Articles | Volume 17, issue 2
30 Jan 2017
Research article | 30 Jan 2017
Qualitative and quantitative analysis of atmospheric organosulfates in Centreville, Alabama
Anusha P. S. Hettiyadura et al.
A. P. S. Hettiyadura, E. A. Stone, S. Kundu, Z. Baker, E. Geddes, K. Richards, and T. Humphry
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2347–2358,Short summary
Organosulfates are SOA products that have proven difficult to quantify. This study addresses the need for authentic quantification standards with a straightforward approach to synthesizing highly pure organosulfate potassium salts. New standards are used to develop a new separation protocol for small, functionalized organosulfates. Upon validation, this method is used to assess sample preparation protocols and to make new measurements of organosulfates in Centreville, Alabama.
Rebecca A. Wernis, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Robert J. Weber, Greg T. Drozd, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14987–15019,Short summary
We measured volatile and intermediate-volatility gases and semivolatile gas- and particle-phase compounds in the atmosphere during an 11 d period in a Bay Area suburb. We separated compounds based on variability in time to arrive at 13 distinct sources. Some compounds emitted from plants are found in greater quantities as fragrance compounds in consumer products. The wide volatility range of these measurements enables the construction of more complete source profiles.
Qing Ye, Matthew B. Goss, Jordan E. Krechmer, Francesca Majluf, Alexander Zaytsev, Yaowei Li, Joseph R. Roscioli, Manjula Canagaratna, Frank N. Keutsch, Colette L. Heald, and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The atmospheric oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) represents a major natural source of sulfate aerosols, and thus plays an important role in global aerosol climate effects. However, the mechanism is poorly constrained. In this work, laboratory measurements were conducted to comprehensively investigate DMS oxidation products. The results show that peroxy radical (RO2) fate has a controlling influence on product distributions, and the isomerization of RO2 suppresses aerosol formation.
Robert J. Yokelson, Bambang H. Saharjo, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Erianto I. Putra, Thilina Jayarathne, Acep Akbar, Israr Albar, Donald R. Blake, Laura L. B. Graham, Agus Kurniawan, Simone Meinardi, Diah Ningrum, Ati D. Nurhayati, Asmadi Saad, Niken Sakuntaladewi, Eko Setianto, Isobel J. Simpson, Elizabeth A. Stone, Sigit Sutikno, Andri Thomas, Kevin C. Ryan, and Mark A. Cochrane
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10173–10194,Short summary
Fire plus non-fire GHG emissions associated with draining peatlands are the largest per area of any land use change considered by the IPCC. To characterize average and variability for tropical peat fire emissions, highly mobile smoke sampling teams were deployed across four Indonesian provinces to explore an extended interannual, climatic, and spatial range. Large adjustments to IPCC-recommended emissions are suggested. Lab data bolster an extensive emissions database for tropical peat fires.
Yutong Liang, Christos Stamatis, Edward C. Fortner, Rebecca A. Wernis, Paul Van Rooy, Francesca Majluf, Tara I. Yacovitch, Conner Daube, Scott C. Herndon, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Kelley C. Barsanti, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9877–9893,Short summary
This article reports the measurements of organic compounds emitted from western US wildfires. We identified and quantified 240 particle-phase compounds and 72 gas-phase compounds emitted in wildfire and related the emissions to the modified combustion efficiency. Higher emissions of diterpenoids and monoterpenes were observed, likely due to distillation from unburned heated vegetation. Our results can benefit future source apportionment and modeling studies as well as exposure assessments.
Emily B. Franklin, Lindsay D. Yee, Bernard Aumont, Robert J. Weber, Paul Grigas, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3779–3803,Short summary
The composition of atmospheric aerosols are extremely complex, containing hundreds of thousands of estimated individual compounds. The majority of these compounds have never been catalogued in widely used databases, making them extremely difficult for atmospheric chemists to identify and analyze. In this work, we present Ch3MS-RF, a machine-learning-based model to enable characterization of complex mixtures and prediction of structure-specific properties of unidentifiable organic compounds.
Vigneshkumar Balamurugan, Jia Chen, Zhen Qu, Xiao Bi, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7105–7129,Short summary
In this study, we investigated the response of secondary pollutants to changes in precursor emissions, focusing on the formation of secondary PM, during the COVID-19 lockdown period. We show that, due to the decrease in primary NOx emissions, atmospheric oxidizing capacity is increased. The nighttime increase in ozone, caused by less NO titration, results in higher NO3 radicals, which contribute significantly to the formation of PM nitrates. O3 should be limited in order to control PM pollution.
Andrew J. Lindsay, Daniel C. Anderson, Rebecca A. Wernis, Yutong Liang, Allen H. Goldstein, Scott C. Herndon, Joseph R. Roscioli, Christoph Dyroff, Ed C. Fortner, Philip L. Croteau, Francesca Majluf, Jordan E. Krechmer, Tara I. Yacovitch, Walter B. Knighton, and Ezra C. Wood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4909–4928,Short summary
Wildfire smoke dramatically impacts air quality and often has elevated concentrations of ozone. We present measurements of ozone and its precursors at a rural site periodically impacted by wildfire smoke. Measurements of total peroxy radicals, key ozone precursors that have been studied little within wildfires, compare well with chemical box model predictions. Our results indicate no serious issues with using current chemistry mechanisms to model chemistry in aged wildfire plumes.
Kun Zhang, Zhiqiang Liu, Xiaojuan Zhang, Qing Li, Andrew Jensen, Wen Tan, Ling Huang, Yangjun Wang, Joost de Gouw, and Li Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4853–4866,Short summary
A significant increase in O3 concentrations was found during the lockdown period of COVID-19 in most areas of China. By field measurements coupled with machine learning, an observation-based model (OBM) and sensitivity analysis, we found the changes in the NOx / VOC ratio were a key reason for the significant rise in O3. To restrain O3 pollution, more efforts should be devoted to the control of anthropogenic OVOCs, alkenes and aromatics.
Delaney B. Kilgour, Gordon A. Novak, Jon S. Sauer, Alexia N. Moore, Julie Dinasquet, Sarah Amiri, Emily B. Franklin, Kathryn Mayer, Margaux Winter, Clare K. Morris, Tyler Price, Francesca Malfatti, Daniel R. Crocker, Christopher Lee, Christopher D. Cappa, Allen H. Goldstein, Kimberly A. Prather, and Timothy H. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1601–1613,Short summary
We report measurements of gas-phase volatile organosulfur molecules made during a mesocosm phytoplankton bloom experiment. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS), methanethiol (MeSH), and benzothiazole accounted for on average over 90 % of total gas-phase sulfur emissions. This work focuses on factors controlling the production and emission of DMS and MeSH and the role of non-DMS molecules (such as MeSH and benzothiazole) in secondary sulfate formation in coastal marine environments.
Dandan Wei, Hariprasad D. Alwe, Dylan B. Millet, Brandon Bottorff, Michelle Lew, Philip S. Stevens, Joshua D. Shutter, Joshua L. Cox, Frank N. Keutsch, Qianwen Shi, Sarah C. Kavassalis, Jennifer G. Murphy, Krystal T. Vasquez, Hannah M. Allen, Eric Praske, John D. Crounse, Paul O. Wennberg, Paul B. Shepson, Alexander A. T. Bui, Henry W. Wallace, Robert J. Griffin, Nathaniel W. May, Megan Connor, Jonathan H. Slade, Kerri A. Pratt, Ezra C. Wood, Mathew Rollings, Benjamin L. Deming, Daniel C. Anderson, and Allison L. Steiner
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6309–6329,Short summary
Over the past decade, understanding of isoprene oxidation has improved, and proper representation of isoprene oxidation and isoprene-derived SOA (iSOA) formation in canopy–chemistry models is now recognized to be important for an accurate understanding of forest–atmosphere exchange. The updated FORCAsT version 2.0 improves the estimation of some isoprene oxidation products and is one of the few canopy models currently capable of simulating SOA formation from monoterpenes and isoprene.
Rebecca A. Wernis, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Robert J. Weber, Yutong Liang, John Jayne, Susanne Hering, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6533–6550,Short summary
cTAG is a new scientific instrument that measures concentrations of organic chemicals in the atmosphere. cTAG is the first instrument capable of measuring small, light chemicals as well as heavier chemicals and everything in between on a single detector, every hour. In this work we explain how cTAG works and some of the tests we performed to verify that it works properly and reliably. We also present measurements of alkanes that suggest they have three dominant sources in a Bay Area suburb.
Benjamin A. Nault, Duseong S. Jo, Brian C. McDonald, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Weiwei Hu, Jason C. Schroder, James Allan, Donald R. Blake, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Hugh Coe, Matthew M. Coggon, Peter F. DeCarlo, Glenn S. Diskin, Rachel Dunmore, Frank Flocke, Alan Fried, Jessica B. Gilman, Georgios Gkatzelis, Jacqui F. Hamilton, Thomas F. Hanisco, Patrick L. Hayes, Daven K. Henze, Alma Hodzic, James Hopkins, Min Hu, L. Greggory Huey, B. Thomas Jobson, William C. Kuster, Alastair Lewis, Meng Li, Jin Liao, M. Omar Nawaz, Ilana B. Pollack, Jeffrey Peischl, Bernhard Rappenglück, Claire E. Reeves, Dirk Richter, James M. Roberts, Thomas B. Ryerson, Min Shao, Jacob M. Sommers, James Walega, Carsten Warneke, Petter Weibring, Glenn M. Wolfe, Dominique E. Young, Bin Yuan, Qiang Zhang, Joost A. de Gouw, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11201–11224,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is an important aspect of poor air quality for urban regions around the world, where a large fraction of the population lives. However, there is still large uncertainty in predicting SOA in urban regions. Here, we used data from 11 urban campaigns and show that the variability in SOA production in these regions is predictable and is explained by key emissions. These results are used to estimate the premature mortality associated with SOA in urban regions.
Eleni Dovrou, Kelvin H. Bates, Jean C. Rivera-Rios, Joshua L. Cox, Joshua D. Shutter, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8999–9008,Short summary
We examined the mechanism and products of oxidation of dissolved sulfur dioxide with the main isomers of isoprene hydroxyl hydroperoxides, via laboratory and model analysis. Two chemical mechanism pathways are proposed and the results provide an improved understanding of the broader atmospheric chemistry and role of multifunctional organic hydroperoxides, which should be the dominant VOC oxidation products under low-NO conditions, highlighting their significant contribution to sulfate formation.
Jack C. Hensley, Adam W. Birdsall, Gregory Valtierra, Joshua L. Cox, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8809–8821,Short summary
We measured reactions of butenedial, an atmospheric dicarbonyl, in aqueous mixtures that mimic the conditions of aerosol particles. Major reaction products and rates were determined to assess their atmospheric relevance and to compare against other well-studied dicarbonyls. We suggest that the structure of the carbon backbone, not just the dominant functional group, plays a major role in dicarbonyl reactivity, influencing the fate and ability of dicarbonyls to produce brown carbon.
Yutong Liang, Coty N. Jen, Robert J. Weber, Pawel K. Misztal, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5719–5737,Short summary
This article reports the molecular composition of smoke particles people in SF Bay Area were exposed to during northern California wildfires in Oct. 2017. Major components are sugars, acids, aromatics, and terpenoids. These observations can be used to better understand health impacts of smoke exposure. Tracer compounds indicate which fuels burned, including diterpenoids for softwood and syringyls for hardwood. A statistical analysis reveals a group of secondary compounds formed in daytime aging.
Alexander Zaytsev, Martin Breitenlechner, Anna Novelli, Hendrik Fuchs, Daniel A. Knopf, Jesse H. Kroll, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2501–2513,Short summary
We have developed an online method for speciated measurements of organic peroxy radicals and stabilized Criegee intermediates using chemical derivatization combined with chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Chemical derivatization prevents secondary radical reactions and eliminates potential interferences. Comparison between our measurements and results from numeric modeling shows that the method can be used for the quantification of a wide range of atmospheric radicals and intermediates.
Megan S. Claflin, Demetrios Pagonis, Zachary Finewax, Anne V. Handschy, Douglas A. Day, Wyatt L. Brown, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jose L. Jimenez, Paul J. Ziemann, Joost de Gouw, and Brian M. Lerner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 133–152,Short summary
We have developed a field-deployable gas chromatograph with thermal desorption preconcentration and detector switching between two high-resolution mass spectrometers for in situ measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This system combines chromatography with both proton transfer and electron ionization to offer fast time response and continuous molecular speciation. This technique was applied during the 2018 ATHLETIC campaign to characterize VOC emissions in an indoor environment.
Lei Zhu, Gonzalo González Abad, Caroline R. Nowlan, Christopher Chan Miller, Kelly Chance, Eric C. Apel, Joshua P. DiGangi, Alan Fried, Thomas F. Hanisco, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Lu Hu, Jennifer Kaiser, Frank N. Keutsch, Wade Permar, Jason M. St. Clair, and Glenn M. Wolfe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12329–12345,Short summary
We develop a validation platform for satellite HCHO retrievals using in situ observations from 12 aircraft campaigns. The platform offers an alternative way to quickly assess systematic biases in HCHO satellite products over large domains and long periods, facilitating optimization of retrieval settings and the minimization of retrieval biases. Application to the NASA operational HCHO product indicates that relative biases range from −44.5 % to +112.1 % depending on locations and seasons.
Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Athanasios Nenes, Jack J. Lin, Charles A. Brock, Joost A. de Gouw, Jin Liao, Ann M. Middlebrook, and André Welti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12163–12176,Short summary
The number concentration of droplets in clouds in the summertime in the southeastern United States is influenced by aerosol variations but limited by the strong competition for supersaturated water vapor. Concurrent variations in vertical velocity magnify the response of cloud droplet number to aerosol increases by up to a factor of 5. Omitting the covariance of vertical velocity with aerosol number may therefore bias estimates of the cloud albedo effect from aerosols.
James M. Roberts, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Robert J. Yokelson, Joost de Gouw, Yong Liu, Vanessa Selimovic, Abigail R. Koss, Kanako Sekimoto, Matthew M. Coggon, Bin Yuan, Kyle J. Zarzana, Steven S. Brown, Cristina Santin, Stefan H. Doerr, and Carsten Warneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8807–8826,Short summary
We measured total reactive nitrogen, Nr, in lab fires from western North American fuels, along with measurements of individual nitrogen compounds. We measured the amount of N that gets converted to inactive compounds (avg. 70 %), and the amount that is accounted for by individual species (85 % of remaining N). We provide guidelines for how the reactive nitrogen is distributed among individual compounds such as NOx and ammonia. This will help estimates and predictions of wildfire emissions.
Christopher D. Cappa, Christopher Y. Lim, David H. Hagan, Matthew Coggon, Abigail Koss, Kanako Sekimoto, Joost de Gouw, Timothy B. Onasch, Carsten Warneke, and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8511–8532,Short summary
Smoke from combustion of a wide range of biomass fuels (e.g., leaves, twigs, logs, peat, and dung) was photochemically aged in a small chamber for up to 8 d of equivalent atmospheric aging. Upon aging, the particle chemical composition and ability to absorb sunlight changed owing to reactions in both the gas and particulate phases. We developed a model to explain the observations and used this to derive insights into the aging of smoke in the atmosphere.
Ryan Schmedding, Quazi Z. Rasool, Yue Zhang, Havala O. T. Pye, Haofei Zhang, Yuzhi Chen, Jason D. Surratt, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Joel A. Thornton, Allen H. Goldstein, and William Vizuete
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8201–8225,Short summary
Accurate model prediction of aerosol concentrations is a known challenge. It is assumed in many modeling systems that aerosols are in a homogeneously mixed phase state. It has been observed that aerosols do phase separate and can form a highly viscous organic shell with an aqueous core impacting the formation processes of aerosols. This work is a model implementation to determine an aerosol's phase state using glass transition temperature and aerosol composition.
Md. Robiul Islam, Thilina Jayarathne, Isobel J. Simpson, Benjamin Werden, John Maben, Ashley Gilbert, Puppala S. Praveen, Sagar Adhikari, Arnico K. Panday, Maheswar Rupakheti, Donald R. Blake, Robert J. Yokelson, Peter F. DeCarlo, William C. Keene, and Elizabeth A. Stone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2927–2951,Short summary
The Kathmandu Valley experiences high levels of air pollution. In this study, atmospheric gases and particulate matter were characterized by online and off-line measurements, with an emphasis on understanding their sources. The major sources of particulate matter and trace gases were identified as garbage burning, biomass burning, and vehicles. The majority of secondary organic aerosol was attributed to anthropogenic precursors, while a minority was attributed to biogenic gases.
Joseph R. Salazar, Benton T. Cartledge, John P. Haynes, Rachel York-Marini, Allen L. Robinson, Greg T. Drozd, Allen H. Goldstein, Sirine C. Fakra, and Brian J. Majestic
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1849–1860,Short summary
The solubility of atmospheric iron is important in human health and environmental chemistry. To understand the origin of water-soluble iron in urban areas, tailpipe emissions were collected from 32 low-emitting vehicles, from which iron solubility averaged 30 % (0–82 %), more than 10 times the average in the Earth's crust. Water-soluble iron was independent of almost all exhaust components and of the iron phase in the particles but was correlated with specific exhaust-derived organic compounds.
Abigail R. Koss, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Alexander Zaytsev, Jordan E. Krechmer, Martin Breitenlechner, Kevin J. Nihill, Christopher Y. Lim, James C. Rowe, Joseph R. Roscioli, Frank N. Keutsch, and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1021–1041,Short summary
Oxidation chemistry of organic compounds in the atmosphere produces a diverse spectrum of products. This diversity is difficult to represent in air quality and climate models, and in laboratory experiments it results in large and complex datasets. This work evaluates several methods to simplify the chemistry of oxidation systems in environmental chambers, including positive matrix factorization, hierarchical clustering analysis, and gamma kinetics parameterization.
Alexander Zaytsev, Abigail R. Koss, Martin Breitenlechner, Jordan E. Krechmer, Kevin J. Nihill, Christopher Y. Lim, James C. Rowe, Joshua L. Cox, Joshua Moss, Joseph R. Roscioli, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jesse H. Kroll, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15117–15129,Short summary
Aromatic hydrocarbons contribute significantly to the production of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Here later-generation low-volatility oxygenated products from toluene and 1,2,4-TMB oxidation by OH are detected in the gas and particle phases. We show that these products, previously identified as highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs), are formed in more than one pathway with differing numbers of reaction steps with OH. They also make up a significant fraction of SOA.
Matthew M. Coggon, Christopher Y. Lim, Abigail R. Koss, Kanako Sekimoto, Bin Yuan, Jessica B. Gilman, David H. Hagan, Vanessa Selimovic, Kyle J. Zarzana, Steven S. Brown, James M. Roberts, Markus Müller, Robert Yokelson, Armin Wisthaler, Jordan E. Krechmer, Jose L. Jimenez, Christopher Cappa, Jesse H. Kroll, Joost de Gouw, and Carsten Warneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14875–14899,Short summary
Wildfire emissions significantly contribute to adverse air quality; however, the chemical processes that lead to hazardous pollutants, such as ozone, are not fully understood. In this study, we describe laboratory experiments where we simulate the atmospheric chemistry of smoke emitted from a range of biomass fuels. We show that certain understudied compounds, such as furans and phenolic compounds, are significant contributors to pollutants formed as a result of typical atmospheric oxidation.
Jiajue Chai, David J. Miller, Eric Scheuer, Jack Dibb, Vanessa Selimovic, Robert Yokelson, Kyle J. Zarzana, Steven S. Brown, Abigail R. Koss, Carsten Warneke, and Meredith Hastings
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6303–6317,Short summary
Isotopic analysis offers a potential tool to distinguish between sources and interpret transformation pathways of atmospheric species. We applied recently developed techniques in our lab to characterize the isotopic composition of reactive nitrogen species (NOx, HONO, HNO3, pNO3-) in fresh biomass burning emissions. Intercomparison with other techniques confirms the suitability of our methods, allowing for future applications of our techniques in a variety of environments.
Rupert Holzinger, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Martin Breitenlechner, Leigh R. Crilley, Sébastien Dusanter, Marc Gonin, Valerie Gros, Frank N. Keutsch, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Louisa J. Kramer, Jordan E. Krechmer, Baptiste Languille, Nadine Locoge, Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker, Dušan Materić, Sergi Moreno, Eiko Nemitz, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Roland Sarda Esteve, Stéphane Sauvage, Simon Schallhart, Roberto Sommariva, Ralf Tillmann, Sergej Wedel, David R. Worton, Kangming Xu, and Alexander Zaytsev
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6193–6208,
Adam W. Birdsall, Jack C. Hensley, Paige S. Kotowitz, Andrew J. Huisman, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14195–14209,Short summary
We have measured the evaporation rates of butenedial, a four-carbon dialdehyde produced in the atmosphere, from individual levitated particles. Effective vapor pressures and Henry's law constants, which characterize the compound's gas-particle partitioning behavior, were determined. The important role of hydration reactions was observed under both dry and humid conditions, as well as a salting-out effect in the presence of sodium chloride or sodium sulfate.
Joshua D. Shutter, Norton T. Allen, Thomas F. Hanisco, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jason M. St. Clair, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6079–6089,Short summary
A new mid-infrared and ultra-portable formaldehyde (HCHO) sensor from Aeris Technologies is characterized and evaluated against well-established laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) instrumentation. The Aeris sensor displays linear behavior (R squared > 0.94) and shows good agreement with LIF instruments. While the compact sensor is not currently a replacement for the most sensitive research-grade instrumentation available, its sub-ppbv precision is sufficient for indoor and outdoor HCHO monitoring.
Christopher Y. Lim, David H. Hagan, Matthew M. Coggon, Abigail R. Koss, Kanako Sekimoto, Joost de Gouw, Carsten Warneke, Christopher D. Cappa, and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12797–12809,Short summary
Wildfires are a large source of gases and particles to the atmosphere, both of which impact human health and climate. The amount and composition of particles from wildfires can change with time in the atmosphere; however, the impact of aging is not well understood. In a series of controlled laboratory experiments, we show that the particles are oxidized and a significant fraction of the gas-phase carbon (24 %–56 %) is converted to particle mass over the course of several days in the atmosphere.
Eleni Dovrou, Christopher Y. Lim, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Jesse H. Kroll, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5303–5315,Short summary
Measurement techniques commonly used to analyze particulate matter composition can result in the possible misidentification of sulfur-containing species, especially for the case of sulfate and hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS). The efficiency and limitations of these techniques, along with a method that enables further studies of the contribution of sulfur-containing species, S(IV) versus S(VI), to particulate matter under low-light atmospheric conditions, are described in this work.
Xin Chen, Dylan B. Millet, Hanwant B. Singh, Armin Wisthaler, Eric C. Apel, Elliot L. Atlas, Donald R. Blake, Ilann Bourgeois, Steven S. Brown, John D. Crounse, Joost A. de Gouw, Frank M. Flocke, Alan Fried, Brian G. Heikes, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Tomas Mikoviny, Kyung-Eun Min, Markus Müller, J. Andrew Neuman, Daniel W. O'Sullivan, Jeff Peischl, Gabriele G. Pfister, Dirk Richter, James M. Roberts, Thomas B. Ryerson, Stephen R. Shertz, Chelsea R. Thompson, Victoria Treadaway, Patrick R. Veres, James Walega, Carsten Warneke, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Petter Weibring, and Bin Yuan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9097–9123,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) affect air quality and modify the lifetimes of other pollutants. We combine a high-resolution 3-D atmospheric model with an ensemble of aircraft observations to perform an integrated analysis of the VOC budget over North America. We find that biogenic emissions provide the main source of VOC reactivity even in most major cities. Our findings point to key gaps in current models related to oxygenated VOCs and to the distribution of VOCs in the free troposphere.
Benjamin L. Deming, Demetrios Pagonis, Xiaoxi Liu, Douglas A. Day, Ranajit Talukdar, Jordan E. Krechmer, Joost A. de Gouw, Jose L. Jimenez, and Paul J. Ziemann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3453–3461,Short summary
Losses or measurement delays of gas-phase compounds sampled through tubing are important to atmospheric science. Here we characterize 14 tubing materials by measuring the effects on step changes in organic compound concentration. We find that polymeric tubings exhibit absorptive partitioning behaviour while glass and metal tubings show adsorptive partitioning. Adsorptive materials impart complex humidity, concentration, and VOC–VOC interaction dependencies that absorptive tubings do not.
Min Zhong, Eri Saikawa, Alexander Avramov, Chen Chen, Boya Sun, Wenlu Ye, William C. Keene, Robert J. Yokelson, Thilina Jayarathne, Elizabeth A. Stone, Maheswar Rupakheti, and Arnico K. Panday
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8209–8228,Short summary
Air pollution is one of the most pressing environmental issues in the Kathmandu Valley, the capital city of Nepal. We estimated emissions from two of the major source types in the valley (vehicles and brick kilns) and found that they have significant impacts on air quality surrounding the valley. Our results highlight the importance of improving local emissions estimates for air quality modeling.
Suzane S. de Sá, Luciana V. Rizzo, Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Lindsay D. Yee, Rebecca Wernis, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yingjun J. Liu, Arthur Sedlacek, Stephen Springston, Allen H. Goldstein, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Paulo Artaxo, Jose L. Jimenez, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7973–8001,Short summary
This study investigates the impacts of urban and fire emissions on the concentration, composition, and optical properties of submicron particulate matter (PM1) in central Amazonia during the dry season. Biomass-burning and urban emissions appeared to contribute at least 80 % of brown carbon absorption while accounting for 30 % to 40 % of the organic PM1 mass concentration. Only a fraction of the 9-fold increase in mass concentration relative to the wet season was due to biomass burning.
Xiaoxi Liu, Benjamin Deming, Demetrios Pagonis, Douglas A. Day, Brett B. Palm, Ranajit Talukdar, James M. Roberts, Patrick R. Veres, Jordan E. Krechmer, Joel A. Thornton, Joost A. de Gouw, Paul J. Ziemann, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3137–3149,Short summary
Delays or losses of gases in sampling tubing and instrumental surfaces due to surface interactions can lead to inaccurate quantification. By sampling with several chemical ionization mass spectrometers and six tubing materials, we quantify delays of semivolatile organic compounds and small polar gases. Delay times generally increase with decreasing volatility or increasing polarity and also depend on materials. The method and results will inform inlet material selection and instrumental design.
Hansol D. Lee, Chathuri P. Kaluarachchi, Elias S. Hasenecz, Jonic Z. Zhu, Eduard Popa, Elizabeth A. Stone, and Alexei V. Tivanski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2033–2042,Short summary
Dry and wet aerosol deposition modes are commonly used to collect particles on a solid substrate for experiments. We demonstrate, using single-particle microscopy and bulk methods, how the substrate-deposited particles with two components can yield the same core–shell morphology but different shell thicknesses depending on the deposition method. Thus we strongly advise future works to use wet deposition when possible to obtain accurate assessment of the single-particle organic volume fraction.
Alexander Zaytsev, Martin Breitenlechner, Abigail R. Koss, Christopher Y. Lim, James C. Rowe, Jesse H. Kroll, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1861–1870,Short summary
We present the development of a chemical ionization mass spectrometer which can be operated with either ammonium (NH4+) or hydronium (H3O+) as the reagent ion. We describe a mass spectrometric voltage scanning procedure based on collision-induced dissociation that allows us to determine the stability of detected ammonium–organic ions and hence constrain the sensitivity of the instrument to a wide range of organic compounds that cannot be calibrated directly.
Anusha Priyadarshani Silva Hettiyadura, Ibrahim M. Al-Naiema, Dagen D. Hughes, Ting Fang, and Elizabeth A. Stone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3191–3206,Short summary
This study examines anthropogenic influences on secondary organic aerosol at an urban site in Atlanta, Georgia. Organosulfates accounted for 16.5 % of PM2.5 organic carbon and were mostly derived from isoprene. In contrast to a rural forested site, Atlanta's isoprene-derived organosulfate concentrations were 2–6 times higher and accounted for twice as much organic carbon. Insights are provided as to which organosulfates should be measured in future studies and targeted for standard development.
Shino Toma, Steve Bertman, Christopher Groff, Fulizi Xiong, Paul B. Shepson, Paul Romer, Kaitlin Duffey, Paul Wooldridge, Ronald Cohen, Karsten Baumann, Eric Edgerton, Abigail R. Koss, Joost de Gouw, Allen Goldstein, Weiwei Hu, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1867–1880,Short summary
Acyl peroxy nitrates (APN) were measured near the ground in Alabama using GC in summer 2013 to study biosphere–atmosphere interactions. APN were lower than measured in the SE USA over the past 2 decades. Historical data showed APN in 2013 was limited by NOx and production was dominated by biogenic precursors more than in the past. Isoprene-derived MPAN correlated with isoprene hydroxynitrates as NOx-dependent products. MPAN varied with aerosol growth, but not with N-containing particles.
Coty N. Jen, Lindsay E. Hatch, Vanessa Selimovic, Robert J. Yokelson, Robert Weber, Arantza E. Fernandez, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Kelley C. Barsanti, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1013–1026,Short summary
Wildfires in the western US are occurring more frequently and burning larger land areas. Smoke from these fires will play a greater role in regional air quality and atmospheric chemistry than in the past. To help fire and climate modelers and atmospheric experimentalists better understand how smoke impacts the environment, we have separated, identified, classified, and quantified the thousands of organic compounds found in smoke and related their amounts emitted to fire conditions.
Benjamin A. Nault, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Jason C. Schroder, Bruce Anderson, Andreas J. Beyersdorf, Donald R. Blake, William H. Brune, Yonghoon Choi, Chelsea A. Corr, Joost A. de Gouw, Jack Dibb, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Alan Fried, L. Gregory Huey, Michelle J. Kim, Christoph J. Knote, Kara D. Lamb, Taehyoung Lee, Taehyun Park, Sally E. Pusede, Eric Scheuer, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Jung-Hun Woo, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17769–17800,Short summary
Aerosol impacts visibility and human health in large cities. Sources of aerosols are still highly uncertain, especially for cities surrounded by numerous other cities. We use observations collected during the Korea–United States Air Quality study to determine sources of organic aerosol (OA). We find that secondary OA (SOA) is rapidly produced over Seoul, South Korea, and that the sources of the SOA originate from short-lived hydrocarbons, which originate from local emissions.
Lindsay E. Hatch, Albert Rivas-Ubach, Coty N. Jen, Mary Lipton, Allen H. Goldstein, and Kelley C. Barsanti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17801–17817,Short summary
We demonstrate the use of solid-phase extraction (SPE) disks for the untargeted analysis of gas-phase intermediate volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted from biomass burning. SPE and Teflon filter samples collected from laboratory fires were analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography, with distinct differences in the observed chromatographic profiles as a function of fuel type. Fuel-dependent emissions and volatility differences among benzenediol isomers were captured.
Ibrahim M. Al-Naiema, Anusha P. S. Hettiyadura, Henry W. Wallace, Nancy P. Sanchez, Carter J. Madler, Basak Karakurt Cevik, Alexander A. T. Bui, Josh Kettler, Robert J. Griffin, and Elizabeth A. Stone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15601–15622,Short summary
By integrating newly developed tracers for anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol in source apportionment for the first time, we estimate that this source contributes 28 % of fine particle organic carbon in the Houston Ship Channel. Our approach can be used to evaluate anthropogenic, biogenic, and biomass burning contributions to secondary organic aerosols elsewhere in the world. Because anthropogenic emissions are potentially controllable, they provide an opportunity to improve air quality.
Kyle J. Zarzana, Vanessa Selimovic, Abigail R. Koss, Kanako Sekimoto, Matthew M. Coggon, Bin Yuan, William P. Dubé, Robert J. Yokelson, Carsten Warneke, Joost A. de Gouw, James M. Roberts, and Steven S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15451–15470,Short summary
Emissions of glyoxal and methylglyoxal from fuels common to the western United States were measured using cavity-enhanced spectroscopy, which provides a more selective measurement of those compounds than was previously available. Primary emissions of glyoxal were lower than previously reported and showed variability between the different fuel groups. However, emissions of glyoxal relative to formaldehyde were constant across almost all the fuel groups at 6 %–7 %.
Azimeh Zare, Paul S. Romer, Tran Nguyen, Frank N. Keutsch, Kate Skog, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15419–15436,Short summary
Organic nitrates play an important role in concentrations and distribution of NOx, ozone and aerosol as the most important air pollutants. We develop a state-of-the-science detailed chemical mechanism representing individual organic nitrates, which is appropriate to use in air quality models and results in a more accurate simulation of atmospheric chemistry. Using this mechanism we explore production and removal processes of organic nitrates in a rural environment that are poorly constrained.
J. Douglas Goetz, Michael R. Giordano, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Ted J. Christian, Rashmi Maharjan, Sagar Adhikari, Prakash V. Bhave, Puppala S. Praveen, Arnico K. Panday, Thilina Jayarathne, Elizabeth A. Stone, Robert J. Yokelson, and Peter F. DeCarlo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14653–14679,Short summary
Size distributions and emission factors of submicron aerosol were quantified using online techniques for a variety of common but under-sampled combustion sources in South Asia: wood and dung cooking fires, groundwater pumps, brick kilns, trash burning, and open burning of crop residues. Optical properties (brown carbon light absorption and the absorption Ångström exponent, AAE) of the emissions were also investigated. Contextual comparisons to the literature and other NAMaSTE results were made.
Jason A. Ducker, Christopher D. Holmes, Trevor F. Keenan, Silvano Fares, Allen H. Goldstein, Ivan Mammarella, J. William Munger, and Jordan Schnell
Biogeosciences, 15, 5395–5413,Short summary
We have developed an accurate method (SynFlux) to estimate ozone deposition and stomatal uptake across 103 flux tower sites (43 US, 60 Europe), where ozone concentrations and fluxes have not been measured. In all, the SynFlux public dataset provides monthly values of ozone dry deposition for 926 site years across a wide array of ecosystems. The SynFlux dataset will promote further applications to ecosystem, air quality, or climate modeling across the geoscience community.
Suzane S. de Sá, Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Weiwei Hu, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Lindsay D. Yee, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Igor O. Ribeiro, Glauber G. Cirino, Yingjun Liu, Ryan Thalman, Arthur Sedlacek, Aaron Funk, Courtney Schumacher, John E. Shilling, Johannes Schneider, Paulo Artaxo, Allen H. Goldstein, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Jian Wang, Karena A. McKinney, Henrique Barbosa, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Jose L. Jimenez, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12185–12206,Short summary
This study aimed at understanding and quantifying the changes in mass concentration and composition of submicron airborne particulate matter (PM) in Amazonia due to urban pollution. Downwind of Manaus, PM concentrations increased by up to 200 % under polluted compared with background conditions. The observed changes included contributions from both primary and secondary processes. The differences in organic PM composition suggested a shift in the pathways of secondary production with pollution.
Juliane L. Fry, Steven S. Brown, Ann M. Middlebrook, Peter M. Edwards, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, José L. Jimenez, Hannah M. Allen, Thomas B. Ryerson, Ilana Pollack, Martin Graus, Carsten Warneke, Joost A. de Gouw, Charles A. Brock, Jessica Gilman, Brian M. Lerner, William P. Dubé, Jin Liao, and André Welti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11663–11682,Short summary
This paper uses measurements made during research aircraft flights through power plant smokestack emissions plumes as a natural laboratory in the field experiment. We investigated a specific source of airborne particulate matter from the combination of human-produced NOx pollutant emissions (the smokestack plumes) with isoprene emitted by naturally by trees in the southeastern United States. These field-based yields appear to be higher than those typically measured in chamber studies.
Lindsay D. Yee, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Rebecca A. Wernis, Meng Meng, Ventura Rivera, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Susanne V. Hering, Mads S. Bering, Marianne Glasius, Mary Alice Upshur, Ariana Gray Bé, Regan J. Thomson, Franz M. Geiger, John H. Offenberg, Michael Lewandowski, Ivan Kourtchev, Markus Kalberer, Suzane de Sá, Scot T. Martin, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Brett B. Palm, Weiwei Hu, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Jose L. Jimenez, Yingjun Liu, Karena A. McKinney, Paulo Artaxo, Juarez Viegas, Antonio Manzi, Maria B. Oliveira, Rodrigo de Souza, Luiz A. T. Machado, Karla Longo, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10433–10457,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds react in the atmosphere to form secondary organic aerosol, yet the chemical pathways remain unclear. We collected filter samples and deployed a semi-volatile thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph in the central Amazon. We measured 30 sesquiterpenes and 4 diterpenes and find them to be important for reactive ozone loss. We estimate that sesquiterpene oxidation contributes at least 0.4–5 % (median 1 %) of observed submicron organic aerosol mass.
Kanako Sekimoto, Abigail R. Koss, Jessica B. Gilman, Vanessa Selimovic, Matthew M. Coggon, Kyle J. Zarzana, Bin Yuan, Brian M. Lerner, Steven S. Brown, Carsten Warneke, Robert J. Yokelson, James M. Roberts, and Joost de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9263–9281,Short summary
We found that on average 85 % of the VOC emissions from biomass burning across various fuels representative of the western US (including various coniferous and chaparral fuels) can be explained using only two emission profiles: (i) a high-temperature pyrolysis profile and (ii) a low-temperature pyrolysis profile. The high-temperature profile is quantitatively similar between different fuel types (r2 > 0.84), and likewise for the low-temperature profile.
Hendrik Fuchs, Sascha Albrecht, Ismail–Hakki Acir, Birger Bohn, Martin Breitenlechner, Hans-Peter Dorn, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, Martin Kaminski, Frank N. Keutsch, Anna Novelli, David Reimer, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Luc Vereecken, Robert Wegener, Alexander Zaytsev, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, and Andreas Wahner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8001–8016,Short summary
The photooxidation of methyl vinyl ketone MVK, one of the most important products of isoprene that is emitted by plants, was investigated in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR for conditions found in forested areas. The comparison of measured trace gas time series with model calculations shows a gap in the understanding of radical chemistry in the MVK oxidation scheme. The possibility of unimolecular isomerization reactions were investigated by means of quantum-chemical calculations.
Si-Wan Kim, Vijay Natraj, Seoyoung Lee, Hyeong-Ahn Kwon, Rokjin Park, Joost de Gouw, Gregory Frost, Jhoon Kim, Jochen Stutz, Michael Trainer, Catalina Tsai, and Carsten Warneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7639–7655,Short summary
Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a hazardous air pollutant and is associated with tropospheric ozone production. HCHO has been monitored from space. In this study, to acquire high-quality satellite-based HCHO observations, we utilize fine-resolution atmospheric chemistry model results as an input to the computer code for satellite retrievals over the Los Angeles Basin. Our study indicates that the use of fine-resolution profile shapes helps to identify HCHO plumes from space.
Amelie Bertrand, Giulia Stefenelli, Coty N. Jen, Simone M. Pieber, Emily A. Bruns, Haiyan Ni, Brice Temime-Roussel, Jay G. Slowik, Allen H. Goldstein, Imad El Haddad, Urs Baltensperger, André S. H. Prévôt, Henri Wortham, and Nicolas Marchand
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7607–7624,Short summary
A thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph coupled to an aerosol mass spectrometer (TAG–AMS) is connected to an atmospheric chamber. The setup serves the quantitative study of the impact of combustion conditions and atmospheric aging on the chemical fingerprint at the molecular level of biomass burning organic aerosol.
Shouming Zhou, Jean C. Rivera-Rios, Frank N. Keutsch, and Jonathan P. D. Abbatt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3081–3089,
Abigail R. Koss, Kanako Sekimoto, Jessica B. Gilman, Vanessa Selimovic, Matthew M. Coggon, Kyle J. Zarzana, Bin Yuan, Brian M. Lerner, Steven S. Brown, Jose L. Jimenez, Jordan Krechmer, James M. Roberts, Carsten Warneke, Robert J. Yokelson, and Joost de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3299–3319,Short summary
Non-methane organic gases (NMOGs) were detected by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF) during an extensive laboratory characterization of wildfire emissions. Identifications for PTR-ToF ion masses are proposed and supported by a combination of techniques. Overall excellent agreement with other instrumentation is shown. Scalable emission factors and ratios are reported for many newly reported reactive species. An analysis of chemical characteristics is presented.
Vanessa Selimovic, Robert J. Yokelson, Carsten Warneke, James M. Roberts, Joost de Gouw, James Reardon, and David W. T. Griffith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2929–2948,Short summary
We burned fuels representing western US wildfires in large-scale laboratory simulations to generate relevant emissions as confirmed by lab–field comparison. We report emission factors (EFs) for light scattering and absorption and BC along with SSA at 870 and 401 nm and AAE. We report EF for 22 trace gases that are major inorganic and organic emissions from flaming and smoldering. We report trace gas EF for species rarely (NH3) or not yet measured (e.g., HONO, acetic acid) for real US wildfires.
Jingqiu Mao, Annmarie Carlton, Ronald C. Cohen, William H. Brune, Steven S. Brown, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jose L. Jimenez, Havala O. T. Pye, Nga Lee Ng, Lu Xu, V. Faye McNeill, Kostas Tsigaridis, Brian C. McDonald, Carsten Warneke, Alex Guenther, Matthew J. Alvarado, Joost de Gouw, Loretta J. Mickley, Eric M. Leibensperger, Rohit Mathur, Christopher G. Nolte, Robert W. Portmann, Nadine Unger, Mika Tosca, and Larry W. Horowitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2615–2651,Short summary
This paper is aimed at discussing progress in evaluating, diagnosing, and improving air quality and climate modeling using comparisons to SAS observations as a guide to thinking about improvements to mechanisms and parameterizations in models.
Paul S. Romer, Kaitlin C. Duffey, Paul J. Wooldridge, Eric Edgerton, Karsten Baumann, Philip A. Feiner, David O. Miller, William H. Brune, Abigail R. Koss, Joost A. de Gouw, Pawel K. Misztal, Allen H. Goldstein, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2601–2614,Short summary
Observations of increased ozone on hotter days are widely reported, but the mechanisms driving this relationship remain uncertain. We use measurements from the rural southeastern United States to study how temperature affects ozone production. We find that changing NOx emissions, most likely from soil microbes, can be a major driver of increased ozone with temperature in the continental background. These findings suggest that ozone will increase with temperature under a wide range of conditions.
Thilina Jayarathne, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Ashley A. Gilbert, Kaitlyn Daugherty, Mark A. Cochrane, Kevin C. Ryan, Erianto I. Putra, Bambang H. Saharjo, Ati D. Nurhayati, Israr Albar, Robert J. Yokelson, and Elizabeth A. Stone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2585–2600,Short summary
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions from Indonesian peat burning were measured in situ. Fuel-based emission factors from 6.0–29.6 gPM kg-1. Detailed chemical analysis revealed high levels of organic carbon that was primarily water insoluble, little to no detectable elemental carbon, and alkane contributions to organic carbon in the range of 6 %. These data were used to estimate that 3.2–11 Tg of PM2.5 were emitted by the 2015 peat burning episodes in Indonesia.
Thilina Jayarathne, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Prakash V. Bhave, Puppala S. Praveen, Chathurika M. Rathnayake, Md. Robiul Islam, Arnico K. Panday, Sagar Adhikari, Rashmi Maharjan, J. Douglas Goetz, Peter F. DeCarlo, Eri Saikawa, Robert J. Yokelson, and Elizabeth A. Stone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2259–2286,Short summary
Emissions of fine particulate matter and its constituents were quantified for a variety of under-sampled combustion sources in South Asia: wood and dung cooking fires, generators, groundwater pumps, brick kilns, trash burning, and open burning of biomasses. Garbage burning and three-stone cooking fires were among the highest emitters, while servicing of motor vehicles significantly reduced PM. These data may be used in source apportionment and to update regional and global emission inventories.
Catalina Tsai, Max Spolaor, Santo Fedele Colosimo, Olga Pikelnaya, Ross Cheung, Eric Williams, Jessica B. Gilman, Brian M. Lerner, Robert J. Zamora, Carsten Warneke, James M. Roberts, Ravan Ahmadov, Joost de Gouw, Timothy Bates, Patricia K. Quinn, and Jochen Stutz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1977–1996,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) photolysis is an important source of hydroxyl radicals (OH). Vertical HONO fluxes, observed in the snow-free, wintertime Uintah Basin, Utah, USA, show that chemical formation of HONO on the ground closes the HONO budget. Under high NOx conditions, HONO formation is most likely due to photo-enhanced conversion of NO2 on the ground. Under moderate to low NO2 conditions, photolysis of HNO3 on the ground seems to be the most likely source of HONO.
Brett B. Palm, Suzane S. de Sá, Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Weiwei Hu, Roger Seco, Steven J. Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex B. Guenther, Saewung Kim, Joel Brito, Florian Wurm, Paulo Artaxo, Ryan Thalman, Jian Wang, Lindsay D. Yee, Rebecca Wernis, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Allen H. Goldstein, Yingjun Liu, Stephen R. Springston, Rodrigo Souza, Matt K. Newburn, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Scot T. Martin, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 467–493,Short summary
Ambient air was oxidized by OH or O3 in an oxidation flow reactor during both wet and dry seasons in the GoAmazon2014/5 campaign to study secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. We investigated how much biogenic, urban, and biomass burning sources contributed to the ambient concentrations of SOA precursor gases and how their contributions changed diurnally and seasonally. SOA yields and hygroscopicity of organic aerosol in the oxidation flow reactor were also studied.
Havala O. T. Pye, Andreas Zuend, Juliane L. Fry, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Shannon L. Capps, K. Wyat Appel, Hosein Foroutan, Lu Xu, Nga L. Ng, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 357–370,Short summary
Thermodynamic modeling revealed that some but not all measurements of ammonium-to-sulfate ratios are consistent with theory. The measurement diversity likely explains the previously reported range of results regarding the suitability of thermodynamic modeling. Despite particles being predominantly phase separated, organic–inorganic interactions resulted in increased aerosol pH and partitioning towards the particle phase for highly oxygenated organic compounds compared to traditional methods.
Adam W. Birdsall, Ulrich K. Krieger, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 33–47,Short summary
We have developed a laboratory system that provides mass spectra of individual particles, roughly 20 microns in diameter, after they have been levitated in an electric field. Measured evaporation of polyethylene glycol particles was found to agree with a kinetic model. The system can be used to study fundamental chemical and physical processes involving particles that are difficult to isolate and study with other techniques, and hence improve our understanding of atmospheric particles.
Demetrios Pagonis, Jordan E. Krechmer, Joost de Gouw, Jose L. Jimenez, and Paul J. Ziemann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4687–4696,Short summary
Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate gas-wall partitioning of atmospheric organic compounds in Teflon tubing and inside an instrument used to monitor concentrations. Rapid partitioning caused time delays in instrument response that vary with tubing length and diameter, flow rate, and compound volatility. Tubing delay times of seconds to hours were described using a model that also included effects of instrument surfaces. The results can enable better design of air sampling systems.
Robert C. Rhew, Malte Julian Deventer, Andrew A. Turnipseed, Carsten Warneke, John Ortega, Steve Shen, Luis Martinez, Abigail Koss, Brian M. Lerner, Jessica B. Gilman, James N. Smith, Alex B. Guenther, and Joost A. de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13417–13438,Short summary
Alkenes emanate from both natural and anthropogenic sources and can contribute to atmospheric ozone production. This study measured
lightalkene (ethene, propene and butene) fluxes from a ponderosa pine forest using a novel relaxed eddy accumulation method, revealing much larger emissions than previously estimated and accounting for a significant fraction of OH reactivity. Emissions have a diurnal cycle related to sunlight and temperature, and the forest canopy appears to be the source.
Abigail Koss, Bin Yuan, Carsten Warneke, Jessica B. Gilman, Brian M. Lerner, Patrick R. Veres, Jeff Peischl, Scott Eilerman, Rob Wild, Steven S. Brown, Chelsea R. Thompson, Thomas Ryerson, Thomas Hanisco, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jason M. St. Clair, Mitchell Thayer, Frank N. Keutsch, Shane Murphy, and Joost de Gouw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2941–2968,Short summary
Oil and gas extraction activity can cause air quality issues through emission of reactive chemicals. VOCs related to extraction operations in the United States were measured by PTR-ToF-MS from aircraft during the SONGNEX campaign in March–April 2015. The detailed analysis in this work provides a guide to interpreting PTR-ToF measurements in oil- and gas-producing regions, and it includes fundamental observations of VOC speciation and mixing ratios.
Prettiny K. Ma, Yunliang Zhao, Allen L. Robinson, David R. Worton, Allen H. Goldstein, Amber M. Ortega, Jose L. Jimenez, Peter Zotter, André S. H. Prévôt, Sönke Szidat, and Patrick L. Hayes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9237–9259,Short summary
Airborne particulate matter (PM) negatively impacts air quality in cities throughout the world. An important fraction of PM is organic aerosol. We have evaluated and developed several new models for secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which is formed from the chemical processing of gaseous precursors. Using our model results, we have quantified important SOA sources and precursors and also identified possible model parameterizations that could be used for air quality predictions.
Shantanu H. Jathar, Christopher Heppding, Michael F. Link, Delphine K. Farmer, Ali Akherati, Michael J. Kleeman, Joost A. de Gouw, Patrick R. Veres, and James M. Roberts
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8959–8970,Short summary
Our work makes novel emissions measurements of isocyanic acid, a toxic gas, from a modern-day diesel engine and finds that diesel engines emit isocyanic acid but the emissions control devices do not enhance or destroy the isocyanic acid. Air quality model calculations suggest that diesel engines are possibly important sources of isocyanic acid in urban environments although the isocyanic acid levels are ten times lower than levels linked to adverse human health effects.
Christopher Chan Miller, Daniel J. Jacob, Eloise A. Marais, Karen Yu, Katherine R. Travis, Patrick S. Kim, Jenny A. Fisher, Lei Zhu, Glenn M. Wolfe, Thomas F. Hanisco, Frank N. Keutsch, Jennifer Kaiser, Kyung-Eun Min, Steven S. Brown, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Gonzalo González Abad, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8725–8738,Short summary
The use of satellite glyoxal observations for estimating isoprene emissions has been limited by knowledge of the glyoxal yield from isoprene. We use SENEX aircraft observations over the southeast US to evaluate glyoxal yields from isoprene in a 3-D atmospheric model. The SENEX observations support a pathway for glyoxal formation in pristine regions that we propose here, which may have implications for improving isoprene emissions estimates from upcoming high-resolution geostationary satellites.
Suzane S. de Sá, Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Matthew K. Newburn, Weiwei Hu, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Lindsay D. Yee, Ryan Thalman, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Paulo Artaxo, Allen H. Goldstein, Antonio O. Manzi, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Fan Mei, John E. Shilling, Stephen R. Springston, Jian Wang, Jason D. Surratt, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Jose L. Jimenez, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6611–6629,
Rudra P. Pokhrel, Eric R. Beamesderfer, Nick L. Wagner, Justin M. Langridge, Daniel A. Lack, Thilina Jayarathne, Elizabeth A. Stone, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Robert J. Yokelson, and Shane M. Murphy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5063–5078,Short summary
This study investigates enhancement of black carbon (BC) absorption in biomass burning emissions due to absorbing and non-absorbing coatings. The fraction of absorption due to BC, brown carbon (BrC), and lensing is estimated using different approaches. The similarities and differences between the results from these approaches are discussed. Absorption by BrC is shown to have good correlation with the elemental to organic carbon ratio (EC / OC) and AAE.
Bin Yuan, Matthew M. Coggon, Abigail R. Koss, Carsten Warneke, Scott Eilerman, Jeff Peischl, Kenneth C. Aikin, Thomas B. Ryerson, and Joost A. de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4945–4956,Short summary
In this study, we measured emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) using both mobile laboratory and aircraft measurements. We will use this data set to investigate chemical compositions of VOC emissions and sources apportionment for these VOC emissions in different facilities.
Anne-Kathrin Bernhammer, Martin Breitenlechner, Frank N. Keutsch, and Armin Hansel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4053–4062,Short summary
Isoprene is the predominant non-methane compound emitted by the biosphere. In the atmosphere oxidation by OH under low NOx produces isoprene hydroxy hydroperoxides (ISOPOOHs). This work has found an effective conversion of ISOPOOHs to volatile carbonyls on metal environmental simulation chamber walls. Likely catalyzed decomposition reactions also occur for other hydroxyl hydroperoxides on metal surfaces.
Chathurika M. Rathnayake, Nervana Metwali, Thilina Jayarathne, Josh Kettler, Yuefan Huang, Peter S. Thorne, Patrick T. O'Shaughnessy, and Elizabeth A. Stone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2459–2475,Short summary
Exposures to bioaerosols depend on their type, particle size, and concentration. While typically found in coarse particles (2.5–10 microns), pollens, fungal spores, and bacterial endotoxins decrease to less than 2.5 microns and simultaneously increase in concentration during rain events. These observations contrast the assumption that rain washes bioaerosols from the air and reduces allergen levels. Instead, population exposures to bioaerosols are expected to be enhanced during rain events.
Ibrahim M. Al-Naiema and Elizabeth A. Stone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2053–2065,Short summary
Molecular tracers have proven useful in estimating contributions of primary and biogenic secondary sources to atmospheric particulate matter but have lagged behind for anthropogenic secondary sources. This study takes a field-based approach to evaluate the detectability, specificity, and gas–particle partitioning of prospective anthropogenic SOA tracers. We conclude that a subset of species are likely useful tracers and are recommended for use in future source apportionment studies.
Brian M. Lerner, Jessica B. Gilman, Kenneth C. Aikin, Elliot L. Atlas, Paul D. Goldan, Martin Graus, Roger Hendershot, Gabriel A. Isaacman-VanWertz, Abigail Koss, William C. Kuster, Richard A. Lueb, Richard J. McLaughlin, Jeff Peischl, Donna Sueper, Thomas B. Ryerson, Travis W. Tokarek, Carsten Warneke, Bin Yuan, and Joost A. de Gouw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 291–313,Short summary
Whole air sampling followed by analysis by gas chromatography is a common technique for characterization of trace volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere. We describe a new automated gas chromatograph–mass spectrograph which uses a Stirling cooler for sample preconcentration at −165 °C without the need for a cryogen such as liquid nitrogen. We also discuss potential sources of artifacts from our electropolished stainless steel sampling system and present results from two field campaigns.
Havala O. T. Pye, Benjamin N. Murphy, Lu Xu, Nga L. Ng, Annmarie G. Carlton, Hongyu Guo, Rodney Weber, Petros Vasilakos, K. Wyat Appel, Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Jason D. Surratt, Athanasios Nenes, Weiwei Hu, Jose L. Jimenez, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Pawel K. Misztal, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 343–369,Short summary
We use a chemical transport model to examine how organic compounds in the atmosphere interact with water present in particles. Organic compounds themselves lead to water uptake, and organic compounds interact with water associated with inorganic compounds in the rural southeast atmosphere. Including interactions of organic compounds with water requires a treatment of nonideality to more accurately represent aerosol observations during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) 2013.
Emma L. D'Ambro, Ben H. Lee, Jiumeng Liu, John E. Shilling, Cassandra J. Gaston, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Siegfried Schobesberger, Rahul A. Zaveri, Claudia Mohr, Anna Lutz, Zhenfa Zhang, Avram Gold, Jason D. Surratt, Jean C. Rivera-Rios, Frank N. Keutsch, and Joel A. Thornton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 159–174,Short summary
We studied the formation and properties of secondary organic aerosol produced from isoprene. We find that a significant fraction (~50 %) of the mass is composed of low-volatility, highly oxidized compounds such as C5H12O6. A significant fraction of the remainder appears to be in the form of oligomeric material. Adding NOx maintained or decreased SOA yields while increasing the fraction of low-volatility material, possibly due to oligomers.
Marie Ila Gosselin, Chathurika M. Rathnayake, Ian Crawford, Christopher Pöhlker, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Beatrice Schmer, Viviane R. Després, Guenter Engling, Martin Gallagher, Elizabeth Stone, Ulrich Pöschl, and J. Alex Huffman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15165–15184,Short summary
We present an analysis of bioaerosol measurements using two real-time fluorescence instruments in combination with molecular tracer techniques for quantifying airborne fungal spores in a semi-arid forest. Both techniques provide fungal spore concentrations of the order of 104 m−3 and up to 30 % of particle mass. Rainy periods exhibited higher concentrations and stronger correlations between fluorescent bioparticle and molecular tracer measurements. Fungal culture results are also presented.
Yaping Zhang, Brent J. Williams, Allen H. Goldstein, Kenneth S. Docherty, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5637–5653,Short summary
The binning method provides an alternate way to process GC–MS data in a very fast manner. It only takes a very small portion of time (days versus years) compared to the traditional GC–MS data analysis method (peak identification and integration). Furthermore, the binning method can also be applied to any data set from a measurement (mass spectrometry, spectroscopy, etc.) with additional separations (volatility, polarity, size, etc.).
Omar Amador-Muñoz, Pawel K. Misztal, Robin Weber, David R. Worton, Haofei Zhang, Greg Drozd, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5315–5329,Short summary
Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to detect n-alkanes that generally have a lower proton affinity than water and therefore proton transfer (PT) by reaction with H3O+ is not an effective mechanism for their detection. In this study, we developed a method using a conventional PTR-MS to detect n-alkanes by optimizing ion source and drift tube conditions to vary the relative amounts of different primary ions (H3O+, O2+, NO+) in the reaction chamber (drift tube).
Chelsea E. Stockwell, Thilina Jayarathne, Mark A. Cochrane, Kevin C. Ryan, Erianto I. Putra, Bambang H. Saharjo, Ati D. Nurhayati, Israr Albar, Donald R. Blake, Isobel J. Simpson, Elizabeth A. Stone, and Robert J. Yokelson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11711–11732,Short summary
We present the first or rare field measurements of emission factors for Indonesian peat fires made in Borneo during the 2015 El Niño. The data include up to 90 gases, aerosol mass, and aerosol optical properties at two wavelengths (405 and 870 nm). Brown carbon dominates aerosol absorption, revisions to previous values for greenhouse gas emissions are supported and air toxics are assessed.
Weiwei Hu, Brett B. Palm, Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jordan E. Krechmer, Zhe Peng, Suzane S. de Sá, Scot T. Martin, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Karsten Baumann, Lina Hacker, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Abigail R. Koss, Joost A. de Gouw, Allen H. Goldstein, Roger Seco, Steven J. Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex B. Guenther, Saewung Kim, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, William H. Brune, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11563–11580,Short summary
IEPOX-SOA is biogenically derived secondary organic aerosol under anthropogenic influence, which has been shown to comprise a substantial fraction of OA globally. We investigated the lifetime of ambient IEPOX-SOA in the SE US and Amazonia, with an oxidation flow reactor and thermodenuder coupled with MS-based instrumentation. The low volatility and long lifetime of IEPOX-SOA against OH radicals' oxidation (> 2 weeks) was observed, which can help to constrain OA impact on air quality and climate.
Jason M. St. Clair, Jean C. Rivera-Rios, John D. Crounse, Eric Praske, Michelle J. Kim, Glenn M. Wolfe, Frank N. Keutsch, Paul O. Wennberg, and Thomas F. Hanisco
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4561–4568,Short summary
Global isoprene emissions are the largest source of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons. Lab results show that ISOPOOH, a low-NOx isoprene oxidation product, can decompose on instrument surfaces to form high-NOx isoprene oxidation products, causing misinterpretation of oxidation conditions. This study investigated the potential formaldehyde artifact from ISOPOOH for the NASA ISAF instrument, and found that it does not significantly affect the accuracy of the ISAF field measurements.
Chelsea E. Stockwell, Ted J. Christian, J. Douglas Goetz, Thilina Jayarathne, Prakash V. Bhave, Puppala S. Praveen, Sagar Adhikari, Rashmi Maharjan, Peter F. DeCarlo, Elizabeth A. Stone, Eri Saikawa, Donald R. Blake, Isobel J. Simpson, Robert J. Yokelson, and Arnico K. Panday
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11043–11081,Short summary
We present the first, or rare, field measurements in South Asia of emission factors for up to 80 gases (pollutants, greenhouse gases, and precursors) and black carbon and aerosol optical properties at 405 and 870 nm for many previously under-sampled sources that are important in developing countries such as cooking with dung and wood, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, motorcycles, generators and pumps, etc. Brown carbon contributes significantly to total aerosol absorption.
Matthieu Riva, Thais Da Silva Barbosa, Ying-Hsuan Lin, Elizabeth A. Stone, Avram Gold, and Jason D. Surratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11001–11018,Short summary
Formation of organosulfates (OSs) in secondary organic aerosol from the photooxidation of alkanes is reported from smog chamber experiments. Effects of acidity and relative humidity on OS formation were examined. Most of the OSs identified could be explained by formation of gaseous epoxide and/or hydroperoxide precursors with subsequent acid-catalyzed multiphase chemistry onto sulfate aerosol. The OSs identified here were also observed and quantified in aerosols collected in two urban areas.
Pawel K. Misztal, Jeremy C. Avise, Thomas Karl, Klaus Scott, Haflidi H. Jonsson, Alex B. Guenther, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9611–9628,Short summary
In this study, for the first time regional BVOC models are compared with direct regional measurements of fluxes from aircraft, allowing assessment of model accuracy at scales relevant to air quality modeling. We directly assess modeled isoprene emission inventories which are important for regional air quality simulations of ozone and secondary particle concentrations.
Rudra P. Pokhrel, Nick L. Wagner, Justin M. Langridge, Daniel A. Lack, Thilina Jayarathne, Elizabeth A. Stone, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Robert J. Yokelson, and Shane M. Murphy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9549–9561,Short summary
This paper gives first multi-wavelength estimates of SSA and AAE of emissions from combustion of Indonesian peat. In addition, it demonstrates that SSA of biomass burning emissions can be parameterized with EC / (EC+OC) and that this parameterization is quantitatively superior to previously published parameterizations based on MCE. It also shows that EC / (EC+OC) parameterization accurately predicts SSA during the first few hours of aging of a biomass burning plume.
J. Kaiser, K. M. Skog, K. Baumann, S. B. Bertman, S. B. Brown, W. H. Brune, J. D. Crounse, J. A. de Gouw, E. S. Edgerton, P. A. Feiner, A. H. Goldstein, A. Koss, P. K. Misztal, T. B. Nguyen, K. F. Olson, J. M. St. Clair, A. P. Teng, S. Toma, P. O. Wennberg, R. J. Wild, L. Zhang, and F. N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9349–9359,Short summary
OH reactivity can be used to assess the amount of reactive carbon in an air mass. “Missing” reactivity is commonly found in forested environments and is attributed to either direct emissions of unmeasured volatile organic compounds or to unmeasured/underpredicted oxidation products. Using a box model and measurements from the 2013 SOAS campaign, we find only small discrepancies in measured and calculated reactivity. Our results suggest the discrepancies stem from unmeasured direct emissions.
Carsten Warneke, Michael Trainer, Joost A. de Gouw, David D. Parrish, David W. Fahey, A. R. Ravishankara, Ann M. Middlebrook, Charles A. Brock, James M. Roberts, Steven S. Brown, Jonathan A. Neuman, Brian M. Lerner, Daniel Lack, Daniel Law, Gerhard Hübler, Iliana Pollack, Steven Sjostedt, Thomas B. Ryerson, Jessica B. Gilman, Jin Liao, John Holloway, Jeff Peischl, John B. Nowak, Kenneth C. Aikin, Kyung-Eun Min, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Martin G. Graus, Mathew Richardson, Milos Z. Markovic, Nick L. Wagner, André Welti, Patrick R. Veres, Peter Edwards, Joshua P. Schwarz, Timothy Gordon, William P. Dube, Stuart A. McKeen, Jerome Brioude, Ravan Ahmadov, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Jack J. Lin, Athanasios Nenes, Glenn M. Wolfe, Thomas F. Hanisco, Ben H. Lee, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Joel A. Thornton, Frank N. Keutsch, Jennifer Kaiser, Jingqiu Mao, and Courtney D. Hatch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3063–3093,Short summary
In this paper we describe the experimental approach, the science goals and early results of the NOAA SENEX campaign, which was focused on studying the interactions between biogenic and anthropogenic emissions to form secondary pollutants. During SENEX, the NOAA WP-3D aircraft conducted 20 research flights between 27 May and 10 July 2013 based out of Smyrna, TN. The SENEX flights included day- and nighttime flights in the Southeast as well as flights over areas with intense shale gas extraction.
Abigail R. Koss, Carsten Warneke, Bin Yuan, Matthew M. Coggon, Patrick R. Veres, and Joost A. de Gouw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2909–2925,Short summary
Using laboratory and field experiments, we have explored how the technique of NO+ chemical ionization mass spectrometry can be used to measure volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the troposphere. Results include the design and operation of the instrument, an evaluation of the technique’s utility for atmospheric measurement, and a guide for data interpretation. Use of this technique will improve our understanding of VOC chemistry.
Amy P. Sullivan, Natasha Hodas, Barbara J. Turpin, Kate Skog, Frank N. Keutsch, Stefania Gilardoni, Marco Paglione, Matteo Rinaldi, Stefano Decesari, Maria Cristina Facchini, Laurent Poulain, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, Eiko Nemitz, Marsailidh M. Twigg, and Jeffrey L. Collett Jr.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8095–8108,Short summary
This paper presents the results from our measurements and approach for the investigation of aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) formation in the ambient atmosphere. When local aqSOA formation was observed, a correlation of water-soluble organic carbon with organic aerosol, aerosol liquid water, relative humidity, and aerosol nitrate was found. Key factors of local aqSOA production include air mass stagnation, formation of local nitrate overnight, and significant amounts of ammonia.
Bin Yuan, Abigail Koss, Carsten Warneke, Jessica B. Gilman, Brian M. Lerner, Harald Stark, and Joost A. de Gouw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2735–2752,Short summary
We present the development of a hydronium (H3O+) time of flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (H3O+ ToF-CIMS). We characterize the humidity dependence of the reagent ions and VOC signals in details. The low mass cutoff issue of RF-only quadrupole leads to unusual humidity dependence of reagent ions. The new H3O+ ToF-CIMS was successfully deployed on the NOAA WP-3D research aircraft for the SONGNEX campaign in 2015 and some initial results from the SONGNEX campaign are presented.
Luping Su, Edward G. Patton, Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Alex B. Guenther, Lisa Kaser, Bin Yuan, Fulizi Xiong, Paul B. Shepson, Li Zhang, David O. Miller, William H. Brune, Karsten Baumann, Eric Edgerton, Andrew Weinheimer, Pawel K. Misztal, Jeong-Hoo Park, Allen H. Goldstein, Kate M. Skog, Frank N. Keutsch, and John E. Mak
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7725–7741,
Paul S. Romer, Kaitlin C. Duffey, Paul J. Wooldridge, Hannah M. Allen, Benjamin R. Ayres, Steven S. Brown, William H. Brune, John D. Crounse, Joost de Gouw, Danielle C. Draper, Philip A. Feiner, Juliane L. Fry, Allen H. Goldstein, Abigail Koss, Pawel K. Misztal, Tran B. Nguyen, Kevin Olson, Alex P. Teng, Paul O. Wennberg, Robert J. Wild, Li Zhang, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7623–7637,Short summary
The lifetime of nitrogen oxides (NOx) is evaluated by analysis of field measurements from the southeastern United States. At warm temperatures in the daytime boundary layer, NOx interconverts rapidly with both PAN and alkyl and multifunctional nitrates (RONO2), and the relevant lifetime is the combined lifetime of these three classes. We find that the production of RONO2, followed by hydrolysis to produce nitric acid, is the dominant pathway for NOx removal in an isoprene dominated forest.
Amber M. Ortega, Patrick L. Hayes, Zhe Peng, Brett B. Palm, Weiwei Hu, Douglas A. Day, Rui Li, Michael J. Cubison, William H. Brune, Martin Graus, Carsten Warneke, Jessica B. Gilman, William C. Kuster, Joost de Gouw, Cándido Gutiérrez-Montes, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7411–7433,Short summary
An oxidation flow reactor (OFR) was deployed to study secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and aging of urban emissions at a wide range of OH exposures during the CalNex campaign in Pasadena, CA, in 2010. Results include linking SOA formation to short-lived reactive compounds, similar elemental composition of reactor-aged emissions to atmospheric aging, changes in OA mass due to condensation of oxidized gas-phase species and heterogeneous oxidation of particle-phase species.
Jenny A. Fisher, Daniel J. Jacob, Katherine R. Travis, Patrick S. Kim, Eloise A. Marais, Christopher Chan Miller, Karen Yu, Lei Zhu, Robert M. Yantosca, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Jingqiu Mao, Paul O. Wennberg, John D. Crounse, Alex P. Teng, Tran B. Nguyen, Jason M. St. Clair, Ronald C. Cohen, Paul Romer, Benjamin A. Nault, Paul J. Wooldridge, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Weiwei Hu, Paul B. Shepson, Fulizi Xiong, Donald R. Blake, Allen H. Goldstein, Pawel K. Misztal, Thomas F. Hanisco, Glenn M. Wolfe, Thomas B. Ryerson, Armin Wisthaler, and Tomas Mikoviny
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5969–5991,Short summary
We use new airborne and ground-based observations from two summer 2013 campaigns in the southeastern US, interpreted with a chemical transport model, to understand the impact of isoprene and monoterpene chemistry on the atmospheric NOx budget via production of organic nitrates (RONO2). We find that a diversity of species contribute to observed RONO2. Our work implies that the NOx sink to RONO2 production is only sensitive to NOx emissions in regions where they are already low.
Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Karsten Baumann, Eric S. Edgerton, Solomon T. Bairai, Stephen Mueller, Stephanie L. Shaw, Eladio M. Knipping, Avram Gold, and Jason D. Surratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5171–5189,Short summary
A year-long near-real-time characterization of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) was conducted at an urban (Atlanta, Georgia, in 2012) and rural (Look Rock, Tennessee, in 2013) site in the southeastern US using the Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor, collocated with established air-monitoring network measurements, to identify sources of organic aerosol (OA). Further, high-volume filter samples were collected for measurements of OA tracers by offline mass spectrometry tools.
Weruka Rattanavaraha, Kevin Chu, Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Matthieu Riva, Ying-Hsuan Lin, Eric S. Edgerton, Karsten Baumann, Stephanie L. Shaw, Hongyu Guo, Laura King, Rodney J. Weber, Miranda E. Neff, Elizabeth A. Stone, John H. Offenberg, Zhenfa Zhang, Avram Gold, and Jason D. Surratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4897–4914,Short summary
The mechanisms by which specific anthropogenic pollutants enhance isoprene SOA in ambient PM2.5 remain unclear. As one aspect of an investigation to examine how anthropogenic pollutants influence isoprene-derived SOA formation, high-volume PM2.5 filter samples were collected from Birmingham, AL, during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). Isoprene SOA tracers were measured from these samples and compared to gas and aerosol data collected from the SEARCH network.
S. T. Martin, P. Artaxo, L. A. T. Machado, A. O. Manzi, R. A. F. Souza, C. Schumacher, J. Wang, M. O. Andreae, H. M. J. Barbosa, J. Fan, G. Fisch, A. H. Goldstein, A. Guenther, J. L. Jimenez, U. Pöschl, M. A. Silva Dias, J. N. Smith, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4785–4797,Short summary
The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment took place in central Amazonia throughout 2014 and 2015. The experiment focused on the complex links among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other, especially when altered by urban pollution. This article serves as an introduction to the special issue of publications presenting findings of this experiment.
Brent J. Williams, Yaping Zhang, Xiaochen Zuo, Raul E. Martinez, Michael J. Walker, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Allen H. Goldstein, Kenneth S. Docherty, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1569–1586,Short summary
The thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (TAG) has been used for in situ measurements of organic marker compounds to identify atmospheric particle sources and transformation processes. Here we identify that inorganic aerosol components (e.g., nitrate and sulfate) and highly oxygenated organic components experience thermal decomposition upon sample heating. This thermal decomposition signal in the TAG system is investigated through laboratory and field data.
Min Zhong, Eri Saikawa, Yang Liu, Vaishali Naik, Larry W. Horowitz, Masayuki Takigawa, Yu Zhao, Neng-Huei Lin, and Elizabeth A. Stone
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1201–1218,Short summary
Large discrepancies exist among emission inventories (e.g., REAS and EDGAR) at the provincial level in China. We use WRF-Chem to evaluate the impact of the difference in existing emission inventories and find that emissions inputs significantly affect our air pollutant simulation results. Our study highlights the importance of constraining emissions at the provincial level for regional air quality modeling over East Asia.
Markus Müller, Bruce E. Anderson, Andreas J. Beyersdorf, James H. Crawford, Glenn S. Diskin, Philipp Eichler, Alan Fried, Frank N. Keutsch, Tomas Mikoviny, Kenneth L. Thornhill, James G. Walega, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Melissa Yang, Robert J. Yokelson, and Armin Wisthaler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3813–3824,Short summary
Atmospheric emissions from small forest fires and their impact on regional air quality are still poorly characterized. We used an instrumented NASA P-3B aircraft to study emissions from a small forest understory fire in Georgia (USA) and to investigate chemical transformations in the fire plume in the 1 h downwind region. A state-of-the-art chemical model was able to accurately simulate key chemical processes in the aging plume.
G. M. Wolfe, J. Kaiser, T. F. Hanisco, F. N. Keutsch, J. A. de Gouw, J. B. Gilman, M. Graus, C. D. Hatch, J. Holloway, L. W. Horowitz, B. H. Lee, B. M. Lerner, F. Lopez-Hilifiker, J. Mao, M. R. Marvin, J. Peischl, I. B. Pollack, J. M. Roberts, T. B. Ryerson, J. A. Thornton, P. R. Veres, and C. Warneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2597–2610,Short summary
This study uses airborne trace gas observations acquired over the southeast US to examine how both natural (isoprene) and anthropogenic (NOx) emissions influence the production of formaldehyde (HCHO). We find a 3-fold increase in HCHO yield between rural and polluted environments. State-of-the-science chemical mechanisms are generally able to reproduce this behavior. These results add confidence to global hydrocarbon emission inventories constrained by spaceborne HCHO observations.
Bin Yuan, John Liggio, Jeremy Wentzell, Shao-Meng Li, Harald Stark, James M. Roberts, Jessica Gilman, Brian Lerner, Carsten Warneke, Rui Li, Amy Leithead, Hans D. Osthoff, Robert Wild, Steven S. Brown, and Joost A. de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2139–2153,Short summary
We describe high-resolution measurements of nitrated phenols using a time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ToF-CIMS). Strong diurnal profiles were observed for nitrated phenols, with concentration maxima at night. Box model simulations were able to reproduce the measured nitrated phenols.
A. W. H. Chan, N. M. Kreisberg, T. Hohaus, P. Campuzano-Jost, Y. Zhao, D. A. Day, L. Kaser, T. Karl, A. Hansel, A. P. Teng, C. R. Ruehl, D. T. Sueper, J. T. Jayne, D. R. Worsnop, J. L. Jimenez, S. V. Hering, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1187–1205,Short summary
Using a novel instrument, we have made measurements of organic compounds that can exist as a gas or particle in the rural atmosphere. Through hourly measurements, we have identified the sources and atmospheric processes of these compounds, which are important for modeling the climate and health impact of these emissions.
E. W. Butt, A. Rap, A. Schmidt, C. E. Scott, K. J. Pringle, C. L. Reddington, N. A. D. Richards, M. T. Woodhouse, J. Ramirez-Villegas, H. Yang, V. Vakkari, E. A. Stone, M. Rupakheti, P. S. Praveen, P. G. van Zyl, J. P. Beukes, M. Josipovic, E. J. S. Mitchell, S. M. Sallu, P. M. Forster, and D. V. Spracklen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 873–905,Short summary
We estimate the impact of residential emissions (cooking and heating) on atmospheric aerosol, human health, and climate. We find large contributions to annual mean ambient PM2.5 in residential sources regions resulting in significant but uncertain global premature mortality when key uncertainties in emission flux are considered. We show that residential emissions exert an uncertain global radiative effect and suggest more work is needed to characterise residential emissions climate importance.
R. J. Wild, P. M. Edwards, T. S. Bates, R. C. Cohen, J. A. de Gouw, W. P. Dubé, J. B. Gilman, J. Holloway, J. Kercher, A. R. Koss, L. Lee, B. M. Lerner, R. McLaren, P. K. Quinn, J. M. Roberts, J. Stutz, J. A. Thornton, P. R. Veres, C. Warneke, E. Williams, C. J. Young, B. Yuan, K. J. Zarzana, and S. S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 573–583,Short summary
High wintertime ozone levels have been observed in the Uintah Basin, Utah, a sparsely populated rural region with intensive oil and gas operations. The reactive nitrogen budget plays an important role in tropospheric ozone formation, and we find that nighttime chemistry has a large effect on its partitioning. Much of the oxidation of reactive nitrogen during a high-ozone year occurred via heterogeneous uptake onto aerosol at night, keeping NOx at concentrations comparable to a low-ozone year.
C. L. Blanchard, G. M. Hidy, S. Shaw, K. Baumann, and E. S. Edgerton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 215–238,Short summary
Fifteen years of gas and particle measurements at eight monitoring sites comprising the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) network offer insights into the sources of organic aerosol in the southeastern United States. Between 1999 and 2013, mean organic aerosol concentrations declined due to decreasing particle emissions from motor vehicles and to less secondary organic aerosol with declining emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds.
J. B. Gilman, B. M. Lerner, W. C. Kuster, P. D. Goldan, C. Warneke, P. R. Veres, J. M. Roberts, J. A. de Gouw, I. R. Burling, and R. J. Yokelson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13915–13938,Short summary
A comprehensive suite of instruments was used to quantify the emissions of over 200 organic and inorganic gases from 56 laboratory burns of 18 different biomass fuel types common in the southeastern, southwestern, or northern United States. Emission ratios relative to carbon monoxide (CO) are used to characterize the composition of gases emitted by mass; OH reactivity; and potential secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors for the three different U.S. fuel regions presented here.
J. Timkovsky, A. W. H. Chan, T. Dorst, A. H. Goldstein, B. Oyama, and R. Holzinger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5177–5187,
S. J. Lawson, M. D. Keywood, I. E. Galbally, J. L. Gras, J. M. Cainey, M. E. Cope, P. B. Krummel, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, S. T. Bentley, C. P. Meyer, Z. Ristovski, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13393–13411,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) plumes were opportunistically measured at the Cape Grim Baseline Station in Tasmania, Australia. We provide a unique set of trace gas and particle emission factors for temperate Australian coastal heathland fires, and attribute a major short-lived enhancement in emission ratios to a minor rainfall event. The ability of BB particles to act as cloud condensation nuclei, and the contribution of BB emissions to observed particle growth and ozone enhancements are discussed.
B. R. Ayres, H. M. Allen, D. C. Draper, S. S. Brown, R. J. Wild, J. L. Jimenez, D. A. Day, P. Campuzano-Jost, W. Hu, J. de Gouw, A. Koss, R. C. Cohen, K. C. Duffey, P. Romer, K. Baumann, E. Edgerton, S. Takahama, J. A. Thornton, B. H. Lee, F. D. Lopez-Hilfiker, C. Mohr, P. O. Wennberg, T. B. Nguyen, A. Teng, A. H. Goldstein, K. Olson, and J. L. Fry
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13377–13392,Short summary
This paper reports atmospheric gas- and aerosol-phase field measurements from the southeastern United States in summer 2013 to demonstrate that the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds by nitrate radical produces a substantial amount of secondary organic aerosol in this region. This process, driven largely by monoterpenes, results in a comparable aerosol nitrate production rate to inorganic nitrate formation by heterogeneous uptake of HNO3 onto dust particles.
A. Guha, D. R. Gentner, R. J. Weber, R. Provencal, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12043–12063,Short summary
We perform a positive matrix factorization (PMF)-based source apportionment by combining GHG measurements with coincident VOC measurements in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Using VOCs as source tracers, we identify dairies and livestock as major sources of CH4 and N2O in the region. Agriculture is a significant source of N2O enhancements too, while vehicle emissions are found to be a negligible source of N2O. The findings are relevant to the state’s GHG inventory verification process.
W. W. Hu, P. Campuzano-Jost, B. B. Palm, D. A. Day, A. M. Ortega, P. L. Hayes, J. E. Krechmer, Q. Chen, M. Kuwata, Y. J. Liu, S. S. de Sá, K. McKinney, S. T. Martin, M. Hu, S. H. Budisulistiorini, M. Riva, J. D. Surratt, J. M. St. Clair, G. Isaacman-Van Wertz, L. D. Yee, A. H. Goldstein, S. Carbone, J. Brito, P. Artaxo, J. A. de Gouw, A. Koss, A. Wisthaler, T. Mikoviny, T. Karl, L. Kaser, W. Jud, A. Hansel, K. S. Docherty, M. L. Alexander, N. H. Robinson, H. Coe, J. D. Allan, M. R. Canagaratna, F. Paulot, and J. L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11807–11833,Short summary
This work summarized all the studies reporting isoprene epoxydiols-derived secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA) measured globally by aerosol mass spectrometer and compare them with modeled gas-phase IEPOX, with results suggestive of the importance of IEPOX-SOA for regional and global OA budgets. A real-time tracer of IEPOX-SOA is thoroughly evaluated for the first time by combing multiple field and chamber studies. A quick and easy empirical method on IEPOX-SOA estimation is also presented.
F. Xiong, K. M. McAvey, K. A. Pratt, C. J. Groff, M. A. Hostetler, M. A. Lipton, T. K. Starn, J. V. Seeley, S. B. Bertman, A. P. Teng, J. D. Crounse, T. B. Nguyen, P. O. Wennberg, P. K. Misztal, A. H. Goldstein, A. B. Guenther, A. R. Koss, K. F. Olson, J. A. de Gouw, K. Baumann, E. S. Edgerton, P. A. Feiner, L. Zhang, D. O. Miller, W. H. Brune, and P. B. Shepson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11257–11272,Short summary
Hydroxynitrates from isoprene oxidation were quantified both in the laboratory and through field studies. The yield of hydroxynitrates 9(+4/-3)% derived from chamber experiments was applied in a zero-dimensional model to simulate the production and loss of isoprene hydroxynitrates in an ambient environment during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). NOx was determined to be the limiting factor for the formation of isoprene hydroxynitrates during SOAS.
C. Huang, H. L. Wang, L. Li, Q. Wang, Q. Lu, J. A. de Gouw, M. Zhou, S. A. Jing, J. Lu, and C. H. Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11081–11096,Short summary
SOA formations from vehicle exhausts and gas evaporation contribute 40% and 60% of total organic aerosols observed in summer and winter in urban Shanghai. Diesel vehicles, which accounted for less than 20% of vehicle kilometers of travel, contribute the most to vehicular POA emissions and SOA production in urban Shanghai. Intermediate-volatile organic compounds (IVOCs) in vehicle exhausts contribute greatly to SOA formation in the urban atmosphere of China.
H. M. Allen, D. C. Draper, B. R. Ayres, A. Ault, A. Bondy, S. Takahama, R. L. Modini, K. Baumann, E. Edgerton, C. Knote, A. Laskin, B. Wang, and J. L. Fry
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10669–10685,Short summary
We report ion chromatographic measurements of gas- and aerosol-phase inorganic species at the SOAS 2013 field study. Our particular focus is on inorganic nitrate aerosol formation via HNO3 uptake onto coarse-mode dust and sea salt particles, which we find to be the dominant source of episodic inorganic nitrate at this site, due to the high acidity of the particles preventing formation of NH4NO3. We calculate a production rate of inorganic nitrate aerosol.
L. Lee, P. J. Wooldridge, J. deGouw, S. S. Brown, T. S. Bates, P. K. Quinn, and R. C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9313–9325,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol affects both the environment and human health. We characterized the aerosol composition in Uintah Basin by measuring the concentration of nitrooxy group moiety which is produced through chemical interaction of volatile organic compounds and NOx emitted largely from local human activity. We found nitrooxy compounds to be a persistent, if not dominant, portion of fine aerosol mass. Similar results may be expected from emissions due to traffic in cities.
S. H. Budisulistiorini, X. Li, S. T. Bairai, J. Renfro, Y. Liu, Y. J. Liu, K. A. McKinney, S. T. Martin, V. F. McNeill, H. O. T. Pye, A. Nenes, M. E. Neff, E. A. Stone, S. Mueller, C. Knote, S. L. Shaw, Z. Zhang, A. Gold, and J. D. Surratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8871–8888,Short summary
Isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) are major gas-phase products from the atmospheric oxidation of isoprene that yield secondary organic aerosol (SOA) by reactive uptake onto acidic sulfate aerosol. We report a substantial contribution of IEPOX-derived SOA to the total fine aerosol collected during summer. IEPOX-derived SOA measured by online and offline mass spectrometry techniques is correlated with acidic sulfate aerosol, demonstrating the critical role of anthropogenic emissions in its formation.
P. R. Veres, J. M. Roberts, R. J. Wild, P. M. Edwards, S. S. Brown, T. S. Bates, P. K. Quinn, J. E. Johnson, R. J. Zamora, and J. de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8101–8114,Short summary
In this paper laboratory work is documented establishing iodide ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (I- CIMS) as a sensitive method for the unambiguous detection of peroxynitric acid (HO2NO2; PNA). A dynamic calibration source for HO2NO2, HO2, and HONO was developed and calibrated using a novel total NOy detector (NOy CaRDS). The ambient observations of HO2NO2 using I- CIMS made during the 2013 and 2014 Uintah Basin Wintertime Ozone Study (UBWOS) are presented.
J. Kaiser, G. M. Wolfe, K. E. Min, S. S. Brown, C. C. Miller, D. J. Jacob, J. A. deGouw, M. Graus, T. F. Hanisco, J. Holloway, J. Peischl, I. B. Pollack, T. B. Ryerson, C. Warneke, R. A. Washenfelder, and F. N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7571–7583,
G. Wohlfahrt, C. Amelynck, C. Ammann, A. Arneth, I. Bamberger, A. H. Goldstein, L. Gu, A. Guenther, A. Hansel, B. Heinesch, T. Holst, L. Hörtnagl, T. Karl, Q. Laffineur, A. Neftel, K. McKinney, J. W. Munger, S. G. Pallardy, G. W. Schade, R. Seco, and N. Schoon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7413–7427,Short summary
Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates. Here we present micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight sites in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis of the terrestrial methanol exchange.
N. L. Wagner, C. A. Brock, W. M. Angevine, A. Beyersdorf, P. Campuzano-Jost, D. Day, J. A. de Gouw, G. S. Diskin, T. D. Gordon, M. G. Graus, J. S. Holloway, G. Huey, J. L. Jimenez, D. A. Lack, J. Liao, X. Liu, M. Z. Markovic, A. M. Middlebrook, T. Mikoviny, J. Peischl, A. E. Perring, M. S. Richardson, T. B. Ryerson, J. P. Schwarz, C. Warneke, A. Welti, A. Wisthaler, L. D. Ziemba, and D. M. Murphy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7085–7102,Short summary
This paper investigates the summertime vertical profile of aerosol over the southeastern US using in situ measurements collected from aircraft. We use a vertical mixing model and measurements of CO to predict the vertical profile of aerosol that we would expect from vertical mixing alone and compare with the observed aerosol profile. We found a modest enhancement of aerosol in the cloudy transition layer during shallow cumulus convection and attribute the enhancement to local aerosol formation.
D. B. Millet, M. Baasandorj, D. K. Farmer, J. A. Thornton, K. Baumann, P. Brophy, S. Chaliyakunnel, J. A. de Gouw, M. Graus, L. Hu, A. Koss, B. H. Lee, F. D. Lopez-Hilfiker, J. A. Neuman, F. Paulot, J. Peischl, I. B. Pollack, T. B. Ryerson, C. Warneke, B. J. Williams, and J. Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6283–6304,Short summary
Formic acid (HCOOH) is an abundant atmospheric acid that affects precipitation chemistry and acidity. HCOOH measurements over the USA are 2-3× larger than can be explained by known sources and sinks, revealing a key gap in current understanding. Observations indicate a large biogenic source plus chemical production across a range of precursors. Model simulations cannot capture the HCOOH diurnal amplitude or nocturnal profile, implying a deposition bias and possibly even larger missing source.
A. P. S. Hettiyadura, E. A. Stone, S. Kundu, Z. Baker, E. Geddes, K. Richards, and T. Humphry
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2347–2358,Short summary
Organosulfates are SOA products that have proven difficult to quantify. This study addresses the need for authentic quantification standards with a straightforward approach to synthesizing highly pure organosulfate potassium salts. New standards are used to develop a new separation protocol for small, functionalized organosulfates. Upon validation, this method is used to assess sample preparation protocols and to make new measurements of organosulfates in Centreville, Alabama.
P. L. Hayes, A. G. Carlton, K. R. Baker, R. Ahmadov, R. A. Washenfelder, S. Alvarez, B. Rappenglück, J. B. Gilman, W. C. Kuster, J. A. de Gouw, P. Zotter, A. S. H. Prévôt, S. Szidat, T. E. Kleindienst, J. H. Offenberg, P. K. Ma, and J. L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5773–5801,Short summary
(1) Four different parameterizations for the formation and chemical evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are evaluated using a box model representing the Los Angeles region during the CalNex campaign. (2) The SOA formed only from the oxidation of VOCs is insufficient to explain the observed SOA concentrations. (3) The amount of SOA mass formed from diesel vehicle emissions is estimated to be 16-27%. (4) Modeled SOA depends strongly on the P-S/IVOC volatility distribution.
A. R. Koss, J. de Gouw, C. Warneke, J. B. Gilman, B. M. Lerner, M. Graus, B. Yuan, P. Edwards, S. S. Brown, R. Wild, J. M. Roberts, T. S. Bates, and P. K. Quinn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5727–5741,Short summary
Extraction of natural gas and oil is associated with a range of possible atmospheric environmental issues. Here we present an analysis of gas-phase hydrocarbon measurements taken in an oil and natural gas extraction area in Utah during a period of high wintertime ozone. We are able to constrain important chemical parameters related to emission sources and rates, hydrocarbon photochemistry, and VOC composition.
K. R. Baker, A. G. Carlton, T. E. Kleindienst, J. H. Offenberg, M. R. Beaver, D. R. Gentner, A. H. Goldstein, P. L. Hayes, J. L. Jimenez, J. B. Gilman, J. A. de Gouw, M. C. Woody, H. O. T. Pye, J. T. Kelly, M. Lewandowski, M. Jaoui, P. S. Stevens, W. H. Brune, Y.-H. Lin, C. L. Rubitschun, and J. D. Surratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5243–5258,Short summary
This work details the evaluation of PM2.5 carbon, VOC precursors, and OH estimated by the CMAQ photochemical transport model using routine and special measurements from the 2010 CalNex field study. Here, CMAQ and most recent emissions inventory (2011 NEI) are used to generate model PM2.5 OC estimates that are examined in novel ways including primary vs. secondary formation, fossil vs. contemporary carbon, OH and HO2 evaluation, and the relationship between key VOC precursors and SOC tracers.
R. Thalman, M. T. Baeza-Romero, S. M. Ball, E. Borrás, M. J. S. Daniels, I. C. A. Goodall, S. B. Henry, T. Karl, F. N. Keutsch, S. Kim, J. Mak, P. S. Monks, A. Muñoz, J. Orlando, S. Peppe, A. R. Rickard, M. Ródenas, P. Sánchez, R. Seco, L. Su, G. Tyndall, M. Vázquez, T. Vera, E. Waxman, and R. Volkamer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1835–1862,Short summary
Measurements of α-dicarbonyl compounds, like glyoxal (CHOCHO) and methyl glyoxal (CH3C(O)CHO), are informative about the rate of hydrocarbon oxidation, oxidative capacity, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere. We have compared nine instruments and seven techniques to measure α-dicarbonyl, using simulation chamber facilities in the US and Europe. We assess our understanding of calibration, precision, accuracy and detection limits, as well as possible sampling biases.
B. Yuan, P. R. Veres, C. Warneke, J. M. Roberts, J. B. Gilman, A. Koss, P. M. Edwards, M. Graus, W. C. Kuster, S.-M. Li, R. J. Wild, S. S. Brown, W. P. Dubé, B. M. Lerner, E. J. Williams, J. E. Johnson, P. K. Quinn, T. S. Bates, B. Lefer, P. L. Hayes, J. L. Jimenez, R. J. Weber, R. Zamora, B. Ervens, D. B. Millet, B. Rappenglück, and J. A. de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1975–1993,Short summary
In this work, secondary formation of formic acid at an urban site and a site in an oil and gas production region is studied. We investigated various gas phase formation pathways of formic acid, including those recently proposed, using a box model. The contributions from aerosol-related processes, fog events and air-snow exchange to formic acid are also quantified.
J. Kaiser, G. M. Wolfe, B. Bohn, S. Broch, H. Fuchs, L. N. Ganzeveld, S. Gomm, R. Häseler, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Holland, J. Jäger, X. Li, I. Lohse, K. Lu, A. S. H. Prévôt, F. Rohrer, R. Wegener, R. Wolf, T. F. Mentel, A. Kiendler-Scharr, A. Wahner, and F. N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1289–1298,Short summary
Using measurements acquired from a Zeppelin airship during the PEGASOS 2012 campaign, we show that VOC oxidation alone cannot account for the formaldehyde concentrations observed in the morning over rural Italy. Vertical profiles suggest a ground-level source of HCHO. Incorporating this additional HCHO source into a photochemical model increases calculated O3 production by as much as 12%.
C. Warneke, P. Veres, S. M. Murphy, J. Soltis, R. A. Field, M. G. Graus, A. Koss, S.-M. Li, R. Li, B. Yuan, J. M. Roberts, and J. A. de Gouw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 411–420,
R. Ahmadov, S. McKeen, M. Trainer, R. Banta, A. Brewer, S. Brown, P. M. Edwards, J. A. de Gouw, G. J. Frost, J. Gilman, D. Helmig, B. Johnson, A. Karion, A. Koss, A. Langford, B. Lerner, J. Olson, S. Oltmans, J. Peischl, G. Pétron, Y. Pichugina, J. M. Roberts, T. Ryerson, R. Schnell, C. Senff, C. Sweeney, C. Thompson, P. R. Veres, C. Warneke, R. Wild, E. J. Williams, B. Yuan, and R. Zamora
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 411–429,Short summary
High 2013 wintertime O3 pollution events associated with oil/gas production within the Uinta Basin are studied using a 3D model. It's able quantitatively to reproduce these events using emission estimates of O3 precursors based on ambient measurements (top-down approach), but unable to reproduce them using a recent bottom-up emission inventory for the oil/gas industry. The role of various physical and meteorological processes, chemical species and pathways contributing to high O3 are quantified.
T. B. Nguyen, J. D. Crounse, R. H. Schwantes, A. P. Teng, K. H. Bates, X. Zhang, J. M. St. Clair, W. H. Brune, G. S. Tyndall, F. N. Keutsch, J. H. Seinfeld, and P. O. Wennberg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13531–13549,
G. Isaacman, N. M. Kreisberg, L. D. Yee, D. R. Worton, A. W. H. Chan, J. A. Moss, S. V. Hering, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4417–4429,Short summary
We present here a new in situ instrument for ambient measurements of highly polar organic semi-volatile and low-volatility compounds in both the gas and particle phase by gas chromatography. Compounds previously measured only through filter collection and offline analysis can now be measured hourly with, in most cases, less than 20% uncertainty. This instrument provides unprecedented time resolution and the first ever observations of gas-particle partitioning for most of these compounds.
N. M. Kreisberg, D. R. Worton, Y. Zhao, G. Isaacman, A. H. Goldstein, and S. V. Hering
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4431–4444,
L. Lee, P. J. Wooldridge, J. B. Gilman, C. Warneke, J. de Gouw, and R. C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12441–12454,Short summary
Alkyl nitrate formation is known to be an important sink of NOx in a wide range of environments. In a study in the Uintah basin in 2012, we find that formation of these compounds represents a more rapid NOx (NO + NO2) sink than does nitric acid formation. This rapid formation is in large part due to the low mean temperature (~0°C) during the study and is consistent with laboratory observations.
Y. You, V. P. Kanawade, J. A. de Gouw, A. B. Guenther, S. Madronich, M. R. Sierra-Hernández, M. Lawler, J. N. Smith, S. Takahama, G. Ruggeri, A. Koss, K. Olson, K. Baumann, R. J. Weber, A. Nenes, H. Guo, E. S. Edgerton, L. Porcelli, W. H. Brune, A. H. Goldstein, and S.-H. Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12181–12194,Short summary
Amiens play important roles in atmospheric secondary aerosol formation and human health, but the fast response measurements of amines are lacking. Here we show measurements in a southeastern US forest and a moderately polluted midwestern site. Our results show that gas to particle conversion is an important process that controls ambient amine concentrations and that biomass burning is an important source of amines.
G. M. Hidy, C. L. Blanchard, K. Baumann, E. Edgerton, S. Tanenbaum, S. Shaw, E. Knipping, I. Tombach, J. Jansen, and J. Walters
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11893–11914,Short summary
This paper reviews aerometric measurements from Centreville, Alabama. The measurements show annual trends with air pollution emissions from 1999 to 2013. They provide a context for observations from 1 June to 15 July 2013 supporting the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study. An important goal of this experiment was to advance knowledge of aerosols produced in the atmosphere from precursors. The observations were in moist and warm conditions with the lowest gas and particle concentrations recorded.
R. Li, C. Warneke, M. Graus, R. Field, F. Geiger, P. R. Veres, J. Soltis, S.-M. Li, S. M. Murphy, C. Sweeney, G. Pétron, J. M. Roberts, and J. de Gouw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3597–3610,
C. Warneke, F. Geiger, P. M. Edwards, W. Dube, G. Pétron, J. Kofler, A. Zahn, S. S. Brown, M. Graus, J. B. Gilman, B. M. Lerner, J. Peischl, T. B. Ryerson, J. A. de Gouw, and J. M. Roberts
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10977–10988,
P. K. Misztal, T. Karl, R. Weber, H. H. Jonsson, A. B. Guenther, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10631–10647,
W. Ait-Helal, A. Borbon, S. Sauvage, J. A. de Gouw, A. Colomb, V. Gros, F. Freutel, M. Crippa, C. Afif, U. Baltensperger, M. Beekmann, J.-F. Doussin, R. Durand-Jolibois, I. Fronval, N. Grand, T. Leonardis, M. Lopez, V. Michoud, K. Miet, S. Perrier, A. S. H. Prévôt, J. Schneider, G. Siour, P. Zapf, and N. Locoge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10439–10464,
T. R. Dallmann, T. B. Onasch, T. W. Kirchstetter, D. R. Worton, E. C. Fortner, S. C. Herndon, E. C. Wood, J. P. Franklin, D. R. Worsnop, A. H. Goldstein, and R. A. Harley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7585–7599,
S. H. Budisulistiorini, M. R. Canagaratna, P. L. Croteau, K. Baumann, E. S. Edgerton, M. S. Kollman, N. L. Ng, V. Verma, S. L. Shaw, E. M. Knipping, D. R. Worsnop, J. T. Jayne, R.J. Weber, and J. D. Surratt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1929–1941,
J. Ortega, A. Turnipseed, A. B. Guenther, T. G. Karl, D. A. Day, D. Gochis, J. A. Huffman, A. J. Prenni, E. J. T. Levin, S. M. Kreidenweis, P. J. DeMott, Y. Tobo, E. G. Patton, A. Hodzic, Y. Y. Cui, P. C. Harley, R. S. Hornbrook, E. C. Apel, R. K. Monson, A. S. D. Eller, J. P. Greenberg, M. C. Barth, P. Campuzano-Jost, B. B. Palm, J. L. Jimenez, A. C. Aiken, M. K. Dubey, C. Geron, J. Offenberg, M. G. Ryan, P. J. Fornwalt, S. C. Pryor, F. N. Keutsch, J. P. DiGangi, A. W. H. Chan, A. H. Goldstein, G. M. Wolfe, S. Kim, L. Kaser, R. Schnitzhofer, A. Hansel, C. A. Cantrell, R. L. Mauldin, and J. N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6345–6367,
C. Knote, A. Hodzic, J. L. Jimenez, R. Volkamer, J. J. Orlando, S. Baidar, J. Brioude, J. Fast, D. R. Gentner, A. H. Goldstein, P. L. Hayes, W. B. Knighton, H. Oetjen, A. Setyan, H. Stark, R. Thalman, G. Tyndall, R. Washenfelder, E. Waxman, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6213–6239,
J. Kaiser, X. Li, R. Tillmann, I. Acir, F. Holland, F. Rohrer, R. Wegener, and F. N. Keutsch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1571–1580,
D. R. Gentner, E. Ormeño, S. Fares, T. B. Ford, R. Weber, J.-H. Park, J. Brioude, W. M. Angevine, J. F. Karlik, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5393–5413,
D. R. Gentner, T. B. Ford, A. Guha, K. Boulanger, J. Brioude, W. M. Angevine, J. A. de Gouw, C. Warneke, J. B. Gilman, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, S. Meinardi, D. R. Blake, E. Atlas, W. A. Lonneman, T. E. Kleindienst, M. R. Beaver, J. M. St. Clair, P. O. Wennberg, T. C. VandenBoer, M. Z. Markovic, J. G. Murphy, R. A. Harley, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4955–4978,
G. M. Wolfe, C. Cantrell, S. Kim, R. L. Mauldin III, T. Karl, P. Harley, A. Turnipseed, W. Zheng, F. Flocke, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, S. R. Hall, K. Ullmann, S. B. Henry, J. P. DiGangi, E. S. Boyle, L. Kaser, R. Schnitzhofer, A. Hansel, M. Graus, Y. Nakashima, Y. Kajii, A. Guenther, and F. N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4715–4732,
S. E. Pusede, D. R. Gentner, P. J. Wooldridge, E. C. Browne, A. W. Rollins, K.-E. Min, A. R. Russell, J. Thomas, L. Zhang, W. H. Brune, S. B. Henry, J. P. DiGangi, F. N. Keutsch, S. A. Harrold, J. A. Thornton, M. R. Beaver, J. M. St. Clair, P. O. Wennberg, J. Sanders, X. Ren, T. C. VandenBoer, M. Z. Markovic, A. Guha, R. Weber, A. H. Goldstein, and R. C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3373–3395,
K. C. Wells, D. B. Millet, K. E. Cady-Pereira, M. W. Shephard, D. K. Henze, N. Bousserez, E. C. Apel, J. de Gouw, C. Warneke, and H. B. Singh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2555–2570,
J. J. Ensberg, P. L. Hayes, J. L. Jimenez, J. B. Gilman, W. C. Kuster, J. A. de Gouw, J. S. Holloway, T. D. Gordon, S. Jathar, A. L. Robinson, and J. H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2383–2397,
J.-H. Park, S. Fares, R. Weber, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 231–244,
L. Kaser, T. Karl, A. Guenther, M. Graus, R. Schnitzhofer, A. Turnipseed, L. Fischer, P. Harley, M. Madronich, D. Gochis, F. N. Keutsch, and A. Hansel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11935–11947,
A. M. Ortega, D. A. Day, M. J. Cubison, W. H. Brune, D. Bon, J. A. de Gouw, and J. L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11551–11571,
S. S. Brown, W. P. Dubé, R. Bahreini, A. M. Middlebrook, C. A. Brock, C. Warneke, J. A. de Gouw, R. A. Washenfelder, E. Atlas, J. Peischl, T. B. Ryerson, J. S. Holloway, J. P. Schwarz, R. Spackman, M. Trainer, D. D. Parrish, F. C. Fehshenfeld, and A. R. Ravishankara
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11317–11337,
N. Unger, K. Harper, Y. Zheng, N. Y. Kiang, I. Aleinov, A. Arneth, G. Schurgers, C. Amelynck, A. Goldstein, A. Guenther, B. Heinesch, C. N. Hewitt, T. Karl, Q. Laffineur, B. Langford, K. A. McKinney, P. Misztal, M. Potosnak, J. Rinne, S. Pressley, N. Schoon, and D. Serça
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10243–10269,
R. Holzinger, A. H. Goldstein, P. L. Hayes, J. L. Jimenez, and J. Timkovsky
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10125–10141,
P. M. Edwards, C. J. Young, K. Aikin, J. deGouw, W. P. Dubé, F. Geiger, J. Gilman, D. Helmig, J. S. Holloway, J. Kercher, B. Lerner, R. Martin, R. McLaren, D. D. Parrish, J. Peischl, J. M. Roberts, T. B. Ryerson, J. Thornton, C. Warneke, E. J. Williams, and S. S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8955–8971,
S. Kundu, T. A. Quraishi, G. Yu, C. Suarez, F. N. Keutsch, and E. A. Stone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4865–4875,
K. Kristensen, K. L. Enggrob, S. M. King, D. R. Worton, S. M. Platt, R. Mortensen, T. Rosenoern, J. D. Surratt, M. Bilde, A. H. Goldstein, and M. Glasius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3763–3776,
J.-H. Park, A. H. Goldstein, J. Timkovsky, S. Fares, R. Weber, J. Karlik, and R. Holzinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1439–1456,
R. J. Yokelson, I. R. Burling, J. B. Gilman, C. Warneke, C. E. Stockwell, J. de Gouw, S. K. Akagi, S. P. Urbanski, P. Veres, J. M. Roberts, W. C. Kuster, J. Reardon, D. W. T. Griffith, T. J. Johnson, S. Hosseini, J. W. Miller, D. R. Cocker III, H. Jung, and D. R. Weise
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 89–116,
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characteristicsMeasurement report: Characterization of sugars and amino acids in atmospheric fine particulates and their relationship to local primary sourcesOrganic enrichment in droplet residual particles relative to out of cloud over the northwestern Atlantic: analysis of airborne ACTIVATE dataLong-term trends and drivers of aerosol pH in eastern ChinaPotential underestimation of ambient brown carbon absorption based on the methanol extraction method and its impacts on source analysisContributions of primary sources to submicron organic aerosols in Delhi, IndiaExamination of brown carbon absorption from wildfires in the western US during the WE-CAN studySource apportionment and evolution of N-containing aerosols at a rural cloud forest in Taiwan by isotope analysisMeasurement report: Characterisation and sources of the secondary organic carbon in a Chinese megacity over 5 years from 2016 to 2020Exploring the inorganic composition of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer using medium-duration balloon flightsTechnical note: Use of PM2.5 to CO ratio as an indicator of wildfire smoke in urban areasIce-nucleating particles near two major dust source regionsThe effect of COVID-19 restrictions on atmospheric new particle formation in BeijingThe effect of clouds and precipitation on the aerosol concentrations and composition in a boreal forest environmentThe impact of atmospheric motions on source-specific black carbon and the induced direct radiative effects over a river-valley regionMeasurement report: The 10-year trend of PM2.5 major components and source tracers from 2008 to 2017 in an urban site of Hong Kong, ChinaContribution of wood burning to exposures of PAHs and oxy-PAHs in Eastern SwedenChemical evolution of secondary organic aerosol tracers during high-PM2.5 episodes at a suburban site in Hong Kong over 4 months of continuous measurementSources and processes of water-soluble and water-insoluble organic aerosol in cold season in Beijing, ChinaMeasurement report: Size-resolved chemical characterisation of aerosols in low-income urban settlements in South AfricaMeasurement report: Large contribution of biomass burning and aqueous-phase processes to the wintertime secondary organic aerosol formation in Xi'an, Northwest ChinaPM10 variation, composition, and source analysis in Tuscany (Italy) following the COVID-19 lockdown restrictionsEmissions of organic compounds from western US wildfires and their near-fire transformationsA comprehensive study about the in-cloud processing of nitrate through coupled measurements of individual cloud residuals and cloud waterIron (Fe) speciation in size-fractionated aerosol particles in the Pacific Ocean: The role of organic complexation of Fe with humic-like substances in controlling Fe solubilityMeasurement report: On the contribution of long-distance transport to the secondary aerosol formation and agingFactors controlling atmospheric DMS and its oxidation products (MSA and nssSO42−) in the aerosol at Terra Nova Bay, AntarcticaParticle phase-state variability in the North Atlantic free troposphere during summertime is determined by atmospheric transport patterns and sourcesPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated, nitrated and oxygenated derivatives in the atmosphere over the Mediterranean and Middle East seasNine-year trends of PM10 sources and oxidative potential in a rural background site in FranceDramatic changes in atmospheric pollution source contributions for a coastal megacity in northern China from 2011 to 2020Understanding aerosol composition in a tropical inter-Andean valley impacted by agro-industrial and urban emissionsAtmospheric particle abundance and sea salt aerosol observations in the springtime Arctic: a focus on blowing snow and leadsMeasurement report: The importance of biomass burning in light extinction and direct radiative effect of urban aerosol during the COVID-19 lockdown in Xi'an, ChinaChemical properties, sources and size-resolved hygroscopicity of submicron black-carbon-containing aerosols in urban ShanghaiMeasurement report: Effects of anthropogenic emissions and environmental factors on the formation of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) in a coastal city of southeastern ChinaDifferent physicochemical behaviors of nitrate and ammonium during transport: a case study on Mt. Hua, ChinaHighly time-resolved chemical speciation and source apportionment of organic aerosol components in Delhi, India, using extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometryThe chemical composition and mixing state of BC-containing particles and the implications on light absorption enhancementEvidence of haze-driven secondary production of supermicrometer aerosol nitrate and sulfate in size distribution data in South KoreaSpatial variability of air pollutants in a megacity characterized by mobile measurementsLinking Switzerland's PM10 and PM2.5 oxidative potential (OP) with emission sourcesReversible and irreversible gas–particle partitioning of dicarbonyl compounds observed in the real atmosphereMolecular characteristics, sources, and formation pathways of organosulfur compounds in ambient aerosol in Guangzhou, South ChinaEvolution of source attributed organic aerosols and gases in a megacity of central ChinaMeasurement report: Hygroscopic growth of ambient fine particles measured at five sites in China
Feng Jiang, Junwei Song, Jonas Bauer, Linyu Gao, Magdalena Vallon, Reiner Gebhardt, Thomas Leisner, Stefan Norra, and Harald Saathoff
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14971–14986,Short summary
We studied brown carbon aerosol during typical summer and winter periods in downtown Karlsruhe in southwestern Germany. The chromophore and chemical composition of brown carbon was determined by excitation–emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The chromophore types and sources were substantially different in winter and summer. Humic-like chromophores of different degrees of oxidation dominated and were associated with molecules of different molecular weight and nitrogen content.
Suping Zhao, Shaofeng Qi, Ye Yu, Shichang Kang, Longxiang Dong, Jinbei Chen, and Daiying Yin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14693–14708,Short summary
Light absorption by aerosols is poorly understood at the eastern slope of the Tibetan Plateau (TP). We conducted the first in situ PM1 chemical measurements from the polluted Sichuan Basin to the eastern TP. A contrasting changes in mass absorption efficiency of black and brown carbon with altitude is found due to source differences. This study contributes to the understanding of the difference in light absorption by carbon with altitude, from the polluted basins to the pristine TP.
Irene Cheng, Leiming Zhang, Zhuanshi He, Hazel Cathcart, Daniel Houle, Amanda Cole, Jian Feng, Jason O'Brien, Anne Marie Macdonald, Julian Aherne, and Jeffrey Brook
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14631–14656,Short summary
Nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) deposition decreased significantly at 14 Canadian sites during 2000–2018. The greatest decline was observed in southeastern Canada owing to regional SO2 and NOx reductions. Wet deposition was more important than dry deposition, comprising 71–95 % of total N and 45–89 % of total S deposition. While critical loads (CLs) were exceeded at a few sites in the early 2000s, acidic deposition declined below CLs after 2012, which signifies recovery from legacy acidification.
Kouji Adachi, Yutaka Tobo, Makoto Koike, Gabriel Freitas, Paul Zieger, and Radovan Krejci
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14421–14439,Short summary
Ambient aerosol and cloud residual particles in the fine mode were collected at Zeppelin Observatory in Svalbard and were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy. Fractions of mineral dust and sea salt particles increased in cloud residual samples collected at ambient temperatures below 0 °C. This study highlights the variety of aerosol and cloud residual particle compositions and mixing states that influence or are influenced by aerosol–cloud interactions in Arctic low-level clouds.
Ju-Mee Ryoo, Leonhard Pfister, Rei Ueyama, Paquita Zuidema, Robert Wood, Ian Chang, and Jens Redemann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14209–14241,Short summary
The variability in the meteorological fields during each deployment is highly modulated at a daily to synoptic timescale. This paper, along with part 1, the climatological overview paper, provides a meteorological context for interpreting the airborne measurements gathered during the three ORACLES deployments. This study supports related studies focusing on the detailed investigation of the processes controlling stratocumulus decks, aerosol lifting, transport, and their interactions.
Ren-Guo Zhu, Hua-Yun Xiao, Liqin Cheng, Huixiao Zhu, Hongwei Xiao, and Yunyun Gong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14019–14036,Short summary
Sugars and amino acids are major classes of organic components in atmospheric fine particles and play important roles in the atmosphere. To identify their sources in different regions, the concentrations and compositions of sugar amino acids in fine particles were analysed. Our findings suggest that combining specific sugar tracers and chemical profiles of combined amino acids in local emission sources can identify various source characteristics of primary sources.
Hossein Dadashazar, Andrea F. Corral, Ewan Crosbie, Sanja Dmitrovic, Simon Kirschler, Kayla McCauley, Richard Moore, Claire Robinson, Joseph S. Schlosser, Michael Shook, K. Lee Thornhill, Christiane Voigt, Edward Winstead, Luke Ziemba, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13897–13913,Short summary
Multi-season airborne data over the northwestern Atlantic show that organic mass fraction and the relative amount of oxygenated organics within that fraction are enhanced in droplet residual particles as compared to particles below and above cloud. In-cloud aqueous processing is shown to be a potential driver of this compositional shift in cloud. This implies that aerosol–cloud interactions in the region reduce aerosol hygroscopicity due to the jump in the organic : sulfate ratio in cloud.
Min Zhou, Guangjie Zheng, Hongli Wang, Liping Qiao, Shuhui Zhu, DanDan Huang, Jingyu An, Shengrong Lou, Shikang Tao, Qian Wang, Rusha Yan, Yingge Ma, Changhong Chen, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, and Cheng Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13833–13844,Short summary
The trend of aerosol pH and its drivers is crucial in understanding the multiphase formation pathways of aerosols. We reported the first trend analysis of aerosol pH from 2011 to 2019 in eastern China. Although significant variations of aerosol compositions were observed from 2011 to 2019, the aerosol pH estimated by model only slightly declined by 0.24. Our work shows that the opposite effects of SO42− and non-volatile cation changes play key roles in determining the moderate pH trend.
Zhenqi Xu, Wei Feng, Yicheng Wang, Haoran Ye, Yuhang Wang, Hong Liao, and Mingjie Xie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13739–13752,Short summary
This work uses a solvent (DMF) that can efficiently dissolve low-volatility OC to examine BrC absorption and sources, which will benefit future investigations on the physicochemical properties of large organic molecules. The study results also shed light on potential sources for methanol-insoluble OC. These results highlight the importance of testing different solvents to investigate the structures and light absorption of low-volatility BrC.
Sahil Bhandari, Zainab Arub, Gazala Habib, Joshua S. Apte, and Lea Hildebrandt Ruiz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13631–13657,Short summary
Here we determine the sources of primary organic aerosol in Delhi, India, in two different seasons. In winter, the main sources are traffic and biomass burning; in the summer, the main sources are traffic and cooking. We obtain this result by conducting source apportionment resolved by time of day, using data from an aerosol chemical speciation monitor. Results from this work can be used to better design policies that target sources of organic aerosol.
Amy P. Sullivan, Rudra P. Pokhrel, Yingjie Shen, Shane M. Murphy, Darin W. Toohey, Teresa Campos, Jakob Lindaas, Emily V. Fischer, and Jeffrey L. Collett Jr.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13389–13406,Short summary
During the WE-CAN (Western Wildfire Experiment for Cloud Chemistry, Aerosol Absorption and Nitrogen) study, brown carbon (BrC) absorption was measured on the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft using a particle-into-liquid sampler and photoacoustic aerosol absorption spectrometer. Approximately 45 % of the BrC absorption in wildfires was observed to be due to water-soluble species. The ratio of BrC absorption to WSOC or ΔCO showed no clear dependence on fire dynamics or the time since emission over 9 h.
Ting-Yu Chen, Chia-Li Chen, Yi-Chi Chen, Charles C.-K. Chou, Haojia Ren, and Hui-Ming Hung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13001–13012,Short summary
The anthropogenic influence on aerosol composition in a downstream river-valley forest was investigated using FTIR and isotope analysis. A higher N-containing species concentration during daytime fog events indicates that a stronger inversion leads to higher pollutant concentrations, and the fog enhances the aqueous-phase chemical processes. Moreover, the observed size-dependent oxygen isotope suggests the contribution of organic peroxyl radicals to local nitrate formation for small particles.
Meng Wang, Yusen Duan, Wei Xu, Qiyuan Wang, Zhuozhi Zhang, Qi Yuan, Xinwei Li, Shuwen Han, Haijie Tong, Juntao Huo, Jia Chen, Shan Gao, Zhongbiao Wu, Long Cui, Yu Huang, Guangli Xiu, Junji Cao, Qingyan Fu, and Shun-cheng Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12789–12802,Short summary
In this study, we report the long-term measurement of organic carbon (OC) and elementary carbon (EC) in PM2.5 with hourly time resolution conducted at a regional site in Shanghai from 2016 to 2020. The results from this study provide critical information about the long-term trend of carbonaceous aerosol, in particular secondary OC, in one of the largest megacities in the world and are helpful for developing pollution control measures from a long-term planning perspective.
Hazel Vernier, Neeraj Rastogi, Hongyu Liu, Amit Kumar Pandit, Kris Bedka, Anil Patel, Madineni Venkat Ratnam, Buduru Suneel Kumar, Bo Zhang, Harish Gadhavi, Frank Wienhold, Gwenael Berthet, and Jean-Paul Vernier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12675–12694,Short summary
The chemical composition of the stratospheric aerosols collected aboard high-altitude balloons above the summer Asian monsoon reveals the presence of nitrate/nitrite. Using numerical simulations and satellite observations, we found that pollution as well as lightning could explain some of our observations.
Daniel A. Jaffe, Brendan Schnieder, and Daniel Inouye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12695–12704,Short summary
In this paper we use commonly measured pollutants (PM2.5 and carbon monoxide) to develop a Monte Carlo simulation of the mixing of urban pollution with smoke. The simulations compare well with observations from a heavily impacted smoke site and show that we can use standard regulatory measurements to quantify the amount of smoke in urban areas.
Charlotte M. Beall, Thomas C. J. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, Tobias Köneman, Michael Pikridas, Frank Drewnick, Hartwig Harder, Christopher Pöhlker, Jos Lelieveld, Bettina Weber, Minas Iakovides, Roman Prokeš, Jean Sciare, Meinrat O. Andreae, M. Dale Stokes, and Kimberly A. Prather
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12607–12627,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) are rare aerosols that can trigger ice formation in clouds and affect climate-relevant cloud properties such as phase, reflectivity and lifetime. Dust is the dominant INP source, yet few measurements have been reported near major dust sources. We report INP observations within hundreds of kilometers of the biggest dust source regions globally: the Sahara and the Arabian Peninsula. Results show that at temperatures > −15 °C, INPs are dominated by organics.
Chao Yan, Yicheng Shen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Lubna Dada, Ximeng Qi, Simo Hakala, Anu-Maija Sundström, Yishuo Guo, Antti Lipponen, Tom V. Kokkonen, Jenni Kontkanen, Runlong Cai, Jing Cai, Tommy Chan, Liangduo Chen, Biwu Chu, Chenjuan Deng, Wei Du, Xiaolong Fan, Xu-Cheng He, Juha Kangasluoma, Joni Kujansuu, Mona Kurppa, Chang Li, Yiran Li, Zhuohui Lin, Yiliang Liu, Yuliang Liu, Yiqun Lu, Wei Nie, Jouni Pulliainen, Xiaohui Qiao, Yonghong Wang, Yifan Wen, Ye Wu, Gan Yang, Lei Yao, Rujing Yin, Gen Zhang, Shaojun Zhang, Feixue Zheng, Ying Zhou, Antti Arola, Johanna Tamminen, Pauli Paasonen, Yele Sun, Lin Wang, Neil M. Donahue, Yongchun Liu, Federico Bianchi, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Douglas R. Worsnop, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Aijun Ding, Jingkun Jiang, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12207–12220,Short summary
Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is a dominant source of atmospheric ultrafine particles. In urban environments, traffic emissions are a major source of primary pollutants, but their contribution to NPF remains under debate. During the COVID-19 lockdown, traffic emissions were significantly reduced, providing a unique chance to examine their relevance to NPF. Based on our comprehensive measurements, we demonstrate that traffic emissions alone are not able to explain the NPF in Beijing.
Sini Isokääntä, Paul Kim, Santtu Mikkonen, Thomas Kühn, Harri Kokkola, Taina Yli-Juuti, Liine Heikkinen, Krista Luoma, Tuukka Petäjä, Zak Kipling, Daniel Partridge, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11823–11843,Short summary
This research employs air mass history analysis and observations to study how clouds and precipitation affect atmospheric aerosols during transport to a boreal forest site. The mass concentrations of studied chemical species showed exponential decrease as a function of accumulated rain along the air mass route. Our analysis revealed in-cloud sulfate formation, while no major changes in organic mass were seen. Most of the in-cloud-formed sulfate could be assigned to particle sizes above 200 nm.
Huikun Liu, Qiyuan Wang, Suixin Liu, Bianhong Zhou, Yao Qu, Jie Tian, Ting Zhang, Yongming Han, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11739–11757,Short summary
Atmospheric motions play an important role in the mass concentration and the direct radiative effect (DRE) of black carbon (BC). The finding from this study elaborated the impacts of different scales of atmospheric motion on source-specific BC and its DREs, which revealed the nonlinear change between BC mass concentration and its DREs and emphasizes the importance of regionally transported BC for potential climatic effects.
Wing Sze Chow, Kezheng Liao, X. H. Hilda Huang, Ka Fung Leung, Alexis K. H. Lau, and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11557–11577,Short summary
Long-term monitoring data of PM2.5 chemical composition provide essential information for evaluation and planning of control measures. Here we present a 10-year (2008–2017) time series of PM2.5, its major components, and select source markers in an urban site in Hong Kong. The dataset verified the success of local vehicular emission control measures as well as reduction of sulfate and regional sources such as industrial and coal combustion and crop residue burning emissions over the decade.
Hwanmi Lim, Sanna Silvergren, Silvia Spinicci, Farshid Mashayekhy Rad, Ulrika Nilsson, Roger Westerholm, and Christer Johansson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11359–11379,Short summary
Air pollutants from wood burning become more important as other regulated emissions are being reduced, e.g. combustion of diesel. We analysed particles in residential areas and found that local wood burning was the most important source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Specific tracers were used to separate wood combustion from other contributions. Calculations of population exposure showed that the mix of PAHs may cause 13 cancer cases per 0.1 million inhabitants.
Qiongqiong Wang, Shan Wang, Yuk Ying Cheng, Hanzhe Chen, Zijing Zhang, Jinjian Li, Dasa Gu, Zhe Wang, and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11239–11253,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is often enhanced during fine-particulate-matter (PM2.5) episodes. We examined bi-hourly measurements of SOA molecular tracers in suburban Hong Kong during 11 city-wide PM2.5 episodes. The tracers showed regional characteristics for both anthropogenic and biogenic SOA as well as biomass-burning-derived SOA. Multiple tracers of the same precursor revealed the dominance of low-NOx formation pathways for isoprene SOA and less-aged monoterpene SOA during winter.
Zhiqiang Zhang, Yele Sun, Chun Chen, Bo You, Aodong Du, Weiqi Xu, Yan Li, Zhijie Li, Lu Lei, Wei Zhou, Jiaxing Sun, Yanmei Qiu, Lianfang Wei, Pingqing Fu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10409–10423,Short summary
We present a comprehensive characterization of water-soluble organic aerosol and the first mass spectral characterization of water-insoluble organic aerosol in the cold season in Beijing by integrating online and offline aerosol mass spectrometer measurements. WSOA comprised dominantly secondary OA and showed large changes during the transition season from autumn to winter. WIOA was characterized by prominent hydrocarbon ions series, low oxidation states, and significant day–night differences.
Constance K. Segakweng, Pieter G. van Zyl, Cathy Liousse, Johan P. Beukes, Jan-Stefan Swartz, Eric Gardrat, Maria Dias-Alves, Brigitte Language, Roelof P. Burger, and Stuart J. Piketh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10291–10317,Short summary
A detailed size-resolved assessment of the chemical characteristics of outdoor and indoor aerosols collected in low-income urban settlements in South Africa indicated the significance of household combustion for cooking and space heating – an important source of pollutants in the developing world – to atmospheric chemical composition. The regional impact of industrial sources in the highly industrialised and densely populated north-eastern interior of South Africa was also evident.
Jing Duan, Ru-Jin Huang, Yifang Gu, Chunshui Lin, Haobin Zhong, Wei Xu, Quan Liu, Yan You, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Darius Ceburnis, Thorsten Hoffmann, and Colin O'Dowd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10139–10153,Short summary
Biomass-burning-influenced oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA-BB), formed from the photochemical oxidation and aging of biomass burning OA (BBOA), was resolved in urban Xi’an. The aqueous-phase processed oxygenated OA (aq-OOA) concentration was more dependent on secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) content and aerosol liquid water content (ALWC). The increased aq-OOA contribution during SIA-enhanced periods likely reflects OA evolution due to the addition of alcohol or peroxide groups
Fabio Giardi, Silvia Nava, Giulia Calzolai, Giulia Pazzi, Massimo Chiari, Andrea Faggi, Bianca Patrizia Andreini, Chiara Collaveri, Elena Franchi, Guido Nincheri, Alessandra Amore, Silvia Becagli, Mirko Severi, Rita Traversi, and Franco Lucarelli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9987–10005,Short summary
The restriction measures adopted to contain the COVID-19 virus offered a unique opportunity to study urban particulate emissions in the near absence of traffic, which is one of the main emission sources in the urban environment. However, the drastic decrease in this source of particulate matter during the months of national lockdown did not lead to an equal decrease in the total particulate load. This is due to the inverse behavior shown by different sources, especially secondary sources.
Yutong Liang, Christos Stamatis, Edward C. Fortner, Rebecca A. Wernis, Paul Van Rooy, Francesca Majluf, Tara I. Yacovitch, Conner Daube, Scott C. Herndon, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Kelley C. Barsanti, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9877–9893,Short summary
This article reports the measurements of organic compounds emitted from western US wildfires. We identified and quantified 240 particle-phase compounds and 72 gas-phase compounds emitted in wildfire and related the emissions to the modified combustion efficiency. Higher emissions of diterpenoids and monoterpenes were observed, likely due to distillation from unburned heated vegetation. Our results can benefit future source apportionment and modeling studies as well as exposure assessments.
Guohua Zhang, Xiaodong Hu, Wei Sun, Yuxiang Yang, Ziyong Guo, Yuzhen Fu, Haichao Wang, Shengzhen Zhou, Lei Li, Mingjin Tang, Zongbo Shi, Duohong Chen, Xinhui Bi, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9571–9582,Short summary
We show a significant enhancement of nitrate mass fraction in cloud water and relative intensity of nitrate in the cloud residual particles and highlight that hydrolysis of N2O5 serves as the critical route for the in-cloud formation of nitrate, even during the daytime. Given that N2O5 hydrolysis acts as a major sink of NOx in the atmosphere, further model updates may improve our understanding about the processes contributing to nitrate production in cloud and the cycling of odd nitrogen.
Kohei Sakata, Minako Kurisu, Yasuo Takeichi, Aya Sakaguchi, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Yusuke Tamenori, Atsushi Matsuki, and Yoshio Takahashi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9461–9482,Short summary
Iron (Fe) species in size-fractionated aerosol particles collected in the western Pacific Ocean were determined to identify factors controlling fractional Fe solubility. We found that labile Fe was mainly present in submicron aerosol particles, and the Fe species were ferric organic complexes combined with humic-like substances (Fe(III)-HULIS). The Fe(III)-HULIS was formed by atmospheric processes. Thus, atmospheric processes play a significant role in controlling Fe solubility.
Haobin Zhong, Ru-Jin Huang, Chunshui Lin, Wei Xu, Jing Duan, Yifang Gu, Wei Huang, Haiyan Ni, Chongshu Zhu, Yan You, Yunfei Wu, Renjian Zhang, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Darius Ceburnis, and Colin D. O'Dowd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9513–9524,Short summary
To investigate the physico-chemical properties of aerosol transported from major pollution regions in China, observations were conducted ~200 m above the ground at the junction location of the two key pollution areas. We found that the formation efficiency, oxidation state and production rate of secondary aerosol were different in the transport sectors from different pollution regions, and they were largely enhanced by the regional long-distance transport.
Silvia Becagli, Elena Barbaro, Simone Bonamano, Laura Caiazzo, Alcide di Sarra, Matteo Feltracco, Paolo Grigioni, Jost Heintzenberg, Luigi Lazzara, Michel Legrand, Alice Madonia, Marco Marcelli, Chiara Melillo, Daniela Meloni, Caterina Nuccio, Giandomenico Pace, Ki-Tae Park, Suzanne Preunkert, Mirko Severi, Marco Vecchiato, Roberta Zangrando, and Rita Traversi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9245–9263,Short summary
Measurements of phytoplanktonic dimethylsulfide and its oxidation products in the Antarctic atmosphere allow us to understand the role of the oceanic (sea ice melting, Chl α and dimethylsulfoniopropionate) and atmospheric (wind direction and speed, humidity, solar radiation and transport processes) factors in the biogenic aerosol formation, concentration and characteristic ratio between components in an Antarctic coastal site facing the polynya of the Ross Sea.
Zezhen Cheng, Megan Morgenstern, Bo Zhang, Matthew Fraund, Nurun Nahar Lata, Rhenton Brimberry, Matthew A. Marcus, Lynn Mazzoleni, Paulo Fialho, Silvia Henning, Birgit Wehner, Claudio Mazzoleni, and Swarup China
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9033–9057,Short summary
We observed a high abundance of liquid and internally mixed particles in samples collected in the North Atlantic free troposphere during summer. We also found several solid and semisolid particles for different emission sources and transport patterns. Our results suggest that considering the mixing state, emission source, and transport patterns of particles is necessary to estimate their phase state in the free troposphere, which is critical for predicting their effects on climate.
Marco Wietzoreck, Marios Kyprianou, Benjamin A. Musa Bandowe, Siddika Celik, John N. Crowley, Frank Drewnick, Philipp Eger, Nils Friedrich, Minas Iakovides, Petr Kukučka, Jan Kuta, Barbora Nežiková, Petra Pokorná, Petra Přibylová, Roman Prokeš, Roland Rohloff, Ivan Tadic, Sebastian Tauer, Jake Wilson, Hartwig Harder, Jos Lelieveld, Ulrich Pöschl, Euripides G. Stephanou, and Gerhard Lammel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8739–8766,Short summary
A unique dataset of concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated, oxygenated and nitrated derivatives, in total 74 individual species, in the marine atmosphere is presented. Exposure to these substances poses a major health risk. We found very low concentrations over the Arabian Sea, while both local and long-range-transported pollution caused elevated levels over the Mediterranean Sea and the Arabian Gulf.
Lucille Joanna Borlaza, Samuël Weber, Anouk Marsal, Gaëlle Uzu, Véronique Jacob, Jean-Luc Besombes, Mélodie Chatain, Sébastien Conil, and Jean-Luc Jaffrezo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8701–8723,Short summary
A 9-year dataset of the chemical and oxidative potential (OP) of PM10 was investigated at a rural background site. Extensive source apportionment led to identification of differences in source impacts between mass and OP, underlining the importance of PM redox activity when considering health effects. The influence of mixing and ageing processes was also tackled. Traffic contributions have decreased here over the years, attributed to regulations limiting vehicular emissions in bigger cities.
Baoshuang Liu, Yanyang Wang, He Meng, Qili Dai, Liuli Diao, Jianhui Wu, Laiyuan Shi, Jing Wang, Yufen Zhang, and Yinchang Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8597–8615,Short summary
Understanding effectiveness of air pollution regulatory measures is critical for control policy. Machine learning and dispersion-normalized approaches were applied to decouple meteorologically deduced variations in Qingdao, China. Most pollutant concentrations decreased substantially after the Clean Air Action Plan. The largest emission reduction was from coal combustion and steel-related smelting. Qingdao is at risk of increased emissions from increased vehicular population and ozone pollution.
Lady Mateus-Fontecha, Angela Vargas-Burbano, Rodrigo Jimenez, Nestor Y. Rojas, German Rueda-Saa, Dominik van Pinxteren, Manuela van Pinxteren, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8473–8495,Short summary
This study reports the chemical composition of regionally representative PM2.5 in an area densely populated and substantially industrialized, located in the inter-Andean valley, with the highest sugarcane yield in the world and where sugarcane is burned and harvested year round. We found that sugarcane burning is not portrayed as a distinguishable sample composition component. Instead, the composition analysis revealed multiple associations among sugarcane burning components and other sources.
Qianjie Chen, Jessica Mirrielees, Sham Thanekar, Nicole Loeb, Rachel Kirpes, Lucia Upchurch, Anna Barget, Nurun Lata, Angela Raso, Stephen McNamara, Swarup China, Patricia Quinn, Andrew Ault, Aaron Kennedy, Paul Shepson, Jose Fuentes, and Kerri Pratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
During a spring field study in the coastal Arctic, ultrafine particles were enhanced during high wind speeds and coarse mode particles were reduced during blowing snow. Observed blowing snow was over-predicted by the commonly used parametrization. Sea spray aerosols produced by sea ice leads affected the composition of aerosols and snowpack. An improved understanding of aerosol emissions from leads and blowing snow is critical to predict the future climate of the rapidly warming Arctic.
Jie Tian, Qiyuan Wang, Huikun Liu, Yongyong Ma, Suixin Liu, Yong Zhang, Weikang Ran, Yongming Han, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8369–8384,Short summary
We investigated aerosol optical properties and the direct radiative effect (DRE) at an urban site in China before and during the COVID-19 lockdown. The total light extinction coefficient (bext) decreased under emission control measures; however, bext from biomass burning increased due to the undiminished need for residential cooking and heating. Biomass burning, rather than traffic-related emissions, became the largest positive effect contributor to aerosol DRE in the lockdown.
Shijie Cui, Dan Dan Huang, Yangzhou Wu, Junfeng Wang, Fuzhen Shen, Jiukun Xian, Yunjiang Zhang, Hongli Wang, Cheng Huang, Hong Liao, and Xinlei Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8073–8096,Short summary
Refractory black carbon (rBC) aerosols are important to air quality and climate change. rBC can mix with many other species, which can significantly change its properties and impacts. We used a specific set of techniques to exclusively characterize rBC-containing (rBCc) particles in Shanghai. We elucidated their composition, sources and size distributions and factors that affect their properties. Our findings are very valuable for advancing the understanding of BC and controlling BC pollution.
Youwei Hong, Xinbei Xu, Dan Liao, Taotao Liu, Xiaoting Ji, Ke Xu, Chunyang Liao, Ting Wang, Chunshui Lin, and Jinsheng Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7827–7841,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) simulation remains uncertain, due to the unknown SOA formation mechanisms. Aerosol samples with a 4 h time resolution were collected, along with online measurements of aerosol chemical compositions and meteorological parameters. We found that anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric oxidation capacity and halogen chemistry have significant effects on the formation of biogenic SOA (BSOA). The findings of this study are helpful to better explore the missed SOA sources.
Can Wu, Cong Cao, Jianjun Li, Shaojun Lv, Jin Li, Xiaodi Liu, Si Zhang, Shijie Liu, Fan Zhang, Jingjing Meng, and Gehui Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Over the past decade, the relative abundance of NH4NO3 in the aerosol has been enhanced in most urban areas of China, which profoundly affects the PM2.5 pollution episodes. Our work finds that nitrate and ammonium of fine particles exhibited distinct-different physicochemical behaviors in aerosol aging process.
Varun Kumar, Stamatios Giannoukos, Sophie L. Haslett, Yandong Tong, Atinderpal Singh, Amelie Bertrand, Chuan Ping Lee, Dongyu S. Wang, Deepika Bhattu, Giulia Stefenelli, Jay S. Dave, Joseph V. Puthussery, Lu Qi, Pawan Vats, Pragati Rai, Roberto Casotto, Rangu Satish, Suneeti Mishra, Veronika Pospisilova, Claudia Mohr, David M. Bell, Dilip Ganguly, Vishal Verma, Neeraj Rastogi, Urs Baltensperger, Sachchida N. Tripathi, André S. H. Prévôt, and Jay G. Slowik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7739–7761,Short summary
Here we present source apportionment results from the first field deployment in Delhi of an extractive electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-TOF). The EESI-TOF is a recently developed instrument capable of providing uniquely detailed online chemical characterization of organic aerosol (OA), in particular the secondary OA (SOA) fraction. Here, we are able to apportion not only primary OA but also SOA to specific sources, which is performed for the first time in Delhi.
Jiaxing Sun, Yele Sun, Conghui Xie, Weiqi Xu, Chun Chen, Zhe Wang, Lei Li, Xubing Du, Fugui Huang, Yan Li, Zhijie Li, Xiaole Pan, Nan Ma, Wanyun Xu, Pingqing Fu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7619–7630,Short summary
We analyzed the chemical composition and mixing state of BC-containing particles at urban and rural sites in winter in the North China Plain and evaluated their impact on light absorption enhancement. BC was dominantly mixed with organic carbon, nitrate, and sulfate, and the mixing state evolved significantly as a function of relative humidity (RH) at both sites. The absorption enhancement depended strongly on coated secondary inorganic aerosol and was up to ~1.3–1.4 during aging processes.
Joseph S. Schlosser, Connor Stahl, Armin Sorooshian, Yen Thi-Hoang Le, Ki-Joon Jeon, Peng Xian, Carolyn E. Jordan, Katherine R. Travis, James H. Crawford, Sung Yong Gong, Hye-Jung Shin, In-Ho Song, and Jong-sang Youn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7505–7522,Short summary
During a major haze pollution episode in March 2019, anthropogenic emissions were dominant in the boundary layer over Incheon and Seoul, South Korea. Using supermicrometer and submicrometer size- and chemistry-resolved aerosol particle measurements taken during this haze pollution period, this work shows that local emissions and a shallow boundary layer, enhanced humidity, and low temperature promoted local heterogeneous formation of secondary inorganic and organic aerosol species.
Reza Bashiri Khuzestani, Keren Liao, Ying Liu, Ruqian Miao, Yan Zheng, Xi Cheng, Tianjiao Jia, Xin Li, Shiyi Chen, Guancong Huang, and Qi Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7389–7404,Short summary
This work characterized the spatial variabilities of air pollutants in a megacity by advanced mobile measurements. The results show a large spatial heterogeneity in the distributions of PM2.5 composition and volatile organic compounds under non-haze conditions, and relatively uniform spatial distributions under haze conditions that may indicate a chemical homogeneity on an intracity scale. The findings improve our understanding of urban air pollution.
Stuart K. Grange, Gaëlle Uzu, Samuël Weber, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, and Christoph Hueglin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7029–7050,Short summary
Oxidative potential (OP), a biologically relevant metric for particulate matter (PM), was linked to PM10 and PM2.5 sources and constituents across Switzerland between 2018 and 2019. Wood burning and non-exhaust traffic emissions were identified as key processes that led to enhanced OP. Therefore, the make-up of the PM mix was very important for OP. The results highlight the importance of the management of wood burning and non-exhaust emissions to reduce OP, and presumably biological harm.
Jingcheng Hu, Zhongming Chen, Xuan Qin, and Ping Dong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6971–6987,Short summary
The gas–particle partitioning process of glyoxal and methylglyoxal could contribute to secondary organic aerosol formation. Here, we launched five observations in different seasons and simultaneously measured glyoxal and methylglyoxal in the gas and particle phases. Compared to reversible pathways, irreversible pathways played a dominant role with a proportion of more than 90 % in the ambient atmosphere, and the proportion was influenced by relative humidity and inorganic components in aerosols.
Hongxing Jiang, Jun Li, Jiao Tang, Min Cui, Shizhen Zhao, Yangzhi Mo, Chongguo Tian, Xiangyun Zhang, Bin Jiang, Yuhong Liao, Yingjun Chen, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6919–6935,Short summary
We conducted field observation employing Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry to characterize the molecular composition and major formation pathways or sources of organosulfur compounds in Guangzhou, where is heavily influenced by biogenic–anthropogenic interactions and has high relative humidity and temperature. We suggested that heterogeneous reactions such as SO2 uptake and heterogeneous oxidations are important to the molecular variations of organosulfur compounds.
Siyuan Li, Dantong Liu, Shaofei Kong, Yangzhou Wu, Kang Hu, Huang Zheng, Yi Cheng, Shurui Zheng, Xiaotong Jiang, Shuo Ding, Dawei Hu, Quan Liu, Ping Tian, Delong Zhao, and Jiujiang Sheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6937–6951,Short summary
The understanding of secondary organic aerosols is hindered by the aerosol–gas evolution by different oxidation mechanisms. By concurrently measuring detailed mass spectra of aerosol and gas phases in a megacity online, we identified the primary and secondary source sectors and investigated the transformation between gas and aerosol phases influenced by photooxidation and moisture. The results will help us to understand the respective evolution of major sources in a typical urban environment.
Lu Chen, Fang Zhang, Dongmei Zhang, Xinming Wang, Wei Song, Jieyao Liu, Jingye Ren, Sihui Jiang, Xue Li, and Zhanqing Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6773–6786,Short summary
Aerosol hygroscopicity is critical when evaluating its effect on visibility and climate. Here, the size-resolved particle hygroscopicity at five sites in China is characterized using field measurements. We show the distinct behavior of hygroscopic particles during pollution evolution among the five sites. Moreover, different hygroscopic behavior during NPF events were also observed. The dataset is helpful for understanding the spatial variability in particle composition and formation mechanisms.
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Organosulfates are components of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed in the presence of sulfate. Herein, their abundance, identity, and potential to form as sampling artifacts were studied in Centreville, AL, USA. The 10 most abundant signals accounted for 58–78 % of the total, with at least 20–200 other species accounting for the remainder. These major species were largely associated with biogenic gases, like isoprene and monoterpenes, and are proposed targets for future standard development.
Organosulfates are components of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed in the presence of...