Articles | Volume 19, issue 13
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
An improved estimate for the δ13C and δ18O signatures of carbon monoxide produced from atmospheric oxidation of volatile organic compounds
Isaac J. Vimont
Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Global Monitoring Division, Boulder, CO, USA
CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA
Jocelyn C. Turnbull
CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA
GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand
Vasilii V. Petrenko
Earth and Environmental Science Department, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA
Philip F. Place
Earth and Environmental Science Department, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Global Monitoring Division, Boulder, CO, USA
Department of Meteorology and Atmospheric Science, Pennsylvania State University, College Station, PA, USA
Department of Meteorology and Atmospheric Science, Pennsylvania State University, College Station, PA, USA
Bruce H. Vaughn
Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA
James W. C. White
Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA
No articles found.
Pierre Friedlingstein, Michael O'Sullivan, Matthew W. Jones, Robbie M. Andrew, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Judith Hauck, Peter Landschützer, Corinne Le Quéré, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Clemens Schwingshackl, Stephen Sitch, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Robert B. Jackson, Simone R. Alin, Peter Anthoni, Leticia Barbero, Nicholas R. Bates, Meike Becker, Nicolas Bellouin, Bertrand Decharme, Laurent Bopp, Ida Bagus Mandhara Brasika, Patricia Cadule, Matthew A. Chamberlain, Naveen Chandra, Thi-Tuyet-Trang Chau, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Margot Cronin, Xinyu Dou, Kazutaka Enyo, Wiley Evans, Stefanie Falk, Richard A. Feely, Liang Feng, Daniel J. Ford, Thomas Gasser, Josefine Ghattas, Thanos Gkritzalis, Giacomo Grassi, Luke Gregor, Nicolas Gruber, Özgür Gürses, Ian Harris, Matthew Hefner, Jens Heinke, Richard A. Houghton, George C. Hurtt, Yosuke Iida, Tatiana Ilyina, Andrew R. Jacobson, Atul Jain, Tereza Jarníková, Annika Jersild, Fei Jiang, Zhe Jin, Fortunat Joos, Etsushi Kato, Ralph F. Keeling, Daniel Kennedy, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Jürgen Knauer, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Arne Körtzinger, Xin Lan, Nathalie Lefèvre, Hongmei Li, Junjie Liu, Zhiqiang Liu, Lei Ma, Greg Marland, Nicolas Mayot, Patrick C. McGuire, Galen A. McKinley, Gesa Meyer, Eric J. Morgan, David R. Munro, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Yosuke Niwa, Kevin M. O'Brien, Are Olsen, Abdirahman M. Omar, Tsuneo Ono, Melf Paulsen, Denis Pierrot, Katie Pocock, Benjamin Poulter, Carter M. Powis, Gregor Rehder, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Thais M. Rosan, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, T. Luke Smallman, Stephen M. Smith, Reinel Sospedra-Alfonso, Qing Sun, Adrienne J. Sutton, Colm Sweeney, Shintaro Takao, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Hiroyuki Tsujino, Francesco Tubiello, Guido R. van der Werf, Erik van Ooijen, Rik Wanninkhof, Michio Watanabe, Cathy Wimart-Rousseau, Dongxu Yang, Xiaojuan Yang, Wenping Yuan, Xu Yue, Sönke Zaehle, Jiye Zeng, and Bo Zheng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 5301–5369,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2023 describes the methodology, main results, and data sets used to quantify the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land ecosystems, and the ocean over the historical period (1750–2023). These living datasets are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Amanda R. Fay, David R. Munro, Galen A. McKinley, Denis Pierrot, Stewart C. Sutherland, Colm Sweeney, and Rik Wanninkhof
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
Presented here is a near-global monthly estimate of the difference between atmosphere and ocean carbon dioxide concentrations. The ocean's ability to take up carbon, both now and in the future, is defined by this difference in concentrations. With over 30 million measurements of surface ocean carbon over the last 40 years, and utilization of an extrapolation technique, a mean estimate of surface ocean delta fCO2 is presented.
Benjamin Hmiel, Vasilii V. Petrenko, Christo Buizert, Andrew M. Smith, Michael N. Dyonisius, Philip Place, Bin Yang, Quan Hua, Ross Beaudette, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, Christina Harth, Ray F. Weiss, Lindsey Davidge, Melisa Diaz, Matthew Pacicco, James A. Menking, Michael Kalk, Xavier Faïn, Alden Adolph, Isaac Vimont, and Lee T. Murray
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint under review for TCShort summary
The main aim of this research is to improve understanding of carbon-14 that is produced by cosmic rays in ice sheets. Measurements of carbon-14 in ice cores can provide a range of useful information (age of ice, past atmospheric chemistry, past cosmic ray intensity). Our results show that almost all (approx. 95 %) of carbon-14 that is produced in the upper layer of ice sheets is rapidly lost to the atmosphere. Our results also provide better estimates of carbon-14 production rates in deeper ice.
Rachel E. Havranek, Kathryn Snell, Sebastian Kopf, Brett Davidheiser-Kroll, Valerie Morris, and Bruce Vaughn
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 27, 2951–2971,Short summary
We present an automated, field-ready system that collects soil water vapor for stable isotope analysis. This system can be used to determine soil water evolution through time, which is helpful for understanding crop water use, water vapor fluxes to the atmosphere, and geologic proxy development. Our system can automatically collect soil water vapor and then store it for up to 30 d, which allows researchers to collect datasets from historically understudied, remote locations.
Daniel J. Varon, Daniel J. Jacob, Benjamin Hmiel, Ritesh Gautam, David R. Lyon, Mark Omara, Melissa Sulprizio, Lu Shen, Drew Pendergrass, Hannah Nesser, Zhen Qu, Zachary R. Barkley, Natasha L. Miles, Scott J. Richardson, Kenneth J. Davis, Sudhanshu Pandey, Xiao Lu, Alba Lorente, Tobias Borsdorff, Joannes D. Maasakkers, and Ilse Aben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7503–7520,Short summary
We use TROPOMI satellite observations to quantify weekly methane emissions from the US Permian oil and gas basin from May 2018 to October 2020. We find that Permian emissions are highly variable, with diverse economic and activity drivers. The most important drivers during our study period were new well development and natural gas price. Permian methane intensity averaged 4.6 % and decreased by 1 % per year.
Jianghanyang Li, Bianca C. Baier, Fred Moore, Tim Newberger, Sonja Wolter, Jack Higgs, Geoff Dutton, Eric Hintsa, Bradley Hall, and Colm Sweeney
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2851–2863,Short summary
Monitoring a suite of trace gases in the stratosphere will help us better understand the stratospheric circulation and its impact on the earth's radiation balance. However, such measurements are rare and usually expensive. We developed an instrument that can measure stratospheric trace gases using a low-cost sampling platform (AirCore). The results showed expected agreement with aircraft measurements, demonstrating this technique provides a low-cost and robust way to observe the stratosphere.
Lisa Azzarello, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Michael A. Robinson, Alessandro Franchin, Caroline C. Womack, Christopher D. Holmes, Steven S. Brown, Ann Middlebrook, Tim Newberger, Colm Sweeney, and Cora J. Young
We present a molecular size-resolved offline analysis of water-soluble brown carbon collected on an aircraft during FIREX-AQ. The smoke plumes were aged 0 to 5 h where absorption was dominated by small molecular weight molecules, brown carbon absorption downwind did not consistently decrease, and the measurements differed from online absorption measurements of the same samples. We show how differences between online and offline absorption could be related to different measurement conditions.
John D. Patterson, Murat Aydin, Andrew M. Crotwell, Gabrielle Pétron, Jeffery P. Severinghaus, Paul B. Krummel, Ray L. Langenfelds, Vasilii V. Petrenko, and Eric S. Saltzman
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for CPShort summary
Atmospheric levels of molecular hydrogen (H2) can impact climate and air quality. Constraining past changes to atmospheric H2 is useful for understanding how H2 cycles through the Earth system and predicting the impacts of increasing anthropogenic emissions under the "Hydrogen Economy." Here, we use the aging air found in the polar snowpack to reconstruct H2 levels over the past 100 years. We find that H2 levels increased by 30 % over Greenland and 60 % over Antarctica during the 20th century.
Anna Agustí-Panareda, Jérôme Barré, Sébastien Massart, Antje Inness, Ilse Aben, Melanie Ades, Bianca C. Baier, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Tobias Borsdorff, Nicolas Bousserez, Souhail Boussetta, Michael Buchwitz, Luca Cantarello, Cyril Crevoisier, Richard Engelen, Henk Eskes, Johannes Flemming, Sébastien Garrigues, Otto Hasekamp, Vincent Huijnen, Luke Jones, Zak Kipling, Bavo Langerock, Joe McNorton, Nicolas Meilhac, Stefan Noël, Mark Parrington, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Michel Ramonet, Miha Razinger, Maximilian Reuter, Roberto Ribas, Martin Suttie, Colm Sweeney, Jérôme Tarniewicz, and Lianghai Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3829–3859,Short summary
We present a global dataset of atmospheric CO2 and CH4, the two most important human-made greenhouse gases, which covers almost 2 decades (2003–2020). It is produced by combining satellite data of CO2 and CH4 with a weather and air composition prediction model, and it has been carefully evaluated against independent observations to ensure validity and point out deficiencies to the user. This dataset can be used for scientific studies in the field of climate change and the global carbon cycle.
Christo Buizert, Sarah Shackleton, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, William H. G. Roberts, Alan Seltzer, Bernhard Bereiter, Kenji Kawamura, Daniel Baggenstos, Anaïs J. Orsi, Ikumi Oyabu, Benjamin Birner, Jacob D. Morgan, Edward J. Brook, David M. Etheridge, David Thornton, Nancy Bertler, Rebecca L. Pyne, Robert Mulvaney, Ellen Mosley-Thompson, Peter D. Neff, and Vasilii V. Petrenko
Clim. Past, 19, 579–606,Short summary
It is unclear how different components of the global atmospheric circulation, such as the El Niño effect, respond to large-scale climate change. We present a new ice core gas proxy, called krypton-86 excess, that reflects past storminess in Antarctica. We present data from 11 ice cores that suggest the new proxy works. We present a reconstruction of changes in West Antarctic storminess over the last 24 000 years and suggest these are caused by north–south movement of the tropical rain belt.
Nasrin Mostafavi Pak, Jacob K. Hedelius, Sébastien Roche, Liz Cunningham, Bianca Baier, Colm Sweeney, Coleen Roehl, Joshua Laughner, Geoffrey Toon, Paul Wennberg, Harrison Parker, Colin Arrowsmith, Joseph Mendonca, Pierre Fogal, Tyler Wizenberg, Beatriz Herrera, Kimberly Strong, Kaley A. Walker, Felix Vogel, and Debra Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1239–1261,Short summary
Ground-based remote sensing instruments in the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) measure greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Consistency between TCCON measurements is crucial to accurately infer changes in atmospheric composition. We use portable remote sensing instruments (EM27/SUN) to evaluate biases between TCCON stations in North America. We also improve the retrievals of EM27/SUN instruments and evaluate the previous (GGG2014) and newest (GGG2020) retrieval algorithms.
Brendan Byrne, David F. Baker, Sourish Basu, Michael Bertolacci, Kevin W. Bowman, Dustin Carroll, Abhishek Chatterjee, Frédéric Chevallier, Philippe Ciais, Noel Cressie, David Crisp, Sean Crowell, Feng Deng, Zhu Deng, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Manvendra K. Dubey, Sha Feng, Omaira E. García, David W. T. Griffith, Benedikt Herkommer, Lei Hu, Andrew R. Jacobson, Rajesh Janardanan, Sujong Jeong, Matthew S. Johnson, Dylan B. A. Jones, Rigel Kivi, Junjie Liu, Zhiqiang Liu, Shamil Maksyutov, John B. Miller, Scot M. Miller, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Tomohiro Oda, Christopher W. O'Dell, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, Prabir K. Patra, Hélène Peiro, Christof Petri, Sajeev Philip, David F. Pollard, Benjamin Poulter, Marine Remaud, Andrew Schuh, Mahesh K. Sha, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Colm Sweeney, Yao Té, Hanqin Tian, Voltaire A. Velazco, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Thorsten Warneke, John R. Worden, Debra Wunch, Yuanzhi Yao, Jeongmin Yun, Andrew Zammit-Mangion, and Ning Zeng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 963–1004,Short summary
Changes in the carbon stocks of terrestrial ecosystems result in emissions and removals of CO2. These can be driven by anthropogenic activities (e.g., deforestation), natural processes (e.g., fires) or in response to rising CO2 (e.g., CO2 fertilization). This paper describes a dataset of CO2 emissions and removals derived from atmospheric CO2 observations. This pilot dataset informs current capabilities and future developments towards top-down monitoring and verification systems.
Michael N. Dyonisius, Vasilii V. Petrenko, Andrew M. Smith, Benjamin Hmiel, Peter D. Neff, Bin Yang, Quan Hua, Jochen Schmitt, Sarah A. Shackleton, Christo Buizert, Philip F. Place, James A. Menking, Ross Beaudette, Christina Harth, Michael Kalk, Heidi A. Roop, Bernhard Bereiter, Casey Armanetti, Isaac Vimont, Sylvia Englund Michel, Edward J. Brook, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, Ray F. Weiss, and Joseph R. McConnell
The Cryosphere, 17, 843–863,Short summary
Cosmic rays that enter the atmosphere produce secondary particles which react with surface minerals to produce radioactive nuclides. These nuclides are often used to constrain Earth's surface processes. However, the production rates from muons are not well constrained. We measured 14C in ice with a well-known exposure history to constrain the production rates from muons. 14C production in ice is analogous to quartz, but we obtain different production rates compared to commonly used estimates.
Lei Hu, Deborah Ottinger, Stephanie Bogle, Stephen A. Montzka, Philip L. DeCola, Ed Dlugokencky, Arlyn Andrews, Kirk Thoning, Colm Sweeney, Geoff Dutton, Lauren Aepli, and Andrew Crotwell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1437–1448,Short summary
Effective mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relies on an accurate understanding of emissions. Here we demonstrate the added value of using inventory- and atmosphere-based approaches for estimating US emissions of SF6, the most potent GHG known. The results suggest a large decline in US SF6 emissions, shed light on the possible processes causing the differences between the independent estimates, and identify opportunities for substantial additional emission reductions.
Luke D. Schiferl, Jennifer D. Watts, Erik J. L. Larson, Kyle A. Arndt, Sébastien C. Biraud, Eugénie S. Euskirchen, Jordan P. Goodrich, John M. Henderson, Aram Kalhori, Kathryn McKain, Marikate E. Mountain, J. William Munger, Walter C. Oechel, Colm Sweeney, Yonghong Yi, Donatella Zona, and Róisín Commane
Biogeosciences, 19, 5953–5972,Short summary
As the Arctic rapidly warms, vast stores of thawing permafrost could release carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. We combined observations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations from aircraft and a tower with observed CO2 fluxes from tundra ecosystems and found that the Alaskan North Slope in not a consistent source nor sink of CO2. Our study shows the importance of using both site-level and atmospheric measurements to constrain regional net CO2 fluxes and improve biogenic processes in models.
Joël Thanwerdas, Marielle Saunois, Isabelle Pison, Didier Hauglustaine, Antoine Berchet, Bianca Baier, Colm Sweeney, and Philippe Bousquet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15489–15508,Short summary
Atmospheric methane (CH4) concentrations have been rising since 2007, resulting from an imbalance between CH4 sources and sinks. The CH4 budget is generally estimated through top-down approaches using CH4 and δ13C(CH4) observations as constraints. The oxidation by chlorine (Cl) contributes little to the total oxidation of CH4 but strongly influences δ13C(CH4). Here, we compare multiple recent Cl fields and quantify the influence of Cl concentrations on CH4, δ13C(CH4), and CH4 budget estimates.
Pierre Friedlingstein, Michael O'Sullivan, Matthew W. Jones, Robbie M. Andrew, Luke Gregor, Judith Hauck, Corinne Le Quéré, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Are Olsen, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Clemens Schwingshackl, Stephen Sitch, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Robert B. Jackson, Simone R. Alin, Ramdane Alkama, Almut Arneth, Vivek K. Arora, Nicholas R. Bates, Meike Becker, Nicolas Bellouin, Henry C. Bittig, Laurent Bopp, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Margot Cronin, Wiley Evans, Stefanie Falk, Richard A. Feely, Thomas Gasser, Marion Gehlen, Thanos Gkritzalis, Lucas Gloege, Giacomo Grassi, Nicolas Gruber, Özgür Gürses, Ian Harris, Matthew Hefner, Richard A. Houghton, George C. Hurtt, Yosuke Iida, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Annika Jersild, Koji Kadono, Etsushi Kato, Daniel Kennedy, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Jürgen Knauer, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Keith Lindsay, Junjie Liu, Zhu Liu, Gregg Marland, Nicolas Mayot, Matthew J. McGrath, Nicolas Metzl, Natalie M. Monacci, David R. Munro, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Yosuke Niwa, Kevin O'Brien, Tsuneo Ono, Paul I. Palmer, Naiqing Pan, Denis Pierrot, Katie Pocock, Benjamin Poulter, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Carmen Rodriguez, Thais M. Rosan, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Jamie D. Shutler, Ingunn Skjelvan, Tobias Steinhoff, Qing Sun, Adrienne J. Sutton, Colm Sweeney, Shintaro Takao, Toste Tanhua, Pieter P. Tans, Xiangjun Tian, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Hiroyuki Tsujino, Francesco Tubiello, Guido R. van der Werf, Anthony P. Walker, Rik Wanninkhof, Chris Whitehead, Anna Willstrand Wranne, Rebecca Wright, Wenping Yuan, Chao Yue, Xu Yue, Sönke Zaehle, Jiye Zeng, and Bo Zheng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4811–4900,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2022 describes the datasets and methodology used to quantify the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and their partitioning among the atmosphere, the land ecosystems, and the ocean. These living datasets are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Sara Martínez-Alonso, Merritt N. Deeter, Bianca C. Baier, Kathryn McKain, Helen Worden, Tobias Borsdorff, Colm Sweeney, and Ilse Aben
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4751–4765,Short summary
AirCore is a novel balloon sampling system that can measure, among others, vertical profiles of carbon monoxide (CO) from 25–30 km of altitude to near the surface. Our analyses of AirCore and satellite CO data show that AirCore profiles are suited for satellite data validation, the use of shorter aircraft vertical profiles in satellite validation results in small errors (1–3 percent points) mostly at 300 hPa and above, and the error introduced by clouds in TROPOMI land data is small (1–2 %).
Joël Thanwerdas, Marielle Saunois, Antoine Berchet, Isabelle Pison, Bruce H. Vaughn, Sylvia Englund Michel, and Philippe Bousquet
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4831–4851,Short summary
Estimating CH4 sources by exploiting observations within an inverse modeling framework is a powerful approach. Here, a new system designed to assimilate δ13C(CH4) observations together with CH4 observations is presented. By optimizing both the emissions and associated source signatures of multiple emission categories, this new system can efficiently differentiate the co-located emission categories and provide estimates of CH4 sources that are consistent with isotopic data.
Min Huang, James H. Crawford, Gregory R. Carmichael, Kevin W. Bowman, Sujay V. Kumar, and Colm Sweeney
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7461–7487,Short summary
This study demonstrates that ozone dry-deposition modeling can be improved by revising the model's dry-deposition parameterizations to better represent the effects of environmental conditions including the soil moisture fields. Applying satellite soil moisture data assimilation is shown to also have added value. Such advancements in coupled modeling and data assimilation can benefit the assessments of ozone impacts on human and vegetation health.
Vanessa C. Monteiro, Natasha L. Miles, Scott J. Richardson, Zachary Barkley, Bernd J. Haupt, David Lyon, Benjamin Hmiel, and Kenneth J. Davis
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2401–2417,Short summary
We describe a network of five ground-based in situ towers, equipped to measure concentrations of methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and the isotopic ratio of methane, in the Permian Basin, United States. The main goal is to use methane concentrations with atmospheric models to determine methane emissions from one of the Permian sub-basins. These datasets can improve emissions estimations, leading to best practices in the oil and natural gas industry, and policies for emissions reduction.
Colm Sweeney, Abhishek Chatterjee, Sonja Wolter, Kathryn McKain, Robert Bogue, Stephen Conley, Tim Newberger, Lei Hu, Lesley Ott, Benjamin Poulter, Luke Schiferl, Brad Weir, Zhen Zhang, and Charles E. Miller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6347–6364,Short summary
The Arctic Carbon Atmospheric Profiles (Arctic-CAP) project demonstrates the utility of aircraft profiles for independent evaluation of model-derived emissions and uptake of atmospheric CO2, CH4, and CO from land and ocean. Comparison with the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) modeling system suggests that fluxes of CO2 are very consistent with observations, while those of CH4 have some regional and seasonal biases, and that CO comparison is complicated by transport errors.
Pierre Friedlingstein, Matthew W. Jones, Michael O'Sullivan, Robbie M. Andrew, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Judith Hauck, Corinne Le Quéré, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Stephen Sitch, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Rob B. Jackson, Simone R. Alin, Peter Anthoni, Nicholas R. Bates, Meike Becker, Nicolas Bellouin, Laurent Bopp, Thi Tuyet Trang Chau, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Margot Cronin, Kim I. Currie, Bertrand Decharme, Laique M. Djeutchouang, Xinyu Dou, Wiley Evans, Richard A. Feely, Liang Feng, Thomas Gasser, Dennis Gilfillan, Thanos Gkritzalis, Giacomo Grassi, Luke Gregor, Nicolas Gruber, Özgür Gürses, Ian Harris, Richard A. Houghton, George C. Hurtt, Yosuke Iida, Tatiana Ilyina, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Atul Jain, Steve D. Jones, Etsushi Kato, Daniel Kennedy, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Jürgen Knauer, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Arne Körtzinger, Peter Landschützer, Siv K. Lauvset, Nathalie Lefèvre, Sebastian Lienert, Junjie Liu, Gregg Marland, Patrick C. McGuire, Joe R. Melton, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Yosuke Niwa, Tsuneo Ono, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Gregor Rehder, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Thais M. Rosan, Jörg Schwinger, Clemens Schwingshackl, Roland Séférian, Adrienne J. Sutton, Colm Sweeney, Toste Tanhua, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Francesco Tubiello, Guido R. van der Werf, Nicolas Vuichard, Chisato Wada, Rik Wanninkhof, Andrew J. Watson, David Willis, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Wenping Yuan, Chao Yue, Xu Yue, Sönke Zaehle, and Jiye Zeng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 1917–2005,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2021 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Xavier Faïn, Rachael H. Rhodes, Philip Place, Vasilii V. Petrenko, Kévin Fourteau, Nathan Chellman, Edward Crosier, Joseph R. McConnell, Edward J. Brook, Thomas Blunier, Michel Legrand, and Jérôme Chappellaz
Clim. Past, 18, 631–647,Short summary
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a regulated pollutant and one of the key components determining the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. In this study, we analyzed five ice cores from Greenland at high resolution for CO concentrations by coupling laser spectrometry with continuous melting. By combining these new datasets, we produced an upper-bound estimate of past atmospheric CO abundance since preindustrial times for the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes, covering the period from 1700 to 1957 CE.
Lei Hu, Stephen A. Montzka, Fred Moore, Eric Hintsa, Geoff Dutton, M. Carolina Siso, Kirk Thoning, Robert W. Portmann, Kathryn McKain, Colm Sweeney, Isaac Vimont, David Nance, Bradley Hall, and Steven Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2891–2907,Short summary
The unexpected increase in CFC-11 emissions between 2012 and 2017 resulted in concerns about delaying the stratospheric ozone recovery. Although the subsequent decline of CFC-11 emissions indicated a mitigation in part to this problem, the regions fully responsible for these large emission changes were unclear. Here, our new estimate, based on atmospheric measurements from two global campaigns and from NOAA, suggests Asia primarily contributed to the global CFC-11 emission rise during 2012–2017.
Regina Gonzalez Moguel, Felix Vogel, Sébastien Ars, Hinrich Schaefer, Jocelyn C. Turnbull, and Peter M. J. Douglas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2121–2133,Short summary
Evaluating methane (CH4) sources in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR) is crucial to effectively mitigate CH4 emissions. We tested the use of carbon isotopes to estimate source contributions from key CH4 sources in the AOSR and found that 56 ± 18 % of CH4 emissions originated from surface mining and processing facilities, 34 ± 18 % from tailings ponds, and 10 ± < 1 % from wetlands, confirming previous findings and showing that this method can be successfully used to partition CH4 sources.
Vilma Kangasaho, Aki Tsuruta, Leif Backman, Pyry Mäkinen, Sander Houweling, Arjo Segers, Maarten Krol, Ed Dlugokencky, Sylvia Michel, James White, and Tuula Aalto
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Understanding the composition of carbon isotopes can help to better understand the changes in methane budgets. This study investigates how methane sources affect the seasonal cycle of the methane carbon-13 isotope during 2000–2012 using an atmospheric transport model. We found that emissions from both anthropogenic and natural sources contribute. The findings raise a need to revise the magnitudes, proportion, and seasonal cycles of anthropogenic sources and northern wetland emissions.
Kevin S. Rozmiarek, Bruce H. Vaughn, Tyler R. Jones, Valerie Morris, William B. Skorski, Abigail G. Hughes, Jack Elston, Sonja Wahl, Anne-Katrine Faber, and Hans Christian Steen-Larsen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7045–7067,Short summary
We have designed an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) sampling platform for operation in extreme polar environments that is capable of sampling atmospheric water vapor for subsequent measurement of water isotopes. During flight, we measure location, temperature, humidity, and pressure to determine the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) using algorithms, allowing for strategic decision-making by the pilot to collect samples in glass flasks contained in the nose cone of the UAV.
Sarah Shackleton, James A. Menking, Edward Brook, Christo Buizert, Michael N. Dyonisius, Vasilii V. Petrenko, Daniel Baggenstos, and Jeffrey P. Severinghaus
Clim. Past, 17, 2273–2289,Short summary
In this study, we measure atmospheric noble gases trapped in ice cores to reconstruct ocean temperature during the last glaciation. Comparing the new reconstruction to other climate records, we show that the ocean reached its coldest temperatures before ice sheets reached maximum volumes and atmospheric CO2 reached its lowest concentrations. Ocean cooling played a major role in lowering atmospheric CO2 early in the glaciation, but it only played a minor role later.
Abigail G. Hughes, Sonja Wahl, Tyler R. Jones, Alexandra Zuhr, Maria Hörhold, James W. C. White, and Hans Christian Steen-Larsen
The Cryosphere, 15, 4949–4974,Short summary
Water isotope records in Greenland and Antarctic ice cores are a valuable proxy for paleoclimate reconstruction and are traditionally thought to primarily reflect precipitation input. However, post-depositional processes are hypothesized to contribute to the isotope climate signal. In this study we use laboratory experiments, field experiments, and modeling to show that sublimation and vapor–snow isotope exchange can rapidly influence the isotopic composition of the snowpack.
Yenny Gonzalez, Róisín Commane, Ethan Manninen, Bruce C. Daube, Luke D. Schiferl, J. Barry McManus, Kathryn McKain, Eric J. Hintsa, James W. Elkins, Stephen A. Montzka, Colm Sweeney, Fred Moore, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano Jost, Thomas B. Ryerson, Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, Chelsea R. Thompson, Eric Ray, Paul O. Wennberg, John Crounse, Michelle Kim, Hannah M. Allen, Paul A. Newman, Britton B. Stephens, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Benjamin A. Nault, Eric Morgan, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11113–11132,Short summary
Vertical profiles of N2O and a variety of chemical species and aerosols were collected nearly from pole to pole over the oceans during the NASA Atmospheric Tomography mission. We observed that tropospheric N2O variability is strongly driven by the influence of stratospheric air depleted in N2O, especially at middle and high latitudes. We also traced the origins of biomass burning and industrial emissions and investigated their impact on the variability of tropospheric N2O.
Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Arlyn Andrews, Colm Sweeney, John B. Miller, Charles E. Miller, Sander Veraverbeke, Roisin Commane, Steven Wofsy, John M. Henderson, and James T. Randerson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8557–8574,Short summary
We analyzed high-resolution trace gas measurements collected from a tower in Alaska during a very active fire season to improve our understanding of trace gas emissions from boreal forest fires. Our results suggest previous studies may have underestimated emissions from smoldering combustion in boreal forest fires.
Sébastien Roche, Kimberly Strong, Debra Wunch, Joseph Mendonca, Colm Sweeney, Bianca Baier, Sébastien C. Biraud, Joshua L. Laughner, Geoffrey C. Toon, and Brian J. Connor
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3087–3118,Short summary
We evaluate CO2 profile retrievals from ground-based near-infrared solar absorption spectra after implementing several improvements to the GFIT2 retrieval algorithm. Realistic errors in the a priori temperature profile (~ 2 °C in the lower troposphere) are found to be the leading source of differences between the retrieved and true CO2 profiles, differences that are larger than typical CO2 variability. A temperature retrieval or correction is critical to improve CO2 profile retrieval results.
Vasilii V. Petrenko, Andrew M. Smith, Edward M. Crosier, Roxana Kazemi, Philip Place, Aidan Colton, Bin Yang, Quan Hua, and Lee T. Murray
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2055–2063,Short summary
This paper presents an improved methodology for measurements of atmospheric concentration of carbon-14-containing carbon monoxide (14CO), as well as a 1-year dataset that demonstrates the methodology. Atmospheric 14CO concentration measurements are useful for improving the understanding of spatial and temporal variability of hydroxyl radical concentrations. Key improvements over prior methods include a greatly reduced air sample size and accurate procedural blank characterization.
Junjie Liu, Latha Baskaran, Kevin Bowman, David Schimel, A. Anthony Bloom, Nicholas C. Parazoo, Tomohiro Oda, Dustin Carroll, Dimitris Menemenlis, Joanna Joiner, Roisin Commane, Bruce Daube, Lucianna V. Gatti, Kathryn McKain, John Miller, Britton B. Stephens, Colm Sweeney, and Steven Wofsy
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 299–330,Short summary
On average, the terrestrial biosphere carbon sink is equivalent to ~ 20 % of fossil fuel emissions. Understanding where and why the terrestrial biosphere absorbs carbon from the atmosphere is pivotal to any mitigation policy. Here we present a regionally resolved satellite-constrained net biosphere exchange (NBE) dataset with corresponding uncertainties between 2010–2018: CMS-Flux NBE 2020. The dataset provides a unique perspective on monitoring regional contributions to the CO2 growth rate.
Shamil Maksyutov, Tomohiro Oda, Makoto Saito, Rajesh Janardanan, Dmitry Belikov, Johannes W. Kaiser, Ruslan Zhuravlev, Alexander Ganshin, Vinu K. Valsala, Arlyn Andrews, Lukasz Chmura, Edward Dlugokencky, László Haszpra, Ray L. Langenfelds, Toshinobu Machida, Takakiyo Nakazawa, Michel Ramonet, Colm Sweeney, and Douglas Worthy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1245–1266,Short summary
In order to improve the top-down estimation of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, a high-resolution inverse modelling technique was developed for applications to global transport modelling of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. A coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian transport model and its adjoint are combined with surface fluxes at 0.1° resolution to provide high-resolution forward simulation and inverse modelling of surface fluxes accounting for signals from emission hot spots.
Susan S. Kulawik, John R. Worden, Vivienne H. Payne, Dejian Fu, Steven C. Wofsy, Kathryn McKain, Colm Sweeney, Bruce C. Daube Jr., Alan Lipton, Igor Polonsky, Yuguang He, Karen E. Cady-Pereira, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Daniel J. Jacob, and Yi Yin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 335–354,Short summary
This paper shows comparisons of a new single-footprint methane product from the AIRS satellite to aircraft-based observations. We show that this AIRS methane product provides useful information to study seasonal and global methane trends of this important greenhouse gas.
Petter Weibring, Dirk Richter, James G. Walega, Alan Fried, Joshua DiGangi, Hannah Halliday, Yonghoon Choi, Bianca Baier, Colm Sweeney, Ben Miller, Kenneth J. Davis, Zachary Barkley, and Michael D. Obland
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6095–6112,Short summary
The present study describes an autonomously operated instrument for high-precision (20–40 parts per trillion in 1 s) measurements of ethane during actual airborne operations on a small aircraft platform (NASA's King Air B200). This paper discusses the dynamic nature of airborne performance due to various aircraft-induced perturbations, methods devised to identify such events, and solutions we have enacted to circumvent these perturbations.
Haeyoung Lee, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Jocelyn C. Turnbull, Sepyo Lee, Scott J. Lehman, John B. Miller, Gabrielle Pétron, Jeong-Sik Lim, Gang-Woong Lee, Sang-Sam Lee, and Young-San Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12033–12045,Short summary
To understand South Korea's CO2 emissions and sinks as well as those of the surrounding region, we used flask-air samples collected for 2 years at Anmyeondo (36.53° N, 126.32° E; 46 m a.s.l.), South Korea, for analysis of observed 14C in atmospheric CO2 as a tracer of fossil fuel CO2 contribution (Cff). Here, we showed our observation result of 14C and Cff. SF6 and CO can be good proxies of Cff in this study, and the ratio of CO to Cff was compared to a bottom-up inventory.
Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, Chelsea R. Thompson, Kenneth C. Aikin, Teresa Campos, Hannah Clark, Róisín Commane, Bruce Daube, Glenn W. Diskin, James W. Elkins, Ru-Shan Gao, Audrey Gaudel, Eric J. Hintsa, Bryan J. Johnson, Rigel Kivi, Kathryn McKain, Fred L. Moore, David D. Parrish, Richard Querel, Eric Ray, Ricardo Sánchez, Colm Sweeney, David W. Tarasick, Anne M. Thompson, Valérie Thouret, Jacquelyn C. Witte, Steve C. Wofsy, and Thomas B. Ryerson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10611–10635,
Johannes C. Laube, Emma C. Leedham Elvidge, Karina E. Adcock, Bianca Baier, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Huilin Chen, Elise S. Droste, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Pauli Heikkinen, Andrew J. Hind, Rigel Kivi, Alexander Lojko, Stephen A. Montzka, David E. Oram, Steve Randall, Thomas Röckmann, William T. Sturges, Colm Sweeney, Max Thomas, Elinor Tuffnell, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9771–9782,Short summary
We demonstrate that AirCore technology, which is based on small low-cost balloons, can provide access to trace gas measurements such as CFCs at ultra-low abundances. This is a new way to quantify ozone-depleting, and related, substances in the stratosphere, which is largely inaccessible to aircraft. We show two potential uses: (a) tracking the stratospheric circulation, which is predicted to change, and (b) assessing three common meteorological reanalyses driving a global stratospheric model.
Abigail G. Hughes, Tyler R. Jones, Bo M. Vinther, Vasileios Gkinis, C. Max Stevens, Valerie Morris, Bruce H. Vaughn, Christian Holme, Bradley R. Markle, and James W. C. White
Clim. Past, 16, 1369–1386,Short summary
An ice core drilled on the Renland ice cap (RECAP) in east-central Greenland contains a continuous climate record dating through the last glacial period. Here we present the water isotope record for the Holocene, in which high-resolution climate information is retained for the last 8 kyr. We find that the RECAP water isotope record exhibits seasonal and decadal variability which may reflect sea surface conditions and regional climate variability.
Sarah A. Strode, James S. Wang, Michael Manyin, Bryan Duncan, Ryan Hossaini, Christoph A. Keller, Sylvia E. Michel, and James W. C. White
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8405–8419,Short summary
The 13C : 12C isotopic ratio in methane (CH4) provides information about CH4 sources, but loss of CH4 by reaction with OH and chlorine (Cl) also affects this ratio. Tropospheric Cl provides a small and uncertain sink for CH4 but has a large effect on its isotopic ratio. We use the GEOS model with several different Cl fields to test the sensitivity of methane's isotopic composition to tropospheric Cl. Cl affects the global mean, hemispheric gradient, and seasonal cycle of the isotopic ratio.
Nikolay V. Balashov, Kenneth J. Davis, Natasha L. Miles, Thomas Lauvaux, Scott J. Richardson, Zachary R. Barkley, and Timothy A. Bonin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4545–4559,Short summary
An accurate independent verification methodology to estimate methane (a powerful greenhouse gas) emissions is essential for the effective implementation of policies that aim to reduce the impacts of climate change. In this paper, four uncertainties that complicate the independent estimation of urban methane emissions are identified: the definition of urban domain, background heterogeneity, emissions temporal variability, and missing sources. Ways to improve emission estimates are suggested.
Alexander B. Thames, William H. Brune, David O. Miller, Hannah M. Allen, Eric C. Apel, Donald R. Blake, T. Paul Bui, Roisin Commane, John D. Crounse, Bruce C. Daube, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, James W. Elkins, Samuel R. Hall, Thomas F. Hanisco, Reem A. Hannun, Eric Hintsa, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Michelle J. Kim, Kathryn McKain, Fred L. Moore, Julie M. Nicely, Jeffrey Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Jason M. St. Clair, Colm Sweeney, Alex Teng, Chelsea R. Thompson, Kirk Ullmann, Paul O. Wennberg, and Glenn M. Wolfe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4013–4029,Short summary
Oceans and the atmosphere exchange volatile gases that react with the hydroxyl radical (OH). During a NASA airborne study, measurements of the total frequency of OH reactions, called the OH reactivity, were made in the marine boundary layer of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The measured OH reactivity often exceeded the OH reactivity calculated from measured chemical species. This missing OH reactivity appears to be from unmeasured volatile organic compounds coming out of the ocean.
Elizabeth Asher, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Britton B. Stephens, Doug Kinnison, Eric J. Morgan, Ralph F. Keeling, Elliot L. Atlas, Sue M. Schauffler, Simone Tilmes, Eric A. Kort, Martin S. Hoecker-Martínez, Matt C. Long, Jean-François Lamarque, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Kathryn McKain, Colm Sweeney, Alan J. Hills, and Eric C. Apel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14071–14090,Short summary
Halogenated organic trace gases, which are a source of reactive halogens to the atmosphere, exert a disproportionately large influence on atmospheric chemistry and climate. This paper reports novel aircraft observations of halogenated compounds over the Southern Ocean in summer and evaluates hypothesized regional sources and emissions of these trace gases through their relationships to additional aircraft observations.
Joël Thanwerdas, Marielle Saunois, Antoine Berchet, Isabelle Pison, Didier Hauglustaine, Michel Ramonet, Cyril Crevoisier, Bianca Baier, Colm Sweeney, and Philippe Bousquet
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Oxidation by the hydroxyl radical (OH) is the dominant atmospheric sink for methane, contributing to approximately 90 % of the total methane loss. Chemical losses by reaction with atomic oxygen (O1D) and chlorine radicals (Cl) in the stratosphere are other sinks, contributing about 3 % to the total methane destruction. We assess here the impact of atomic Cl on atmospheric methane mixing ratios, methane atmospheric loss and atmospheric isotopic δ13C-CH4 values.
Susan S. Kulawik, Sean Crowell, David Baker, Junjie Liu, Kathryn McKain, Colm Sweeney, Sebastien C. Biraud, Steve Wofsy, Christopher W. O'Dell, Paul O. Wennberg, Debra Wunch, Coleen M. Roehl, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Matthäus Kiel, David W. T. Griffith, Voltaire A. Velazco, Justus Notholt, Thorsten Warneke, Christof Petri, Martine De Mazière, Mahesh K. Sha, Ralf Sussmann, Markus Rettinger, Dave F. Pollard, Isamu Morino, Osamu Uchino, Frank Hase, Dietrich G. Feist, Sébastien Roche, Kimberly Strong, Rigel Kivi, Laura Iraci, Kei Shiomi, Manvendra K. Dubey, Eliezer Sepulveda, Omaira Elena Garcia Rodriguez, Yao Té, Pascal Jeseck, Pauli Heikkinen, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Michael R. Gunson, Annmarie Eldering, David Crisp, Brendan Fisher, and Gregory B. Osterman
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Publication in AMT not foreseenShort summary
This paper provides a benchmark of OCO-2 v8 and ACOS-GOSAT v7.3 XCO2 and lowermost tropospheric (LMT) errors. The paper focuses on the systematic errors and subtracts out validation, co-location, and random errors, looks at the correlation scale-length (spatially and temporally) of systematic errors, finding that the scale lengths are similar to bias correction scale-lengths. The assimilates of the bias correction term is used to place an error on fluxes estimates.
Jacob K. Hedelius, Tai-Long He, Dylan B. A. Jones, Bianca C. Baier, Rebecca R. Buchholz, Martine De Mazière, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Manvendra K. Dubey, Dietrich G. Feist, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Laura T. Iraci, Pascal Jeseck, Matthäus Kiel, Rigel Kivi, Cheng Liu, Isamu Morino, Justus Notholt, Young-Suk Oh, Hirofumi Ohyama, David F. Pollard, Markus Rettinger, Sébastien Roche, Coleen M. Roehl, Matthias Schneider, Kei Shiomi, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Colm Sweeney, Yao Té, Osamu Uchino, Voltaire A. Velazco, Wei Wang, Thorsten Warneke, Paul O. Wennberg, Helen M. Worden, and Debra Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5547–5572,Short summary
We seek ways to improve the accuracy of column measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) – an important tracer of pollution – made from the MOPITT satellite instrument. We devise a filtering scheme which reduces the scatter and also eliminates bias among the MOPITT detectors. Compared to ground-based observations, MOPITT measurements are about 6 %–8 % higher. When MOPITT data are implemented in a global assimilation model, they tend to reduce the model mismatch with aircraft measurements.
Jens Mühle, Cathy M. Trudinger, Luke M. Western, Matthew Rigby, Martin K. Vollmer, Sunyoung Park, Alistair J. Manning, Daniel Say, Anita Ganesan, L. Paul Steele, Diane J. Ivy, Tim Arnold, Shanlan Li, Andreas Stohl, Christina M. Harth, Peter K. Salameh, Archie McCulloch, Simon O'Doherty, Mi-Kyung Park, Chun Ok Jo, Dickon Young, Kieran M. Stanley, Paul B. Krummel, Blagoj Mitrevski, Ove Hermansen, Chris Lunder, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Bo Yao, Jooil Kim, Benjamin Hmiel, Christo Buizert, Vasilii V. Petrenko, Jgor Arduini, Michela Maione, David M. Etheridge, Eleni Michalopoulou, Mike Czerniak, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, Stefan Reimann, Peter G. Simmonds, Paul J. Fraser, Ronald G. Prinn, and Ray F. Weiss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10335–10359,Short summary
We discuss atmospheric concentrations and emissions of the strong greenhouse gas perfluorocyclobutane. A large fraction of recent emissions stem from China, India, and Russia, probably as a by-product from the production of fluoropolymers and fluorochemicals. Most historic emissions likely stem from developed countries. Total emissions are higher than what is being reported. Clearly, more measurements and better reporting are needed to understand emissions of this and other greenhouse gases.
James A. Menking, Edward J. Brook, Sarah A. Shackleton, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, Michael N. Dyonisius, Vasilii Petrenko, Joseph R. McConnell, Rachael H. Rhodes, Thomas K. Bauska, Daniel Baggenstos, Shaun Marcott, and Stephen Barker
Clim. Past, 15, 1537–1556,Short summary
An ice core from Taylor Glacier, Antarctica, spans a period ~ 70 000 years ago when Earth entered the last ice age. Chemical analyses of the ice and air bubbles allow for an independent determination of the ages of the ice and gas bubbles. The difference between the age of the ice and the bubbles at any given depth, called ∆age, is unusually high in the Taylor Glacier core compared to the Taylor Dome ice core situated to the south. This implies a dramatic accumulation gradient between the sites.
Sean Crowell, David Baker, Andrew Schuh, Sourish Basu, Andrew R. Jacobson, Frederic Chevallier, Junjie Liu, Feng Deng, Liang Feng, Kathryn McKain, Abhishek Chatterjee, John B. Miller, Britton B. Stephens, Annmarie Eldering, David Crisp, David Schimel, Ray Nassar, Christopher W. O'Dell, Tomohiro Oda, Colm Sweeney, Paul I. Palmer, and Dylan B. A. Jones
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9797–9831,Short summary
Space-based retrievals of carbon dioxide offer the potential to provide dense data in regions that are sparsely observed by the surface network. We find that flux estimates that are informed by the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) show different character from that inferred using surface measurements in tropical land regions, particularly in Africa, with a much larger total emission and larger amplitude seasonal cycle.
Christian Holme, Vasileios Gkinis, Mika Lanzky, Valerie Morris, Martin Olesen, Abigail Thayer, Bruce H. Vaughn, and Bo M. Vinther
Clim. Past, 15, 893–912,Short summary
This study investigates the linear relationship between the water isotopes of three East Greenland ice cores and regional temperatures. By comparing the water isotopes with nearby instrumental temperature records and reanalysis data, this study demonstrates that it can be problematic to reconstruct temperatures through regression of water isotope data from coastal ice cores. We further show that the varying linear relationship could be connected with changes in sea ice near the drill site.
Julian Kostinek, Anke Roiger, Kenneth J. Davis, Colm Sweeney, Joshua P. DiGangi, Yonghoon Choi, Bianca Baier, Frank Hase, Jochen Groß, Maximilian Eckl, Theresa Klausner, and André Butz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1767–1783,Short summary
We demonstrate the successful adaption of a laser-based spectrometer for airborne in situ trace gas measurements. The modified instrument allows for precise and simultaneous airborne observation of five climatologically relevant gases. We further report on instrument performance during a first field deployment over the eastern and central USA.
Anna Karion, Thomas Lauvaux, Israel Lopez Coto, Colm Sweeney, Kimberly Mueller, Sharon Gourdji, Wayne Angevine, Zachary Barkley, Aijun Deng, Arlyn Andrews, Ariel Stein, and James Whetstone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2561–2576,Short summary
In this study, we use atmospheric methane concentration observations collected during an airborne campaign to compare different model-based emissions estimates from the Barnett Shale oil and natural gas production basin in Texas, USA. We find that the tracer dispersion model has a significant impact on the results because the models differ in their simulation of vertical dispersion. Additional work is needed to evaluate and improve vertical mixing in the tracer dispersion models.
Christine D. Groot Zwaaftink, Stephan Henne, Rona L. Thompson, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Toshinobu Machida, Jean-Daniel Paris, Motoki Sasakawa, Arjo Segers, Colm Sweeney, and Andreas Stohl
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4469–4487,Short summary
A Lagrangian particle dispersion model is used to simulate global fields of methane, constrained by observations through nudging. We show that this rather simple and computationally inexpensive method can give results similar to or as good as a computationally expensive Eulerian chemistry transport model with a data assimilation scheme. The three-dimensional methane fields are of interest to applications such as inverse modelling and satellite retrievals.
Hinrich Schaefer, Dan Smale, Sylvia E. Nichol, Tony M. Bromley, Gordon W. Brailsford, Ross J. Martin, Rowena Moss, Sylvia Englund Michel, and James W. C. White
Biogeosciences, 15, 6371–6386,Short summary
To quantify the impact of El Nino–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate events on the methane budget, we studied the correlation between CH4 time series and ENSO indices. We find that ENSO explains less than one-third of the variability in CH4 levels and their stable carbon isotopes, which constrain the source processes of emissions. ENSO forcing of the CH4 cycle is too small, episodic, and regional to force atmospheric trends, which are more likely caused by agricultural or industrial emissions.
Wei He, Ivar R. van der Velde, Arlyn E. Andrews, Colm Sweeney, John Miller, Pieter Tans, Ingrid T. van der Laan-Luijkx, Thomas Nehrkorn, Marikate Mountain, Weimin Ju, Wouter Peters, and Huilin Chen
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3515–3536,Short summary
We have implemented a regional, high-resolution, and computationally attractive carbon dioxide data assimilation system. This system, named CTDAS-Lagrange, is capable of simultaneously optimizing terrestrial biosphere fluxes and the lateral boundary conditions. The CTDAS-Lagrange system can be easily extended to assimilate an additional tracer, e.g., carbonyl sulfide (COS or OCS), for regional estimates of both net and gross carbon fluxes.
Amanda R. Fay, Nicole S. Lovenduski, Galen A. McKinley, David R. Munro, Colm Sweeney, Alison R. Gray, Peter Landschützer, Britton B. Stephens, Taro Takahashi, and Nancy Williams
Biogeosciences, 15, 3841–3855,Short summary
The Southern Ocean is highly under-sampled and since this region dominates the ocean sink for CO2, understanding change is critical. Here we utilize available observations to evaluate how the seasonal cycle, variability, and trends in surface ocean carbon in the well-sampled Drake Passage region compare to that of the broader subpolar Southern Ocean. Results indicate that the Drake Passage is representative of the broader region; however, additional winter observations would improve comparisons.
Caroline B. Alden, Subhomoy Ghosh, Sean Coburn, Colm Sweeney, Anna Karion, Robert Wright, Ian Coddington, Gregory B. Rieker, and Kuldeep Prasad
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1565–1582,Short summary
The location and sizing leaks of methane from natural gas operations poses a real challenge for greenhouse gas emission mitigation efforts and for accurate quantification of emissions inventories. We demonstrate, with synthetic and field tests, a new statistical method for the location and sizing of small trace gas point sources dispersed over large areas, based on measurements of ambient atmospheric conditions made with long-range, open-path laser-based atmospheric observations.
Natasha L. Miles, Douglas K. Martins, Scott J. Richardson, Christopher W. Rella, Caleb Arata, Thomas Lauvaux, Kenneth J. Davis, Zachary R. Barkley, Kathryn McKain, and Colm Sweeney
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1273–1295,Short summary
Analyzers measuring methane and methane isotopic ratio were deployed at four towers in the Marcellus Shale natural gas extraction region of Pennsylvania. The methane isotopic ratio is helpful for differentiating emissions from natural gas activities from other sources (e.g., landfills). We describe the analyzer calibration. The signals observed in the study region were generally small, but the instrumental performance demonstrated here could be used in regions with stronger enhancements.
Taku Umezawa, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Thomas Röckmann, Carina van der Veen, Stanley C. Tyler, Ryo Fujita, Shinji Morimoto, Shuji Aoki, Todd Sowers, Jochen Schmitt, Michael Bock, Jonas Beck, Hubertus Fischer, Sylvia E. Michel, Bruce H. Vaughn, John B. Miller, James W. C. White, Gordon Brailsford, Hinrich Schaefer, Peter Sperlich, Willi A. Brand, Michael Rothe, Thomas Blunier, David Lowry, Rebecca E. Fisher, Euan G. Nisbet, Andrew L. Rice, Peter Bergamaschi, Cordelia Veidt, and Ingeborg Levin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1207–1231,Short summary
Isotope measurements are useful for separating different methane sources. However, the lack of widely accepted standards and calibration methods for stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic ratios of methane in air has caused significant measurement offsets among laboratories. We conducted worldwide interlaboratory comparisons, surveyed the literature and assessed them systematically. This study may be of help in future attempts to harmonize data sets of isotopic composition of atmospheric methane.
Ivar R. van der Velde, John B. Miller, Michiel K. van der Molen, Pieter P. Tans, Bruce H. Vaughn, James W. C. White, Kevin Schaefer, and Wouter Peters
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 283–304,Short summary
We explored an inverse modeling technique to interpret global atmospheric measurements of CO2 and the ratio of its stable carbon isotopes (δ13C). We detected the possible underestimation of drought stress in biosphere models after applying combined atmospheric CO2 and δ13C constraints. This study highlights the importance of improving the representation of the biosphere in carbon–climate models, in particular in a world where droughts become more extreme and more frequent.
Sean Hartery, Róisín Commane, Jakob Lindaas, Colm Sweeney, John Henderson, Marikate Mountain, Nicholas Steiner, Kyle McDonald, Steven J. Dinardo, Charles E. Miller, Steven C. Wofsy, and Rachel Y.-W. Chang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 185–202,Short summary
Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas but its emissions from northern regions are still poorly constrained. This study uses aircraft measurements of methane from Alaska to estimate surface emissions. We found that methane emission rates depend on the soil temperature at depths where its production was taking place, and that total emissions were similar between tundra and boreal regions. These results provide a simple way to predict methane emissions in this region.
Xin Lan, Pieter Tans, Colm Sweeney, Arlyn Andrews, Andrew Jacobson, Molly Crotwell, Edward Dlugokencky, Jonathan Kofler, Patricia Lang, Kirk Thoning, and Sonja Wolter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15151–15165,Short summary
We analyze spatial patterns of column CO2 over North America using well-calibrated aircraft and tall tower measurements. We find that the long-term averaged spatial gradients of column CO2 across North America show a smooth pattern that mainly reflects the large-scale circulation. Our results can serve as a good reference for evaluating current and future column CO2 retrievals from both ground and satellite platforms.
Jocelyn C. Turnbull, Sara E. Mikaloff Fletcher, India Ansell, Gordon W. Brailsford, Rowena C. Moss, Margaret W. Norris, and Kay Steinkamp
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14771–14784,Short summary
We present a 60-year record of radiocarbon in carbon dioxide (14CO2) from Wellington New Zealand. It records the atmospheric 14C “bomb spike” and decline as bomb 14C moved through the carbon cycle and fossil fuel emissions increased. The bomb peak is lower and 1.4 years later than in the Northern Hemisphere. Since the early 2000s, Wellington 14CO2 has been elevated above the Northern Hemisphere, possibly due to a reinvigorated Southern Ocean carbon sink.
Heather Graven, Colin E. Allison, David M. Etheridge, Samuel Hammer, Ralph F. Keeling, Ingeborg Levin, Harro A. J. Meijer, Mauro Rubino, Pieter P. Tans, Cathy M. Trudinger, Bruce H. Vaughn, and James W. C. White
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4405–4417,Short summary
Modelling of carbon isotopes 13C and 14C in land and ocean components of Earth system models provides opportunities for new insights and improved understanding of global carbon cycling, and for model evaluation. We compiled existing historical datasets to define the annual mean carbon isotopic composition of atmospheric CO2 for 1850–2015 that can be used in CMIP6 and other modelling activities.
Zachary R. Barkley, Thomas Lauvaux, Kenneth J. Davis, Aijun Deng, Natasha L. Miles, Scott J. Richardson, Yanni Cao, Colm Sweeney, Anna Karion, MacKenzie Smith, Eric A. Kort, Stefan Schwietzke, Thomas Murphy, Guido Cervone, Douglas Martins, and Joannes D. Maasakkers
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13941–13966,Short summary
This study quantifies methane emissions from natural gas production in north-eastern Pennsylvania. Methane observations from 10 flights in spring 2015 are compared to model-projected values, and methane emissions from natural gas are adjusted within the model to create the best match between the two data sets. This study find methane emissions from natural gas production to be low and may be indicative of characteristics of the basin that make sources from north-eastern Pennsylvania unique.
Andrew K. Thorpe, Christian Frankenberg, David R. Thompson, Riley M. Duren, Andrew D. Aubrey, Brian D. Bue, Robert O. Green, Konstantin Gerilowski, Thomas Krings, Jakob Borchardt, Eric A. Kort, Colm Sweeney, Stephen Conley, Dar A. Roberts, and Philip E. Dennison
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3833–3850,Short summary
At local scales emissions of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are highly uncertain. The AVIRIS-NG imaging spectrometer maps large regions and generates high-spatial-resolution CH4 and CO2 concentration maps from anthropogenic and natural sources. Examples include CH4 from a processing plant, tank, pipeline leak, seep, mine vent shafts, and CO2 from power plants. This demonstrates a greenhouse gas monitoring capability that targets the two dominant anthropogenic climate-forcing agents.
Stephen Conley, Ian Faloona, Shobhit Mehrotra, Maxime Suard, Donald H. Lenschow, Colm Sweeney, Scott Herndon, Stefan Schwietzke, Gabrielle Pétron, Justin Pifer, Eric A. Kort, and Russell Schnell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3345–3358,Short summary
This paper describes a new method of quantifying surface trace gas emissions (e.g. methane) from small aircraft (e.g. Mooney, Cessna) in about 30 min. This technique greatly enhances our ability to rapidly respond in the event of catastrophic failures such as Aliso Canyon and Deep Water Horizon.
Daniel Baggenstos, Thomas K. Bauska, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, James E. Lee, Hinrich Schaefer, Christo Buizert, Edward J. Brook, Sarah Shackleton, and Vasilii V. Petrenko
Clim. Past, 13, 943–958,Short summary
We present measurements of the gas composition in trapped air bubbles in ice samples taken from Taylor Glacier, Antarctica. We can show that ice from the entire last glacial cycle (125 000 years ago to the present) is exposed at the surface of this glacier and that the atmospheric record contained in the air bubbles is well preserved. Taylor Glacier therefore provides an easily accessible archive of ancient ice that allows for studies of trace components that require large ice volumes.
Merritt N. Deeter, David P. Edwards, Gene L. Francis, John C. Gille, Sara Martínez-Alonso, Helen M. Worden, and Colm Sweeney
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2533–2555,Short summary
This manuscript describes the methods used for deriving the latest version 7 product for atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) from measurements made by the MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) satellite instrument. Comparisons of MOPITT-retrieved CO vertical profiles with in situ data measured from aircraft are also presented, and they demonstrate clear improvements relative to earlier MOPITT products. The new CO product is appropriate for a wide variety of applications.
Olivier Membrive, Cyril Crevoisier, Colm Sweeney, François Danis, Albert Hertzog, Andreas Engel, Harald Bönisch, and Laurence Picon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2163–2181,Short summary
A new high-resolution AirCore system is presented. This system flown with stratospheric balloons allows us to sample atmospheric air during the descent. The analysis of trace gases (CO2 and CH4 in this case) in the collected air sample provides information on the vertical distribution along the atmospheric column. The continuous vertical profiles retrieved may contribute to several research topics concerning the observation of greenhouse gases and, more generally, carbon cycle studies.
Susan S. Kulawik, Chris O'Dell, Vivienne H. Payne, Le Kuai, Helen M. Worden, Sebastien C. Biraud, Colm Sweeney, Britton Stephens, Laura T. Iraci, Emma L. Yates, and Tomoaki Tanaka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5407–5438,Short summary
We introduce new vertically resolved GOSAT products that better separate locally and remotely influenced CO2. Current GOSAT column results for CO2 (XCO2) are sensitive to fluxes on continental scales, whereas flux estimates from surface and tower measurements are affected by sampling bias and model transport uncertainty. These new GOSAT measurements of boundary layer CO2 are validated against aircraft and surface observations of CO2 and are compared to vertically resolved MOPITT CO.
Tyler R. Jones, James W. C. White, Eric J. Steig, Bruce H. Vaughn, Valerie Morris, Vasileios Gkinis, Bradley R. Markle, and Spruce W. Schoenemann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 617–632,Short summary
New measurement systems have been developed that continuously melt ice core samples, in contrast to other methods that analyze a single sample at a time. These newer systems are capable of reducing analysis time by many years and improving data set resolution. In this study, we introduce improved methodologies that optimize the speed, accuracy, and precision of a water isotope continuous-flow system. The presented system will be used for Antarctic and Greenland ice core projects.
Nicola J. Warwick, Michelle L. Cain, Rebecca Fisher, James L. France, David Lowry, Sylvia E. Michel, Euan G. Nisbet, Bruce H. Vaughn, James W. C. White, and John A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14891–14908,Short summary
Methane is an important greenhouse gas. Methane emissions from Arctic wetlands are poorly quantified and may increase in a warming climate. Using a global atmospheric model and atmospheric observations of methane and its isotopologues, we find that isotopologue data are useful in constraining Arctic wetland emissions. Our results suggest that the seasonal cycle of these emissions may be incorrectly simulated in land process models, with implications for our understanding of future emissions.
Zeli Tan, Qianlai Zhuang, Daven K. Henze, Christian Frankenberg, Ed Dlugokencky, Colm Sweeney, Alexander J. Turner, Motoki Sasakawa, and Toshinobu Machida
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12649–12666,Short summary
Methane emissions from the pan-Arctic could be important in understanding the global carbon cycle but are still poorly constrained to date. This study demonstrated that satellite retrievals can be used to reduce the uncertainty of the estimates of these emissions. We also provided additional evidence for the existence of large methane emissions from pan-Arctic lakes in the Siberian yedoma permafrost region. We found that biogeochemical models should be improved for better estimates.
Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Benjamin Pfeil, Camilla S. Landa, Nicolas Metzl, Kevin M. O'Brien, Are Olsen, Karl Smith, Cathy Cosca, Sumiko Harasawa, Stephen D. Jones, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Yukihiro Nojiri, Ute Schuster, Tobias Steinhoff, Colm Sweeney, Taro Takahashi, Bronte Tilbrook, Chisato Wada, Rik Wanninkhof, Simone R. Alin, Carlos F. Balestrini, Leticia Barbero, Nicholas R. Bates, Alejandro A. Bianchi, Frédéric Bonou, Jacqueline Boutin, Yann Bozec, Eugene F. Burger, Wei-Jun Cai, Robert D. Castle, Liqi Chen, Melissa Chierici, Kim Currie, Wiley Evans, Charles Featherstone, Richard A. Feely, Agneta Fransson, Catherine Goyet, Naomi Greenwood, Luke Gregor, Steven Hankin, Nick J. Hardman-Mountford, Jérôme Harlay, Judith Hauck, Mario Hoppema, Matthew P. Humphreys, Christopher W. Hunt, Betty Huss, J. Severino P. Ibánhez, Truls Johannessen, Ralph Keeling, Vassilis Kitidis, Arne Körtzinger, Alex Kozyr, Evangelia Krasakopoulou, Akira Kuwata, Peter Landschützer, Siv K. Lauvset, Nathalie Lefèvre, Claire Lo Monaco, Ansley Manke, Jeremy T. Mathis, Liliane Merlivat, Frank J. Millero, Pedro M. S. Monteiro, David R. Munro, Akihiko Murata, Timothy Newberger, Abdirahman M. Omar, Tsuneo Ono, Kristina Paterson, David Pearce, Denis Pierrot, Lisa L. Robbins, Shu Saito, Joe Salisbury, Reiner Schlitzer, Bernd Schneider, Roland Schweitzer, Rainer Sieger, Ingunn Skjelvan, Kevin F. Sullivan, Stewart C. Sutherland, Adrienne J. Sutton, Kazuaki Tadokoro, Maciej Telszewski, Matthias Tuma, Steven M. A. C. van Heuven, Doug Vandemark, Brian Ward, Andrew J. Watson, and Suqing Xu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 383–413,Short summary
Version 3 of the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (www.socat.info) has 14.5 million CO2 (carbon dioxide) values for the years 1957 to 2014 covering the global oceans and coastal seas. Version 3 is an update to version 2 with a longer record and 44 % more CO2 values. The CO2 measurements have been made on ships, fixed moorings and drifting buoys. SOCAT enables quantification of the ocean carbon sink and ocean acidification, as well as model evaluation, thus informing climate negotiations.
Xiyan Xu, William J. Riley, Charles D. Koven, Dave P. Billesbach, Rachel Y.-W. Chang, Róisín Commane, Eugénie S. Euskirchen, Sean Hartery, Yoshinobu Harazono, Hiroki Iwata, Kyle C. McDonald, Charles E. Miller, Walter C. Oechel, Benjamin Poulter, Naama Raz-Yaseef, Colm Sweeney, Margaret Torn, Steven C. Wofsy, Zhen Zhang, and Donatella Zona
Biogeosciences, 13, 5043–5056,Short summary
Wetlands are the largest global natural methane source. Peat-rich bogs and fens lying between 50°N and 70°N contribute 10–30% to this source. The predictive capability of the seasonal methane cycle can directly affect the estimation of global methane budget. We present multiscale methane seasonal emission by observations and modeling and find that the uncertainties in predicting the seasonal methane emissions are from the wetland extent, cold-season CH4 production and CH4 transport processes.
Makoto Inoue, Isamu Morino, Osamu Uchino, Takahiro Nakatsuru, Yukio Yoshida, Tatsuya Yokota, Debra Wunch, Paul O. Wennberg, Coleen M. Roehl, David W. T. Griffith, Voltaire A. Velazco, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Thorsten Warneke, Justus Notholt, John Robinson, Vanessa Sherlock, Frank Hase, Thomas Blumenstock, Markus Rettinger, Ralf Sussmann, Esko Kyrö, Rigel Kivi, Kei Shiomi, Shuji Kawakami, Martine De Mazière, Sabrina G. Arnold, Dietrich G. Feist, Erica A. Barrow, James Barney, Manvendra Dubey, Matthias Schneider, Laura T. Iraci, James R. Podolske, Patrick W. Hillyard, Toshinobu Machida, Yousuke Sawa, Kazuhiro Tsuboi, Hidekazu Matsueda, Colm Sweeney, Pieter P. Tans, Arlyn E. Andrews, Sebastien C. Biraud, Yukio Fukuyama, Jasna V. Pittman, Eric A. Kort, and Tomoaki Tanaka
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3491–3512,Short summary
In this study, we correct the biases of GOSAT XCO2 and XCH4 using TCCON data. To evaluate the effectiveness of our correction method, uncorrected/corrected GOSAT data are compared to independent XCO2 and XCH4 data derived from aircraft measurements. Consequently, we suggest that this method is effective for reducing the biases of the GOSAT data. We consider that our work provides GOSAT data users with valuable information and contributes to the further development of studies on greenhouse gases.
Elizabeth D. Keller, Jocelyn C. Turnbull, and Margaret W. Norris
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5481–5495,Short summary
We examine the utility of tree ring 14C archives for detecting long-term changes in fossil CO2 emissions from a point source using six years of observations from two trees near the Kapuni Gas Treatment Plant in New Zealand. Pairing these observations with an atmospheric transport model, we quantify the minimum amount of change in annual emissions that it would be possible to detect in new samples representing averages over one, two, and four years.
Anna Karion, Colm Sweeney, John B. Miller, Arlyn E. Andrews, Roisin Commane, Steven Dinardo, John M. Henderson, Jacob Lindaas, John C. Lin, Kristina A. Luus, Tim Newberger, Pieter Tans, Steven C. Wofsy, Sonja Wolter, and Charles E. Miller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5383–5398,Short summary
Northern high-latitude carbon sources and sinks, including those resulting from degrading permafrost, are thought to be sensitive to the rapidly warming climate. Here we use carbon dioxide and methane measurements from a tower near Fairbanks AK to investigate regional Alaskan fluxes of CO2 and CH4 for 2012–2014.
Scot M. Miller, Roisin Commane, Joe R. Melton, Arlyn E. Andrews, Joshua Benmergui, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Anna M. Michalak, Colm Sweeney, and Doug E. J. Worthy
Biogeosciences, 13, 1329–1339,Short summary
We use atmospheric data from the US and Canada to examine seven wetland methane flux estimates. Relative to existing estimates, we find a methane source that is smaller in magnitude with a broader seasonal cycle. Furthermore, we estimate the largest fluxes over the Hudson Bay Lowlands, a spatial distribution that differs from commonly used remote sensing estimates of wetland location.
V. Masson-Delmotte, H. C. Steen-Larsen, P. Ortega, D. Swingedouw, T. Popp, B. M. Vinther, H. Oerter, A. E. Sveinbjornsdottir, H. Gudlaugsdottir, J. E. Box, S. Falourd, X. Fettweis, H. Gallée, E. Garnier, V. Gkinis, J. Jouzel, A. Landais, B. Minster, N. Paradis, A. Orsi, C. Risi, M. Werner, and J. W. C. White
The Cryosphere, 9, 1481–1504,Short summary
The deep NEEM ice core provides the oldest Greenland ice core record, enabling improved understanding of the response of ice core records to local climate. Here, we focus on shallow ice cores providing a stack record of accumulation and water-stable isotopes spanning the past centuries. For the first time, we document the ongoing warming in a Greenland ice core. By combining our data with other Greenland ice cores and model results, we characterise the spatio-temporal patterns of variability.
A. J. Turner, D. J. Jacob, K. J. Wecht, J. D. Maasakkers, E. Lundgren, A. E. Andrews, S. C. Biraud, H. Boesch, K. W. Bowman, N. M. Deutscher, M. K. Dubey, D. W. T. Griffith, F. Hase, A. Kuze, J. Notholt, H. Ohyama, R. Parker, V. H. Payne, R. Sussmann, C. Sweeney, V. A. Velazco, T. Warneke, P. O. Wennberg, and D. Wunch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7049–7069,
A. P. Ballantyne, R. Andres, R. Houghton, B. D. Stocker, R. Wanninkhof, W. Anderegg, L. A. Cooper, M. DeGrandpre, P. P. Tans, J. B. Miller, C. Alden, and J. W. C. White
Biogeosciences, 12, 2565–2584,
J. M. Henderson, J. Eluszkiewicz, M. E. Mountain, T. Nehrkorn, R. Y.-W. Chang, A. Karion, J. B. Miller, C. Sweeney, N. Steiner, S. C. Wofsy, and C. E. Miller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4093–4116,Short summary
This paper describes the atmospheric modeling that underlies the science analysis for the NASA Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE). Summary statistics of the WRF meteorological model performance on a 3.3 km grid indicate good overall agreement with surface and radiosonde observations. The high quality of the WRF meteorological fields inspires confidence in their use to drive the STILT transport model for the purpose of computing surface influence fields (“footprints”).
A. Ghosh, P. K. Patra, K. Ishijima, T. Umezawa, A. Ito, D. M. Etheridge, S. Sugawara, K. Kawamura, J. B. Miller, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. B. Krummel, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, R. L. Langenfelds, C. M. Trudinger, J. W. C. White, B. Vaughn, T. Saeki, S. Aoki, and T. Nakazawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2595–2612,Short summary
Atmospheric CH4 increased from 900ppb to 1800ppb during the period 1900–2010 at a rate unprecedented in any observational records. We use bottom-up emissions and a chemistry-transport model to simulate CH4. The optimized global total CH4 emission, estimated from the model–observation differences, increased at fastest rate during 1940–1990. Using δ13C of CH4 measurements we attribute this emission increase to biomass burning. Total CH4 lifetime is shortened by 4% over the simulation period.
R. Ahmadov, S. McKeen, M. Trainer, R. Banta, A. Brewer, S. Brown, P. M. Edwards, J. A. de Gouw, G. J. Frost, J. Gilman, D. Helmig, B. Johnson, A. Karion, A. Koss, A. Langford, B. Lerner, J. Olson, S. Oltmans, J. Peischl, G. Pétron, Y. Pichugina, J. M. Roberts, T. Ryerson, R. Schnell, C. Senff, C. Sweeney, C. Thompson, P. R. Veres, C. Warneke, R. Wild, E. J. Williams, B. Yuan, and R. Zamora
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 411–429,Short summary
High 2013 wintertime O3 pollution events associated with oil/gas production within the Uinta Basin are studied using a 3D model. It's able quantitatively to reproduce these events using emission estimates of O3 precursors based on ambient measurements (top-down approach), but unable to reproduce them using a recent bottom-up emission inventory for the oil/gas industry. The role of various physical and meteorological processes, chemical species and pathways contributing to high O3 are quantified.
M. Alexe, P. Bergamaschi, A. Segers, R. Detmers, A. Butz, O. Hasekamp, S. Guerlet, R. Parker, H. Boesch, C. Frankenberg, R. A. Scheepmaker, E. Dlugokencky, C. Sweeney, S. C. Wofsy, and E. A. Kort
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 113–133,
M. N. Deeter, S. Martínez-Alonso, D. P. Edwards, L. K. Emmons, J. C. Gille, H. M. Worden, C. Sweeney, J. V. Pittman, B. C. Daube, and S. C. Wofsy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3623–3632,Short summary
The MOPITT Version 6 product for carbon monoxide (CO) incorporates several enhancements. First, a geolocation bias has been eliminated. Second, the new variable a priori for CO concentrations is based on simulations performed with the CAM-Chem chemical transport model for the years 2000-2009. Third, required meteorological fields are extracted from the MERRA reanalysis. Finally, a retrieval bias in the upper troposphere was substantially reduced. Validation results are presented.
R. Li, C. Warneke, M. Graus, R. Field, F. Geiger, P. R. Veres, J. Soltis, S.-M. Li, S. M. Murphy, C. Sweeney, G. Pétron, J. M. Roberts, and J. de Gouw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3597–3610,
M. Inoue, I. Morino, O. Uchino, Y. Miyamoto, T. Saeki, Y. Yoshida, T. Yokota, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, S. C. Biraud, T. Machida, J. V. Pittman, E. A. Kort, T. Tanaka, S. Kawakami, Y. Sawa, K. Tsuboi, and H. Matsueda
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2987–3005,
M. O. L. Cambaliza, P. B. Shepson, D. R. Caulton, B. Stirm, D. Samarov, K. R. Gurney, J. Turnbull, K. J. Davis, A. Possolo, A. Karion, C. Sweeney, B. Moser, A. Hendricks, T. Lauvaux, K. Mays, J. Whetstone, J. Huang, I. Razlivanov, N. L. Miles, and S. J. Richardson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9029–9050,
L. Bruhwiler, E. Dlugokencky, K. Masarie, M. Ishizawa, A. Andrews, J. Miller, C. Sweeney, P. Tans, and D. Worthy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8269–8293,
H. C. Steen-Larsen, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdottir, A. J. Peters, V. Masson-Delmotte, M. P. Guishard, G. Hsiao, J. Jouzel, D. Noone, J. K. Warren, and J. W. C. White
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7741–7756,
S. J. Oltmans, A. Karion, R. C. Schnell, G. Pétron, C. Sweeney, S. Wolter, D. Neff, S. A. Montzka, B. R. Miller, D. Helmig, B. J. Johnson, and J. Hueber
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
T. R. Jones, J. W. C. White, and T. Popp
Clim. Past, 10, 1253–1267,
G. W. Santoni, B. C. Daube, E. A. Kort, R. Jiménez, S. Park, J. V. Pittman, E. Gottlieb, B. Xiang, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, J. Peischl, T. B. Ryerson, J. S. Holloway, A. E. Andrews, C. Sweeney, B. Hall, E. J. Hintsa, F. L. Moore, J. W. Elkins, D. F. Hurst, B. B. Stephens, J. Bent, and S. C. Wofsy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1509–1526,
R. L. Thompson, P. K. Patra, K. Ishijima, E. Saikawa, M. Corazza, U. Karstens, C. Wilson, P. Bergamaschi, E. Dlugokencky, C. Sweeney, R. G. Prinn, R. F. Weiss, S. O'Doherty, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, P. B. Krummel, M. Saunois, M. Chipperfield, and P. Bousquet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4349–4368,
D. C. E. Bakker, B. Pfeil, K. Smith, S. Hankin, A. Olsen, S. R. Alin, C. Cosca, S. Harasawa, A. Kozyr, Y. Nojiri, K. M. O'Brien, U. Schuster, M. Telszewski, B. Tilbrook, C. Wada, J. Akl, L. Barbero, N. R. Bates, J. Boutin, Y. Bozec, W.-J. Cai, R. D. Castle, F. P. Chavez, L. Chen, M. Chierici, K. Currie, H. J. W. de Baar, W. Evans, R. A. Feely, A. Fransson, Z. Gao, B. Hales, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, M. Hoppema, W.-J. Huang, C. W. Hunt, B. Huss, T. Ichikawa, T. Johannessen, E. M. Jones, S. D. Jones, S. Jutterström, V. Kitidis, A. Körtzinger, P. Landschützer, S. K. Lauvset, N. Lefèvre, A. B. Manke, J. T. Mathis, L. Merlivat, N. Metzl, A. Murata, T. Newberger, A. M. Omar, T. Ono, G.-H. Park, K. Paterson, D. Pierrot, A. F. Ríos, C. L. Sabine, S. Saito, J. Salisbury, V. V. S. S. Sarma, R. Schlitzer, R. Sieger, I. Skjelvan, T. Steinhoff, K. F. Sullivan, H. Sun, A. J. Sutton, T. Suzuki, C. Sweeney, T. Takahashi, J. Tjiputra, N. Tsurushima, S. M. A. C. van Heuven, D. Vandemark, P. Vlahos, D. W. R. Wallace, R. Wanninkhof, and A. J. Watson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 6, 69–90,
D. Helmig, V. Petrenko, P. Martinerie, E. Witrant, T. Röckmann, A. Zuiderweg, R. Holzinger, J. Hueber, C. Thompson, J. W. C. White, W. Sturges, A. Baker, T. Blunier, D. Etheridge, M. Rubino, and P. Tans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1463–1483,
B. W. LaFranchi, G. Pétron, J. B. Miller, S. J. Lehman, A. E. Andrews, E. J. Dlugokencky, B. Hall, B. R. Miller, S. A. Montzka, W. Neff, P. C. Novelli, C. Sweeney, J. C. Turnbull, D. E. Wolfe, P. P. Tans, K. R. Gurney, and T. P. Guilderson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11101–11120,
M. Inoue, I. Morino, O. Uchino, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Yoshida, T. Yokota, T. Machida, Y. Sawa, H. Matsueda, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, A. E. Andrews, S. C. Biraud, T. Tanaka, S. Kawakami, and P. K. Patra
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9771–9788,
V. V. Petrenko, P. Martinerie, P. Novelli, D. M. Etheridge, I. Levin, Z. Wang, T. Blunier, J. Chappellaz, J. Kaiser, P. Lang, L. P. Steele, S. Hammer, J. Mak, R. L. Langenfelds, J. Schwander, J. P. Severinghaus, E. Witrant, G. Petron, M. O. Battle, G. Forster, W. T. Sturges, J.-F. Lamarque, K. Steffen, and J. W. C. White
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7567–7585,
A. Lenton, B. Tilbrook, R. M. Law, D. Bakker, S. C. Doney, N. Gruber, M. Ishii, M. Hoppema, N. S. Lovenduski, R. J. Matear, B. I. McNeil, N. Metzl, S. E. Mikaloff Fletcher, P. M. S. Monteiro, C. Rödenbeck, C. Sweeney, and T. Takahashi
Biogeosciences, 10, 4037–4054,
Y. Miyamoto, M. Inoue, I. Morino, O. Uchino, T. Yokota, T. Machida, Y. Sawa, H. Matsueda, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, A. E. Andrews, and P. K. Patra
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5265–5275,
H. Chen, A. Karion, C. W. Rella, J. Winderlich, C. Gerbig, A. Filges, T. Newberger, C. Sweeney, and P. P. Tans
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1031–1040,
R. Wanninkhof, G. -H. Park, T. Takahashi, C. Sweeney, R. Feely, Y. Nojiri, N. Gruber, S. C. Doney, G. A. McKinley, A. Lenton, C. Le Quéré, C. Heinze, J. Schwinger, H. Graven, and S. Khatiwala
Biogeosciences, 10, 1983–2000,
S. C. Biraud, M. S. Torn, J. R. Smith, C. Sweeney, W. J. Riley, and P. P. Tans
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 751–763,
A. Karion, C. Sweeney, S. Wolter, T. Newberger, H. Chen, A. Andrews, J. Kofler, D. Neff, and P. Tans
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 511–526,
Related subject area
Subject: Isotopes | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)A seasonal analysis of aerosol NO3− sources and NOx oxidation pathways in the Southern Ocean marine boundary layerNitrate chemistry in the northeast US – Part 1: Nitrogen isotope seasonality tracks nitrate formation chemistryNitrate chemistry in the northeast US – Part 2: Oxygen isotopes reveal differences in particulate and gas-phase formationPhotolytic modification of seasonal nitrate isotope cycles in East AntarcticaAtmospheric methane isotopes identify inventory knowledge gaps in the Surat Basin, Australia, coal seam gas and agricultural regionsMethane (CH4) sources in Krakow, Poland: insights from isotope analysisIsotopic signatures of major methane sources in the coal seam gas fields and adjacent agricultural districts, Queensland, AustraliaMeasurement report: Nitrogen isotopes (δ15N) and first quantification of oxygen isotope anomalies (Δ17O, δ18O) in atmospheric nitrogen dioxideMeasurement report: Spatial variability of northern Iberian rainfall stable isotope values – investigating atmospheric controls on daily and monthly timescalesIsotopic constraints on atmospheric sulfate formation pathways in the Mt. Everest region, southern Tibetan PlateauBaffin Bay sea ice extent and synoptic moisture transport drive water vapor isotope (δ18O, δ2H, and deuterium excess) variability in coastal northwest GreenlandNew evidence for atmospheric mercury transformations in the marine boundary layer from stable mercury isotopesThe isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrous oxide observed at the high-altitude research station Jungfraujoch, SwitzerlandDeposition, recycling, and archival of nitrate stable isotopes between the air–snow interface: comparison between Dronning Maud Land and Dome C, AntarcticaOxygen and sulfur mass-independent isotopic signatures in black crusts: the complementary negative Δ33S reservoir of sulfate aerosols?Atmospheric radiocarbon measurements to quantify CO2 emissions in the UK from 2014 to 2015Seasonality in the Δ33S measured in urban aerosols highlights an additional oxidation pathway for atmospheric SO2The Δ17O and δ18O values of atmospheric nitrates simultaneously collected downwind of anthropogenic sources – implications for polluted air massesA very limited role of tropospheric chlorine as a sink of the greenhouse gas methaneDetection and variability of combustion-derived vapor in an urban basinStable sulfur isotope measurements to trace the fate of SO2 in the Athabasca oil sands regionTriple oxygen isotopes indicate urbanization affects sources of nitrate in wet and dry atmospheric depositionIsotopic constraints on heterogeneous sulfate production in Beijing hazeEstimation of the fossil fuel component in atmospheric CO2 based on radiocarbon measurements at the Beromünster tall tower, SwitzerlandConstraining N2O emissions since 1940 using firn air isotope measurements in both hemispheresSeasonal variations of triple oxygen isotopic compositions of atmospheric sulfate, nitrate, and ozone at Dumont d'Urville, coastal AntarcticaCarbon isotopic signature of coal-derived methane emissions to the atmosphere: from coalification to alterationIsotopic composition for source identification of mercury in atmospheric fine particlesIsotopic constraints on the role of hypohalous acids in sulfate aerosol formation in the remote marine boundary layerIn situ observations of the isotopic composition of methane at the Cabauw tall tower siteOxygen isotope mass balance of atmospheric nitrate at Dome C, East Antarctica, during the OPALE campaignIsotopic effects of nitrate photochemistry in snow: a field study at Dome C, AntarcticaStable carbon isotope ratios of ambient secondary organic aerosols in TorontoWAIS Divide ice core suggests sustained changes in the atmospheric formation pathways of sulfate and nitrate since the 19th century in the extratropical Southern HemisphereStable carbon isotope ratios of toluene in the boundary layer and the lower free troposphereEmission ratio and isotopic signatures of molecular hydrogen emissions from tropical biomass burningCan the carbon isotopic composition of methane be reconstructed from multi-site firn air measurements?Air–snow transfer of nitrate on the East Antarctic Plateau – Part 1: Isotopic evidence for a photolytically driven dynamic equilibrium in summerChemical characterization and stable carbon isotopic composition of particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons issued from combustion of 10 Mediterranean woodsQuantification of the carbonaceous matter origin in submicron marine aerosol by 13C and 14C isotope analysisTemporal and spatial variability of the stable isotopic composition of atmospheric molecular hydrogen: observations at six EUROHYDROS stationsContinuous isotopic composition measurements of tropospheric CO2 at Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.), Switzerland: real-time observation of regional pollution eventsAnthropogenic imprints on nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation nitrate in a nitrogen-polluted city in southern ChinaAnalysis of 13C and 18O isotope data of CO2 in CARIBIC aircraft samples as tracers of upper troposphere/lower stratosphere mixing and the global carbon cycleTracing the fate of atmospheric nitrate deposited onto a forest ecosystem in Eastern Asia using Δ17OPhotolysis imprint in the nitrate stable isotope signal in snow and atmosphere of East Antarctica and implications for reactive nitrogen cyclingSources and transport of Δ14C in CO2 within the Mexico City Basin and vicinity
Jessica M. Burger, Emily Joyce, Meredith G. Hastings, Kurt A. M. Spence, and Katye E. Altieri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5605–5622,Short summary
A seasonal analysis of the nitrogen isotopes of atmospheric nitrate over the remote Southern Ocean reveals that similar natural NOx sources dominate in spring and summer, while winter is representative of background-level conditions. The oxygen isotopes suggest that similar oxidation pathways involving more ozone occur in spring and winter, while the hydroxyl radical is the main oxidant in summer. This work helps to constrain NOx cycling and oxidant budgets in a data-sparse remote marine region.
Claire Bekker, Wendell W. Walters, Lee T. Murray, and Meredith G. Hastings
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4185–4201,Short summary
Nitrate is a critical component of the atmosphere that degrades air quality and ecosystem health. We have investigated the nitrogen isotope compositions of nitrate from deposition samples collected across the northeastern United States. Spatiotemporal variability in the nitrogen isotope compositions was found to track with nitrate formation chemistry. Our results highlight that nitrogen isotope compositions may be a robust tool for improving model representation of nitrate chemistry.
Heejeong Kim, Wendell W. Walters, Claire Bekker, Lee T. Murray, and Meredith G. Hastings
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4203–4219,Short summary
Atmospheric nitrate has an important impact on human and ecosystem health. We evaluated atmospheric nitrate formation pathways in the northeastern US utilizing oxygen isotope compositions, which indicated a significant difference between the phases of nitrate (i.e., gas vs. particle). Comparing the observations with model simulations indicated that N2O5 hydrolysis chemistry was overpredicted. Our study has important implications for improving atmospheric chemistry model representation.
Pete D. Akers, Joël Savarino, Nicolas Caillon, Olivier Magand, and Emmanuel Le Meur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15637–15657,Short summary
Nitrate isotopes in Antarctic ice do not preserve the seasonal isotopic cycles of the atmosphere, which limits their use to study the past. We studied nitrate along an 850 km Antarctic transect to learn how these cycles are changed by sunlight-driven chemistry in the snow. Our findings suggest that the snow accumulation rate and other environmental signals can be extracted from nitrate with the right sampling and analytical approaches.
Bryce F. J. Kelly, Xinyi Lu, Stephen J. Harris, Bruno G. Neininger, Jorg M. Hacker, Stefan Schwietzke, Rebecca E. Fisher, James L. France, Euan G. Nisbet, David Lowry, Carina van der Veen, Malika Menoud, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15527–15558,Short summary
This study explores using the composition of methane of in-flight atmospheric air samples for greenhouse gas inventory verification. The air samples were collected above one of the largest coal seam gas production regions in the world. Adjacent to these gas fields are coal mines, Australia's largest cattle feedlot, and over 1 million grazing cattle. The results are also used to identify methane mitigation opportunities.
Malika Menoud, Carina van der Veen, Jaroslaw Necki, Jakub Bartyzel, Barbara Szénási, Mila Stanisavljević, Isabelle Pison, Philippe Bousquet, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13167–13185,Short summary
Using measurements of methane isotopes in ambient air and a 3D atmospheric transport model, in Krakow, Poland, we mainly detected fossil-fuel-related sources, coming from coal mining in Silesia and from the use of natural gas in the city. Emission inventories report large emissions from coal mine activity in Silesia, which is in agreement with our measurements. However, methane sources in the urban area of Krakow related to the use of fossil fuels might be underestimated in the inventories.
Xinyi Lu, Stephen J. Harris, Rebecca E. Fisher, James L. France, Euan G. Nisbet, David Lowry, Thomas Röckmann, Carina van der Veen, Malika Menoud, Stefan Schwietzke, and Bryce F. J. Kelly
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10527–10555,Short summary
Many coal seam gas (CSG) facilities in the Surat Basin, Australia, are adjacent to other sources of methane, including agricultural, urban, and natural seeps. This makes it challenging to estimate the amount of methane being emitted into the atmosphere from CSG facilities. This research demonstrates that measurements of the carbon and hydrogen stable isotopic composition of methane can distinguish between and apportion methane emissions from CSG facilities, cattle, and many other sources.
Sarah Albertin, Joël Savarino, Slimane Bekki, Albane Barbero, and Nicolas Caillon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10477–10497,Short summary
We report an efficient method to collect atmospheric NO2 adapted for multi-isotopic analysis and present the first NO2 triple oxygen and double nitrogen isotope measurements. Atmospheric samplings carried out in Grenoble, France, highlight the NO2 isotopic signature sensitivity to the local NOx emissions and chemical regimes. These preliminary results are very promising for using the combination of Δ17O and δ15N of NO2 as a probe of the atmospheric NOx emissions and chemistry.
Ana Moreno, Miguel Iglesias, Cesar Azorin-Molina, Carlos Pérez-Mejías, Miguel Bartolomé, Carlos Sancho, Heather Stoll, Isabel Cacho, Jaime Frigola, Cinta Osácar, Arsenio Muñoz, Antonio Delgado-Huertas, Ileana Bladé, and Françoise Vimeux
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10159–10177,Short summary
We present a large and unique dataset of the rainfall isotopic composition at seven sites from northern Iberia to characterize their variability at daily and monthly timescales and to assess the role of climate and geographic factors in the modulation of δ18O values. We found that the origin, moisture uptake along the trajectory and type of precipitation play a key role. These results will help to improve the interpretation of δ18O paleorecords from lacustrine carbonates or speleothems.
Kun Wang, Shohei Hattori, Mang Lin, Sakiko Ishino, Becky Alexander, Kazuki Kamezaki, Naohiro Yoshida, and Shichang Kang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8357–8376,Short summary
Sulfate aerosols play an important climatic role and exert adverse effects on the ecological environment and human health. In this study, we present the triple oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate from the Mt. Everest region, southern Tibetan Plateau, and decipher the formation mechanisms of atmospheric sulfate in this pristine environment. The results indicate the important role of the S(IV) + O3 pathway in atmospheric sulfate formation promoted by conditions of high cloud water pH.
Pete D. Akers, Ben G. Kopec, Kyle S. Mattingly, Eric S. Klein, Douglas Causey, and Jeffrey M. Welker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13929–13955,Short summary
Water vapor isotopes recorded for 2 years in coastal northern Greenland largely reflect changes in sea ice cover, with distinct values when Baffin Bay is ice covered in winter vs. open in summer. Resulting changes in moisture transport, surface winds, and air temperature also modify the isotopes. Local glacial ice may thus preserve past changes in the Baffin Bay sea ice extent, and this will help us better understand how the Arctic environment and water cycle responds to global climate change.
Ben Yu, Lin Yang, Linlin Wang, Hongwei Liu, Cailing Xiao, Yong Liang, Qian Liu, Yongguang Yin, Ligang Hu, Jianbo Shi, and Guibin Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9713–9723,Short summary
We found that Br atoms in the marine boundary layer are the most probable oxidizer that transform gaseous elemental mercury into gaseous oxidized mercury, according to the mercury isotopes in the total gaseous mercury. On the other hand, Br or Cl atoms are not the primary oxidizers that produced oxidized mercury on particles. This study showed that mercury isotopes can provide new evidence that help us to fully understand the transformations of atmospheric mercury.
Longfei Yu, Eliza Harris, Stephan Henne, Sarah Eggleston, Martin Steinbacher, Lukas Emmenegger, Christoph Zellweger, and Joachim Mohn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6495–6519,Short summary
We observed the isotopic composition of nitrous oxide in the unpolluted air at Jungfraujoch for 5 years. Our results indicate a clear seasonal pattern in the isotopic composition, corresponding with that in atmospheric nitrous oxide levels. This is most likely due to temporal variations in both emission processes and air mass sources for Jungfraujoch. Our findings are of importance to global nitrous oxide modelling and to better understanding of long-term trends in atmospheric nitrous oxide.
V. Holly L. Winton, Alison Ming, Nicolas Caillon, Lisa Hauge, Anna E. Jones, Joel Savarino, Xin Yang, and Markus M. Frey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5861–5885,Short summary
The transfer of the nitrogen stable isotopic composition in nitrate between the air and snow at low accumulation sites in Antarctica leaves an UV imprint in the snow. Quantifying how nitrate isotope values change allows us to interpret longer ice core records. Based on nitrate observations and modelling at Kohnen, East Antarctica, the dominant factors controlling the nitrate isotope signature in deep snow layers are the depth of light penetration into the snowpack and the snow accumulation rate.
Isabelle Genot, David Au Yang, Erwan Martin, Pierre Cartigny, Erwann Legendre, and Marc De Rafelis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4255–4273,Short summary
Given their critical impact on radiative forcing, sulfate aerosols have been extensively studied using their isotope signatures (δ34S, ∆33S, ∆36S, δ18O, and ∆17O). A striking observation is that ∆33S > 0 ‰, implying a missing reservoir in the sulfur cycle. Here, we measured ∆33S < 0 ‰ in black crust sulfates (i.e., formed on carbonate walls) that must therefore result from distinct chemical pathway(s) compared to sulfate aerosols, and they may well represent this complementary reservoir.
Angelina Wenger, Katherine Pugsley, Simon O'Doherty, Matt Rigby, Alistair J. Manning, Mark F. Lunt, and Emily D. White
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14057–14070,Short summary
We present 14CO2 observations at a background site in Ireland and a tall tower site in the UK. These data have been used to calculate the contribution of fossil fuel sources to atmospheric CO2 mole fractions from the UK and Ireland. 14CO2 emissions from nuclear industry sites in the UK cause a higher uncertainty in the results compared to observations in other locations. The observed ffCO2 at the site was not significantly different from simulated values based on the bottom-up inventory.
David Au Yang, Pierre Cartigny, Karine Desboeufs, and David Widory
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3779–3796,Short summary
Sulfates present in urban aerosols collected worldwide usually exhibit 33S-anomalies whose origin remains unclear. Besides, the sulfate concentration is not very well modelled nowadays, which, coupled with the isotopic composition anomaly on the 33S, would highlight the presence of at least an additional oxidation pathway, different from O2+TMI, O3, OH, H2O2 and NO2. We suggest here the implication of two other possible oxidation pathways.
Martine M. Savard, Amanda S. Cole, Robert Vet, and Anna Smirnoff
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10373–10389,Short summary
Improving air quality requires understanding of the atmospheric processes transforming nitrous oxides emitted by human activities into nitrates, an N form that may degrade natural ecosystems. Isotopes (∆17O, δ18O) are characterized in separate wet, particulate and gaseous nitrates for the first time. The gas ranges are distinct from those of the other nitrates, and the plume dynamics emerge as crucial in interpreting the results, which unravel key processes behind the distribution of nitrates.
Sergey Gromov, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, and Patrick Jöckel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9831–9843,Short summary
Using the observational data on 13C (CO) and 13C (CH4) from the extra-tropical Southern Hemisphere (ETSH) and EMAC model we (1) provide an independent, observation-based evaluation of Cl atom concentration variations in the ETSH throughout 1994–2000, (2) show that the role of tropospheric Cl as a sink of CH4 is seriously overestimated in the literature, (3) demonstrate that the 13C/12C ratio of CO is a sensitive indicator for the isotopic composition of reacted CH4 and therefore for its sources.
Richard P. Fiorella, Ryan Bares, John C. Lin, James R. Ehleringer, and Gabriel J. Bowen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8529–8547,Short summary
Fossil fuel combustion produces water; where fossil fuel combustion is concentrated in urban areas, this humidity source may represent ~ 10 % of total humidity. In turn, this water vapor addition may alter urban meteorology, though the contribution of combustion vapor is difficult to measure. Using stable water isotopes, we estimate that up to 16 % of urban humidity may arise from combustion when the atmosphere is stable during winter, and develop recommendations for application in other cities.
Neda Amiri, Roya Ghahreman, Ofelia Rempillo, Travis W. Tokarek, Charles A. Odame-Ankrah, Hans D. Osthoff, and Ann-Lise Norman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7757–7780,
David M. Nelson, Urumu Tsunogai, Dong Ding, Takuya Ohyama, Daisuke D. Komatsu, Fumiko Nakagawa, Izumi Noguchi, and Takashi Yamaguchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6381–6392,Short summary
Atmospheric nitrate may be produced locally and/or come from upwind regions. To address this issue we measured oxygen and nitrogen isotopes of wet and dry nitrate deposition at nearby urban and rural sites. Our results suggest that, relative to nitrate in wet deposition in urban environments and wet and dry deposition in rural environments, nitrate in dry deposition in urban environments results from local NOx emissions more so than wet deposition, which is transported longer distances.
Pengzhen He, Becky Alexander, Lei Geng, Xiyuan Chi, Shidong Fan, Haicong Zhan, Hui Kang, Guangjie Zheng, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, Cheng Liu, and Zhouqing Xie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5515–5528,Short summary
We use observations of the oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate aerosol as a fingerprint to quantify various sulfate formation mechanisms during pollution events in Beijing, China. We found that heterogeneous reactions on aerosols dominated sulfate production in general; however, in-cloud reactions would dominate haze sulfate production when cloud liquid water content was high. The findings also suggest the heterogeneity of aerosol acidity should be parameterized in models.
Tesfaye A. Berhanu, Sönke Szidat, Dominik Brunner, Ece Satar, Rüdiger Schanda, Peter Nyfeler, Michael Battaglia, Martin Steinbacher, Samuel Hammer, and Markus Leuenberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10753–10766,Short summary
Fossil fuel CO2 is the major contributor of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere, and accurate quantification is essential to better understand the carbon cycle. Such accurate quantification can be conducted based on radiocarbon measurements. In this study, we present radiocarbon measurements from a tall tower site in Switzerland. From these measurements, we have observed seasonally varying fossil fuel CO2 contributions and a biospheric CO2 component that varies diurnally and seasonally.
Markella Prokopiou, Patricia Martinerie, Célia J. Sapart, Emmanuel Witrant, Guillaume Monteil, Kentaro Ishijima, Sophie Bernard, Jan Kaiser, Ingeborg Levin, Thomas Blunier, David Etheridge, Ed Dlugokencky, Roderik S. W. van de Wal, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4539–4564,Short summary
Nitrous oxide is the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with an increasing mole fraction. To understand its natural and anthropogenic sources we employ isotope measurements. Results show that while the N2O mole fraction increases, its heavy isotope content decreases. The isotopic changes observed underline the dominance of agricultural emissions especially at the early part of the record, whereas in the later decades the contribution from other anthropogenic sources increases.
Sakiko Ishino, Shohei Hattori, Joel Savarino, Bruno Jourdain, Susanne Preunkert, Michel Legrand, Nicolas Caillon, Albane Barbero, Kota Kuribayashi, and Naohiro Yoshida
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3713–3727,Short summary
We show the first simultaneous observations of triple oxygen isotopic compositions of atmospheric sulfate, nitrate, and ozone at Dumont d'Urville, coastal Antarctica. The contrasting seasonal trends between oxygen isotopes of ozone and those of sulfate and nitrate indicate that these signatures in sulfate and nitrate are mainly controlled by changes in oxidation chemistry. We also discuss the specific oxidation chemistry induced by the unique phenomena at the site.
Giulia Zazzeri, Dave Lowry, Rebecca E. Fisher, James L. France, Mathias Lanoisellé, Bryce F. J. Kelly, Jaroslaw M. Necki, Charlotte P. Iverach, Elisa Ginty, Miroslaw Zimnoch, Alina Jasek, and Euan G. Nisbet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13669–13680,Short summary
Methane emissions estimates from the coal sector are highly uncertain. Precise δ13C isotopic signatures of methane sources can be used in atmospheric models for a methane budget assessment. Emissions from both underground and opencast coal mines in the UK, Australia and Poland were sampled and isotopically characterised using high-precision measurements of δ13C values. Representative isotopic signatures were provided, taking into account specific ranks of coal and mine type.
Qiang Huang, Jiubin Chen, Weilin Huang, Pingqing Fu, Benjamin Guinot, Xinbin Feng, Lihai Shang, Zhuhong Wang, Zhongwei Wang, Shengliu Yuan, Hongming Cai, Lianfang Wei, and Ben Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11773–11786,Short summary
Atmospheric airborne mercury is of particular concern because, once inhaled, both Hg and its vectors might have adverse effects on human beings. In this study, we attempted to identify the sources of PM2.5-Hg in Beijing, China, using Hg isotopic composition. Large range and seasonal variations in both mass-dependent and mass-independent fractionations of Hg isotopes in haze particles demonstrate the usefulness of Hg isotopes for directly tracing the sources and its vectors in the atmosphere.
Qianjie Chen, Lei Geng, Johan A. Schmidt, Zhouqing Xie, Hui Kang, Jordi Dachs, Jihong Cole-Dai, Andrew J. Schauer, Madeline G. Camp, and Becky Alexander
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11433–11450,Short summary
The formation mechanisms of sulfate in the marine boundary layer are not well understood, which could result in large uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcing. We measure the oxygen isotopic composition (Δ17O) of sulfate collected in the MBL and analyze with a global transport model. Our results suggest that 33–50 % of MBL sulfate is formed via oxidation of S(IV) by hypohalous acids HOBr / HOCl in the aqueous phase, and the daily-mean HOBr/HOCl concentrations are on the order of 0.01–0.1 ppt.
Thomas Röckmann, Simon Eyer, Carina van der Veen, Maria E. Popa, Béla Tuzson, Guillaume Monteil, Sander Houweling, Eliza Harris, Dominik Brunner, Hubertus Fischer, Giulia Zazzeri, David Lowry, Euan G. Nisbet, Willi A. Brand, Jaroslav M. Necki, Lukas Emmenegger, and Joachim Mohn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10469–10487,Short summary
A dual isotope ratio mass spectrometric system (IRMS) and a quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS)-based technique were deployed at the Cabauw experimental site for atmospheric research (CESAR) in the Netherlands and performed in situ, high-frequency (approx. hourly) measurements for a period of more than 5 months, yielding a combined dataset with more than 2500 measurements of both δ13C and δD.
Joël Savarino, William C. Vicars, Michel Legrand, Suzanne Preunkert, Bruno Jourdain, Markus M. Frey, Alexandre Kukui, Nicolas Caillon, and Jaime Gil Roca
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2659–2673,Short summary
Atmospheric nitrate is collected on the East Antarctic ice sheet. Nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes and concentrations of nitrate are measured. Using a box model, we show that there is s systematic discrepancy between observations and model results. We suggest that this discrepancy probably results from unknown NOx chemistry above the Antarctic ice sheet. However, possible misconception in the stable isotope mass balance is not completely excluded.
T. A. Berhanu, J. Savarino, J. Erbland, W. C. Vicars, S. Preunkert, J. F. Martins, and M. S. Johnson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11243–11256,Short summary
In this field study at Dome C, Antarctica, we investigated the effect of solar UV photolysis on the stable isotopes of nitrate in snow via comparison of two identical snow pits while exposing only one to solar UV. From the difference between the average isotopic fractionations calculated for each pit, we determined a purely photolytic nitrogen isotopic fractionation of -55.8‰, in good agreement with what has been recently determined in a laboratory study.
M. Saccon, A. Kornilova, L. Huang, S. Moukhtar, and J. Rudolph
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10825–10838,
E. D. Sofen, B. Alexander, E. J. Steig, M. H. Thiemens, S. A. Kunasek, H. M. Amos, A. J. Schauer, M. G. Hastings, J. Bautista, T. L. Jackson, L. E. Vogel, J. R. McConnell, D. R. Pasteris, and E. S. Saltzman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5749–5769,
J. Wintel, E. Hösen, R. Koppmann, M. Krebsbach, A. Hofzumahaus, and F. Rohrer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11059–11071,
F. A. Haumann, A. M. Batenburg, G. Pieterse, C. Gerbig, M. C. Krol, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9401–9413,
C. J. Sapart, P. Martinerie, E. Witrant, J. Chappellaz, R. S. W. van de Wal, P. Sperlich, C. van der Veen, S. Bernard, W. T. Sturges, T. Blunier, J. Schwander, D. Etheridge, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6993–7005,
J. Erbland, W. C. Vicars, J. Savarino, S. Morin, M. M. Frey, D. Frosini, E. Vince, and J. M. F. Martins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6403–6419,
A. Guillon, K. Le Ménach, P.-M. Flaud, N. Marchand, H. Budzinski, and E. Villenave
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2703–2719,
D. Ceburnis, A. Garbaras, S. Szidat, M. Rinaldi, S. Fahrni, N. Perron, L. Wacker, S. Leinert, V. Remeikis, M. C. Facchini, A. S. H. Prevot, S. G. Jennings, M. Ramonet, and C. D. O'Dowd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 8593–8606,
A. M. Batenburg, S. Walter, G. Pieterse, I. Levin, M. Schmidt, A. Jordan, S. Hammer, C. Yver, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 6985–6999,
B. Tuzson, S. Henne, D. Brunner, M. Steinbacher, J. Mohn, B. Buchmann, and L. Emmenegger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 1685–1696,
Y. T. Fang, K. Koba, X. M. Wang, D. Z. Wen, J. Li, Y. Takebayashi, X. Y. Liu, and M. Yoh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 1313–1325,
S. S. Assonov, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. J. Schuck, and P. Taylor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 8575–8599,
U. Tsunogai, D. D. Komatsu, S. Daita, G. A. Kazemi, F. Nakagawa, I. Noguchi, and J. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 1809–1820,
M. M. Frey, J. Savarino, S. Morin, J. Erbland, and J. M. F. Martins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 8681–8696,
S. A. Vay, S. C. Tyler, Y. Choi, D. R. Blake, N. J. Blake, G. W. Sachse, G. S. Diskin, and H. B. Singh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 4973–4985,
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Stable isotopes of Carbon Monoxide (CO) and radiocarbon carbon dioxide were measured over three summers at Indianapolis, Indiana, US, and for 1 year at a site thought to be strongly influenced by CO from oxidized volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in South Carolina, US. The Indianapolis results were used to provide an estimate of the carbon and oxygen isotopic signatures of CO produced from oxidized VOCs. This updated estimate agrees well with the data from South Carolina during the summer.
Stable isotopes of Carbon Monoxide (CO) and radiocarbon carbon dioxide were measured over three...