Articles | Volume 16, issue 13
Research article
14 Jul 2016
Research article |  | 14 Jul 2016

Time-resolved characterization of primary particle emissions and secondary particle formation from a modern gasoline passenger car

Panu Karjalainen, Hilkka Timonen, Erkka Saukko, Heino Kuuluvainen, Sanna Saarikoski, Päivi Aakko-Saksa, Timo Murtonen, Matthew Bloss, Miikka Dal Maso, Pauli Simonen, Erik Ahlberg, Birgitta Svenningsson, William Henry Brune, Risto Hillamo, Jorma Keskinen, and Topi Rönkkö

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Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Laboratory Studies | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)
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Cited articles

Aakko, P. and Nylund, N.-O.: Particle Emissions at Moderate and Cold Temperatures Using Different Fuels, Soc. Automot. Eng., SP-1809(724), 279–296,, 2003.
Aakko-Saksa, P., Rantanen-Kolehmainen, L., and Skyttä, E.: Ethanol, Isobutanol, and Biohydrocarbons as Gasoline Components in Relation to Gaseous Emissions and Particulate Matter, Environ. Sci. Technol. 48, 10489–10496,, 2014.
Alkidas, A. C.: Combustion advancements in gasoline engines, Energy Convers. Manag., 48, 2751–2761,, 2007.
Arffman, A., Yli-Ojanperä, J., Kalliokoski, J., Harra, J., Pirjola, L., Karjalainen, P., Rönkkö, T., and Keskinen, J.: High-resolution low-pressure cascade impactor, J. Aerosol Sci., 78, 97–109,, 2014.
Short summary
We characterized time-resolved primary particulate emissions and secondary particle formation from a modern gasoline passenger car. In mass terms, the amount of secondary particles was 13 times the amount of primary particles. The highest emissions were observed after a cold start when the engine and catalyst performance were suboptimal. The key parameter for secondary particle formation was the amount of gaseous hydrocarbons in the exhaust.
Final-revised paper