone concentration in the east of China was identified, and its connections with preceding climate variability at different latitudes were also examined.
Maria Sand, Bjørn H. Samset, Gunnar Myhre, Jonas Gliß, Susanne E. Bauer, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Paul Ginoux, Zak Kipling, Alf Kirkevåg, Harri Kokkola, Philippe Le Sager, Marianne T. Lund, Hitoshi Matsui, Twan van Noije, Dirk J. L. Olivié, Samuel Remy, Michael Schulz, Philip Stier, Camilla W. Stjern, Toshihiko Takemura, Kostas Tsigaridis, Svetlana G. Tsyro, and Duncan Watson-Parris
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15929–15947,Short summary
Absorption of shortwave radiation by aerosols can modify precipitation and clouds but is poorly constrained in models. A total of 15 different aerosol models from AeroCom phase III have reported total aerosol absorption, and for the first time, 11 of these models have reported in a consistent experiment the contributions to absorption from black carbon, dust, and organic aerosol. Here, we document the model diversity in aerosol absorption.
Zhenbin Wang, Bin Zhu, Hanqing Kang, Wen Lu, Shuqi Yan, Delong Zhao, Weihang Zhang, and Jinhui Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15555–15567,Short summary
In this paper, by using WRF-Chem with a black carbon (BC) tagging technique, we investigate the formation mechanism and regional sources of a BC peak in the free troposphere observed by aircraft flights. Local sources dominated BC from the surface to about 700 m (78.5 %), while the BC peak in the free troposphere was almost entirely imported from external sources (99.8 %). Our results indicate that cyclone systems can quickly lift BC up to the free troposphere, as well as extend its lifetime.
Liang Guo, Laura J. Wilcox, Massimo Bollasina, Steven T. Turnock, Marianne T. Lund, and Lixia Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15299–15308,Short summary
Severe haze remains serious over Beijing despite emissions decreasing since 2008. Future haze changes in four scenarios are studied. The pattern conducive to haze weather increases with the atmospheric warming caused by the accumulation of greenhouse gases. However, the actual haze intensity, measured by either PM2.5 or optical depth, decreases with aerosol emissions. We show that only using the weather pattern index to predict the future change of Beijing haze is insufficient.
Kalle Nordling, Hannele Korhonen, Jouni Räisänen, Antti-Ilari Partanen, Bjørn H. Samset, and Joonas Merikanto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14941–14958,Short summary
Understanding the temperature responses to different climate forcing agents, such as greenhouse gases and aerosols, is crucial for understanding future regional climate changes. In climate models, the regional temperature responses vary for all forcing agents, but the causes of this variability are poorly understood. For all forcing agents, the main component contributing to variance in regional surface temperature responses between the climate models is the clear-sky longwave emissivity.
Peter A. Taylor, Zheqi Chen, Li Cheng, Soudeh Afsharian, Wensong Weng, George A. Isaac, Terry W. Bullock, and Yongsheng Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14687–14702,Short summary
In marine fog, droplets will impact the water surface, collide and coalesce. This removal process is underestimated or ignored in many fog and weather forecast models. A new atmospheric boundary layer approach is proposed and tested in a standard weather forecast model (Weather Research and Forecasting, WRF). New profile measurements through marine fog layers are suggested.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14507–14533,Short summary
A simple model is described to assess the potential for increasing solar reflection by augmenting the aerosol population below marine low clouds, which increases the concentration of cloud droplets. The model is used to predict global cooling from marine cloud brightening climate intervention as a function of the quantity, size, and lifetime of salt particles injected per sprayer, the number of sprayers deployed, the cloud updraft speed, and unperturbed aerosol size distribution.
Mengyu Sun, Dongxia Liu, Xiushu Qie, Edward R. Mansell, Yoav Yair, Alexandre O. Fierro, Shanfeng Yuan, Zhixiong Chen, and Dongfang Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14141–14158,Short summary
By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), increasing aerosol loading tends to enhance lightning activity through microphysical processes. We investigated the aerosol effects on the development of a thunderstorm. A two-moment bulk microphysics scheme and bulk lightning model were coupled in the WRF Model to simulate a multicell thunderstorm. Sensitivity experiments show that the enhancement of lightning activity under polluted conditions results from an increasing ice crystal number.
Huisheng Bian, Eunjee Lee, Randal D. Koster, Donifan Barahona, Mian Chin, Peter R. Colarco, Anton Darmenov, Sarith Mahanama, Michael Manyin, Peter Norris, John Shilling, Hongbin Yu, and Fanwei Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14177–14197,Short summary
The study using the NASA Earth system model shows ~2.6 % increase in burning season gross primary production and ~1.5 % increase in annual net primary production across the Amazon Basin during 2010–2016 due to the change in surface downward direct and diffuse photosynthetically active radiation by biomass burning aerosols. Such an aerosol effect is strongly dependent on the presence of clouds. The cloud fraction at which aerosols switch from stimulating to inhibiting plant growth occurs at ~0.8.
Xiangde Xu, Wenyue Cai, Tianliang Zhao, Xinfa Qiu, Wenhui Zhu, Chan Sun, Peng Yan, Chunzhu Wang, and Fei Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14131–14139,Short summary
We found that the structure of atmospheric thermodynamics in the troposphere can be regarded as a strong forewarning signal for variations of surface PM2.5 concentration in heavy air pollution.
Brian Nathan, Stefanie Kremser, Sara Mikaloff-Fletcher, Greg Bodeker, Leroy Bird, Ethan Dale, Dongqi Lin, Gustavo Olivares, and Elizabeth Somervell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14089–14108,Short summary
The MAPM project showcases a method to improve estimates of PM2.5 emissions through an advanced statistical technique that is still new to the aerosol community. Using Christchurch, NZ, as a test bed, measurements from a field campaign in winter 2019 are incorporated into this new approach. An overestimation from local inventory estimates is identified. This technique may be exported to other urban areas in need.
Ifeanyichukwu C. Nduka, Chi-Yung Tam, Jianping Guo, and Steve Hung Lam Yim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13443–13454,Short summary
This study analyzed the nature, mechanisms and drivers for hot-and-polluted episodes (HPEs) in the Pearl River Delta, China. A total of eight HPEs were identified and can be grouped into three clusters of HPEs that were respectively driven (1) by weak subsidence and convection induced by approaching tropical cyclones, (2) by calm conditions with low wind speed in the lower atmosphere and (3) by the combination of both aforementioned conditions.
Enrique Pravia-Sarabia, Juan José Gómez-Navarro, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, and Juan Pedro Montávez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13353–13368,Short summary
Given the hazardous nature of medicanes, studies focused on understanding and quantifying the processes governing their formation have become paramount for present and future disaster risk reduction. Therefore, enhancing the modeling and forecasting capabilities of such events is of crucial importance. In this sense, the authors find that the microphysical processes, and specifically the wind--sea salt aerosol feedback, play a key role in their development and thus should not be neglected.
Joffrey Dumont Le Brazidec, Marc Bocquet, Olivier Saunier, and Yelva Roustan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13247–13267,Short summary
The assessment of the environmental consequences of a radionuclide release depends on the estimation of its source. This paper aims to develop inverse Bayesian methods which combine transport models with measurements, in order to reconstruct the ensemble of possible sources. Three methods to quantify uncertainties based on the definition of probability distributions and the physical models are proposed and evaluated for the case of 106Ru releases over Europe in 2017.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13149–13166,Short summary
Haze caused by abundant atmospheric aerosols has become a serious environmental issue in many countries. An innovative deep-learning machine has been developed to forecast the occurrence of hazes in two Asian megacities (Beijing and Shanghai) and has achieved good overall accuracy. Using this machine, typical regional meteorological and hydrological regimes associated with haze and non-haze events in the two cities have also been, arguably for the first time, successfully categorized.
Maggie Chel-Gee Ooi, Ming-Tung Chuang, Joshua S. Fu, Steven S. Kong, Wei-Syun Huang, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Sittichai Pimonsree, Andy Chan, Shantanu Kumar Pani, and Neng-Huei Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12521–12541,Short summary
There is very limited local modeling effort in Southeast Asia, where haze is an annually recurring threat. In this work, the accuracy of haze prediction is improved not only at the burning source but also at the downwind site in northern Southeast Asia to highlight the influence of trans-boundary haze, which is often regional. The burning haze is carried to the populated west of Taiwan via several mechanisms, with the most severe conditions related to the boreal winter pressure system.
Peter Allan Taylor
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Atmospheric aerosols including fog droplets can deposit on the ground or on water surfaces. This is due to both gravitational settling and turbulent impaction. A simple model of this combined process is developed based on conventional atmospheric boundary later ideas.
Linhui Jiang, Yan Xia, Lu Wang, Xue Chen, Jianjie Ye, Tangyan Hou, Liqiang Wang, Yibo Zhang, Mengying Li, Zhen Li, Zhe Song, Yaping Jiang, Weiping Liu, Pengfei Li, Daniel Rosenfeld, John H. Seinfeld, and Shaocai Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This paper establishes a bottom-up approach to reveal a unique pattern of urban on-road vehicle emissions at 1 ~ 3 orders of magnitude higher spatial resolution than current inventories. The results show that the hourly average on-road vehicle emissions of CO, NOx, HC, and PM2.5 are 74 kg, 40 kg, 8 kg, and 2 kg, respectively. Integrating our traffic-monitoring-based approach with urban measurements, we could address major data gaps between urban air pollutant emissions and concentrations.
Zhicong Yin, Yu Wan, and Huijun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11519–11530,Short summary
Severe ozone pollution frequently occurred in North China and obviously damages human health and ecosystems. The meteorological conditions effectively affect the variations in ozone pollution by modulating the natural emissions of O3 precursors and photochemical reactions in the atmosphere. In this study, the interannual relationship between ozone-related meteorology and late-spring snow cover in West Siberia was explored, and the reasons of its decadal change were also physically explained.
Yves Balkanski, Rémy Bonnet, Olivier Boucher, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, and Jérôme Servonnat
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11423–11435,Short summary
Earth system models have persistent biases that impinge on our ability to make robust future regional predictions of precipitation. For the last 15 years, there has been little improvement in these biases. This work presents an accurate representation of dust absorption based upon observed dust mineralogical composition and size distribution. The striking result is that this more accurate representation improves tropical precipitations for climate models with too weak an African monsoon.
Meng Gao, Yang Yang, Hong Liao, Bin Zhu, Yuxuan Zhang, Zirui Liu, Xiao Lu, Chen Wang, Qiming Zhou, Yuesi Wang, Qiang Zhang, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Jianlin Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11405–11421,Short summary
Light absorption and radiative forcing of black carbon (BC) is influenced by both BC itself and its interactions with other aerosol chemical compositions. In this study, we used the online coupled WRF-Chem model to examine how emission control measures during the Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference affect the mixing state and light absorption of BC and the associated implications for BC-PBL interactions.
Ulas Im, Kostas Tsigaridis, Gregory Faluvegi, Peter L. Langen, Joshua P. French, Rashed Mahmood, Manu A. Thomas, Knut von Salzen, Daniel C. Thomas, Cynthia H. Whaley, Zbigniew Klimont, Henrik Skov, and Jørgen Brandt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10413–10438,Short summary
Future (2015–2050) simulations of the aerosol burdens and their radiative forcing and climate impacts over the Arctic under various emission projections show that although the Arctic aerosol burdens are projected to decrease significantly by 10 to 60 %, regardless of the magnitude of aerosol reductions, surface air temperatures will continue to increase by 1.9–2.6 ℃, while sea-ice extent will continue to decrease, implying reductions of greenhouse gases are necessary to mitigate climate change.
Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Yves Balkanski, Samuel Albani, Tommi Bergman, Ken Carslaw, Anne Cozic, Chris Dearden, Beatrice Marticorena, Martine Michou, Twan van Noije, Pierre Nabat, Fiona M. O'Connor, Dirk Olivié, Joseph M. Prospero, Philippe Le Sager, Michael Schulz, and Catherine Scott
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10295–10335,Short summary
Thousands of tons of dust are emitted into the atmosphere every year, producing important impacts on the Earth system. However, current global climate models are not yet able to reproduce dust emissions, transport and depositions with the desirable accuracy. Our study analyses five different Earth system models to report aspects to be improved to reproduce better available observations, increase the consistency between models and therefore decrease the current uncertainties.
Shipeng Zhang, Philip Stier, and Duncan Watson-Parris
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10179–10197,Short summary
The relationship between aerosol-induced changes in atmospheric energetics and precipitation responses across different scales is studied in terms of fast (radiatively or microphysically mediated) and slow (temperature-mediated) responses. We introduced a method to decompose rainfall changes into contributions from clouds, aerosols, and clear–clean sky from an energetic perspective. It provides a way to better interpret and quantify the precipitation changes caused by aerosol perturbations.
Wenxing Jia and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Heavy aerosol pollution incidents have attracted much attention since 2013, but the temporal and spatial limitations of observations and the inaccuracy of simulation are a stumbling block of assessing pollution mechanisms. The correct simulation of boundary layer mixing process of pollutant is a challenge for mesoscale numerical models.
Mattia Righi, Johannes Hendricks, and Christof Gerhard Beer
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
A global climate model is applied to simulate the impact of aviation soot on natural cirrus clouds. A large number of numerical experiments is performed to analyse how the quantification of the resulting climate impact is affected by known uncertainties. These concern the ability of aviation soot to nucleate ice and the role of model dynamics. Our results show that both aspects are important for the quantification of this effect and that discrepancies among different model studies still exist.
Xueshun Chen, Fangqun Yu, Wenyi Yang, Yele Sun, Huansheng Chen, Wei Du, Jian Zhao, Ying Wei, Lianfang Wei, Huiyun Du, Zhe Wang, Qizhong Wu, Jie Li, Junling An, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9343–9366,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosol particles have significant climate and health effects that depend on aerosol size, composition, and mixing state. A new global-regional nested aerosol model with an advanced particle microphysics module and a volatility basis set organic aerosol module was developed to simulate aerosol microphysical processes. Simulations strongly suggest the important role of anthropogenic organic species in particle formation over the areas influenced by anthropogenic sources.
Mária Lbadaoui-Darvas, Satoshi Takahama, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Aerosol-cloud interactions constitute the most uncertain contribution to climate change. The uptake kinetics of water by aerosol is a central process of cloud droplet formation, yet its molecular scale mechanism is unknown. We use molecular simulations to study this process for phase-separated organic particles. Our results explain the increased cloud condensation activity of such particles and can be generalised over various compositions, thus may serve as a basis for future models.
Zhuozhi Shu, Yubao Liu, Tianliang Zhao, Junrong Xia, Chenggang Wang, Le Cao, Haoliang Wang, Lei Zhang, Yu Zheng, Lijuan Shen, Lei Luo, and Yueqing Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9253–9268,Short summary
Focusing on a heavy haze pollution event in the Sichuan Basin (SCB), we investigated the elevated 3D structure of PM2.5 and trans-boundary transport with the WRF-Chem simulation. It is remarkable for vertical PM2.5 that the unique hollows were structured, which which occurred by the interaction of vortex circulations and topographic effects. The SCB was regarded as the major air pollutant source with the trans-boundary transport of PM2.5 affecting atmospheric environment changes.
Frances Beckett, Eduardo Rossi, Benjamin Devenish, Claire Witham, and Costanza Bonadonna
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
As volcanic ash is transported through the atmosphere it may collide and stick together to form aggregates. Neglecting the process of aggregation in atmospheric dispersion models could lead to inaccurate forecasts used by civil aviation for hazard assessment. We have developed an aggregation scheme for use with the model NAME, which is used by the London Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre. Using our scheme, we investigate the impact of aggregation on simulations of the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 ash cloud.
Jasper F. Kok, Adeyemi A. Adebiyi, Samuel Albani, Yves Balkanski, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Mian Chin, Peter R. Colarco, Douglas S. Hamilton, Yue Huang, Akinori Ito, Martina Klose, Danny M. Leung, Longlei Li, Natalie M. Mahowald, Ron L. Miller, Vincenzo Obiso, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Adriana Rocha-Lima, Jessica S. Wan, and Chloe A. Whicker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8127–8167,Short summary
Desert dust interacts with virtually every component of the Earth system, including the climate system. We develop a new methodology to represent the global dust cycle that integrates observational constraints on the properties and abundance of desert dust with global atmospheric model simulations. We show that the resulting representation of the global dust cycle is more accurate than what can be obtained from a large number of current climate global atmospheric models.
Jasper F. Kok, Adeyemi A. Adebiyi, Samuel Albani, Yves Balkanski, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Mian Chin, Peter R. Colarco, Douglas S. Hamilton, Yue Huang, Akinori Ito, Martina Klose, Longlei Li, Natalie M. Mahowald, Ron L. Miller, Vincenzo Obiso, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Adriana Rocha-Lima, and Jessica S. Wan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8169–8193,Short summary
The many impacts of dust on the Earth system depend on dust mineralogy, which varies between dust source regions. We constrain the contribution of the world’s main dust source regions by integrating dust observations with global model simulations. We find that Asian dust contributes more and that North African dust contributes less than models account for. We obtain a dataset of each source region’s contribution to the dust cycle that can be used to constrain dust impacts on the Earth system.
Katherine H. Breen, Donifan Barahona, Tianle Yuan, Huisheng Bian, and Scott C. James
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7749–7771,Short summary
Increases in atmospheric aerosols affect the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by altering the macrophysical and microphysical processes of clouds. We analyzed aerosol–cloud interactions in response to degassing events from the Kilauea volcano in 2008 and 2018 by comparing satellite and simulated cloud properties. Results showed a threshold response to overcome meteorological effects that is largely controlled by aerosol concentration, composition, plume height, and ENSO state.
Sanhita Ghosh, Shubha Verma, Jayanarayanan Kuttippurath, and Laurent Menut
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7671–7694,Short summary
Wintertime direct radiative perturbation due to black carbon (BC) aerosols was assessed over the Indo-Gangetic Plain with an efficiently modelled BC distribution. The atmospheric radiative warming due to BC was about 50–70 % larger than surface cooling. Compared to the atmosphere without BC, for which a net cooling at the top of the atmosphere was exhibited, enhanced atmospheric radiative warming by 2–3 times and a reduction in surface cooling by 10–20 % were found due to BC.
Lixia Zhang, Laura J. Wilcox, Nick J. Dunstone, David J. Paynter, Shuai Hu, Massimo Bollasina, Donghuan Li, Jonathan K. P. Shonk, and Liwei Zou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7499–7514,Short summary
The projected frequency of circulation patterns associated with haze events and global warming increases significantly due to weakening of the East Asian winter monsoon. Rapid reduction in anthropogenic aerosol further increases the frequency of circulation patterns, but haze events are less dangerous. We revealed competing effects of aerosol emission reductions on future haze events through their direct contribution to haze intensity and their influence on the atmospheric circulation patterns.
Paolo Tuccella, Giovanni Pitari, Valentina Colaiuda, Edoardo Raparelli, and Gabriele Curci
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6875–6893,Short summary
We calculate the radiation-absorbing aerosol quantity in snow with a global chemical and transport atmospheric model, validated with global observations. The perturbation to snow albedo and related climatic impact are assessed. The resulting average radiative flux change in snow is 0.068 W m−2. Black carbon is a major contributor (+0.033 W m−2), followed by dust (+0.012 W m−2) and brown carbon (+0.0066 W m−2). The impact is also characterized by significant seasonal and geographical variability.
Rémy Lapere, Laurent Menut, Sylvain Mailler, and Nicolás Huneeus
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6431–6454,Short summary
Based on modeling, the transport dynamics of ozone and fine particles in central Chile are investigated. Santiago emissions are found to influence air quality along a 1000 km plume as far as Argentina and northern Chile. In turn, emissions outside the metropolis contribute significantly to its recorded particles concentration. Emissions of precursors from Santiago are found to lead to the formation of a persistent ozone bubble in altitude, a phenomenon which is described for the first time.
Jake Wilson, Ulrich Pöschl, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Thomas Berkemeier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6175–6198,Short summary
This work explores the gas–particle partitioning of PAHs on soot with a kinetic model. We show that the equilibration timescale depends on PAH molecular structure, temperature, and particle number concentration. We explore scenarios in which the particulate fraction is perturbed from equilibrium by chemical loss and discuss implications for chemical transport models that assume instantaneous equilibration at each model time step.
Athanasios Nenes, Spyros N. Pandis, Maria Kanakidou, Armistead G. Russell, Shaojie Song, Petros Vasilakos, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6023–6033,Short summary
Ecosystems and air quality are affected by the dry deposition of inorganic reactive nitrogen (Nr, the sum of ammonium and nitrate). Its large variability is driven by the large difference in deposition velocity of N when in the gas or particle phase. Here we show that aerosol liquid water and acidity, by affecting gas–particle partitioning, modulate the dry deposition velocity of NH3, HNO3, and Nr worldwide. These effects explain the rapid accumulation of nitrate aerosol during haze events.
Tenglong Shi, Jiecan Cui, Yang Chen, Yue Zhou, Wei Pu, Xuanye Xu, Quanliang Chen, Xuelei Zhang, and Xin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6035–6051,Short summary
We assess the effect of dust external and internal mixing with snow grains on the absorption coefficient and albedo of snowpack. The results suggest that dust–snow internal mixing strongly enhances snow absorption coefficient and albedo reduction relative to external mixing. Meanwhile, the possible non-uniform distribution of dust in snow grains may lead to significantly different values of absorption coefficient and albedo of snowpack in the visible spectral range.
Sonya L. Fiddes, Matthew T. Woodhouse, Todd P. Lane, and Robyn Schofield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5883–5903,Short summary
Coral reefs are known to produce the aerosol precursor dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Currently, this source of coral DMS is unaccounted for in climate modelling, and the impact of coral reef extinction on aerosol and climate is unknown. In this study, we address this problem using a coupled chemistry–climate model for the first time. We find that coral reefs make a minimal contribution to the aerosol population and are unlikely to play a role in climate modulation.
Joonas Merikanto, Kalle Nordling, Petri Räisänen, Jouni Räisänen, Declan O'Donnell, Antti-Ilari Partanen, and Hannele Korhonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5865–5881,Short summary
Human-induced aerosols concentrate around their emission sources, yet their climate effects span far and wide. Here, we use two climate models to robustly identify the mechanisms of how Asian anthropogenic aerosols impact temperatures across the globe. A total removal of Asian anthropogenic aerosols increases the global temperatures by 0.26 ± 0.04 °C in the models, with the strongest warming taking place over the Arctic due to increased atmospheric transport of energy towards the high north.
Chuan-Yao Lin, Yang-Fan Sheng, Wan-Chin Chen, Charles C. K. Chou, Yi-Yun Chien, and Wen-Mei Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Taiwan and Hong Kong experience air quality deterioration as typhoons approach. However, the mechanism of the formation of poor air quality may differ and still not be well documented in Taiwan. The interaction between easterly typhoon circulation and Taiwan’s Central Mountain Range resulted in a lee side vortex formation. Simulation results indicated that the combination of the lee vortex and land-sea breeze, as well as the boundary layer development, were the key mechanisms.
Alexandre Siméon, Fabien Waquet, Jean-Christophe Péré, Fabrice Ducos, François Thieuleux, Fanny Peers, Solène Turquety, and Isabelle Chiapello
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
For the first time, we accurately modelled the optical properties of the biomass burning aerosols (BBA) observed over the Southeast Atlantic region during their transport above clouds and over their source regions, combining a meteorology coupled with chemistry model (WRF-Chem) with innovative satellite absorbing aerosol retrievals (POLDER-3). Our results suggest low but non negligible brown carbon fraction (3 %) for the chemical composition of the BBA plumes observed over the source regions.
Pontus von Schoenberg, Peter Tunved, Håkan Grahn, Alfred Wiedensohler, Radovan Krejci, and Niklas Brännström
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5173–5193,Short summary
In a radiological emergency preparedness system, Lagrangian particle dispersion models are often used to track the dispersion of radioactive material. In this study we have shown the importance of simulating advanced aerosol dynamic processes that are commonly neglected or simplified in these simulations. We show that inclusion of detailed ambient-aerosol dynamics can play a large role in the model result in simulations adopting a more detailed representation of aerosol–cloud interactions.
Zhiyuan Li, Kin-Fai Ho, Hsiao-Chi Chuang, and Steve Hung Lam Yim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5063–5078,Short summary
This study established land-use regression (LUR) models using only routine air quality measurement data to support long-term health studies in an Asian metropolitan area. The established LUR models captured the spatial variability in exposure to air pollution with remarkable predictive accuracy. This is the first Asian study to evaluate intercity transferability of LUR models, and it highlights that there exist uncertainties when transferring LUR models between nearby cities.
Ananth Ranjithkumar, Hamish Gordon, Christina Williamson, Andrew Rollins, Kirsty Pringle, Agnieszka Kupc, Nathan Luke Abraham, Charles Brock, and Ken Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4979–5014,Short summary
The effect aerosols have on climate can be better understood by studying their vertical and spatial distribution throughout the atmosphere. We use observation data from the ATom campaign and evaluate the vertical profile of aerosol number concentration, sulfur dioxide and condensation sink using the UKESM (UK Earth System Model). We identify uncertainties in key atmospheric processes that help improve their theoretical representation in global climate models.
Alizadeh Choobari, O., Zawar-Reza, P., and Sturman, A.: Feedback between windblown dust and planetary boundary-layer characteristics: sensitivity to boundary and surface layer parameterizations, Atmos. Environ., 61, 294–304, 2012.
Chen, S. J., Kuo, Y. H., Zhang, P. Z., and Bai, Q. F.: Synoptic Climatology of Cyclogenesis over East-Asia, 1958–1987, Mon. Weather Rev., 119, 1407–1418, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1991)119<1407:Scocoe>2.0.Co;2, 1991.
Cheng, Y. F., Zheng, G. J., Wei, C., Mu, Q., Zheng, B., Wang, Z. B., Gao, M., Zhang, Q., He, K. B., Gregory, C., Ulrich, P., and Su, H.: Reactive nitrogen chemistry in aerosol water as a source of sulfate during haze events in China, Sci. Adv., 2, e1601530, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1601530, 2016.
Cohen, J. B., Lecoeur, E., and Hui Loong Ng, D.: Decadal-scale relationship between measurements of aerosols, land-use change, and fire over Southeast Asia, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 721–743, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-721-2017, 2017.
Cooper, O. R., Forster, C., Parrish, D., Trainer, M., Dunlea, E., Ryerson, T., Hubler, G., Fehsenfeld, F., Nicks, D., Holloway, J., de Gouw, J., Warneke, C., Roberts, J. M., Flocke, F., and Moody, J.: A case study of transpacific warm conveyor belt transport: Influence of merging airstreams on trace gas import to North America, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 109, D23S08, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003jd003624, 2004.
Ding, A. J., Wang, T., Xue, L. K., Gao, J., Stohl, A., Lei, H. C., Jin, D. Z., Ren, Y., Wang, X. Z., Wei, X. L., Qi, Y. B., Liu, J., and Zhang, X. Q.: Transport of north China air pollution by midlatitude cyclones: Case study of aircraft measurements in summer 2007 (vol 114, D08304, 2007), J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 114, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009jd012339, 2009.
Ding, A. J., Fu, C. B., Yang, X. Q., Sun, J. N., Petäjä, T., Kerminen, V.-M., Wang, T., Xie, Y., Herrmann, E., Zheng, L. F., Nie, W., Liu, Q., Wei, X. L., and Kulmala, M.: Intense atmospheric pollution modifies weather: a case of mixed biomass burning with fossil fuel combustion pollution in eastern China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10545–10554, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-10545-2013, 2013a.
Ding, A. J., Fu, C. B., Yang, X. Q., Sun, J. N., Zheng, L. F., Xie, Y. N., Herrmann, E., Nie, W., Petäjä, T., Kerminen, V.-M., and Kulmala, M.: Ozone and fine particle in the western Yangtze River Delta: an overview of 1 yr data at the SORPES station, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5813–5830, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-5813-2013, 2013b.
Ding, A. J., Wang, T., and Fu, C. B.: Transport characteristics and origins of carbon monoxide and ozone in Hong Kong, South China, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 118, 9475–9488, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50714, 2013c.
Ding, A. J., Huang, X., Nie, W., Sun, J. N., Kerminen, V. M., Petaja, T., Su, H., Cheng, Y. F., Yang, X. Q., Wang, M. H., Chi, X. G., Wang, J. P., Virkkula, A., Guo, W. D., Yuan, J., Wang, S. Y., Zhang, R. J., Wu, Y. F., Song, Y., Zhu, T., Zilitinkevich, S., Kulmala, M., and Fu, C. B.: Enhanced haze pollution by black carbon in megacities in China, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 2873–2879, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016gl067745, 2016.
Ding, A. J., Huang, X., and Fu, C. B.: Air pollution and weather interaction in East Asia, Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science, https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780199389414.013.536, 2017.
Ding, K., Liu, J., Ding, A., Liu, Q., Zhao, T. L., Shi, J., Han, Y., Wang, H., and Jiang, F.: Uplifting of carbon monoxide from biomass burning and anthropogenic sources to the free troposphere in East Asia, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2843–2866, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-2843-2015, 2015.
Dong, X. and Fu, J. S.: Understanding biomass burning from Peninsular Southeast Asia, part II: interannual variability and different influences in lower and higher atmosphere levels, Atmos. Environ., 115, 9–18, 2015.
Eckhardt, S., Stohl, A., Wernli, H., James, P., Forster, C., and Spichtinger, N.: A 15-year climatology of warm conveyor belts, J. Clim., 17, 218–237, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<0218:Aycowc>2.0.Co;2, 2004.
Gao, Y., Zhang, M., Liu, Z., Wang, L., Wang, P., Xia, X., Tao, M., and Zhu, L.: Modeling the feedback between aerosol and meteorological variables in the atmospheric boundary layer during a severe fog-haze event over the North China Plain, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4279–4295, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-4279-2015, 2015.
Ginoux, P., Chin, M., Tegen, I., Prospero, J. M., Holben, B., Dubovik, O., and Lin, S. J.: Sources and distributions of dust aerosols simulated with the gocart model, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 106, 20255–20273, 2001.
Grell, G. A., Peckham, S. E., Schmitz, R., McKeen, S. A., Frost, G., Skamarock, W. C., and Eder, B.: Fully coupled “online” chemistry within the WRF model, Atmos. Environ., 39, 6957–6975, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.04.027, 2005.
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We investigate the vertical distribution, transport characteristics, source contribution and meteorological feedback of dust, biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion aerosols for a unique pollution episode that occurred in late March 2015 in eastern Asia, based on various measurement data and modeling methods. We found that cold front played an important role in the long-range transport of different pollutants and caused a three-layer vertical structure of pollutants over eastern China.
We investigate the vertical distribution, transport characteristics, source contribution and...