Articles | Volume 17, issue 17
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10597–10618, 2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Special issue: Coupled chemistry–meteorology modelling: status and...
Research article 08 Sep 2017
Research article | 08 Sep 2017
Changes in domestic heating fuel use in Greece: effects on atmospheric chemistry and radiation
Eleni Athanasopoulou et al.
Panagiotis G. Kosmopoulos, Stelios Kazadzis, Michael Taylor, Eleni Athanasopoulou, Orestis Speyer, Panagiotis I. Raptis, Eleni Marinou, Emmanouil Proestakis, Stavros Solomos, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, Vassilis Amiridis, Alkiviadis Bais, and Charalabos Kontoes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2435–2453,Short summary
We study the impact of dust on solar energy using remote sensing data in conjunction with synergistic modelling and forecasting techniques. Under high aerosol loads, we found great solar energy losses of the order of 80 and 50% for concentrated solar power and photovoltaic installations, respectively. The 1-day forecast presented an overall accuracy within 10% in direct comparison to the real conditions under high energy potential, optimising the efficient energy planning and policies.
Marc Schwaerzel, Dominik Brunner, Fabian Jakub, Claudia Emde, Brigitte Buchmann, Alexis Berne, and Gerrit Kuhlmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
NO2 maps from airborne imaging remote sensing often appear much smoother than one would expect from high-resolution model simulations of NO2 over cities, despite the small ground-pixel size of the sensors. Our case study over Zurich, using the newly implemented building module of the MYSTIC radiative transfer solver, shows that 3D effect can explain the smearing and that building shadows cause a noticeable underestimation of and noise in the measured NO2 columns.
Julia Bruckert, Gholam Ali Hoshyaripour, Ákos Horváth, Lukas Muser, Fred J. Prata, Corinna Hoose, and Bernhard Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Volcanic emissions endanger aviation, public health, and also influence weather and climate. Forecasting the volcanic plume dispersion is therefore a critical yet sophisticated task. Here, we show that explicit treatment of volcanic plume dynamics and eruption source parameters significantly improve the volcanic plume dispersion forecasts. We further demonstrate the lofting of the SO2 due to a heating of volcanic particles by sunlight with major implications for volcanic aerosol research.
Ana Maria Roxana Petrescu, Chunjing Qiu, Philippe Ciais, Rona L. Thompson, Philippe Peylin, Matthew J. McGrath, Efisio Solazzo, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Peter Bergamaschi, Dominik Brunner, Glen P. Peters, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Pierre Regnier, Ronny Lauerwald, David Bastviken, Aki Tsuruta, Wilfried Winiwarter, Prabir K. Patra, Matthias Kuhnert, Gabriel D. Oreggioni, Monica Crippa, Marielle Saunois, Lucia Perugini, Tiina Markkanen, Tuula Aalto, Christine D. Groot Zwaaftink, Hanqin Tian, Yuanzhi Yao, Chris Wilson, Giulia Conchedda, Dirk Günther, Adrian Leip, Pete Smith, Jean-Matthieu Haussaire, Antti Leppänen, Alistair J. Manning, Joe McNorton, Patrick Brockmann, and Albertus Johannes Dolman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2307–2362,Short summary
This study is topical and provides a state-of-the-art scientific overview of data availability from bottom-up and top-down CH4 and N2O emissions in the EU27 and UK. The data integrate recent emission inventories with process-based model data and regional/global inversions for the European domain, aiming at reconciling them with official country-level UNFCCC national GHG inventories in support to policy and to facilitate real-time verification procedures.
Irini Tsiodra, Georgios Grivas, Kalliopi Tavernaraki, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Maria Apostolaki, Despina Paraskevopoulou, Alexandra Gogou, Constantine Parinos, Konstantina Oikonomou, Maria Tsagkaraki, Pavlos Zarmpas, Athanasios Nenes, and Nikolaos Mihalopoulos
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We analyze observations from year-long measurements at Athens, Greece. Nighttime wintertime PAH levels are four times higher than daytime, and wintertime values are 15 times higher than summertime. Biomass burning aerosol during wintertime pollution events is responsible for these significant wintertime enhancements, and accounts for 43 % of the population exposure to PAH carcinogenic risk. Biomass burning poses additional health risks beyond those associated with high PM levels that develop.
Ioanna Skoulidou, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Astrid Manders, Arjo Segers, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Myrto Gratsea, Dimitris Balis, Alkiviadis Bais, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, Trisevgeni Stavrakou, Jos van Geffen, Henk Eskes, and Andreas Richter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5269–5288,Short summary
The performance of LOTOS-EUROS v2.2.001 regional chemical transport model NO2 simulations is investigated over Greece from June to December 2018. Comparison with in situ NO2 measurements shows a spatial correlation coefficient of 0.86, while the model underestimates the concentrations mostly during daytime (12 to 15:00 local time). Further, the simulated tropospheric NO2 columns are evaluated against ground-based MAX-DOAS NO2 measurements and S5P/TROPOMI observations for July and December 2018.
Myrto Gratsea, Tim Bösch, Panagiotis Kokkalis, Andreas Richter, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Stelios Kazadzis, Alexandra Tsekeri, Alexandros Papayannis, Maria Mylonaki, Vassilis Amiridis, Nikos Mihalopoulos, and Evangelos Gerasopoulos
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 749–767,
Clémence Rose, Martine Collaud Coen, Elisabeth Andrews, Yong Lin, Isaline Bossert, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Thomas Tuch, Alfred Wiedensohler, Markus Fiebig, Pasi Aalto, Andrés Alastuey, Elisabeth Alonso-Blanco, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Todor Arsov, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Juan Andrés Casquero-Vera, Sébastien Conil, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Francisco Javier Gómez-Moreno, Martin Gysel-Beer, A. Gannet Hallar, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Melita Keywood, Jeong Eun Kim, Sang-Woo Kim, Adam Kristensson, Markku Kulmala, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Jakub Ondracek, Marco Pandolfi, Noemi Pérez, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Fabienne Reisen, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Junying Sun, Pierre Tulet, Ville Vakkari, Pieter Gideon van Zyl, Fernando Velarde, Paolo Villani, Stergios Vratolis, Zdenek Wagner, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Vladimir Zdimal, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Aerosol particles are a complex component of the atmospheric system which effects are among the most uncertain in climate change projections. Using data collected at 62 stations, this study provides the most up-to-date picture of the spatial distribution of particle number concentration and size distribution worldwide, with the aim of contributing to better representation of aerosols and their interactions with clouds in models and, therefore, better evaluation of their impact on climate.
Antoine Berchet, Espen Sollum, Rona L. Thompson, Isabelle Pison, Joël Thanwerdas, Grégoire Broquet, Frédéric Chevallier, Tuula Aalto, Peter Bergamaschi, Dominik Brunner, Richard Engelen, Audrey Fortems-Cheiney, Christoph Gerbig, Christine Groot Zwaaftink, Jean-Matthieu Haussaire, Stephan Henne, Sander Houweling, Ute Karstens, Werner L. Kutsch, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Guillaume Monteil, Paul I. Palmer, Jacob C. A. van Peet, Wouter Peters, Philippe Peylin, Elise Potier, Christian Rödenbeck, Marielle Saunois, Marko Scholze, Aki Tsuruta, and Yuanhong Zhao
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
We present here a Community Inversion Framework (CIF) to help rationalize development efforts and leverage the strengths of individual inversion systems into a comprehensive framework. The CIF is a programming protocol to allow various inversion bricks to be exchanged among researchers. The ensemble of bricks makes a flexible, transparent and open-source python-based tool. We describe the main structure and functionalities and demonstrate it in a simple academic case.
Gerrit Kuhlmann, Dominik Brunner, Grégoire Broquet, and Yasjka Meijer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6733–6754,Short summary
The European CO2M mission is a proposed constellation of CO2 imaging satellites expected to monitor CO2 emissions of large cities. Using synthetic observations, we show that a constellation of two or more satellites should be able to quantify Berlin's annual emissions with 10–20 % accuracy, even when considering atmospheric transport model errors. We therefore expect that CO2M will make an important contribution to the monitoring and verification of CO2 emissions from cities worldwide.
Lukas O. Muser, Gholam Ali Hoshyaripour, Julia Bruckert, Ákos Horváth, Elizaveta Malinina, Sandra Wallis, Fred J. Prata, Alexei Rozanov, Christian von Savigny, Heike Vogel, and Bernhard Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15015–15036,Short summary
Volcanic aerosols endanger aircraft and thus disrupt air travel globally. For aviation safety, it is vital to know the location and lifetime of such aerosols in the atmosphere. Here we show that the interaction of volcanic particles with each other eventually reduces their atmospheric lifetime. Moreover, we demonstrate that sunlight heats these particles, which lifts them several kilometers in the atmosphere. These findings support a more reliable forecast of volcanic aerosol dispersion.
Ying Zhu, Jia Chen, Xiao Bi, Gerrit Kuhlmann, Ka Lok Chan, Florian Dietrich, Dominik Brunner, Sheng Ye, and Mark Wenig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13241–13251,Short summary
Average NO2 concentration of on-street mobile measurements (MMs) near the monitoring stations (MSs) was found to be considerably higher than the MSs data. The common measurement height (H) and distance (D) of the MSs result in 27 % lower average concentrations in total than the concentration of our MMs. Another 21 % difference remained after correcting the influence of the measuring H and D. This result makes our city-wide measurements for capturing the full range of concentrations necessary.
Paolo Laj, Alessandro Bigi, Clémence Rose, Elisabeth Andrews, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Martine Collaud Coen, Yong Lin, Alfred Wiedensohler, Michael Schulz, John A. Ogren, Markus Fiebig, Jonas Gliß, Augustin Mortier, Marco Pandolfi, Tuukka Petäja, Sang-Woo Kim, Wenche Aas, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Olga Mayol-Bracero, Melita Keywood, Lorenzo Labrador, Pasi Aalto, Erik Ahlberg, Lucas Alados Arboledas, Andrés Alastuey, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Stina Ausmeel, Todor Arsov, Eija Asmi, John Backman, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Sébastien Conil, Cedric Couret, Derek Day, Wan Dayantolis, Anna Degorska, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Asta Gregorič, Martin Gysel-Beer, A. Gannet Hallar, Jenny Hand, Andras Hoffer, Christoph Hueglin, Rakesh K. Hooda, Antti Hyvärinen, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Jeong Eun Kim, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Irena Kranjc, Radovan Krejci, Markku Kulmala, Casper Labuschagne, Hae-Jung Lee, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Gunter Löschau, Krista Luoma, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Nhat Anh Nguyen, Jakub Ondracek, Noemi Pérez, Maria Rita Perrone, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Natalia Prats, Anthony Prenni, Fabienne Reisen, Salvatore Romano, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Maik Schütze, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Martin Steinbacher, Junying Sun, Gloria Titos, Barbara Toczko, Thomas Tuch, Pierre Tulet, Peter Tunved, Ville Vakkari, Fernando Velarde, Patricio Velasquez, Paolo Villani, Sterios Vratolis, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Jesus Yus-Diez, Vladimir Zdimal, Paul Zieger, and Nadezda Zikova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4353–4392,Short summary
The paper establishes the fiducial reference of the GAW aerosol network providing the fully characterized value chain to the provision of four climate-relevant aerosol properties from ground-based sites. Data from almost 90 stations worldwide are reported for a reference year, 2017, providing a unique and very robust view of the variability of these variables worldwide. Current gaps in the GAW network are analysed and requirements for the Global Climate Monitoring System are proposed.
Marc Schwaerzel, Claudia Emde, Dominik Brunner, Randulph Morales, Thomas Wagner, Alexis Berne, Brigitte Buchmann, and Gerrit Kuhlmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4277–4293,Short summary
Horizontal homogeneity is often assumed for trace gases remote sensing, although it is not valid where trace gas concentrations have high spatial variability, e.g., in cities. We show the importance of 3D effects for MAX-DOAS and airborne imaging spectrometers using 3D-box air mass factors implemented in the MYSTIC radiative transfer solver. In both cases, 3D information is invaluable for interpreting the measurements, as not considering 3D effects can lead to misinterpretation of measurements.
Martine Collaud Coen, Elisabeth Andrews, Andrés Alastuey, Todor Petkov Arsov, John Backman, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Cédric Couret, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Harald Flentje, Markus Fiebig, Martin Gysel-Beer, Jenny L. Hand, András Hoffer, Rakesh Hooda, Christoph Hueglin, Warren Joubert, Melita Keywood, Jeong Eun Kim, Sang-Woo Kim, Casper Labuschagne, Neng-Huei Lin, Yong Lin, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Krista Luoma, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Marco Pandolfi, Natalia Prats, Anthony J. Prenni, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Ludwig Ries, Fabienne Reisen, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Junying Sun, Gloria Titos, Elvis Torres, Thomas Tuch, Rolf Weller, Alfred Wiedensohler, Paul Zieger, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8867–8908,Short summary
Long-term trends of aerosol radiative properties (52 stations) prove that aerosol load has significantly decreased over the last 20 years. Scattering trends are negative in Europe (EU) and North America (NA), not ss in Asia, and show a mix of positive and negative trends at polar stations. Absorption has mainly negative trends. The single scattering albedo has positive trends in Asia and eastern EU and negative in western EU and NA, leading to a global positive median trend of 0.02 % per year.
Michael Müller, Peter Graf, Jonas Meyer, Anastasia Pentina, Dominik Brunner, Fernando Perez-Cruz, Christoph Hüglin, and Lukas Emmenegger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3815–3834,
Barbara Altstädter, Konrad Deetz, Bernhard Vogel, Karmen Babić, Cheikh Dione, Federica Pacifico, Corinne Jambert, Friederike Ebus, Konrad Bärfuss, Falk Pätzold, Astrid Lampert, Bianca Adler, Norbert Kalthoff, and Fabienne Lohou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7911–7928,Short summary
We present the high vertical variability of the black carbon (BC) mass concentration measured with the unmanned aerial system ALADINA during the field experiment of DACCIWA. The COSMO-ART model output was applied for the campaign period and is compared with the observational BC data during a case study on 14–15 July 2016. Enhanced BC concentrations were related to transport processes to the measurement site by maritime inflow and not to local emissions as initially expected.
Michael Jähn, Gerrit Kuhlmann, Qing Mu, Jean-Matthieu Haussaire, David Ochsner, Katherine Osterried, Valentin Clément, and Dominik Brunner
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2379–2392,Short summary
Emission inventories of air pollutants and greenhouse gases are widely used as input for atmospheric chemistry transport models. However, the pre-processing of these data is both time-consuming and requires a large amount of disk storage. To overcome this issue, a Python package has been developed and tested for two different models. There, the inventory is projected to the model grid and scaling factors are provided. This approach saves computational time while remaining numerically equivalent.
Alima Dajuma, Kehinde O. Ogunjobi, Heike Vogel, Peter Knippertz, Siélé Silué, Evelyne Touré N'Datchoh, Véronique Yoboué, and Bernhard Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5373–5390,Short summary
A modeling study through COSMO-ART was used to investigate the implication of downward mixing induced by clouds in transporting biomass burning aerosols from central and southern Africa located between 2 and 4 km into the PBL over southern West Africa. Results showed that individual mixing events south of the coast of Côte d’Ivoire due to mid-level convective clouds injects part of the biomass burning plume into the PBL. 15 % of CO mass from the 2–4 km layer is mixed below 1 km.
Gianluca Mussetti, Dominik Brunner, Stephan Henne, Jonas Allegrini, E. Scott Krayenhoff, Sebastian Schubert, Christian Feigenwinter, Roland Vogt, Andreas Wicki, and Jan Carmeliet
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1685–1710,Short summary
Street trees are regarded as a powerful measure to reduce excessive heat in cities. To enable city-wide studies of the cooling effect of street trees, we developed a coupled urban climate model with explicit representation of street trees (COSMO-BEP-Tree). The model compares well with surface, flux and satellite observations and responds realistically to changes in tree characteristics. Street trees largely impact energy fluxes and wind speed, while air temperatures are only slightly reduced.
Constanze Wellmann, Andrew I. Barrett, Jill S. Johnson, Michael Kunz, Bernhard Vogel, Ken S. Carslaw, and Corinna Hoose
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2201–2219,Short summary
Severe hailstorms may cause damage to buildings and crops. Thus, the forecast of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models should be as reliable as possible. Using statistical emulation, we identify those model input parameters describing environmental conditions and cloud microphysics which lead to large uncertainties in the prediction of deep convection. We find that the impact of the input parameters on the uncertainty depends on the considered output variable.
Gerrit Kuhlmann, Grégoire Broquet, Julia Marshall, Valentin Clément, Armin Löscher, Yasjka Meijer, and Dominik Brunner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6695–6719,Short summary
The Copernicus Anthropogenic CO2 Monitoring (CO2M) mission is a proposed constellation of imaging satellites with a CO2 instrument as main payload and optionally instruments for NO2, CO and aerosols. This study demonstrates the huge benefit of an NO2 instrument for detecting city plumes and weak point sources. Its main advantages are the higher signal-to-noise ratio and the lower sensitivity to clouds that significantly increases the number of observations available for quantifying CO2 emission.
Sophie L. Haslett, Jonathan W. Taylor, Mathew Evans, Eleanor Morris, Bernhard Vogel, Alima Dajuma, Joel Brito, Anneke M. Batenburg, Stephan Borrmann, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Cyrielle Denjean, Thierry Bourrianne, Peter Knippertz, Régis Dupuy, Alfons Schwarzenböck, Daniel Sauer, Cyrille Flamant, James Dorsey, Ian Crawford, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15217–15234,Short summary
Three aircraft datasets from the DACCIWA campaign in summer 2016 are used here to show there is a background mass of pollution present in the lower atmosphere in southern West Africa. We suggest that this likely comes from biomass burning in central and southern Africa, which has been carried into the region over the Atlantic Ocean. This would have a negative health impact on populations living near the coast and may alter the impact of growing city emissions on cloud formation and the monsoon.
Michael Pikridas, Spiros Bezantakos, Griša Močnik, Christos Keleshis, Fred Brechtel, Iasonas Stavroulas, Gregoris Demetriades, Panayiota Antoniou, Panagiotis Vouterakos, Marios Argyrides, Eleni Liakakou, Luka Drinovec, Eleni Marinou, Vassilis Amiridis, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, and Jean Sciare
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6425–6447,Short summary
This work evaluates the performance of three sensors that monitor black carbon (soot). These sensors exhibit similar behavior to their rack-mounted counterparts and are therefore promising for more extended use. A reconstruction of the black carbon mass vertical distribution above Athens, Greece, is shown using drones, similar to those acquired by remote-sensing techniques. The potential of combining miniature sensors with drones for at least the lower part of the atmosphere is exhibited.
Ignacio Pisso, Espen Sollum, Henrik Grythe, Nina I. Kristiansen, Massimo Cassiani, Sabine Eckhardt, Delia Arnold, Don Morton, Rona L. Thompson, Christine D. Groot Zwaaftink, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Harald Sodemann, Leopold Haimberger, Stephan Henne, Dominik Brunner, John F. Burkhart, Anne Fouilloux, Jerome Brioude, Anne Philipp, Petra Seibert, and Andreas Stohl
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 4955–4997,Short summary
We present the latest release of the Lagrangian transport model FLEXPART, which simulates the transport, diffusion, dry and wet deposition, radioactive decay, and 1st-order chemical reactions of atmospheric tracers. The model has been recently updated both technically and in the representation of physicochemical processes. We describe the changes, document the most recent input and output files, provide working examples, and introduce testing capabilities.
Xiaoli Shen, Heike Vogel, Bernhard Vogel, Wei Huang, Claudia Mohr, Ramakrishna Ramisetty, Thomas Leisner, André S. H. Prévôt, and Harald Saathoff
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13189–13208,Short summary
This study provides good insight into the chemical nature and complex origin of aerosols by combining comprehensive field observations and transport modelling. We suggest that factors related to topography, metrological conditions, local emissions, in situ formation and growth, regional transport, and the interaction of biogenic and anthropogenic compounds need to be considered for a comprehensive understanding of aerosol processes.
Jenny P. S. Wong, Maria Tsagkaraki, Irini Tsiodra, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Kalliopi Violaki, Maria Kanakidou, Jean Sciare, Athanasios Nenes, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7319–7334,Short summary
Biomass burning is a major source of light-absorbing organic species in atmospheric aerosols, and it can play an important role in climate and atmospheric chemistry. Through a combination of laboratory experiments and field observations, this work demonstrated that the light absorption properties of aged biomass burning organic aerosols are dominated by high-molecular-weight compounds. In addition, we found that total hydrated sugars may be a robust tracer for aged biomass burning aerosols.
Panayiotis Kalkavouras, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Nikos Kalivitis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Maria Tombrou, Athanasios Nenes, and Nikolaos Mihalopoulos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6185–6203,Short summary
We study how new particle formation (NPF) events affect clouds throughout the year at a ground site in the E Mediterranean. Using a new tools and evaluation metrics, NPF is found to affect only evening and nocturnal clouds by modestly increasing droplet number by 7 to 12 %. A conventional analysis based on CCN concentration at prescribed supersaturation levels or aerosol size can considerably bias the perceived influence of NPF events on regional clouds, the hydrological cycle, and climate.
Dominik Brunner, Gerrit Kuhlmann, Julia Marshall, Valentin Clément, Oliver Fuhrer, Grégoire Broquet, Armin Löscher, and Yasjka Meijer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4541–4559,Short summary
Atmospheric transport models are increasingly being used to estimate CO2 emissions from atmospheric CO2 measurements. This study demonstrates the importance of distributing CO2 emissions vertically in the model according to realistic profiles, since a major proportion of CO2 is emitted through tall stacks from power plants and industrial sources. With the traditional approach of emitting all CO2 at the surface, models may significantly overestimate the atmospheric CO2 levels.
Nikos Kalivitis, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Evaggelia Tzitzikalaki, Panayiotis Kalkavouras, Nikos Daskalakis, Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Hanna E. Manninen, Pontus Roldin, Tuukka Petäjä, Michael Boy, Markku Kulmala, Maria Kanakidou, and Nikolaos Mihalopoulos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2671–2686,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) is an important source of atmospheric aerosols. For the Mediterranean atmosphere, only few studies exist. In this study we present one of the longest series of NPF by analyzing 10 years of data from Crete, Greece. NPF took place on 27 % of the available days; it was more frequent in spring and less so in late summer. Model simulations showed that NPF in the subtropical environment may differ greatly from that in the boreal environment.
Sophie L. Haslett, Jonathan W. Taylor, Konrad Deetz, Bernhard Vogel, Karmen Babić, Norbert Kalthoff, Andreas Wieser, Cheikh Dione, Fabienne Lohou, Joel Brito, Régis Dupuy, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Paul Zieger, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1505–1520,Short summary
As the population in West Africa grows and air pollution increases, it is becoming ever more important to understand the effects of this pollution on the climate and on health. Aerosol particles can grow by absorbing water from the air around them. This paper shows that during the monsoon season, aerosol particles in the region are likely to grow significantly because of the high moisture in the air. This means that climate effects from increasing pollution will be enhanced.
Iasonas Stavroulas, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Georgios Grivas, Despina Paraskevopoulou, Maria Tsagkaraki, Pavlos Zarmpas, Eleni Liakakou, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, and Nikolaos Mihalopoulos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 901–919,Short summary
Over the last few years, many cities in Greece have suffered from significant air quality deterioration events during wintertime. Driven by such observations, we studied the variability and main sources of submicron particulate matter in Athens, Greece, as a large part of the population in this region is exposed to high levels, which sometimes exceed legislative limit values. It was found that such events are mostly associated with combustion sources used for domestic heating during winter.
Anastasia Panopoulou, Eleni Liakakou, Valérie Gros, Stéphane Sauvage, Nadine Locoge, Bernard Bonsang, Basil E. Psiloglou, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, and Nikolaos Mihalopoulos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16139–16154,Short summary
This work presents time-resolved data of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) from automatic chromatographs, measured over a period of 5 months in the greater Athens area. The measured concentrations are higher relative to other recent studies for the majority of NMHCs. A remarkable day-to-day variability is also observed. The contributions from traffic and residential heating to NMHCs are investigated, as they were the major sources impacting the air quality during the study period.
Rocío Baró, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, Martin Stengel, Dominik Brunner, Gabriele Curci, Renate Forkel, Lucy Neal, Laura Palacios-Peña, Nicholas Savage, Martijn Schaap, Paolo Tuccella, Hugo Denier van der Gon, and Stefano Galmarini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15183–15199,Short summary
Particles in the atmosphere, such as pollution, desert dust, and volcanic ash, have an impact on meteorology. They interact with incoming radiation resulting in a cooling effect of the atmosphere. Today, the use of meteorology and chemistry models help us to understand these processes, but there are a lot of uncertainties. The goal of this work is to evaluate how these interactions are represented in the models by comparing them to satellite data to see how close they are to reality.
Tuomo Nieminen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Pasi P. Aalto, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Urs Baltensperger, David C. S. Beddows, Johan Paul Beukes, Don Collins, Aijun Ding, Roy M. Harrison, Bas Henzing, Rakesh Hooda, Min Hu, Urmas Hõrrak, Niku Kivekäs, Kaupo Komsaare, Radovan Krejci, Adam Kristensson, Lauri Laakso, Ari Laaksonen, W. Richard Leaitch, Heikki Lihavainen, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Zoltán Németh, Wei Nie, Colin O'Dowd, Imre Salma, Karine Sellegri, Birgitta Svenningsson, Erik Swietlicki, Peter Tunved, Vidmantas Ulevicius, Ville Vakkari, Marko Vana, Alfred Wiedensohler, Zhijun Wu, Annele Virtanen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14737–14756,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols have diverse effects on air quality, human health, and global climate. One important source of aerosols is their formation via nucleation and growth in the atmosphere. We have analyzed long-term observations of regional new particle formation events around the globe and provide a comprehensive view on the characteristics of this phenomenon in diverse environments. The results are useful in developing more realistic representation of atmospheric aerosols in global models.
Christina Theodosi, Maria Tsagkaraki, Pavlos Zarmpas, Georgios Grivas, Eleni Liakakou, Despina Paraskevopoulou, Maria Lianou, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, and Nikolaos Mihalopoulos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14371–14391,Short summary
A long-term estimation of the chemical composition of PM2.5, a chemical mass closure exercise, and the source identification of particulate matter took place at an urban background site of central Athens, allowing us to further assess the impact of residential heating as a source of air pollution over Athens. PM2.5, EC, POM, NO3-, C2O42-, nssK+, Pb, and Cd were increased by up to a factor of 4 at night compared to during the day, highlighting the importance of heating on air quality in Athens.
Konrad Deetz, Heike Vogel, Sophie Haslett, Peter Knippertz, Hugh Coe, and Bernhard Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14271–14295,Short summary
Water uptake can significantly increase the size and therefore alters the optical properties of aerosols. Our model study reveals that the high moisture and aerosol burden in the southern West African monsoon layer makes it favorable to quantify properties that determine the aerosol liquid water content and its impact on the aerosol optical depth and radiative transfer. Especially in moist tropical environments the relative humidity impact on AOD has to be considered in atmospheric models.
Jennifer Schröter, Daniel Rieger, Christian Stassen, Heike Vogel, Michael Weimer, Sven Werchner, Jochen Förstner, Florian Prill, Daniel Reinert, Günther Zängl, Marco Giorgetta, Roland Ruhnke, Bernhard Vogel, and Peter Braesicke
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4043–4068,Short summary
In this paper, we introduce the most up-to-date version of the flexible tracer framework for the ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic model with Aerosols and Reactive Trace gases (ICON-ART). We performed multiple simulations using different ICON physics configurations for weather and climate with ART. The flexible tracer framework within ICON-ART 2.1 suits the demands of a large variety of different applications ranging from numerical weather prediction to climate integrations.
Athina-Cerise Kalogridis, Stergios Vratolis, Eleni Liakakou, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, and Konstantinos Eleftheriadis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10219–10236,Short summary
Contribution of biomass burning versus fossil fuel use on wintertime air pollution is investigated based on continuous surface measurements of black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) at a suburban and an urban background monitoring sites in Athens. Fossil fuel combustion is found to be the major contributor to both BC and CO ambient concentrations. However, wood burning used for domestic heating makes a significant contribution of about 30 and 15 % to the observed BC and CO levels.
Konrad Deetz, Heike Vogel, Peter Knippertz, Bianca Adler, Jonathan Taylor, Hugh Coe, Keith Bower, Sophie Haslett, Michael Flynn, James Dorsey, Ian Crawford, Christoph Kottmeier, and Bernhard Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9767–9788,Short summary
Highly resolved process study simulations for 2–3 July are conducted with COSMO-ART to assess the aerosol direct and indirect effect on meteorological conditions over southern West Africa. The meteorological phenomena of Atlantic inflow and stratus-to-cumulus transition are identified as highly susceptible to the aerosol direct effect, leading to a spatial shift of the Atlantic inflow front and a temporal shift of the stratus-to-cumulus transition with changes in the aerosol amount.
Marco Pandolfi, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Andrés Alastuey, Marcos Andrade, Christo Angelov, Begoña Artiñano, John Backman, Urs Baltensperger, Paolo Bonasoni, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Martine Collaud Coen, Sébastien Conil, Esther Coz, Vincent Crenn, Vadimas Dudoitis, Marina Ealo, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Olivier Favez, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Markus Fiebig, Harald Flentje, Patrick Ginot, Martin Gysel, Bas Henzing, Andras Hoffer, Adela Holubova Smejkalova, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Adam Kristensson, Markku Kulmala, Heikki Lihavainen, Chris Lunder, Krista Luoma, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Marcel Moerman, José Nicolas, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Eudes Petit, Jean Marc Pichon, Nina Prokopciuk, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Sergio Rodríguez, Jean Sciare, Karine Sellegri, Erik Swietlicki, Gloria Titos, Thomas Tuch, Peter Tunved, Vidmantas Ulevicius, Aditya Vaishya, Milan Vana, Aki Virkkula, Stergios Vratolis, Ernest Weingartner, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7877–7911,Short summary
This investigation presents the variability in near-surface in situ aerosol particle light-scattering measurements obtained over the past decade at 28 measuring atmospheric observatories which are part of the ACTRIS Research Infrastructure, and most of them belong to the GAW network. This paper provides a comprehensive picture of the spatial and temporal variability of aerosol particles optical properties in Europe.
Simon Gruber, Simon Unterstrasser, Jan Bechtold, Heike Vogel, Martin Jung, Henry Pak, and Bernhard Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6393–6411,Short summary
A numerical model also used for operational weather forecast was applied to investigate the impact of contrails and contrail cirrus on the radiative fluxes at the earth's surface. Accounting for contrails produced by aircraft enables the model to simulate high clouds that are otherwise missing. In a case study, we find that the effect of these extra clouds is to reduce the incoming shortwave radiation at the surface as well as the production of photovoltaic power by up to 10 %.
Laura Palacios-Peña, Rocío Baró, Alexander Baklanov, Alessandra Balzarini, Dominik Brunner, Renate Forkel, Marcus Hirtl, Luka Honzak, José María López-Romero, Juan Pedro Montávez, Juan Luis Pérez, Guido Pirovano, Roberto San José, Wolfram Schröder, Johannes Werhahn, Ralf Wolke, Rahela Žabkar, and Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5021–5043,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols modify the radiative budget of the Earth, and it is therefore mandatory to have an accurate representation of their optical properties for understanding their climatic role. This work therefore evaluates the skill in the representation of optical properties by different remote-sensing sensors and regional online coupled chemistry–climate models over Europe.
Fabian Schoenenberger, Stephan Henne, Matthias Hill, Martin K. Vollmer, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Simon O'Doherty, Michela Maione, Lukas Emmenegger, Thomas Peter, and Stefan Reimann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4069–4092,Short summary
Anthropogenic halocarbon emissions contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. We measured atmospheric halocarbons for 6 months on Crete to extend the coverage of the existing observation network to the Eastern Mediterranean. The derived emission estimates showed a contribution of 16.8 % (13.6–23.3 %) and 53.2 % (38.1–84.2 %) of this region to the total HFC and HCFC emissions of the analyzed European domain and a reduction of the underlying uncertainties by 40–80 %.
Abdelhadi El Yazidi, Michel Ramonet, Philippe Ciais, Gregoire Broquet, Isabelle Pison, Amara Abbaris, Dominik Brunner, Sebastien Conil, Marc Delmotte, Francois Gheusi, Frederic Guerin, Lynn Hazan, Nesrine Kachroudi, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Leonard Rivier, and Dominique Serça
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1599–1614,
Julia Schmale, Silvia Henning, Stefano Decesari, Bas Henzing, Helmi Keskinen, Karine Sellegri, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Mira L. Pöhlker, Joel Brito, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Adam Kristensson, Nikos Kalivitis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Samara Carbone, Anne Jefferson, Minsu Park, Patrick Schlag, Yoko Iwamoto, Pasi Aalto, Mikko Äijälä, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Mikael Ehn, Göran Frank, Roman Fröhlich, Arnoud Frumau, Erik Herrmann, Hartmut Herrmann, Rupert Holzinger, Gerard Kos, Markku Kulmala, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Athanasios Nenes, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, David Picard, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Laurent Poulain, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, Erik Swietlicki, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Alfred Wiedensohler, John Ogren, Atsushi Matsuki, Seong Soo Yum, Frank Stratmann, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2853–2881,Short summary
Collocated long-term observations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites are synthesized. Observations cover coastal environments, the Arctic, the Mediterranean, the boreal and rain forest, high alpine and continental background sites, and Monsoon-influenced areas. We interpret regional and seasonal variability. CCN concentrations are predicted with the κ–Köhler model and compared to the measurements.
Stelios Kazadzis, Dimitra Founda, Basil E. Psiloglou, Harry Kambezidis, Nickolaos Mihalopoulos, Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo, Charikleia Meleti, Panagiotis I. Raptis, Fragiskos Pierros, and Pierre Nabat
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2395–2411,Short summary
The National Observatory of Athens has been collecting solar radiation, sunshine duration, and cloud and visibility data/observations since the beginning of the 20th century. In this work we present surface solar radiation data since 1953 and reconstructed data since 1900. We have attempted to show and discuss the long-term changes in solar surface radiation over Athens, Greece, using these unique datasets.
Alexandra Tsekeri, Anton Lopatin, Vassilis Amiridis, Eleni Marinou, Julia Igloffstein, Nikolaos Siomos, Stavros Solomos, Panagiotis Kokkalis, Ronny Engelmann, Holger Baars, Myrto Gratsea, Panagiotis I. Raptis, Ioannis Binietoglou, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos Kalivitis, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Nikolaos Bartsotas, George Kallos, Sara Basart, Dirk Schuettemeyer, Ulla Wandinger, Albert Ansmann, Anatoli P. Chaikovsky, and Oleg Dubovik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4995–5016,Short summary
The Generalized Aerosol Retrieval from Radiometer and Lidar Combined data algorithm (GARRLiC) and the LIdar-Radiometer Inversion Code (LIRIC) provide the opportunity to study the aerosol vertical distribution by combining ground-based lidar and sun-photometric measurements. Here, we utilize the capabilities of both algorithms for the characterization of Saharan dust and marine particles, along with their mixtures, in the south-eastern Mediterranean.
Yu Liu, Nicolas Gruber, and Dominik Brunner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14145–14169,Short summary
We analyze fossil fuel signals in atmospheric CO2 over Europe using a high-resolution atmospheric transport model and diurnal emission data. We find that fossil fuel CO2 accounts for more than half of the atmospheric CO2 variations, mainly at diurnal timescales. The covariance of diurnal emission and transport also leads to a substantial rectification effect. Thus, the consideration of diurnal emissions and high-resolution transport is paramount for accurately modeling the fossil fuel signal.
Philipp Gasch, Daniel Rieger, Carolin Walter, Pavel Khain, Yoav Levi, Peter Knippertz, and Bernhard Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13573–13604,Short summary
This paper presents simulations of a severe dust event in the Eastern Mediterranean with a weather prediction model using very high spatial resolution. Due to the high resolution, the small-scale features of the event are captured in great detail. Consequently, the previously erroneous forecast of the event is improved drastically. In addition, the interaction of mineral dust with radiation inside the model has been included as a part of this work and is presented here.
Daniel Rieger, Andrea Steiner, Vanessa Bachmann, Philipp Gasch, Jochen Förstner, Konrad Deetz, Bernhard Vogel, and Heike Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13391–13415,Short summary
The importance for reliable forecasts of incoming solar radiation is growing rapidly, especially for those countries with an increasing share in photovoltaic (PV) power production. We investigate the impact of mineral dust on the PV power generation during a Saharan dust outbreak over Germany on 4 April 2014. We find an overall improvement of the PV power forecast for 65 % of the pyranometer stations in Germany.
Antoine Berchet, Katrin Zink, Dietmar Oettl, Jürg Brunner, Lukas Emmenegger, and Dominik Brunner
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3441–3459,Short summary
We evaluate a new cost-effective method to simulate pollutant dispersion at high resolution on a city-wide domain. The method is based on a catalogue of reference simulations matched to weather observations to produce a sequence of hourly pollution maps. A total of 2 years of simulations are compared with continuous measurements and passive NO2 samplers in the city of Zurich. Spatial and temporal variability proved to be very well reproduced by the method.
Tesfaye A. Berhanu, Sönke Szidat, Dominik Brunner, Ece Satar, Rüdiger Schanda, Peter Nyfeler, Michael Battaglia, Martin Steinbacher, Samuel Hammer, and Markus Leuenberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10753–10766,Short summary
Fossil fuel CO2 is the major contributor of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere, and accurate quantification is essential to better understand the carbon cycle. Such accurate quantification can be conducted based on radiocarbon measurements. In this study, we present radiocarbon measurements from a tall tower site in Switzerland. From these measurements, we have observed seasonally varying fossil fuel CO2 contributions and a biospheric CO2 component that varies diurnally and seasonally.
Dominik Brunner, Tim Arnold, Stephan Henne, Alistair Manning, Rona L. Thompson, Michela Maione, Simon O'Doherty, and Stefan Reimann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10651–10674,Short summary
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and SF6 are industrially produced gases with a large greenhouse-gas warming potential. In this study, we estimated the emissions of HFCs and SF6 over Europe by combining measurements at three background stations with four different model systems. We identified significant differences between our estimates and nationally reported numbers, but also found that the network of only three sites in Europe is insufficient to reliably attribute emissions to individual countries.
Yann Poltera, Giovanni Martucci, Martine Collaud Coen, Maxime Hervo, Lukas Emmenegger, Stephan Henne, Dominik Brunner, and Alexander Haefele
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10051–10070,Short summary
We present the PathfinderTURB algorithm for the analysis of ceilometer backscatter data and the real-time detection of the vertical structure of the planetary boundary layer. PathfinderTURB has been applied to 1 year of data measured by two ceilometers operated at two Swiss stations: the Aerological Observatory of Payerne on the Swiss plateau, and the Alpine Jungfraujoch observatory. The study shows that aerosols from the boundary layer significantly influence the air measured at Jungfraujoch.
Rocío Baró, Laura Palacios-Peña, Alexander Baklanov, Alessandra Balzarini, Dominik Brunner, Renate Forkel, Marcus Hirtl, Luka Honzak, Juan Luis Pérez, Guido Pirovano, Roberto San José, Wolfram Schröder, Johannes Werhahn, Ralf Wolke, Rahela Žabkar, and Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9677–9696,Short summary
The influence on modeled max., mean and min. temperature over Europe of including aerosol–radiation–cloud interactions has been assessed for two case studies in 2010. Data were taken from an ensemble of online regional chemistry–climate models from EuMetChem COST Action. The results indicate that including these interactions clearly improves the spatiotemporal variability in the temperature signal simulated by the models, with implications for reducing the uncertainty in climate projections.
Kevin Berland, Clémence Rose, Jorge Pey, Anais Culot, Evelyn Freney, Nikolaos Kalivitis, Giorgios Kouvarakis, José Carlos Cerro, Marc Mallet, Karine Sartelet, Matthias Beckmann, Thierry Bourriane, Greg Roberts, Nicolas Marchand, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, and Karine Sellegri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9567–9583,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) from gas-phase precursors is a process that is expected to drive the total number concentration of particles in the atmosphere. Here we use measurements performed simultaneously in Corsica, Crete and Mallorca to show that the spatial extent of the NPF events are several hundreds of kilometers large. Airborne measurements additionally show that nanoparticles in the marine atmosphere can either be of marine origin or from higher altitudes above the continent.
Franziska Glassmeier, Anna Possner, Bernhard Vogel, Heike Vogel, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8651–8680,Short summary
We compare two chemistry and aerosol schemes – one designed for air-quality, the other for climate applications. For distribution, composition and radiative properties, the choice of aerosol types and processes turns out to be more important than their implementation. For aerosol–cloud interactions, we find cloud processes, in particular ice formation, to be the main obstacle to our understanding.
Panagiotis G. Kosmopoulos, Stelios Kazadzis, Michael Taylor, Eleni Athanasopoulou, Orestis Speyer, Panagiotis I. Raptis, Eleni Marinou, Emmanouil Proestakis, Stavros Solomos, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, Vassilis Amiridis, Alkiviadis Bais, and Charalabos Kontoes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2435–2453,Short summary
We study the impact of dust on solar energy using remote sensing data in conjunction with synergistic modelling and forecasting techniques. Under high aerosol loads, we found great solar energy losses of the order of 80 and 50% for concentrated solar power and photovoltaic installations, respectively. The 1-day forecast presented an overall accuracy within 10% in direct comparison to the real conditions under high energy potential, optimising the efficient energy planning and policies.
Michael Weimer, Jennifer Schröter, Johannes Eckstein, Konrad Deetz, Marco Neumaier, Garlich Fischbeck, Lu Hu, Dylan B. Millet, Daniel Rieger, Heike Vogel, Bernhard Vogel, Thomas Reddmann, Oliver Kirner, Roland Ruhnke, and Peter Braesicke
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2471–2494,Short summary
In this paper, the recently developed module for trace gas emissions in the online coupled modelling framework ICON-ART for atmospheric chemistry is presented. Algorithms for offline and online calculation of the emissions are described. The module is validated with ground-based as well as airborne measurements of acetone. It is shown that the module performs well and allows the simulation of annual cycles of emission-driven trace gases.
Konrad Deetz and Bernhard Vogel
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1607–1620,Short summary
A new gas flaring emission data set for CO, CO2, NO, NO2 and SO2 has been developed, which combines remote sensing observations with combustion equations. The physically based parameterization can easily be applied to different research domains, e.g., to provide flaring emission datasets for chemistry models. Within the project DACCIWA, we have derived a flaring data set for southern West Africa and compared the results to pre-existing emission inventories.
Kalliopi Florou, Dimitrios K. Papanastasiou, Michael Pikridas, Christos Kaltsonoudis, Evangelos Louvaris, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, David Patoulias, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3145–3163,Short summary
The composition of fine particulate matter (PM) in two major Greek cities (Athens and Patras) was measured during two wintertime campaigns in 2012 and 2013. Residential wood burning has dramatically increased due to the Greek financial crisis, contributing around 50 % of the fine PM on average and more than 80 % during nighttime. Cooking is also an important source during both midday and evening, while transportation dominates only during the morning rush hour.
Alexandra Tsekeri, Vassilis Amiridis, Franco Marenco, Athanasios Nenes, Eleni Marinou, Stavros Solomos, Phil Rosenberg, Jamie Trembath, Graeme J. Nott, James Allan, Michael Le Breton, Asan Bacak, Hugh Coe, Carl Percival, and Nikolaos Mihalopoulos
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 83–107,Short summary
The In situ/Remote sensing aerosol Retrieval Algorithm (IRRA) provides vertical profiles of aerosol optical, microphysical and hygroscopic properties from airborne in situ and remote sensing measurements. The algorithm is highly advantageous for aerosol characterization in humid conditions, employing the ISORROPIA II model for acquiring the particle hygroscopic growth. IRRA can find valuable applications in aerosol–cloud interaction schemes and in validation of active space-borne sensors.
Laura Palacios-Peña, Rocío Baró, Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Dominik Brunner, and Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 277–296,Short summary
The effects of atmospheric aerosols over the Earth’s climate mainly depend on their optical, microphysical and chemical properties, which modify the Earth's radiative budget, the main source of uncertainty in climate change. In this work we have studied the representation of aerosol optical properties using an online coupled model (WRF-Chem) when aerosol–radiation interactions (ARIs) and aerosol–clouds interactions (ACIs) are taken into account over the Iberian Peninsula.
Panayiotis Kalkavouras, Elissavet Bossioli, Spiros Bezantakos, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Nikos Kalivitis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Anna P. Protonotariou, Aggeliki Dandou, George Biskos, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Athanasios Nenes, and Maria Tombrou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 175–192,Short summary
Concentrations of chemically and size-resolved submicron aerosol particles along with concentrations of gases and meteorological variables were measured at Santorini and Finokalia (central and southern Aegean Sea) during the Etesians. Particle nucleation bursts were recorded. The NPF can double CCN number (at 0.1 % supersaturation), but the resulting strong competition for water vapor in cloudy updrafts decreases maximum supersaturation by 14 % and augments the potential droplet number by 12 %.
Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Ulas Im, Efisio Solazzo, Roberto Bianconi, Alba Badia, Alessandra Balzarini, Rocío Baró, Roberto Bellasio, Dominik Brunner, Charles Chemel, Gabriele Curci, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Johannes Flemming, Renate Forkel, Lea Giordano, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, Marcus Hirtl, Oriol Jorba, Astrid Manders-Groot, Lucy Neal, Juan L. Pérez, Guidio Pirovano, Roberto San Jose, Nicholas Savage, Wolfram Schroder, Ranjeet S. Sokhi, Dimiter Syrakov, Paolo Tuccella, Johannes Werhahn, Ralf Wolke, Christian Hogrefe, and Stefano Galmarini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15629–15652,Short summary
Four ensemble methods are applied to two annual AQMEII datasets and their performance is compared for O3, NO2 and PM10. The goal of the study is to quantify to what extent we can extract predictable signals from an ensemble with superior skill at each station over the single models and the ensemble mean. The promotion of the right amount of accuracy and diversity within the ensemble results in an average additional skill of up to 31 % compared to using the full ensemble in an unconditional way.
Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Athanasios Nenes, Alex R. Baker, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, and Maria Kanakidou
Biogeosciences, 13, 6519–6543,Short summary
The global atmospheric cycle of P is simulated accounting for natural and anthropogenic sources, acid dissolution of dust aerosol and changes in atmospheric acidity. Simulations show that P-containing dust dissolution flux may have increased in the last 150 years but is expected to decrease in the future, and biological particles are important carriers of bioavailable P to the ocean. These insights to the P cycle have important implications for marine ecosystem responses to climate change.
Stelios Kazadzis, Panagiotis Raptis, Natalia Kouremeti, Vassilis Amiridis, Antti Arola, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, and Gregory L. Schuster
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5997–6011,Short summary
Aerosols play an important role in the Earth's climate. One of the main aerosol properties is the single scattering albedo which is a measure of the aerosol absorption. In this work we have presented a method to retrieve this aerosol property in the ultraviolet and we presented the results for measurements at the urban environment of Athens, Greece. We show that the spectral dependence of the aerosol absorption in the VIS–IR and the UV range depends on the aerosol composition and type.
Leo J. Donner, Travis A. O'Brien, Daniel Rieger, Bernhard Vogel, and William F. Cooke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12983–12992,Short summary
Uncertainties in both climate forcing and sensitivity limit the extent to which climate projections can meet society's needs for actionable climate science. Advances in observing and modeling atmospheric vertical velocities provide a potential breakthrough in understanding climate forcing and sensitivity, with concurrent reductions in uncertainty.
Dimitra Founda, Stelios Kazadzis, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, Maria Lianou, and Panagiotis I. Raptis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11219–11236,Short summary
Historical time series are unique sources of information for past climate and atmospheric composition change. The 82-year time series of visibility data collected at the National Observatory of Athens (NOA) was an excellent proxy for the long-term evolution of particulate pollution in the eastern Mediterranean, at times when direct aerosol measurements were missing. Evolution of particulate pollution of both local and regional origin is nicely reflected on visibility records of NOA.
Thomas Röckmann, Simon Eyer, Carina van der Veen, Maria E. Popa, Béla Tuzson, Guillaume Monteil, Sander Houweling, Eliza Harris, Dominik Brunner, Hubertus Fischer, Giulia Zazzeri, David Lowry, Euan G. Nisbet, Willi A. Brand, Jaroslav M. Necki, Lukas Emmenegger, and Joachim Mohn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10469–10487,Short summary
A dual isotope ratio mass spectrometric system (IRMS) and a quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS)-based technique were deployed at the Cabauw experimental site for atmospheric research (CESAR) in the Netherlands and performed in situ, high-frequency (approx. hourly) measurements for a period of more than 5 months, yielding a combined dataset with more than 2500 measurements of both δ13C and δD.
Carolin Walter, Saulo R. Freitas, Christoph Kottmeier, Isabel Kraut, Daniel Rieger, Heike Vogel, and Bernhard Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9201–9219,Short summary
Buoyancy produced by vegetation fires can lead to substantial plume rise with consequences for the dispersion of aerosol emitted by the fires. To study this effect a 1-D plume rise model was included into the regional online integrated model system COSMO-ART. Comparing model results and satellite data for a case study of 2010 Canadian wildfires shows, that the plume rise model outperforms prescribed emission height. The radiative impact of the aerosol leads to a pronounced temperature change.
Tesfaye Ayalneh Berhanu, Ece Satar, Rudiger Schanda, Peter Nyfeler, Hanspeter Moret, Dominik Brunner, Brian Oney, and Markus Leuenberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2603–2614,Short summary
In this manuscript, we have presented Co, CO2 and CH4 measurement data from an old radio tower tower (217.5 m) at Beromunster, Switzerland. From about 2 years of continuous CO, CO2 and CH4 measurement at five different heights, we have determined a long-term reproducibility of 2.79 ppb, 0.05 ppm and 0.29 ppb for CO, CO2 and CH4, respectively, compliant with the GAW requirements. We have also observed seasonal and diurnal variation of these species.
Andrés Alastuey, Xavier Querol, Wenche Aas, Franco Lucarelli, Noemí Pérez, Teresa Moreno, Fabrizia Cavalli, Hans Areskoug, Violeta Balan, Maria Catrambone, Darius Ceburnis, José C. Cerro, Sébastien Conil, Lusine Gevorgyan, Christoph Hueglin, Kornelia Imre, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Sarah R. Leeson, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Marta Mitosinkova, Colin D. O'Dowd, Jorge Pey, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Véronique Riffault, Anna Ripoll, Jean Sciare, Karine Sellegri, Gerald Spindler, and Karl Espen Yttri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6107–6129,Short summary
Mineral dust content in PM10 was analysed at 20 regional background sites across Europe. Higher dust loadings were observed at most sites in summer, with the most elevated concentrations in the southern- and easternmost countries, due to external and regional sources. Saharan dust outbreaks impacted western and central European in summer and eastern Mediterranean sites in winter. The spatial distribution of some metals reveals the influence of specific anthropogenic sources on a regional scale.
Ece Satar, Tesfaye A. Berhanu, Dominik Brunner, Stephan Henne, and Markus Leuenberger
Biogeosciences, 13, 2623–2635,Short summary
Beromünster tall tower is the flagship of the densely placed Swiss greenhouse gas observation network (CarboCount CH). In this research article we report the first 2 years of the continuous greenhouse gas measurements using cavity ring down spectroscopy analyzer from this tall tower. We have adopted a purely observation based, multi-species and multi-level approach to characterize the site with respect to sources and sinks of natural and anthropogenic origin at diurnal to annual timescales.
Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Panayiota Nikolaou, Iasonas Stavroulas, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Rodney Weber, Athanasios Nenes, Maria Kanakidou, and Nikolaos Mihalopoulos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4579–4591,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols and relevant parameters were measured in the eastern Mediterranean during summer and fall 2012. Submicron aerosol water can contribute up to 33 % of total mass, and 27.5 % of this can be associated with organics. Using these data, the pH of the submicron aerosols was calculated to be highly acidic, varying from 0.5 to 2.8 and independently of air masses origin. Such pH values could increase nutrient availability and thus sea water productivity of the Mediterranean Sea.
Sascha Pfeifer, Thomas Müller, Kay Weinhold, Nadezda Zikova, Sebastiao Martins dos Santos, Angela Marinoni, Oliver F. Bischof, Carsten Kykal, Ludwig Ries, Frank Meinhardt, Pasi Aalto, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1545–1551,Short summary
15 aerodynamic particle size spectrometers (APS model 3321, TSI Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) were compared with a focus on flow rates accuracy, particle sizing, and unit-to-unit variability of the particle number size distribution. Flow rate deviations were relatively small, while the sizing accuracy was found to be within 10 % compared to polystyrene latex reference particles. The unit-to-unit variability in terms of the particle number size distribution during this study was between 10 % and 60 %.
Stephan Henne, Dominik Brunner, Brian Oney, Markus Leuenberger, Werner Eugster, Ines Bamberger, Frank Meinhardt, Martin Steinbacher, and Lukas Emmenegger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3683–3710,Short summary
Greenhouse gas emissions can be assessed by "top-down" methods that combine atmospheric observations, a transport model and a mathematical optimisation framework. Here, we apply such a top-down method to the methane emissions of Switzerland, utilising observations from the recently installed CarboCount-CH network. Our Swiss total emissions largely agree with those of the national "bottom-up" inventory, whereas regional differences suggest lower than reported emissions from manure handling.
M. Paramonov, V.-M. Kerminen, M. Gysel, P. P. Aalto, M. O. Andreae, E. Asmi, U. Baltensperger, A. Bougiatioti, D. Brus, G. P. Frank, N. Good, S. S. Gunthe, L. Hao, M. Irwin, A. Jaatinen, Z. Jurányi, S. M. King, A. Kortelainen, A. Kristensson, H. Lihavainen, M. Kulmala, U. Lohmann, S. T. Martin, G. McFiggans, N. Mihalopoulos, A. Nenes, C. D. O'Dowd, J. Ovadnevaite, T. Petäjä, U. Pöschl, G. C. Roberts, D. Rose, B. Svenningsson, E. Swietlicki, E. Weingartner, J. Whitehead, A. Wiedensohler, C. Wittbom, and B. Sierau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12211–12229,Short summary
The research paper presents the first comprehensive overview of field measurements with the CCN Counter performed at a large number of locations around the world within the EUCAARI framework. The paper sheds light on the CCN number concentrations and activated fractions around the world and their dependence on the water vapour supersaturation ratio, the dependence of aerosol hygroscopicity on particle size, and seasonal and diurnal variation of CCN activation and hygroscopic properties.
B. Oney, S. Henne, N. Gruber, M. Leuenberger, I. Bamberger, W. Eugster, and D. Brunner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11147–11164,Short summary
We present a detailed analysis of a new greenhouse gas measurement network in the Swiss Plateau, situated between the Jura mountains and the Alps. We find the network's measurements to be information rich and suitable for studying surface carbon fluxes of the study region. However, we are limited by the high-resolution (2km) atmospheric transport model's ability to simulate meteorology at the individual measurement stations, especially at those situated in rough terrain.
N. Kalivitis, V.-M. Kerminen, G. Kouvarakis, I. Stavroulas, A. Bougiatioti, A. Nenes, H. E. Manninen, T. Petäjä, M. Kulmala, and N. Mihalopoulos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9203–9215,Short summary
Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) production associated with atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is presented, and this is the first direct evidence of CCN production resulting from NPF in the eastern Mediterranean atmosphere. We show that condensation of both gaseous sulfuric acid and organic compounds from multiple sources leads to the rapid growth of nucleated particles. Sub-100nm particles were found to be substantially less hygroscopic than larger particles during the active NPF period.
C. M. Pavuluri, K. Kawamura, N. Mihalopoulos, and T. Swaminathan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7999–8012,
S. Myriokefalitakis, N. Daskalakis, N. Mihalopoulos, A. R. Baker, A. Nenes, and M. Kanakidou
Biogeosciences, 12, 3973–3992,Short summary
The global atmospheric cycle of Fe is simulated accounting for natural and combustion sources, proton- and organic ligand-promoted Fe dissolution from dust aerosol and changes in anthropogenic emissions, and thus in atmospheric acidity. Simulations show that Fe dissolution may have increased in the last 150 years and is expected to decrease due to air pollution regulations. Reductions in dissolved-Fe deposition can further limit the primary productivity over high-nutrient-low-chlorophyll water.
V. Amiridis, E. Marinou, A. Tsekeri, U. Wandinger, A. Schwarz, E. Giannakaki, R. Mamouri, P. Kokkalis, I. Binietoglou, S. Solomos, T. Herekakis, S. Kazadzis, E. Gerasopoulos, E. Proestakis, M. Kottas, D. Balis, A. Papayannis, C. Kontoes, K. Kourtidis, N. Papagiannopoulos, L. Mona, G. Pappalardo, O. Le Rille, and A. Ansmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7127–7153,Short summary
LIVAS is a 3-D multi-wavelength global aerosol and cloud optical database optimized for future space-based lidar end-to-end simulations of realistic atmospheric scenarios as well as retrieval algorithm testing activities. The global database is based on CALIPSO observations at 532nm, while for the conversion at 355nm EARLINET data are utilized.
M. Hummel, C. Hoose, M. Gallagher, D. A. Healy, J. A. Huffman, D. O'Connor, U. Pöschl, C. Pöhlker, N. H. Robinson, M. Schnaiter, J. R. Sodeau, M. Stengel, E. Toprak, and H. Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6127–6146,
D. Rieger, M. Bangert, I. Bischoff-Gauss, J. Förstner, K. Lundgren, D. Reinert, J. Schröter, H. Vogel, G. Zängl, R. Ruhnke, and B. Vogel
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1659–1676,
K. Violaki, J. Sciare, J. Williams, A. R. Baker, M. Martino, and N. Mihalopoulos
Biogeosciences, 12, 3131–3140,
D. Paraskevopoulou, E. Liakakou, E. Gerasopoulos, C. Theodosi, and N. Mihalopoulos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13313–13325,
K. Tsigaridis, N. Daskalakis, M. Kanakidou, P. J. Adams, P. Artaxo, R. Bahadur, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, N. Bellouin, A. Benedetti, T. Bergman, T. K. Berntsen, J. P. Beukes, H. Bian, K. S. Carslaw, M. Chin, G. Curci, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, S. J. Ghan, S. L. Gong, A. Hodzic, C. R. Hoyle, T. Iversen, S. Jathar, J. L. Jimenez, J. W. Kaiser, A. Kirkevåg, D. Koch, H. Kokkola, Y. H Lee, G. Lin, X. Liu, G. Luo, X. Ma, G. W. Mann, N. Mihalopoulos, J.-J. Morcrette, J.-F. Müller, G. Myhre, S. Myriokefalitakis, N. L. Ng, D. O'Donnell, J. E. Penner, L. Pozzoli, K. J. Pringle, L. M. Russell, M. Schulz, J. Sciare, Ø. Seland, D. T. Shindell, S. Sillman, R. B. Skeie, D. Spracklen, T. Stavrakou, S. D. Steenrod, T. Takemura, P. Tiitta, S. Tilmes, H. Tost, T. van Noije, P. G. van Zyl, K. von Salzen, F. Yu, Z. Wang, Z. Wang, R. A. Zaveri, H. Zhang, K. Zhang, Q. Zhang, and X. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10845–10895,
H. Vogel, J. Förstner, B. Vogel, T. Hanisch, B. Mühr, U. Schättler, and T. Schad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7837–7845,
S. Kazadzis, I. Veselovskii, V. Amiridis, J. Gröbner, A. Suvorina, S. Nyeki, E. Gerasopoulos, N. Kouremeti, M. Taylor, A. Tsekeri, and C. Wehrli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2013–2025,
A. Bougiatioti, I. Stavroulas, E. Kostenidou, P. Zarmpas, C. Theodosi, G. Kouvarakis, F. Canonaco, A. S. H. Prévôt, A. Nenes, S. N. Pandis, and N. Mihalopoulos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4793–4807,
G. W. Mann, K. S. Carslaw, C. L. Reddington, K. J. Pringle, M. Schulz, A. Asmi, D. V. Spracklen, D. A. Ridley, M. T. Woodhouse, L. A. Lee, K. Zhang, S. J. Ghan, R. C. Easter, X. Liu, P. Stier, Y. H. Lee, P. J. Adams, H. Tost, J. Lelieveld, S. E. Bauer, K. Tsigaridis, T. P. C. van Noije, A. Strunk, E. Vignati, N. Bellouin, M. Dalvi, C. E. Johnson, T. Bergman, H. Kokkola, K. von Salzen, F. Yu, G. Luo, A. Petzold, J. Heintzenberg, A. Clarke, J. A. Ogren, J. Gras, U. Baltensperger, U. Kaminski, S. G. Jennings, C. D. O'Dowd, R. M. Harrison, D. C. S. Beddows, M. Kulmala, Y. Viisanen, V. Ulevicius, N. Mihalopoulos, V. Zdimal, M. Fiebig, H.-C. Hansson, E. Swietlicki, and J. S. Henzing
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4679–4713,
D. C. S. Beddows, M. Dall'Osto, R. M. Harrison, M. Kulmala, A. Asmi, A. Wiedensohler, P. Laj, A.M. Fjaeraa, K. Sellegri, W. Birmili, N. Bukowiecki, E. Weingartner, U. Baltensperger, V. Zdimal, N. Zikova, J.-P. Putaud, A. Marinoni, P. Tunved, H.-C. Hansson, M. Fiebig, N. Kivekäs, E. Swietlicki, H. Lihavainen, E. Asmi, V. Ulevicius, P. P. Aalto, N. Mihalopoulos, N. Kalivitis, I. Kalapov, G. Kiss, G. de Leeuw, B. Henzing, C. O'Dowd, S. G. Jennings, H. Flentje, F. Meinhardt, L. Ries, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, and A. J. H. Visschedijk
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4327–4348,
R. V. Hiller, D. Bretscher, T. DelSontro, T. Diem, W. Eugster, R. Henneberger, S. Hobi, E. Hodson, D. Imer, M. Kreuzer, T. Künzle, L. Merbold, P. A. Niklaus, B. Rihm, A. Schellenberger, M. H. Schroth, C. J. Schubert, H. Siegrist, J. Stieger, N. Buchmann, and D. Brunner
Biogeosciences, 11, 1941–1959,
M. Taylor, S. Kazadzis, and E. Gerasopoulos
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 839–858,
A. Baklanov, K. Schlünzen, P. Suppan, J. Baldasano, D. Brunner, S. Aksoyoglu, G. Carmichael, J. Douros, J. Flemming, R. Forkel, S. Galmarini, M. Gauss, G. Grell, M. Hirtl, S. Joffre, O. Jorba, E. Kaas, M. Kaasik, G. Kallos, X. Kong, U. Korsholm, A. Kurganskiy, J. Kushta, U. Lohmann, A. Mahura, A. Manders-Groot, A. Maurizi, N. Moussiopoulos, S. T. Rao, N. Savage, C. Seigneur, R. S. Sokhi, E. Solazzo, S. Solomos, B. Sørensen, G. Tsegas, E. Vignati, B. Vogel, and Y. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 317–398,
P. Zanis, P. Hadjinicolaou, A. Pozzer, E. Tyrlis, S. Dafka, N. Mihalopoulos, and J. Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 115–132,
A. Gkikas, N. Hatzianastassiou, N. Mihalopoulos, V. Katsoulis, S. Kazadzis, J. Pey, X. Querol, and O. Torres
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12135–12154,
S. Bezantakos, K. Barmpounis, M. Giamarelou, E. Bossioli, M. Tombrou, N. Mihalopoulos, K. Eleftheriadis, J. Kalogiros, J. D. Allan, A. Bacak, C. J. Percival, H. Coe, and G. Biskos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11595–11608,
K. Zink, A. Pauling, M. W. Rotach, H. Vogel, P. Kaufmann, and B. Clot
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 1961–1975,
C. Theodosi, C. Parinos, A. Gogou, A. Kokotos, S. Stavrakakis, V. Lykousis, J. Hatzianestis, and N. Mihalopoulos
Biogeosciences, 10, 4449–4464,
C. M. Pavuluri, K. Kawamura, N. Mihalopoulos, and P. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
C. Knote and D. Brunner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1177–1192,
M. Collaud Coen, E. Andrews, A. Asmi, U. Baltensperger, N. Bukowiecki, D. Day, M. Fiebig, A. M. Fjaeraa, H. Flentje, A. Hyvärinen, A. Jefferson, S. G. Jennings, G. Kouvarakis, H. Lihavainen, C. Lund Myhre, W. C. Malm, N. Mihapopoulos, J. V. Molenar, C. O'Dowd, J. A. Ogren, B. A. Schichtel, P. Sheridan, A. Virkkula, E. Weingartner, R. Weller, and P. Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 869–894,
E. Athanasopoulou, H. Vogel, B. Vogel, A. P. Tsimpidi, S. N. Pandis, C. Knote, and C. Fountoukis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 625–645,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Seasonal distribution and drivers of surface fine particulate matter and organic aerosol over the Indo-Gangetic PlainIntensified modulation of winter aerosol pollution in China by El Niño with short durationForest-fire aerosol–weather feedbacks over western North America using a high-resolution, online coupled air-quality modelEstimation of secondary organic aerosol viscosity from explicit modeling of gas-phase oxidation of isoprene and α-pineneQuantitative assessment of changes in surface particulate matter concentrations and precursor emissions over China during the COVID-19 pandemic and their implications for Chinese economic activitySecondary aerosol formation from dimethyl sulfide – improved mechanistic understanding based on smog chamber experiments and modellingNon-linear response of PM2.5 to changes in NOx and NH3 emissions in the Po basin (Italy): consequences for air quality plansInsights into seasonal variation of wet deposition over southeast Asia via precipitation adjustment from the findings of MICS-Asia IIIModeling the impact of COVID-19 on air quality in southern California: implications for future control policiesResponses of Arctic black carbon and surface temperature to multi-region emission reductions: a Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution Phase 2 (HTAP2) ensemble modeling studyAnalysis of secondary organic aerosol simulation bias in the Community Earth System Model (CESM2.1)Future evolution of aerosols and implications for climate change in the Euro-Mediterranean region using the CNRM-ALADIN63 regional climate modelSource apportionment of fine organic carbon at an urban site of Beijing using a chemical mass balance modelModeled changes in source contributions of particulate matter during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Yangtze River Delta, ChinaAerosols from anthropogenic and biogenic sources and their interactions – modeling aerosol formation, optical properties, and impacts over the central Amazon basinAerosol radiative forcings induced by substantial changes in anthropogenic emissions in China from 2008 to 2016A study of the effect of aerosols on surface ozone through meteorology feedbacks over ChinaA Predictive Model for Salt Nanoparticle Formation UsingHeterodimer Stability CalculationsSensitivities to biological aerosol particle properties and ageing processes: potential implications for aerosol–cloud interactions and optical propertiesFuture changes in isoprene-epoxydiol-derived secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX SOA) under the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways: the importance of physicochemical dependencyImproving regional air quality predictions in the Indo-Gangetic Plain – case study of an intensive pollution episode in November 2017Recommendations on benchmarks for numerical air quality model applications in China – Part 1: PM2.5 and chemical speciesGlobal modeling studies of composition and decadal trends of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol LayerComparison of chemical lateral boundary conditions for air quality predictions over the contiguous United States during pollutant intrusion eventsProjections of shipping emissions and the related impact on air pollution and human health in the Nordic regionDevelopment of New Emission Reallocation Method for Industrial Nonpoint Source in ChinaClimate-driven chemistry and aerosol feedbacks in CMIP6 Earth system modelsPredicting Gas-Particle Partitioning Coefficients of Atmospheric Molecules with Machine LearningSize-resolved aerosol pH over Europe during summerInsights into the aging of biomass burning aerosol from satellite observations and 3D atmospheric modeling: evolution of the aerosol optical properties in Siberian wildfire plumesGlobal modeling of heterogeneous hydroxymethanesulfonate chemistrySignificant wintertime PM2.5 mitigation in the Yangtze River Delta, China, from 2016 to 2019: observational constraints on anthropogenic emission controlsHistorical and future changes in air pollutants from CMIP6 modelsEvaluating trends and seasonality in modeled PM2.5 concentrations using empirical mode decompositionLong-term observational constraints of organic aerosol dependence on inorganic species in the southeast USModel bias in simulating major chemical components of PM2.5 in ChinaAerosol pH and chemical regimes of sulfate formation in aerosol water during winter haze in the North China PlainPollutant emission reductions deliver decreased PM2.5-caused mortality across China during 2015–2017Effects of global ship emissions on European air pollution levelsUsing GECKO-A to derive mechanistic understanding of SOA formation from the ubiquitous but understudied campheneTreatment of non-ideality in the SPACCIM multiphase model – Part 2: Impacts on the multiphase chemical processing in deliquesced aerosol particlesInverse modeling of fire emissions constrained by smoke plume transport using HYSPLIT dispersion model and geostationary satellite observationsComprehensive analyses of source sensitivities and apportionments of PM2.5 and ozone over Japan via multiple numerical techniquesNumerical analysis of agricultural emissions impacts on PM2.5 in China using a high-resolution ammonia emission inventoryClimate and air quality impacts due to mitigation of non-methane near-term climate forcersShipping emissions in the Iberian Peninsula and the impacts on air qualityModelling of the public health costs of fine particulate matter and results for Finland in 2015Development and application of the WRFDA-Chem three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) system: aiming to improve air quality forecasting and diagnose model deficienciesAssessment of natural and anthropogenic aerosol air pollution in the Middle East using MERRA-2, CAMS data assimilation products, and high-resolution WRF-Chem model simulationsTrends and spatial shifts in lightning fires and smoke concentrations in response to 21st century climate over the national forests and parks of the western United States
Caterina Mogno, Paul I. Palmer, Christoph Knote, Fei Yao, and Timothy J. Wallington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10881–10909,Short summary
We use a 3-D atmospheric chemistry model to investigate how seasonal emissions sources and meteorological conditions affect the surface distribution of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and organic aerosol (OA) over the Indo-Gangetic Plain. We find that all seasonal mean values of PM2.5 still exceed safe air quality levels, with human emissions contributing to PM2.5 all year round, open fires during post- and pre-monsoon, and biogenic emissions during monsoon. OA contributes up to 30 % to PM2.5.
Liangying Zeng, Yang Yang, Hailong Wang, Jing Wang, Jing Li, Lili Ren, Huimin Li, Yang Zhou, Pinya Wang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10745–10761,Short summary
Using an aerosol–climate model, the impacts of El Niño with different durations on aerosols in China are examined. The modulation on aerosol concentrations and haze days by short-duration El Niño events is 2–3 times more than that by long-duration El Niño events in China. The frequency of short-duration El Niño has been increasing significantly in recent decades, suggesting that El Niño events have exerted increasingly intense modulation on aerosol pollution in China over the past few decades.
Paul A. Makar, Ayodeji Akingunola, Jack Chen, Balbir Pabla, Wanmin Gong, Craig Stroud, Christopher Sioris, Kerry Anderson, Philip Cheung, Junhua Zhang, and Jason Milbrandt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10557–10587,Short summary
We have examined the effects of airborne particles on absorption and scattering of incoming sunlight by the particles themselves via cloud formation. We used an advanced, combined high-resolution weather forecast and chemical transport computer model, for western North America, and simulations with and without the connections between particles and weather enabled. Feedbacks improved weather and air pollution forecasts and changed cloud behaviour and forest-fire pollutant amount and height.
Tommaso Galeazzo, Richard Valorso, Ying Li, Marie Camredon, Bernard Aumont, and Manabu Shiraiwa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10199–10213,Short summary
We simulate SOA viscosity with explicit modeling of gas-phase oxidation of isoprene and α-pinene. While the viscosity dependence on relative humidity and mass loadings is captured well by simulations, the model underestimates measured viscosity, indicating missing processes. Kinetic limitations and reduction in mass accommodation may cause an increase in viscosity. The developed model is powerful for investigation of the interplay among gas reactions, chemical composition and phase state.
Hyun Cheol Kim, Soontae Kim, Mark Cohen, Changhan Bae, Dasom Lee, Rick Saylor, Minah Bae, Eunhye Kim, Byeong-Uk Kim, Jin-Ho Yoon, and Ariel Stein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10065–10080,Short summary
Global outbreaks of COVID-19 offer rare opportunities of natural experiments in emission control and corresponding responses of tropospheric chemistry. This study's novel approach investigates (1) isolating the pandemic's impact from natural and anthropogenic variations, (2) emission adjustment to reproduce real-time emissions, and (3) brute-force modeling to investigate Chinese economic activities. Results provide characteristics of the region's chemistry and emissions.
Robin Wollesen de Jonge, Jonas Elm, Bernadette Rosati, Sigurd Christiansen, Noora Hyttinen, Dana Lüdemann, Merete Bilde, and Pontus Roldin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9955–9976,Short summary
This study presents a detailed analysis of the OH-initiated oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) based on experiments performed in the Aarhus University Research on Aerosol (AURA) smog chamber and the gas- and particle-phase chemistry kinetic multilayer model (ADCHAM). We capture the formation, growth and chemical composition of aerosols in the chamber setup by an improved multiphase oxidation mechanism and utilize our results to reproduce the important role of DMS in the marine boundary layer.
Philippe Thunis, Alain Clappier, Matthias Beekmann, Jean Philippe Putaud, Cornelis Cuvelier, Jessie Madrazo, and Alexander de Meij
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9309–9327,Short summary
Modelling simulations are used to identify the most efficient emission reduction strategies to reduce PM2.5 concentration levels in northern Italy. Results show contrasting chemical regimes and important non-linearities during wintertime, with the striking result that PM2.5 levels may increase when NOx reductions are applied in NOx-rich areas – a process that may have contributed to the absence of significant PM2.5 decrease during the COVID-19 lockdowns in many European cities.
Syuichi Itahashi, Baozhu Ge, Keiichi Sato, Zhe Wang, Junichi Kurokawa, Jiani Tan, Kan Huang, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8709–8734,Short summary
This study presents the detailed analysis of acid deposition over southeast Asia based on the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) phase III. Simulated wet deposition is evaluated with observation data from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). The difficulties of models to capture observations are related to the model performance on precipitation. The precipitation-adjusted approach was applied, and the distribution of wet deposition was successfully revised.
Zhe Jiang, Hongrong Shi, Bin Zhao, Yu Gu, Yifang Zhu, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Xin Lu, Yuqiang Zhang, Kevin W. Bowman, Takashi Sekiya, and Kuo-Nan Liou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8693–8708,Short summary
We use the COVID-19 pandemic as a unique natural experiment to obtain a more robust understanding of the effectiveness of emission reductions toward air quality improvement by combining chemical transport simulations and observations. Our findings imply a shift from current control policies in California: a strengthened control on primary PM2.5 emissions and a well-balanced control on NOx and volatile organic compounds are needed to effectively and sustainably alleviate PM2.5 and O3 pollution.
Na Zhao, Xinyi Dong, Kan Huang, Joshua S. Fu, Marianne Tronstad Lund, Kengo Sudo, Daven Henze, Tom Kucsera, Yun Fat Lam, Mian Chin, and Simone Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8637–8654,Short summary
Black carbon acts as a strong climate forcer, especially in vulnerable pristine regions such as the Arctic. This work utilizes ensemble modeling results from the task force Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution Phase 2 to investigate the responses of Arctic black carbon and surface temperature to various source emission reductions. East Asia contributed the most to Arctic black carbon. The response of Arctic temperature to black carbon was substantially more sensitive than the global average.
Yaman Liu, Xinyi Dong, Minghuai Wang, Louisa K. Emmons, Yawen Liu, Yuan Liang, Xiao Li, and Manish Shrivastava
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8003–8021,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is considered one of the most important uncertainties in climate modeling. We evaluate SOA performance in the Community Earth System Model version 2.1 (CESM2.1) configured with the Community Atmosphere Model version 6 with chemistry (CAM6-Chem) through a long-term simulation (1988–2019) with observations in the United States, which indicates monoterpene-formed SOA contributes most to the overestimation of SOA at the surface and underestimation in the upper air.
Thomas Drugé, Pierre Nabat, Marc Mallet, and Samuel Somot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7639–7669,Short summary
This study presents the surface mass concentration and AOD evolution of various aerosols over the Euro-Mediterranean region between the end of the 20th century and the mid-21st century. This study also describes the part of the expected climate change over the Euro-Mediterranean region that can be explained by the evolution of these different aerosols.
Jingsha Xu, Di Liu, Xuefang Wu, Tuan V. Vu, Yanli Zhang, Pingqing Fu, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Bo Zheng, Roy M. Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7321–7341,Short summary
Source apportionment of fine aerosols in an urban site of Beijing used a chemical mass balance (CMB) model. Seven primary sources (industrial/residential coal burning, biomass burning, gasoline/diesel vehicles, cooking and vegetative detritus) explained an average of 75.7 % and 56.1 % of fine OC in winter and summer, respectively. CMB was found to resolve more primary OA sources than AMS-PMF, but the latter apportioned more secondary OA sources.
Jinlong Ma, Juanyong Shen, Peng Wang, Shengqiang Zhu, Yu Wang, Pengfei Wang, Gehui Wang, Jianmin Chen, and Hongliang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7343–7355,Short summary
Due to the reduced anthropogenic emissions during the COVID-19 lockdown, mainly from the transportation and industrial sectors, PM2.5 decreased significantly in the whole Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and its major cities. However, the contributions and relative importance of different source sectors and regions changed differently, indicating that control strategies should be adjusted accordingly for further pollution control.
Janaína P. Nascimento, Megan M. Bela, Bruno B. Meller, Alessandro L. Banducci, Luciana V. Rizzo, Angel Liduvino Vara-Vela, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Helber Gomes, Sameh A. A. Rafee, Marco A. Franco, Samara Carbone, Glauber G. Cirino, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Stuart A. McKeen, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6755–6779,
Mingxu Liu and Hitoshi Matsui
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5965–5982,Short summary
By integrating an advanced global climate model with the latest anthropogenic emission inventory, we quantify the aerosol perturbations to regional radiative budgets due to the changes in anthropogenic emissions in China from 2008–2016. We find that aerosol–radiation interactions lead to a relatively small net radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere but contribute largely to surface brightening in China over the past few decades.
Yawei Qu, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Tijian Wang, Matthew Kasoar, Chris Wells, Cheng Yuan, Sunil Varma, and Laura Mansfield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5705–5718,Short summary
The meteorological effect of aerosols on tropospheric ozone is investigated using global atmospheric modelling. We found that aerosol-induced meteorological effects act to reduce modelled ozone concentrations over China, which brings the simulation closer to observed levels. Our work sheds light on understudied processes affecting the levels of tropospheric gaseous pollutants and provides a basis for evaluating such processes using a combination of observations and model sensitivity experiments.
Sabrina Chee, Kelley Barsanti, James N. Smith, and Nanna Myllys
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We explored molecular properties affecting atmospheric particle formation efficiency and derived a parameterization between particle formation rate and heterodimer concentration, which showed good agreement to previously reported experimental data. Considering the simplicity of calculating heterodimer concentration, this approach has potential to improve estimates of global cloud condensation nuclei in models that are limited by the computational expense of calculating particle formation rate.
Minghui Zhang, Amina Khaled, Pierre Amato, Anne-Marie Delort, and Barbara Ervens
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3699–3724,Short summary
Although primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs, bioaerosols) represent a small fraction of total atmospheric aerosol burden, they might affect climate and public health. We summarize which PBAP properties are important to affect their inclusion in clouds and interaction with light and might also affect their residence time and transport in the atmosphere. Our study highlights that not only chemical and physical but also biological processes can modify these physicochemical properties.
Duseong S. Jo, Alma Hodzic, Louisa K. Emmons, Simone Tilmes, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Michael J. Mills, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Weiwei Hu, Rahul A. Zaveri, Richard C. Easter, Balwinder Singh, Zheng Lu, Christiane Schulz, Johannes Schneider, John E. Shilling, Armin Wisthaler, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3395–3425,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is a major component of submicron particulate matter, but there are a lot of uncertainties in the future prediction of SOA. We used CESM 2.1 to investigate future IEPOX SOA concentration changes. The explicit chemistry predicted substantial changes in IEPOX SOA depending on the future scenario, but the parameterization predicted weak changes due to simplified chemistry, which shows the importance of correct physicochemical dependencies in future SOA prediction.
Behrooz Roozitalab, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Sarath K. Guttikunda
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2837–2860,Short summary
We used air quality modeling to study an extreme pollution episode in November 2017 in India. We found both local and regional emissions contribute to high pollution levels. The extreme pollution values were the result of agricultural fires in the northwest of India. Ozone should be considered in future air quality management strategies.
Ling Huang, Yonghui Zhu, Hehe Zhai, Shuhui Xue, Tianyi Zhu, Yun Shao, Ziyi Liu, Chris Emery, Greg Yarwood, Yangjun Wang, Joshua Fu, Kun Zhang, and Li Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2725–2743,Short summary
Numerical air quality models (AQMs) are being applied extensively to address diverse scientific and regulatory compliance associated with deteriorating air quality in China. For any AQM applications, model performance evaluation is a critical step that guarantees the robustness and reliability of the baseline modeling results and subsequent applications. We provided benchmarks for model performance evaluation of AQM applications in China to demonstrate model robustness.
Adriana Bossolasco, Fabrice Jegou, Pasquale Sellitto, Gwenaël Berthet, Corinna Kloss, and Bernard Legras
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2745–2764,Short summary
Using the Community Earth System Model, we simulate the surface aerosols lifted to the Asian tropopause (the ATAL layer), its composition and trend, covering a long-term period (2000–2015). We identify a
double-peakaerosol vertical profile that we attribute to
convectivecloud-borne aerosols. We find that natural aerosol (mineral dust) is the dominant aerosol type and has no long-term trend. ATAL's anthropogenic fraction, by contrast, shows a marked positive trend.
Youhua Tang, Huisheng Bian, Zhining Tao, Luke D. Oman, Daniel Tong, Pius Lee, Patrick C. Campbell, Barry Baker, Cheng-Hsuan Lu, Li Pan, Jun Wang, Jeffery McQueen, and Ivanka Stajner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2527–2550,Short summary
Chemical lateral boundary condition (CLBC) impact is essential for regional air quality prediction during intrusion events. We present a model mapping Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) to Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) CB05–AERO6 (Carbon Bond 5; version 6 of the aerosol module) species. Influence depends on distance from the inflow boundary and species and their regional characteristics. We use aerosol optical thickness to derive CLBCs, achieving reasonable prediction.
Camilla Geels, Morten Winther, Camilla Andersson, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Jørgen Brandt, Lise M. Frohn, Ulas Im, Wing Leung, and Jesper H. Christensen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
In this study, we setup new shipping emissions scenarios, and use two Chemistry transport models and a health assessment model to assess the development in air quality and related health impacts in the Nordic region. Shipping alone is associated with about 850 premature deaths during current day conditions, decreasing to approximately 550–600 cases in the 2050 scenarios.
Yun Fat Lam, Chi Chiu Cheung, Xuguo Zhang, Joshua S. Fu, and Jimmy Chi Hung Fung
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
In recent years, air pollution forecast has become an important municiple service of government. In this study, a new spatial allocation method based on satellite remote sensing and GIS techniques was developed to address the spatial deficiency of non-point source emissions in China, providing substantial improvement on NO2 and PM2.5 forecast for the Pearl River Delta/Greater Bay Area.
Gillian Thornhill, William Collins, Dirk Olivié, Ragnhild B. Skeie, Alex Archibald, Susanne Bauer, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Stephanie Fiedler, Gerd Folberth, Ada Gjermundsen, Larry Horowitz, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Martine Michou, Jane Mulcahy, Pierre Nabat, Vaishali Naik, Fiona M. O'Connor, Fabien Paulot, Michael Schulz, Catherine E. Scott, Roland Séférian, Chris Smith, Toshihiko Takemura, Simone Tilmes, Kostas Tsigaridis, and James Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1105–1126,Short summary
We find that increased temperatures affect aerosols and reactive gases by changing natural emissions and their rates of removal from the atmosphere. Changing the composition of these species in the atmosphere affects the radiative budget of the climate system and therefore amplifies or dampens the climate response of climate models of the Earth system. This study found that the largest effect is a dampening of climate change as warmer temperatures increase the emissions of cooling aerosols.
Emma Lumiaro, Milica Todorović, Theo Kurten, Hanna Vehkamäki, and Patrick Rinke
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Study of climate change relies on climate models, which require an understanding of aerosol formation. In this study, we train a machine learning model to predict the partitioning coefficients of atmospheric molecules, which govern the condensation into aerosols. The model can make instant predictions based on molecular structures with accuracy surpassing that of standard computational methods. This will allow the screening of low volatility molecules that contribute most to aerosol formation.
Stylianos Kakavas, David Patoulias, Maria Zakoura, Athanasios Nenes, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 799–811,Short summary
The dependence of aerosol acidity on particle size, location, and altitude over Europe during a summertime period is investigated. Differences of up to 1–4 pH units are predicted between sub- and supermicron particles in northern and southern Europe. Particles of all sizes become increasingly acidic with altitude (0.5–2.5 pH units decrease over 2.5 km). The size-dependent pH differences carry important implications for pH-sensitive processes in the aerosol.
Igor B. Konovalov, Nikolai A. Golovushkin, Matthias Beekmann, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 357–392,Short summary
A lack of consistent observational constraints on the atmospheric evolution of the optical properties of biomass burning (BB) aerosol limits the accuracy of assessments of the aerosol radiative and climate effects. We show that useful insights into the evolution of the BB aerosol optical properties can be inferred from a combination of satellite observations and 3D modeling. We report major changes that occurred in the optical properties of Siberian BB aerosol during its long-range transport.
Shaojie Song, Tao Ma, Yuzhong Zhang, Lu Shen, Pengfei Liu, Ke Li, Shixian Zhai, Haotian Zheng, Meng Gao, Jonathan M. Moch, Fengkui Duan, Kebin He, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 457–481,Short summary
We simulate the atmospheric chemical processes of an important sulfur-containing organic aerosol species, which is produced by the reaction between sulfur dioxide and formaldehyde. We can predict its distribution on a global scale. We find it is particularly rich in East Asia. This aerosol species is more abundant in the colder season partly because of weaker sunlight.
Liqiang Wang, Shaocai Yu, Pengfei Li, Xue Chen, Zhen Li, Yibo Zhang, Mengying Li, Khalid Mehmood, Weiping Liu, Tianfeng Chai, Yannian Zhu, Daniel Rosenfeld, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14787–14800,Short summary
The Chinese government has made major strides in curbing anthropogenic emissions. In this study, we constrain a state-of-the-art CTM by a reliable data assimilation method with extensive chemical and meteorological observations. This comprehensive technical design provides a crucial advance in isolating the influences of emission changes and meteorological perturbations over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) from 2016 to 2019, thus establishing the first map of the PM2.5 mitigation across the YRD.
Steven T. Turnock, Robert J. Allen, Martin Andrews, Susanne E. Bauer, Makoto Deushi, Louisa Emmons, Peter Good, Larry Horowitz, Jasmin G. John, Martine Michou, Pierre Nabat, Vaishali Naik, David Neubauer, Fiona M. O'Connor, Dirk Olivié, Naga Oshima, Michael Schulz, Alistair Sellar, Sungbo Shim, Toshihiko Takemura, Simone Tilmes, Kostas Tsigaridis, Tongwen Wu, and Jie Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14547–14579,Short summary
A first assessment is made of the historical and future changes in air pollutants from models participating in the 6th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). Substantial benefits to future air quality can be achieved in future scenarios that implement measures to mitigate climate and involve reductions in air pollutant emissions, particularly methane. However, important differences are shown between models in the future regional projection of air pollutants under the same scenario.
Huiying Luo, Marina Astitha, Christian Hogrefe, Rohit Mathur, and S. Trivikrama Rao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13801–13815,Short summary
A new method is introduced to evaluate nonlinear, nonstationary modeled PM2.5 time series by decomposing decadal PM2.5 concentrations and its species onto various timescales. It does not require preselection of temporal scales and assumptions of linearity and stationarity. It provides a unique opportunity to assess the influence of each species on total PM2.5. The results reveal a phase shift in modeled EC/OC concentrations, indicating the need for improved model treatment of organic aerosols.
Yiqi Zheng, Joel A. Thornton, Nga Lee Ng, Hansen Cao, Daven K. Henze, Erin E. McDuffie, Weiwei Hu, Jose L. Jimenez, Eloise A. Marais, Eric Edgerton, and Jingqiu Mao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13091–13107,Short summary
This study aims to address a challenge in biosphere–atmosphere interactions: to what extent can biogenic organic aerosol (OA) be modified through human activities? From three surface network observations, we show OA is weakly dependent on sulfate and aerosol acidity in the summer southeast US, on both long-term trends and monthly variability. The results are in strong contrast to a global model, GEOS-Chem, suggesting the need to revisit the representation of aqueous-phase secondary OA formation.
Ruqian Miao, Qi Chen, Yan Zheng, Xi Cheng, Yele Sun, Paul I. Palmer, Manish Shrivastava, Jianping Guo, Qiang Zhang, Yuhan Liu, Zhaofeng Tan, Xuefei Ma, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Keding Lu, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12265–12284,Short summary
In this study we evaluated the model performances for simulating secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) and organic aerosol (OA) in PM2.5 in China against comprehensive datasets. The potential biases from factors related to meteorology, emission, chemistry, and atmospheric removal are systematically investigated. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of modeling PM2.5, which is important for studies on the effectiveness of emission control strategies.
Wei Tao, Hang Su, Guangjie Zheng, Jiandong Wang, Chao Wei, Lixia Liu, Nan Ma, Meng Li, Qiang Zhang, Ulrich Pöschl, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11729–11746,Short summary
We simulated the thermodynamic and multiphase reactions in aerosol water during a wintertime haze event over the North China Plain. It was found that aerosol pH exhibited a strong spatiotemporal variability, and multiple oxidation pathways were predominant for particulate sulfate formation in different locations. Sensitivity tests further showed that ammonia, crustal particles, and dissolved transition metal ions were important factors for multiphase chemistry during haze episodes.
Ben Silver, Luke Conibear, Carly L. Reddington, Christoph Knote, Steve R. Arnold, and Dominick V. Spracklen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11683–11695,Short summary
China suffers from serious air pollution, which is thought to cause millions of early deaths each year. Measurements on the ground show that overall air quality is improving. Air quality is also affected by weather conditions, which can vary from year to year. We conduct computer simulations to show it is the reduction of the amount of pollution emitted, rather than weather conditions, which caused air quality to improve during 2015–2017. We then estimate that 150 000 fewer people die early.
Jan Eiof Jonson, Michael Gauss, Michael Schulz, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, and Hilde Fagerli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11399–11422,Short summary
We have calculated the effects of air pollution in Europe from shipping on levels of PM2.5 and ozone and depositions of oxidised nitrogen and sulfur from individual sea areas and from all global shipping. Model results are shown for Europe as a whole but also focusing on select, mainly coastal, countries. Calculations are made using 2017 emissions supplemented by calculations reducing sulfur emissions from ships by about 80 % following the implementation of the 2020 global sulfur cap.
Isaac Kwadjo Afreh, Bernard Aumont, Marie Camredon, and Kelley Claire Barsanti
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This is the first SOA modeling study of the ubiquitous but understudied monoterpene, camphene. The explicit chemical model GECKO-A represented chamber data for two well-studied monoterpenes. The predicted camphene SOA yield was relatively high in comparison, ~2× α-pinene. Using 50 / 50 α-pinene / limonene as a surrogate for camphene increased predicted SOA mass from biomass burning fuels by up to ~100 %. The accurate representation of camphene in air quality models can improve predictions of SOA.
Ahmad Jhony Rusumdar, Andreas Tilgner, Ralf Wolke, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10351–10377,Short summary
In the present study, simulations with the SPACCIM-SpactMod multiphase chemistry model are performed. The investigations aim at assessing the impact of a detailed treatment of non-ideality in multiphase models dealing with aqueous aerosol chemistry. The model studies demonstrate that the inclusion of non-ideality considerably affects the multiphase chemical processing of transition metal ions, oxidants, and related chemical subsystems such as organic chemistry in aqueous aerosols.
Hyun Cheol Kim, Tianfeng Chai, Ariel Stein, and Shobha Kondragunta
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10259–10277,Short summary
Smoke forecasts have been challenged by high uncertainty in fire emission estimates. We develop an inverse modeling system, the HYSPLIT-based Emissions Inverse Modeling System for wildfires, that estimates wildfire emissions from the transport and dispersion of smoke plumes as measured by satellite observations. Using NOAA HYSPLIT and GOES Aerosol/Smoke Product (GASP), the system resolves smoke source strength as a function of time and vertical level and outperforms current operational system.
Satoru Chatani, Hikari Shimadera, Syuichi Itahashi, and Kazuyo Yamaji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10311–10329,Short summary
Source sensitivities and apportionments of PM2.5 and ozone concentrations over Japan for 2016 were evaluated using multiple numerical techniques including BFM, HDDM, and ISAM, embedded in regional chemical transport models. Influences of stringent emission controls recently implemented in Asian countries were reflected. Differences between sensitivities and apportionments greatly helped distinguish various direct and indirect effects of emission sources on PM2.5 and ozone concentrations.
Xiao Han, Lingyun Zhu, Mingxu Liu, Yu Song, and Meigen Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9979–9996,Short summary
China is one of the largest agricultural countries in the world. Some of the major PM2.5 particles that cause the atmospheric haze and impact the climate change were converted from agricultural NH3 emission. This paper applied the numerical modeling system, coupled with a high-resolution agricultural NH3 emissions inventory, to investigate the contribution of agricultural NH3 to PM2.5 mass burden in China and obtained some interesting results.
Robert J. Allen, Steven Turnock, Pierre Nabat, David Neubauer, Ulrike Lohmann, Dirk Olivié, Naga Oshima, Martine Michou, Tongwen Wu, Jie Zhang, Toshihiko Takemura, Michael Schulz, Kostas Tsigaridis, Susanne E. Bauer, Louisa Emmons, Larry Horowitz, Vaishali Naik, Twan van Noije, Tommi Bergman, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Prodromos Zanis, Ina Tegen, Daniel M. Westervelt, Philippe Le Sager, Peter Good, Sungbo Shim, Fiona O'Connor, Dimitris Akritidis, Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Makoto Deushi, Lori T. Sentman, Jasmin G. John, Shinichiro Fujimori, and William J. Collins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9641–9663,
Rafael A. O. Nunes, Maria C. M. Alvim-Ferraz, Fernando G. Martins, Fátima Calderay-Cayetano, Vanessa Durán-Grados, Juan Moreno-Gutiérrez, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Hanna Hannuniemi, and Sofia I. V. Sousa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9473–9489,Short summary
The central position of the Iberian Peninsula with ship traffic between the Americas, Africa, and Europe, combined with the known adverse effects of this sector on air quality, emphasises the relevance of a more detailed study of these impacts in this region. Results showed increased levels of SO2 and NO2 near port areas, as well as of O3, sulfate, PM2.5, and PM10 over the Iberian Peninsula coastline due to shipping emissions. To study mitigation measures, application is crucial.
Jaakko Kukkonen, Mikko Savolahti, Yuliia Palamarchuk, Timo Lanki, Väinö Nurmi, Ville-Veikko Paunu, Leena Kangas, Mikhail Sofiev, Ari Karppinen, Androniki Maragkidou, Pekka Tiittanen, and Niko Karvosenoja
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9371–9391,Short summary
We have developed a mathematical model that can be used to analyse the benefits that could be achieved by implementing alternative air quality abatement measures, policies or strategies. The model was applied to determine pollution sources in the whole of Finland in 2015. Clearly the most economically effective measures were the reduction in emissions from low-level sources in urban areas. Such sources include road transport, non-road vehicles and machinery, and residential wood combustion.
Wei Sun, Zhiquan Liu, Dan Chen, Pusheng Zhao, and Min Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9311–9329,Short summary
A new aerosol and gas pollutant assimilation capability is developed within the WRFDA system with the 3D variational algorithm and MOSAIC (Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry) aerosol scheme. By assimilating surface PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, and CO, it improves 24 h air quality forecasting. Based on this system, model deficiencies are explored. Parameterization in the newly added inorganic aerosol heterogeneous reactions should be adjusted and verified by data assimilation.
Alexander Ukhov, Suleiman Mostamandi, Arlindo da Silva, Johannes Flemming, Yasser Alshehri, Illia Shevchenko, and Georgiy Stenchikov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9281–9310,Short summary
The data assimilation products MERRA2 and CAMS are tested over the Middle East (ME) against in situ and satellite observations. For the first time, we compared the new MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval, MAIAC, with the Deep Blue and Dark Target MODIS AOD. We conducted 2-year high-resolution WRF-Chem simulations with the most accurate OMI-HTAP SO2 emissions to estimate the contribution of natural and anthropogenic aerosols to the PM pollution in the ME.
Yang Li, Loretta J. Mickley, Pengfei Liu, and Jed O. Kaplan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8827–8838,Short summary
Using a coupled vegetation–fire–climate modeling framework, we show a northward shift in forests and increased lightning fire activity in northern US states, including Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming. Our findings suggest a large climate penalty on ecosystem, air quality, visibility, and human health in a region valued for its national forests and parks. The fine-scale smoke PM predictions provided in this study should prove useful to human health and environmental assessments.
Athanasopoulou, E., Vogel, H., Vogel, B., Tsimpidi, A. P., Pandis, S. N., Knote, C., and Fountoukis, C.: Modeling the meteorological and chemical effects of secondary organic aerosols during an EUCAARI campaign, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 625–645, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-625-2013, 2013.
Athanasopoulou, E., Rieger, D., Walter, C., Vogel, H., Karali, A., Hatzaki, M., Gerasopoulos, E., Vogel, B., Giannakopoulos, C., Gratsea, M., and Roussos, A.: Fire risk, atmospheric chemistry and radiative forcing assessment of wildfires in eastern Mediterranean, Atmos. Environ., 95, 113–125, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.05.077, 2014.
Baldauf, M., Seifert, A., Förstner, J., Majewski, D., Raschendorfer, M., and Reinhardt, T.: Operational Convective-Scale Numerical Weather Prediction with the COSMO Model: Description and Sensitivities, Mon. Weather Rev., 139, 3887–3905, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-10-05013.1, 2011.
Bangert, M., Kottmeier, C., Vogel, B., and Vogel, H.: Regional scale effects of the aerosol cloud interaction simulated with an online coupled comprehensive chemistry model, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 4411–4423, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-4411-2011, 2011.
Bangert, M., Nenes, A., Vogel, B., Vogel, H., Barahona, D., Karydis, V. A., Kumar, P., Kottmeier, C., and Blahak, U.: Saharan dust event impacts on cloud formation and radiation over Western Europe, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4045–4063, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-4045-2012, 2012.
Bari, M. A.: Air Pollution in Residential Areas from Wood-fired Heating, Aerosol Air Qual. Res., 11, 749–757, https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2010.09.0079, 2011.
Bäumer, D., Lohmann, U., Lesins, G., Li, J., and Croft, B.: Parameterizing the optical properties of carbonaceous aerosols in the Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis Atmospheric General Circulation Model with impacts on global radiation and energy fluxes, J. Geophys. Res., 112, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007319, 2007.
Bølling, A. K., Pagels, J., Yttri, K. E., Barregard, L., Sallsten, G., Schwarze, P. E., and Boman, C.: Health effects of residential wood smoke particles: the importance of combustion conditions and physicochemical particle properties, Part Fibre Toxicol., 29, https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-8977-6-29, 2009.
Bond, T. C., Doherty, S. J., Fahey, D. W., Forster, P. M., Berntsen, T., DeAngelo, B. J., Flanner, M. G., Ghan, S., Kärcher, B., Koch, D., Kinne, S., Kondo, Y., Quinn, P. K., Sarofim, M. C., Schultz, M. G., Schulz, M., Venkataraman, C., Zhang, H., Zhang, S., Bellouin, N., Guttikunda, S. K., Hopke, P. K., Jacobson, M. Z., Kaiser, J. W., Klimont, Z., Lohmann, U., Schwarz, J. P., Shindell, D., Storelvmo, T., Warren, S. G., and Zender, C. S.: Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 118, 5380–5552, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50171, 2013.
Borrego, C., Valente, J., Carvalho, A., Sá, E., Lopes, M., and Miranda, A. I.: Contribution of residential wood combustion to PM10 levels in Portugal, Atmos. Environ., 44, 642–651, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.11.020, 2010.
Carbon Trust: Degree days for energy management – A practical introduction, Carbon Trust, 20, available at: http://www.minus3.org/dokumenti/Final_Report_16_July_2009/Appendix_3_-_Degree_Days_for_Energy_Management.pdf, 2006.
Denier van der Gon, H., Visschedijk, A., van der Brugh, H., and Droege, R.: A high resolution European emission data base for the year 2005, a contribution to UBA- Projekt PAREST: Particle Reduction Strategies, Utrecht, TNO-report TNO-034-UT-2010-01895 RPTML, 2010.
Denier van der Gon, H., Hendriks, C., Kuenen, J., Segers, A., and Visschedijk, A.: Description of current temporal emission patterns and sensitivity of predicted AQ for temporal emission patterns, Utrecht, TNO-report EU FP7 MACC deliverable report D_D-EMIS_1.3, 2011.
Denier van der Gon, H. A. C., Bergström, R., Fountoukis, C., Johansson, C., Pandis, S. N., Simpson, D., and Visschedijk, A. J. H.: Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion in Europe – revised estimates and an evaluation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6503–6519, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-6503-2015, 2015.
EEA European Environment Agency: Emissions of primary particles and secondary particulate matter precursors, Indicator code CSI 003, available at: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/ds_resolveuid/781d346e34436a4aacf75c63e7288078 (last access: 25 August 2017), 2011.
EEA European Environmental Agency: Air Quality in Europe – 2016 Report, Publications Office of the European Union, EEA Report, No 28/2016, https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/air-quality-in-europe-2016/at_download/file, 2016.
Emmons, L. K., Walters, S., Hess, P. G., Lamarque, J.-F., Pfister, G. G., Fillmore, D., Granier, C., Guenther, A., Kinnison, D., Laepple, T., Orlando, J., Tie, X., Tyndall, G., Wiedinmyer, C., Baughcum, S. L., and Kloster, S.: Description and evaluation of the Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4), Geosci. Model Dev., 3, 43–67, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-3-43-2010, 2010.
Fameli, K.-M., and Assimakopoulos, V. D.: The new open Flexible Emission Inventory for Greece and the Greater Athens Area (FEI-GREGAA): account of pollutant sources and their importance from 2006 to 2012, Atmos. Environ., 137, 17–37, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.04.004, 2016.
Forkel, R., Werhahn, J., Hansen, A. B., McKeen, S., Peckham, S., Grell, G., and Suppan, P.: Effect of aerosol-radiation feedback on regional air quality – a case study with WRF/Chem, Atmos. Environ., 53, 202–211, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.10.009, 2012.
Fountoukis, C. and Nenes, A.: ISORROPIA II: a computationally efficient thermodynamic equilibrium model for K+–Ca2+–Mg2+–NH4+–Na+–SO42−–NO3−–Cl−–H2O aerosols, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4639–4659, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-4639-2007, 2007.
Fountoukis, C., Megaritis, A. G., Skyllakou, K., Charalampidis, P. E., Pilinis, C., Denier van der Gon, H. A. C., Crippa, M., Canonaco, F., Mohr, C., Prévôt, A. S. H., Allan, J. D., Poulain, L., Petäjä, T., Tiitta, P., Carbone, S., Kiendler-Scharr, A., Nemitz, E., O'Dowd, C., Swietlicki, E., and Pandis, S. N.: Organic aerosol concentration and composition over Europe: insights from comparison of regional model predictions with aerosol mass spectrometer factor analysis, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9061–9076, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-9061-2014, 2014.
Fourtziou, L., Liakakou, E., Stavroulas, I., Theodosi, C., Zarmpas, P., Psiloglou, B., Sciare, J., Maggos, T., Bairachtari, K., Bougiatioti, A., Gerasopoulos, E., Sarda-Estève, R., Bonnaire, N., and Mihalopoulos, N.: Multi-tracer approach to characterize domestic wood burning in Athens (Greece) during wintertime, Atmos. Environ., 148, 89–101, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.10.011, 2017.
Fuller, G. W., Sciare, J., Lutz, M., Moukhtar, S., and Wagener, S.: New directions: time to tackle urban wood burning?, Atmos. Environ., 68, 295–296, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.11.045, 2013.
Fuller, G. W., Tremper, A. H., Baker, T. D., Yttri, K. E., and Butterfield, D.: Contribution of wood burning to PM10 in London, Atmos. Environ., 87, 87–94, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.12.037, 2014.
Gao, Y., Zhang, M., Liu, Z., Wang, L., Wang, P., Xia, X., Tao, M., and Zhu, L.: Modeling the feedback between aerosol and meteorological variables in the atmospheric boundary layer during a severe fog–haze event over the North China Plain, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4279–4295, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-4279-2015, 2015.
Gerasopoulos, E., Gratsea, M., Liakakou, E., Lianou, M., Psiloglou, B., Kappos, N., Kambezidis, H., and Mihalopoulos, N.: An overview of biomass burning impacts on Athens air quality and analysis of its increasing significance, in: Perspectives on Atmospheric Sciences, edited by: Karacostas,T., Bais, A., and Nastos, P. T., Springer International Publishing, 1111–1116, 2017.
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This work focuses on the impact of residential wood burning on aerosol levels, composition and radiation under the ongoing economic crisis in Greece. The atmospheric model COSMO-ART performed a series of runs during the winter of 2013–2014. Emission inputs were revised according to the detailed aerosol characterization by local measurements. Aerosol levels were found to be elevated and mostly composed of organics, yet the timing of the plume justifies the minor radiative cooling and feedbacks.
This work focuses on the impact of residential wood burning on aerosol levels, composition and...