Articles | Volume 19, issue 2
Research article 01 Feb 2019
Research article | 01 Feb 2019
Nitrogen-containing secondary organic aerosol formation by acrolein reaction with ammonia/ammonium
Zhijian Li et al.
No articles found.
Wei Sun, Yuzhen Fu, Guohua Zhang, Yuxiang Yang, Feng Jiang, Xiufeng Lian, Bin Jiang, Yuhong Liao, Xinhui Bi, Duohong Chen, Jianmin Chen, Xinming Wang, Jie Ou, Ping'an Peng, and Guoying Sheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16631–16644,Short summary
We sampled cloud water at a remote mountain site and investigated the molecular characteristics. CHON and CHO are dominant in cloud water. No statistical difference in the oxidation state is observed between cloud water and interstitial PM2.5. Most of the formulas are aliphatic and olefinic species. CHON, with aromatic structures and organosulfates, are abundant, especially in nighttime samples. The in-cloud and multi-phase dark reactions likely contribute significantly.
Men Xia, Xiang Peng, Weihao Wang, Chuan Yu, Zhe Wang, Yee Jun Tham, Jianmin Chen, Hui Chen, Yujing Mu, Chenglong Zhang, Pengfei Liu, Likun Xue, Xinfeng Wang, Jian Gao, Hong Li, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15985–16000,Short summary
ClNO2 is an important precursor of chlorine radical that affects photochemistry. However, its production and impact are not well understood. Our study presents field observations of ClNO2 at three sites in northern China. These observations provide new insights into nighttime processes that produce ClNO2 and the significant impact of ClNO2 on secondary pollutions during daytime. The results improve the understanding of photochemical pollution in the lower part of the atmosphere.
Letizia Abis, Carmen Kalalian, Bastien Lunardelli, Tao Wang, Liwu Zhang, Jianmin Chen, Sébastien Perrier, Benjamin Loubet, Raluca Ciuraru, and Christian George
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12613–12629,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from rapeseed leaf litter have been investigated by means of a controlled atmospheric simulation chamber. The diversity of emitted VOCs increased also in the presence of UV light irradiation. SOA formation was observed when leaf litter was exposed to both UV light and ozone, indicating a potential contribution to particle formation or growth at local scales.
Zhenzhen Wang, Di Wu, Zhuoyu Li, Xiaona Shang, Qing Li, Xiang Li, Renjie Chen, Haidong Kan, Huiling Ouyang, Xu Tang, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12227–12241,Short summary
This study firstly investigates the composition of sugars in the fine fraction of aerosol over three sites in southwest China. The result suggested no significant reduction in biomass burning emissions in southwest Yunnan Province to some extent. The result shown sheds light on the contributions of biomass burning and the characteristics of biogenic saccharides in these regions, which could be further applied to regional source apportionment models and global climate models.
Chaoyang Xue, Can Ye, Jörg Kleffmann, Chenglong Zhang, Valéry Catoire, Fengxia Bao, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Likun Xue, Jianmin Chen, Keding Lu, Yong Zhao, Hengde Liu, Zhaoxin Guo, and Yujing Mu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Summertime measurements of nitrous acid (HONO) and related parameters were conducted at the foot and the summit of Mt.Tai (1534 meters above sea level). We proposed a rapid vertical air mass exchange between the foot and the summit levels, which enhances the role of HONO in the oxidizing capacity of the upper boundary layer. Kinetics for aerosol-derived HONO sources were constrained. HONO formation from different paths was quantified and discussed.
Rui Li, Yilong Zhao, Hongbo Fu, Jianmin Chen, Meng Peng, and Chunying Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8677–8692,Short summary
Based on a random forest model, the strict lockdown measures significantly decreased primary components such as Cr (−67 %) and Fe (−61 %) in PM2.5 (p < 0.01), whereas the higher relative humidity (RH) and NH3 level and the lower air temperature (T) remarkably enhanced the production of secondary aerosol including SO42− (29 %), NO3− (29 %), and NH4+ (21 %) (p < 0.05). The natural experiment suggested that the NH3 emission should be strictly controlled.
Jinlong Ma, Juanyong Shen, Peng Wang, Shengqiang Zhu, Yu Wang, Pengfei Wang, Gehui Wang, Jianmin Chen, and Hongliang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7343–7355,Short summary
Due to the reduced anthropogenic emissions during the COVID-19 lockdown, mainly from the transportation and industrial sectors, PM2.5 decreased significantly in the whole Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and its major cities. However, the contributions and relative importance of different source sectors and regions changed differently, indicating that control strategies should be adjusted accordingly for further pollution control.
Xiaona Shang, Ling Li, Xinlian Zhang, Huihui Kang, Guodong Sui, Gehui Wang, Xingnan Ye, Hang Xiao, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1037–1045,Short summary
Oxidative stress can be used to evaluate not only adverse health effects but also adverse ecological effects. However, little research uses eco-toxicological assay to assess the risks posed by particle matter to non-human biomes. One important reason might be that the concentration of toxic components of atmospheric particles is far below the high detection limit of eco-toxic measurement. To solve the rapid detection problem, we extended a VACES for ecotoxicity aerosol measurement.
Yujiao Zhu, Likun Xue, Jian Gao, Jianmin Chen, Hongyong Li, Yong Zhao, Zhaoxin Guo, Tianshu Chen, Liang Wen, Penggang Zheng, Ye Shan, Xinfeng Wang, Tao Wang, Xiaohong Yao, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1305–1323,Short summary
This work investigates the long-term changes in new particle formation (NPF) events under reduced SO2 emissions at the summit of Mt. Tai during seven campaigns from 2007 to 2018. We found the NPF intensity increased 2- to 3-fold in 2018 compared to 2007. In contrast, the probability of new particles growing to CCN size largely decreased. Changes to biogenic VOCs and anthropogenic emissions are proposed to explain the distinct NPF characteristics.
Jiarong Li, Chao Zhu, Hui Chen, Defeng Zhao, Likun Xue, Xinfeng Wang, Hongyong Li, Pengfei Liu, Junfeng Liu, Chenglong Zhang, Yujing Mu, Wenjin Zhang, Luming Zhang, Hartmut Herrmann, Kai Li, Min Liu, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13735–13751,Short summary
Based on a field study at Mt. Tai, China, the simultaneous variations of cloud microphysics, aerosol microphysics and their potential interactions during cloud life cycles were discussed. Results demonstrated that clouds on clean days were more susceptible to the concentrations of particle number, while clouds formed on polluted days might be more sensitive to meteorological parameters. Particles larger than 150 nm played important roles in forming cloud droplets with sizes of 5–10 μm.
Yuwei Wang, Archit Mehra, Jordan E. Krechmer, Gan Yang, Xiaoyu Hu, Yiqun Lu, Andrew Lambe, Manjula Canagaratna, Jianmin Chen, Douglas Worsnop, Hugh Coe, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9563–9579,Short summary
A series of OH-initiated oxidation experiments of trimethylbenzene were investigated in the absence and presence of NOx. Many C9 products with 1–11 oxygen atoms and C18 products presumably formed from dimerization of C9 peroxy radicals were observed, hinting at the extensive existence of autoxidation and accretion reaction pathways. The presence of NOx would suppress the formation of highly oxygenated C18 molecules and enhance the formation of organonitrates and even dinitrate compounds.
Shengqiang Zhu, Lei Li, Shurong Wang, Mei Li, Yaxi Liu, Xiaohui Lu, Hong Chen, Lin Wang, Jianmin Chen, Zhen Zhou, Xin Yang, and Xiaofei Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4111–4121,Short summary
Single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) is widely used to detect chemical compositions and sizes of individual aerosol particles. However, it has a major issue: the mass accuracy of high-resolution SPAMS is relatively low. Here we developed an automatic linear calibration method to greatly improve the mass accuracy of SPAMS spectra so that the elemental compositions of organic peaks, such as Cx, CxHy, CxHyOz and CxHyNO peaks, can be directly identified just based on their m / z values.
Jian Xu, Jia Chen, Na Zhao, Guochen Wang, Guangyuan Yu, Hao Li, Juntao Huo, Yanfen Lin, Qingyan Fu, Hongyu Guo, Congrui Deng, Shan-Hu Lee, Jianmin Chen, and Kan Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7259–7269,Short summary
This study provided evidence that gas-particle partitioning of ammonia, as opposed to ammonia concentration, plays a critical role in the haze formation. A reduction in ammonia emissions alone may not reduce air pollution effectively, at least at rural agricultural sites in China.
Manuela van Pinxteren, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Nadja Triesch, Christian Stolle, Oliver Wurl, Enno Bahlmann, Xianda Gong, Jens Voigtländer, Heike Wex, Tiera-Brandy Robinson, Stefan Barthel, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Erik Hans Hoffmann, Marie Roveretto, Chunlin Li, Benoit Grosselin, Veronique Daële, Fabian Senf, Dominik van Pinxteren, Malena Manzi, Nicolás Zabalegui, Sanja Frka, Blaženka Gašparović, Ryan Pereira, Tao Li, Liang Wen, Jiarong Li, Chao Zhu, Hui Chen, Jianmin Chen, Björn Fiedler, Wolf von Tümpling, Katie Alana Read, Shalini Punjabi, Alastair Charles Lewis, James Roland Hopkins, Lucy Jane Carpenter, Ilka Peeken, Tim Rixen, Detlef Schulz-Bull, María Eugenia Monge, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Christian George, Frank Stratmann, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6921–6951,Short summary
An introduction to a comprehensive field campaign performed at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory regarding ocean–atmosphere interactions is given. Chemical, physical, biological and meteorological techniques were applied, and measurements of bulk water, the sea surface microlayer, cloud water and ambient aerosol particles took place. Oceanic compounds were found to be transferred to atmospheric aerosol and to the cloud level; however, sea spray contributions to CCN and INPs were limited.
Xinning Wang, Xingnan Ye, Jianmin Chen, Xiaofei Wang, Xin Yang, Tzung-May Fu, Lei Zhu, and Chongxuan Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6273–6290,Short summary
Hygroscopicity plays several key roles in determining aerosol optical properties and aging processes in the atmosphere. However, it is quite difficult to study aerosol hygroscopicity at the single-particle level. In this study, we built a comprehensive database linking hygroscopicities and mass spectra of individual particles. Based on the measured hygroscopicity–composition relations, we developed a statistical method to estimate ambient particle hygroscopicity just from their mass spectra.
Arttu Ylisirniö, Angela Buchholz, Claudia Mohr, Zijun Li, Luis Barreira, Andrew Lambe, Celia Faiola, Eetu Kari, Taina Yli-Juuti, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Douglas R. Worsnop, Annele Virtanen, and Siegfried Schobesberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5629–5644,Short summary
We studied the chemical composition and volatility of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles formed from emissions of Scots pines and compared those results to SOA formed from α-pinene and from a sesquiterpene mixture. We found that SOA formed from single precursors cannot capture the properties of SOA formed from real plant emissions.
Yuning Xie, Gehui Wang, Xinpei Wang, Jianmin Chen, Yubao Chen, Guiqian Tang, Lili Wang, Shuangshuang Ge, Guoyan Xue, Yuesi Wang, and Jian Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5019–5033,Short summary
As a result of strict emission control, nitrate-dominated PM2.5 in pollution episodes was observed in urban Beijing during the winter of 2017–2018. With the help of sufficient ammonia, particle pH could increase to near neutral (5.4) as particulate nitrate fraction increases. Further tests imply that airborne particle hygroscopicity would be enhanced at moderate RH in nitrate-dominated particles, and pH elevation will be accelerated when ammonia and particulate nitrate both increase.
Can Wu, Gehui Wang, Jin Li, Jianjun Li, Cong Cao, Shuangshuang Ge, Yuning Xie, Jianmin Chen, Xingru Li, Guoyan Xue, Xinpei Wang, Zhuyu Zhao, and Fang Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2017–2030,Short summary
Brown carbon (BrC), as an important component of aerosol, has attracted wide attention in recent years, yet very limited information on size differences is available. This paper reveals that BrC presented a bimodal pattern and was mainly derived from biomass burning in an interior city of China. Our results are very helpful for readers to comprehensively understand the features of brown carbon in China.
Fan Zhang, Hai Guo, Yingjun Chen, Volker Matthias, Yan Zhang, Xin Yang, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1549–1564,Short summary
Particulate matter (PM) emitted from ships has gained more attention in recent decades. Organic matter, elemental carbon, water-soluble ions and heavy metals in PM and particle numbers are the main points. However, studies of detailed chemical compositions in particles with different size ranges emitted from ships are in shortage. This study could bring new and detailed measurement data into the field of size-segregated particles from ships and be of great source emission interest.
Lauren T. Fleming, Peng Lin, James M. Roberts, Vanessa Selimovic, Robert Yokelson, Julia Laskin, Alexander Laskin, and Sergey A. Nizkorodov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1105–1129,Short summary
We have explored the nature and stability of molecules that give biomass burning smoke its faint brown color. Different types of biomass fuels were burned and the resulting smoke was collected for a detailed chemical analysis. We found that brown molecules in smoke become less colored when they are irradiated by sunlight, but this photobleaching process is very slow. This means that biomass burning smoke will remain brown-colored for a long time and efficiently warm up the atmosphere.
Zhenzhen Wang, Tao Wang, Hongbo Fu, Liwu Zhang, Mingjin Tang, Christian George, Vicki H. Grassian, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12569–12585,Short summary
This study confirmed that SO2 uptake on mineral particles could be greatly enhanced during cloud processing. The large pH fluctuations between the cloud-aerosol modes could significantly modify the microphysical properties of particles, and triggered the formation of reactive Fe particles to accelerate sulfate formation via a self-amplifying process. Results of this study could partly explain the missing source of sulfate and improve agreement between models and field observations.
Mijung Song, Adrian M. Maclean, Yuanzhou Huang, Natalie R. Smith, Sandra L. Blair, Julia Laskin, Alexander Laskin, Wing-Sy Wong DeRieux, Ying Li, Manabu Shiraiwa, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12515–12529,
Yunhua Chang, Yan-Lin Zhang, Jiarong Li, Chongguo Tian, Linlin Song, Xiaoyao Zhai, Wenqi Zhang, Tong Huang, Yu-Chi Lin, Chao Zhu, Yunting Fang, Moritz F. Lehmann, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12221–12234,Short summary
The present work underscores the value of cloud water dissolved inorganic nitrogen isotopes as carriers of quantitative information on regional NOx and NH3 emissions. It sheds light on the origin and production pathways of nitrogenous species in clouds and emphasizes the importance of biomass-burning-derived nitrogenous species as cloud condensation nuclei in China’s troposphere. Moreover, it highlights the rapid evolution of NOx emissions in China.
Brigitte Rooney, Ran Zhao, Yuan Wang, Kelvin H. Bates, Ajay Pillarisetti, Sumit Sharma, Seema Kundu, Tami C. Bond, Nicholas L. Lam, Bora Ozaltun, Li Xu, Varun Goel, Lauren T. Fleming, Robert Weltman, Simone Meinardi, Donald R. Blake, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Rufus D. Edwards, Ankit Yadav, Narendra K. Arora, Kirk R. Smith, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7719–7742,Short summary
Approximately 3 billion people worldwide cook with solid fuels, such as wood, charcoal, and agricultural residues, that are often combusted in inefficient cookstoves. Here, we simulate the distribution of the two major health-damaging outdoor pollution species (PM2.5 and O3) using state-of-the-science emissions databases and atmospheric chemical transport models to estimate the impact of household combustion on ambient air quality in India.
Tao Wang, Yangyang Liu, Yue Deng, Hanyun Cheng, Yang Yang, Yiqing Feng, Muhammad Ali Tahir, Xiaozhong Fang, Xu Dong, Kejian Li, Saira Ajmal, Aziz-Ur-Rahim Bacha, Iqra Nabi, Hongbo Fu, Liwu Zhang, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We studied the heterogeneous formation of nitrate and nitrite aerosols by in-situ laboratory tests and field observations. Sunlight becomes the protagonist under weak illumination, while a costar under strong irradiation, attributing to the balance between NO2 adsorption and the formation of photoinduced active species. Meanwhile, sunlight determines the association between atmospheric nitrate and nitrite. We hope this work offer more suggestions for modelling studies.
Angela Buchholz, Andrew T. Lambe, Arttu Ylisirniö, Zijun Li, Olli-Pekka Tikkanen, Celia Faiola, Eetu Kari, Liqing Hao, Olli Luoma, Wei Huang, Claudia Mohr, Douglas R. Worsnop, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Taina Yli-Juuti, Siegfried Schobesberger, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4061–4073,Short summary
We studied the evaporation of α-pinene secondary organic aerosol particles in clean air to derive their volatility from the observed size changes. We found that the particles became more resilient to evaporation with increased oxidative age, possibly increasing their lifetime in the atmosphere. Also, increased relative humidity increased the particle evaporation. Mass spectrometry measurements of the particles at different stages of evaporation revealed some water-induced composition changes.
Dagny A. Ullmann, Mallory L. Hinks, Adrian M. Maclean, Christopher L. Butenhoff, James W. Grayson, Kelley Barsanti, Jose L. Jimenez, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Saeid Kamal, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1491–1503,Short summary
We measured the viscosity and diffusion of organic molecules in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from the ozonolysis of limonene. The results suggest that the mixing times of large organics in the SOA studied are short (< 1 h) for conditions found in the planetary boundary layer. The results also show that the Stokes–Einstein equation gives accurate predictions of diffusion coefficients of large organics within the studied SOA up to a viscosity of 102 to 104 Pa s.
Kangning Li, Xingnan Ye, Hongwei Pang, Xiaohui Lu, Hong Chen, Xiaofei Wang, Xin Yang, Jianmin Chen, and Yingjun Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15201–15218,Short summary
Temporal variation in the hygroscopicity and its correlation with the mixing state of ambient BC particles were studied using a HTDMA–SP2 system. Secondary organic carbon formation and condensation of nitrates were mainly responsible for the changes of hygroscopicity of BC particles during daytime and nighttime, respectively. Different atmospheric aging processes led to the change of BC particles' mixing states, which play a fundamental role in determining their hygroscopicity.
Lauren T. Fleming, Robert Weltman, Ankit Yadav, Rufus D. Edwards, Narendra K. Arora, Ajay Pillarisetti, Simone Meinardi, Kirk R. Smith, Donald R. Blake, and Sergey A. Nizkorodov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15169–15182,Short summary
Brushwood- and dung-burning cookstoves are used for cooking and heating and influence ambient air quality for millions of people. We report emission factors from the more efficient cookstove, the chulha, compared to the smoldering angithi, for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and 76 volatile organic compounds. This comprehensive gas emission inventory should inform policy makers about the magnitude of the effect of cookstoves on the air quality in India.
Lei Liu, Jian Zhang, Liang Xu, Qi Yuan, Dao Huang, Jianmin Chen, Zongbo Shi, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Daizhou Zhang, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14681–14693,Short summary
Using transmission electron microscopy, we studied individual cloud droplet residual and interstitial particles collected in cloud events at Mt. Tai in the polluted North China region. We found that individual cloud droplets were an extremely complicated mixture containing abundant refractory soot (i.e., black carbon), fly ash, and metals. The complicated cloud droplets have not been reported in clean continental or marine air before.
Zhong Li, Chunlin Li, Xingnan Ye, Hongbo Fu, Lin Wang, Xin Yang, Xinke Wang, Zhuohui Zhao, Haidong Kan, Abdelwahid Mellouki, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14445–14464,Short summary
Air quality over the Yangtze River is important as it may significantly influence aquatic ecosystems, public health, and coastal areas. A comprehensive 15-day cruise campaign, TEMP, was performed in the mid–lower reaches of the Yangtze River in winter of 2015. Based on the filter samples, the chemical composition of PM2.5 greatly varied or fluctuated.
Ying Ji, Xiaofei Qin, Bo Wang, Jian Xu, Jiandong Shen, Jianmin Chen, Kan Huang, Congrui Deng, Renchang Yan, Kaier Xu, and Tian Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13581–13600,Short summary
Large-scale joint emission control measures were carried out in the Yangtze River Delta during the Hangzhou G20 Summit in 2016. The extent of secondary inorganic aerosol formation was found to be significantly enhanced under transport conditions from northern China. However, the formation of secondary organic aerosols was also greatly suppressed due to the emission control measures. Overall, it was found that regional/long-range transport could have offset part of the emission control efforts.
Yanhong Zhu, Lingxiao Yang, Jianmin Chen, Kimitaka Kawamura, Mamiko Sato, Andreas Tilgner, Dominik van Pinxteren, Ying Chen, Likun Xue, Xinfeng Wang, Isobel J. Simpson, Hartmut Herrmann, Donald R. Blake, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10741–10758,Short summary
Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in the free troposphere are identified, and their concentration variations between 2014 and 2006 are presented. High nighttime concentrations were probably due to precursor emissions and aqueous-phase oxidation. Biomass burning was significant, but its tracer levoglucosan in 2014 was 5 times lower than 2006 concentrations. Finally, regional emission from anthropogenic activities was identified as a major source.
Wing-Sy Wong DeRieux, Ying Li, Peng Lin, Julia Laskin, Alexander Laskin, Allan K. Bertram, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, and Manabu Shiraiwa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6331–6351,Short summary
The phase transition of organic particles between glassy and semi-solid states occurs at the glass transition temperature. We developed a method to predict glass transition temperatures and the viscosity of secondary organic aerosols using molecular composition, with consistent results with viscosity measurements. The viscosity of biomass burning particles was also estimated using the chemical composition measured by high-resolution mass spectrometry with two different ionization techniques.
Liwei Wang, Xinfeng Wang, Rongrong Gu, Hao Wang, Lan Yao, Liang Wen, Fanping Zhu, Weihao Wang, Likun Xue, Lingxiao Yang, Keding Lu, Jianmin Chen, Tao Wang, Yuanghang Zhang, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4349–4359,Short summary
This study presents concentrations, variation characteristics, sources and secondary formations of nitrated phenols, a major component of brown carbon, in typical seasons at four sites in northern China. The results highlight the strong influences and contributions of anthropogenic activities, in particular coal combustion and the aging processes, to the atmospheric nitrated phenols in this region.
Shupeng Zhu, Jeremy R. Horne, Julia Montoya-Aguilera, Mallory L. Hinks, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, and Donald Dabdub
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3641–3657,Short summary
For the first time, the interaction between ammonia and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is integrated in an air quality model and investigated on a national scale. Our original analysis from simulation results indicates that a significant reduction in gas-phase ammonia is possible due to its uptake onto SOA. Significant impact is also observed in the concentration of particulate matter, with a distinct spatial pattern over different seasons.
Lauren T. Fleming, Peng Lin, Alexander Laskin, Julia Laskin, Robert Weltman, Rufus D. Edwards, Narendra K. Arora, Ankit Yadav, Simone Meinardi, Donald R. Blake, Ajay Pillarisetti, Kirk R. Smith, and Sergey A. Nizkorodov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2461–2480,Short summary
Household cooking emissions in India, which rely on traditional meal preparation with dung- and brushwood-fueled cookstoves, produce copious amounts of particulate matter. Detailed chemical analysis of the compounds found in this particulate matter detected a large number of previously unidentified nitrogen-containing organic compounds, originating from dung-fueled cookstoves.
Ganglin Lv, Xiao Sui, Jianmin Chen, Rohan Jayaratne, and Abdelwahid Mellouki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2243–2258,Short summary
We conducted an investigation of new particle formation (NPF) at the summit of Mt. Tai, eastern China, based on simultaneous measurements of particle size distribution, meteorological parameters, gaseous species, mass concentration, and chemical composition of PM2.5. The general characteristics, favorable conditions, and potential precursor species of NPF events are discussed. An in-depth study of NPF on Mt. Tai is important for understanding the effect of particles on air quality.
Mallory L. Hinks, Julia Montoya-Aguilera, Lucas Ellison, Peng Lin, Alexander Laskin, Julia Laskin, Manabu Shiraiwa, Donald Dabdub, and Sergey A. Nizkorodov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1643–1652,Short summary
We have observed a strong effect of relative humidity on the composition of particulate matter produced from the oxidation of toluene in clean air. At higher relative humidity, there was a significant reduction in the fraction of high-molecular-weight compounds present in the particles. The amount of particulate matter also decreased at higher relative humidity. The main implication of this study is that water vapor participates in the photooxidation of toluene in a complicated way.
Julia Montoya-Aguilera, Jeremy R. Horne, Mallory L. Hinks, Lauren T. Fleming, Véronique Perraud, Peng Lin, Alexander Laskin, Julia Laskin, Donald Dabdub, and Sergey A. Nizkorodov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11605–11621,Short summary
Various plant species emit a chemical compound called indole under stressed conditions or during flowering events. Our experiments show that indole can be oxidized in the atmosphere to produce a brownish haze containing well-known indole-derived dyes, such as indigo dye. An airshed model that includes indole chemistry shows that indole aerosol makes a significant contribution to the total aerosol burden and to visibility.
Caihong Xu, Min Wei, Jianmin Chen, Chao Zhu, Jiarong Li, Ganglin Lv, Xianmang Xu, Lulu Zheng, Guodong Sui, Weijun Li, Bing Chen, Wenxing Wang, Qingzhu Zhang, Aijun Ding, and Abdelwahid Mellouki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11247–11260,Short summary
Fungi are ubiquitous throughout the near-surface atmosphere, where they represent an important component of primary biological aerosol particles. The diversity and composition of the fungal communities varied over the different seasons between the fine (PM2.5) and submicron (PM1) particles at the summit of Mt. Tai located in the North China Plain, China. This work may serve as an important reference for the fungal contribution to primary biological aerosol particles.
Jiarong Li, Xinfeng Wang, Jianmin Chen, Chao Zhu, Weijun Li, Chengbao Li, Lu Liu, Caihong Xu, Liang Wen, Likun Xue, Wenxing Wang, Aijun Ding, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9885–9896,Short summary
Cloud events at Mt. Tai were investigated for the chemical composition and size distribution of cloud droplets. An obvious rise in pH was found for elevated NH+4 during the last decade. Higher PM2.5 levels resulted in higher concentrations of water-soluble ions, smaller sizes and higher numbers of cloud droplets. The mechanism of cloud-droplet formation and the mass transfer between aerosol–gas–cloud phases were summarized to enrich the knowledge of cloud chemical and microphysical properties.
Jinghao Zhai, Xiaohui Lu, Ling Li, Qi Zhang, Ci Zhang, Hong Chen, Xin Yang, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7481–7493,Short summary
The effective density, chemical composition, and optical properties of particles produced by burning rice straw were measured. Density distribution and single-particle mass spectrometry showed the size-dependent external mixing of black carbon, organic carbon, and potassium salts in biomass burning particles. Optical measurements indicated the significant presence of brown carbon in all particles. Though freshly emitted, light absorption enhancement was observed for particles larger than 200 nm.
Yuanyuan Xie, Xingnan Ye, Zhen Ma, Ye Tao, Ruyu Wang, Ci Zhang, Xin Yang, Jianmin Chen, and Hong Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7277–7290,Short summary
Urban air pollution is one of the greatest environmental concern in 21st century. In this paper, we trace temporal evolutions of aerosol hygroscopicity and effective density during a representative particulate matter episode, which provide a strong support on that severe haze pollution can be formed in highly polluted areas by the initial accumulation of gas-phase and particulate pollutants under stagnant meteorological conditions and subsequent rapid particle growth by secondary processes.
Min Wei, Caihong Xu, Jianmin Chen, Chao Zhu, Jiarong Li, and Ganglin Lv
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5253–5270,Short summary
Bacterial communities in cloud water collected at the summit of Mt Tai from 24 July to 23 August 2014 were investigated. A highly diverse bacterial community was retrieved. Community function prediction suggested that pathways related to metabolism and disease infections were significantly correlated with the predominant genera. Potential pathogens were enriched in the polluted cloud samples, whereas the diverse ecological function groups were significant in the non-polluted samples.
Rui Li, Yunjie Hu, Ling Li, Hongbo Fu, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5079–5093,Short summary
Five episodes were divided based on meteorological conditions and chemical composition. The clear episodes (EP-2 and EP-4) featured low light extinction with fewer pollutants, which are mostly externally mixed. In contrast, EP-1 and EP-5 were impacted by the industrial activities and biomass burning through the southern air mass, respectively. Soot at the fog period detected in EP-3 was mostly internally mixed with sulfates and nitrates.
Chunlin Li, Yunjie Hu, Fei Zhang, Jianmin Chen, Zhen Ma, Xingnan Ye, Xin Yang, Lin Wang, Xingfu Tang, Renhe Zhang, Mu Mu, Guihua Wang, Haidong Kan, Xinming Wang, and Abdelwahid Mellouki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4957–4988,Short summary
Detailed emission factors for smoke particulate species in PM2.5 and PM1.0 were derived from laboratory simulation of crop straw burning using aerosol chamber systems. Based on this, emissions for crop residue field burning in China were calculated and characterized with respect to five different burning scenarios. Moreover, health effects and health-related economic loss from smoke particle exposure were assessed; a practical emission control policy for agricultural field burning was proposed.
Shurui Chen, Liang Xu, Yinxiao Zhang, Bing Chen, Xinfeng Wang, Xiaoye Zhang, Mei Zheng, Jianmin Chen, Wenxing Wang, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1259–1270,Short summary
Many studies have focused on the unusually severe hazes instead of the more frequent light and moderate hazes (22–63 %) in winter in the North China Plain (NCP). The morphology, mixing state, and size of organic aerosols in the L & M hazes were characterized. We conclude that the direct emissions from residential coal stoves without any pollution controls in rural and urban outskirts contribute large amounts of primary OM particles to the regional L & M hazes in winter in the NCP.
Chen Xu, Junyan Duan, Yanyu Wang, Yifan Wang, Hailin Zhu, Xiang Li, Lingdong Kong, Qianshan He, Tiantao Cheng, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We intensively examined the influence of polluted aerosol on cloud and precipitation on different underlying surfaces and evaluated relationship between aerosol types and physical properties of clouds under different atmospheric conditions over the YRD. Aerosol plays an important role in cloud evolution in the low layers of troposphere (below 5 km) in the case of the stable atmosphere in wintertime.The results are helpful to in-depth understanding of aerosol indirect effects in Asian.
Lei Yao, Ming-Yi Wang, Xin-Ke Wang, Yi-Jun Liu, Hang-Fei Chen, Jun Zheng, Wei Nie, Ai-Jun Ding, Fu-Hai Geng, Dong-Fang Wang, Jian-Min Chen, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14527–14543,Short summary
We present the development of a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) method, utilizing protonated ethanol as reagent ions to simultaneously detect atmospheric gaseous amines (C1 to C6) and amides (C1 to C6). Deployment of this ethanol HR-ToF-CIMS has been demonstrated in a field campaign in urban Shanghai, China, detecting amines (from a few pptv to hundreds of pptv) and amides (from tens of pptv to a few ppbv).
Yi Zhu, Jiping Zhang, Junxia Wang, Wenyuan Chen, Yiqun Han, Chunxiang Ye, Yingruo Li, Jun Liu, Limin Zeng, Yusheng Wu, Xinfeng Wang, Wenxing Wang, Jianmin Chen, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12551–12565,Short summary
With five repeated experiments using a mobile laboratory, we obtained the spatial distribution of major air pollutants over the surface of the North China Plain (NCP). All the pollutants were at high levels, with pollutant peak values in nearby major cities and along transport routes. With simulated wind fields, we identified the prevalent transport routes of air pollutants on different parts of the NCP, reflecting the transport of air pollution between megacities and surrounding regions.
Lei Sun, Likun Xue, Tao Wang, Jian Gao, Aijun Ding, Owen R. Cooper, Meiyun Lin, Pengju Xu, Zhe Wang, Xinfeng Wang, Liang Wen, Yanhong Zhu, Tianshu Chen, Lingxiao Yang, Yan Wang, Jianmin Chen, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10637–10650,Short summary
We compiled the available observations of surface O3 at Mt. Tai – the highest mountain in the North China Plain, and found a significant increase of O3 concenrations from 2003 to 2015. The observed O3 increase was mainly due to the increase of O3 precursors, especially VOCs. Our analysis shows that controlling NOx alone, in the absence of VOC controls, is not sufficient to reduce regional O3 levels in North China in a short period.
Chunpeng Leng, Junyan Duan, Chen Xu, Hefeng Zhang, Yifan Wang, Yanyu Wang, Xiang Li, Lingdong Kong, Jun Tao, Renjian Zhang, Tiantao Cheng, Shuping Zha, and Xingna Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9221–9234,Short summary
Meteorological conditions, local anthropogenic emissions and aerosol properties played major roles in this historic winter haze weather formation. Aerosols the size of 600–1400 nm are mostly responsible for the impairment of atmospheric visibility. This study was performed by combining many on-line measurement techniques which were calibrated regularly to ensure reliability, and can act as a reference for forecasting and eliminating the occurrences of regional atmospheric pollutions in China.
Xianda Gong, Ci Zhang, Hong Chen, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Jianmin Chen, and Xin Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5399–5411,Short summary
In this study, we used a Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer and a Single Particle Soot Photometer to investigate the chemical and physical properties of black carbon (BC) aerosols during a regional air pollution episode in urban Shanghai. BC containing particles were mainly attributed to biomass burning and traffic emissions. We observed a group of highly aged traffic emitted particles with a relatively small BC core (~ 60–80 nm) and a very thick absolute coating thickness (~ 130–300 nm).
Yan Lyu, Tingting Xu, Xiang Li, Tiantao Cheng, Xin Yang, Xiaomin Sun, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1025–1037,Short summary
This study presents the particle size distribution of PBDEs in the atmosphere of a megacity and evaluates the contribution of size-fractionated PBDEs' deposition in the human respiratory tract.
Yan Lv, Xiang Li, Ting Ting Xu, Tian Tao Cheng, Xin Yang, Jian Min Chen, Yoshiteru Iinuma, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2971–2983,Short summary
The study focused on size-resolved PAHs in urban aerosols at a megacity Shanghai site. The results provide us with a mechanistic understanding of the particle size distribution of PAHs and their transport in the human respiratory system; this can help develop better source control strategies.
Xin Ke Wang, Stéphanie Rossignol, Ye Ma, Lei Yao, Ming Yi Wang, Jian Min Chen, Christian George, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2285–2298,Short summary
PM2.5 filter samples have been collected in three megacities at the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River: Wuhan, Nanjing, and Shanghai. The samples were analyzed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with Orbitrap mass spectrometry, which allowed for detection of about 200 formulas of particulate organosulfates, including dozens of formulas of nitrooxy-organosulfates, with various numbers of isomers for each tentatively determined formula at each location.
T. Liu, X. Wang, Q. Hu, W. Deng, Y. Zhang, X. Ding, X. Fu, F. Bernard, Z. Zhang, S. Lü, Q. He, X. Bi, J. Chen, Y. Sun, J. Yu, P. Peng, G. Sheng, and J. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 675–689,Short summary
The formation of SOA and sulfate aerosols from the photooxidation of gasoline vehicle exhaust (GVE) when mixing with SO2 was investigated in a smog chamber. We found that the presence of GVE enhanced the conversion of SO2 to sulfate predominantly through reactions with stabilized Criegee intermediates. On the other hand, the elevated particle acidity enhanced the SOA production from GVE. This study indicated that SO2 and GVE could enhance each other in forming secondary aerosols.
T. Liu, X. Wang, W. Deng, Q. Hu, X. Ding, Y. Zhang, Q. He, Z. Zhang, S. Lü, X. Bi, J. Chen, and J. Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9049–9062,
S. Xiao, M. Y. Wang, L. Yao, M. Kulmala, B. Zhou, X. Yang, J. M. Chen, D. F. Wang, Q. Y. Fu, D. R. Worsnop, and L. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1769–1781,
C. Leng, Q. Zhang, D. Zhang, C. Xu, T. Cheng, R. Zhang, J. Tao, J. Chen, S. Zha, Y. Zhang, X. Li, L. Kong, and W. Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12499–12512,
C. Leng, Q. Zhang, J. Tao, H. Zhang, D. Zhang, C. Xu, X. Li, L. Kong, T. Cheng, R. Zhang, X. Yang, J. Chen, L. Qiao, S. Lou, H. Wang, and C. Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11353–11365,
L. D. Kong, X. Zhao, Z. Y. Sun, Y. W. Yang, H. B. Fu, S. C. Zhang, T. T. Cheng, X. Yang, L. Wang, and J. M. Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9451–9467,
X. Wang, B. J. Williams, X. Wang, Y. Tang, Y. Huang, L. Kong, X. Yang, and P. Biswas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10919–10932,
S. A. Epstein, E. Tapavicza, F. Furche, and S. A. Nizkorodov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9461–9477,
Y. Huang, L. Li, J. Li, X. Wang, H. Chen, J. Chen, X. Yang, D. S. Gross, H. Wang, L. Qiao, and C. Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3931–3944,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Laboratory Studies | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Chemical composition of nanoparticles from α-pinene nucleation and the influence of isoprene and relative humidity at low temperatureTechnical note: Adsorption and desorption equilibria from statistical thermodynamics and rates from transition state theoryNighttime chemistry of biomass burning emissions in urban areas: A dual mobile chamber studyFormation and evolution of secondary organic aerosols derived from urban-lifestyle sources: vehicle exhaust and cooking emissionsMass spectral characterization of secondary organic aerosol from urban cooking and vehicular sourcesAn organic crystalline state in ageing atmospheric aerosol proxies: spatially resolved structural changes in levitated fatty acid particlesPhotolytically induced changes in composition and volatility of biogenic secondary organic aerosol from nitrate radical oxidation during night-to-day transitionThe driving factors of new particle formation and growth in the polluted boundary layerExploring the composition and volatility of secondary organic aerosols in mixed anthropogenic and biogenic precursor systemsAcidity and the multiphase chemistry of atmospheric aqueous particles and cloudsChemical composition, optical properties, and oxidative potential of water- and methanol-soluble organic compounds emitted from the combustion of biomass materials and coalPhotodegradation of atmospheric chromophores: changes in oxidation state and photochemical reactivityTemperature and volatile organic compound concentrations as controlling factors for chemical composition of α-pinene-derived secondary organic aerosolSynergetic effect of NH3 and NOx on the production and optical absorption of secondary organic aerosol formation from toluene photooxidationTracer-based source apportioning of atmospheric organic carbon and the influence of anthropogenic emissions on secondary organic aerosol formation in Hong KongPotential new tracers and their relative emission factors for burning household waste in stovesAqueous-phase reactive species formed by fine particulate matter from remote forests and polluted urban airCharacterization of primary and aged wood burning and coal combustion organic aerosols in an environmental chamber and its implications for atmospheric aerosolsRevisiting the reaction of dicarbonyls in aerosol proxy solutions containing ammonia: the case of butenedialImportance of secondary organic aerosol formation of α-pinene, limonene, and m-cresol comparing day- and nighttime radical chemistrySource apportionment of carbonaceous aerosols in Beijing with radiocarbon and organic tracers: insight into the differences between urban and rural sitesSO2 and NH3 emissions enhance organosulfur compounds and fine particle formation from the photooxidation of a typical aromatic hydrocarbonEvolution of volatility and composition in sesquiterpene-mixed and α-pinene secondary organic aerosol particles during isothermal evaporationOn the similarities and differences between the products of oxidation of hydrocarbons under simulated atmospheric conditions and cool flamesEnhanced secondary organic aerosol formation from the photo-oxidation of mixed anthropogenic volatile organic compoundsFormation kinetics and mechanisms of ozone and secondary organic aerosols from photochemical oxidation of different aromatic hydrocarbons: dependence on NOx and organic substituentsParticle-phase processing of α-pinene NO3 secondary organic aerosol in the darkIncreased primary and secondary H2SO4 showing the opposing roles in secondary organic aerosol formation from ethyl methacrylate ozonolysisWater uptake of subpollen aerosol particles: hygroscopic growth, cloud condensation nuclei activation, and liquid–liquid phase separationLaboratory study of the collection efficiency of submicron aerosol particles by cloud droplets – Part II: Influence of electric chargesHeterogeneous interactions between SO2 and organic peroxides in submicron aerosolTemperature and acidity dependence of secondary organic aerosol formation from α-pinene ozonolysis with a compact chamber systemProduction of HONO from NO2 uptake on illuminated TiO2 aerosol particles and following the illumination of mixed TiO2∕ammonium nitrate particlesCharacterization of secondary organic aerosol from heated-cooking-oil emissions: evolution in composition and volatilityMeasurement report: Diurnal and temporal variations of sugar compounds in suburban aerosols from the northern vicinity of Beijing, China – an influence of biogenic and anthropogenic sourcesPre-deliquescent water uptake in deposited nanoparticles observed with in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopyTechnical note: Emission factors, chemical composition, and morphology of particles emitted from Euro 5 diesel and gasoline light-duty vehicles during transient cyclesMeasurement report: Distinct emissions and volatility distribution of intermediate-volatility organic compounds from on-road Chinese gasoline vehicles: implication of high secondary organic aerosol formation potentialEmissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from domestic fuels used in Delhi, IndiaEffects of liquid–liquid phase separation and relative humidity on the heterogeneous OH oxidation of inorganic–organic aerosols: insights from methylglutaric acid and ammonium sulfate particlesMeasurement report: Sulfuric acid nucleation and experimental conditions in a photolytic flow reactorOzonolysis of fatty acid monolayers at the air–water interface: organic films may persist at the surface of atmospheric aerosolsQuantification of the role of stabilized Criegee intermediates in the formation of aerosols in limonene ozonolysisPhotochemical degradation of iron(III) citrate/citric acid aerosol quantified with the combination of three complementary experimental techniques and a kinetic process modelThe production and hydrolysis of organic nitrates from OH radical oxidation of β-ocimeneEmission factors for PM10 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from illegal burning of different types of municipal waste in householdsKinetic modeling of formation and evaporation of secondary organic aerosol from NO3 oxidation of pure and mixed monoterpenesDirect contribution of ammonia to α-pinene secondary organic aerosol formationHygroscopic behavior of aerosols generated from solutions of 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid, its sodium salts, and its mixtures with NaClChemical composition, structures, and light absorption of N-containing aromatic compounds emitted from burning wood and charcoal in household cookstoves
Lucía Caudillo, Birte Rörup, Martin Heinritzi, Guillaume Marie, Mario Simon, Andrea C. Wagner, Tatjana Müller, Manuel Granzin, Antonio Amorim, Farnoush Ataei, Rima Baalbaki, Barbara Bertozzi, Zoé Brasseur, Randall Chiu, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Loïc Gonzalez Carracedo, Xu-Cheng He, Victoria Hofbauer, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan P. Lee, Brandon Lopez, Naser G. A. Mahfouz, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Ruby Marten, Dario Massabò, Roy L. Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Antti Onnela, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Ana A. Piedehierro, Meredith Schervish, Wiebke Scholz, Benjamin Schulze, Jiali Shen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Yuri Stozhkov, Mihnea Surdu, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, Ping Tian, António Tomé, Steffen Vogt, Mingyi Wang, Dongyu S. Wang, Stefan K. Weber, André Welti, Wang Yonghong, Wu Yusheng, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Kristina Höhler, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Ottmar Möhler, Harald Saathoff, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Neil M. Donahue, Andreas Kürten, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17099–17114,Short summary
We performed experiments in the CLOUD chamber at CERN at low temperatures to simulate new particle formation in the upper free troposphere (at −30 ºC and −50 ºC). We measured the particle and gas phase and found that most of the compounds present in the gas phase are detected as well in the particle phase. The major compounds in the particles are C8–10 and C18–20. Specifically, we showed that C5 and C15 compounds are detected in a mixed system with isoprene and α-pinene at −30 ºC, 20 % RH.
Daniel A. Knopf and Markus Ammann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15725–15753,Short summary
Adsorption on and desorption of gas molecules from solid or liquid surfaces or interfaces represent the initial interaction of gas-to-condensed-phase processes that can define the physicochemical evolution of the condensed phase. We apply a thermodynamic and microscopic treatment of these multiphase processes to evaluate how adsorption and desorption rates and surface accommodation depend on the choice of adsorption model and standard states with implications for desorption energy and lifetimes.
Spiro D. Jorga, Kalliopi Florou, Christos Kaltsonoudis, John K. Kodros, Christina Vasilakopoulou, Manuela Cirtog, Axel Fouqueau, Bénédicte Picquet-Varrault, Athanasios Nenes, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15337–15349,Short summary
We test the hypothesis that significant secondary organic aerosol production can take place even during winter nights through the oxidation of the emitted organic vapors by the nitrate radicals produced during the reaction of ozone and nitrogen oxides. Our experiments, using as a starting point the ambient air of an urban area with high biomass burning activity, demonstrate that, even with sunlight, there is 20 %–70 % additional organic aerosol formed in a few hours.
Zirui Zhang, Wenfei Zhu, Min Hu, Kefan Liu, Hui Wang, Rongzhi Tang, Ruizhe Shen, Ying Yu, Rui Tan, Kai Song, Yuanju Li, Wenbin Zhang, Zhou Zhang, Hongming Xu, Shijin Shuai, Shuangde Li, Yunfa Chen, Jiayun Li, Yuesi Wang, and Song Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15221–15237,Short summary
We comprehensively investigated the mass growth potential, oxidation degree, formation pathway, and mass spectra features of typical urban-lifestyle secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) including vehicle SOAs and cooking SOAs. The mass spectra we acquired could provide necessary references to estimate the mass fractions of vehicle and cooking SOAs in the atmosphere, which would greatly decrease the uncertainty in air quality evaluation and health risk assessment in urban areas.
Wenfei Zhu, Song Guo, Zirui Zhang, Hui Wang, Ying Yu, Zheng Chen, Ruizhe Shen, Rui Tan, Kai Song, Kefan Liu, Rongzhi Tang, Yi Liu, Shengrong Lou, Yuanju Li, Wenbin Zhang, Zhou Zhang, Shijin Shuai, Hongming Xu, Shuangde Li, Yunfa Chen, Min Hu, Francesco Canonaco, and Andre S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15065–15079,Short summary
The experiments of primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from urban lifestyle sources (cooking and vehicles) were conducted. The mass spectral features of primary organic aerosol (POA) and SOA were characterized by using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. This work, for the first time, establishes the vehicle and cooking SOA source profiles and can be further used as source constraints in the OA source apportionment in the ambient atmosphere.
Adam Milsom, Adam M. Squires, Jacob A. Boswell, Nicholas J. Terrill, Andrew D. Ward, and Christian Pfrang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15003–15021,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols can be solid, semi-solid or liquid. This phase state may impact key aerosol processes such as oxidation and water uptake, affecting cloud droplet formation and urban air pollution. We have observed a solid crystalline organic phase in a levitated proxy for cooking emissions, oleic acid. Spatially resolved structural changes were followed during ageing by X-ray scattering, revealing phase gradients, aggregate products and a markedly reduced ozonolysis reaction rate.
Cheng Wu, David M. Bell, Emelie L. Graham, Sophie Haslett, Ilona Riipinen, Urs Baltensperger, Amelie Bertrand, Stamatios Giannoukos, Janne Schoonbaert, Imad El Haddad, Andre S. H. Prevot, Wei Huang, and Claudia Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14907–14925,Short summary
Night-time reactions of biogenic volatile organic compounds and nitrate radicals can lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (BSOANO3). Here, we study the impacts of light exposure on the BSOANO3 from three biogenic precursors. Our results suggest that photolysis causes photodegradation of a substantial fraction of BSOANO3, changes the chemical composition and bulk volatility, and might be a potentially important loss pathway of BSOANO3 during the night-to-day transition.
Mao Xiao, Christopher R. Hoyle, Lubna Dada, Dominik Stolzenburg, Andreas Kürten, Mingyi Wang, Houssni Lamkaddam, Olga Garmash, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Andrea Baccarini, Mario Simon, Xu-Cheng He, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Lauri R. Ahonen, Rima Baalbaki, Paulus S. Bauer, Lisa Beck, David Bell, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Dexian Chen, Randall Chiu, António Dias, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Hamish Gordon, Victoria Hofbauer, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Janne Lampilahti, Chuan Ping Lee, Zijun Li, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Ruby Marten, Serge Mathot, Roy L. Mauldin, Wei Nie, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Veronika Pospisilova, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti Rissanen, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wagner, Yonghong Wang, Lena Weitz, Daniela Wimmer, Yusheng Wu, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qing Ye, Qiaozhi Zha, Xueqin Zhou, Antonio Amorim, Ken Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Armin Hansel, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Richard C. Flagan, Markku Kulmala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jasper Kirkby, Neil M. Donahue, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, and Josef Dommen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14275–14291,Short summary
Experiments at CLOUD show that in polluted environments new particle formation (NPF) is largely driven by the formation of sulfuric acid–base clusters, stabilized by amines, high ammonia concentrations or lower temperatures. While oxidation products of aromatics can nucleate, they play a minor role in urban NPF. Our experiments span 4 orders of magnitude variation of observed NPF rates in ambient conditions. We provide a framework based on NPF and growth rates to interpret ambient observations.
Aristeidis Voliotis, Yu Wang, Yunqi Shao, Mao Du, Thomas J. Bannan, Carl J. Percival, Spyros N. Pandis, M. Rami Alfarra, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14251–14273,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from mixtures of volatile precursors can be affected by the molecular interactions of the products. Composition and volatility measurements of SOA formed from mixtures of anthropogenic and biogenic precursors reveal processes that can increase or decrease the SOA volatility. The unique products of the mixture were more oxygenated and less volatile than those from either precursor. Analytical context is provided to explore the SOA volatility in mixtures.
Andreas Tilgner, Thomas Schaefer, Becky Alexander, Mary Barth, Jeffrey L. Collett Jr., Kathleen M. Fahey, Athanasios Nenes, Havala O. T. Pye, Hartmut Herrmann, and V. Faye McNeill
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13483–13536,Short summary
Feedbacks of acidity and atmospheric multiphase chemistry in deliquesced particles and clouds are crucial for the tropospheric composition, depositions, climate, and human health. This review synthesizes the current scientific knowledge on these feedbacks using both inorganic and organic aqueous-phase chemistry. Finally, this review outlines atmospheric implications and highlights the need for future investigations with respect to reducing emissions of key acid precursors in a changing world.
Tao Cao, Meiju Li, Chunlin Zou, Xingjun Fan, Jianzhong Song, Wanglu Jia, Chiling Yu, Zhiqiang Yu, and Ping'an Peng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13187–13205,Short summary
Brown carbon (BrC) fractions derived from biomass burning and coal combustion including water- and methanol-soluble organic carbon were comprehensively characterized for their optical and chemical properties, as well as oxidative potential. Moreover, the key components or functional groups that were responsible for the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation capacity of BrC were also discussed. These findings are useful for estimation of their environmental, climate, and health impacts.
Zhen Mu, Qingcai Chen, Lixin Zhang, Dongjie Guan, and Hao Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11581–11591,Short summary
Sunlight affects the life and chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols and thus alters air quality. This study demonstrated that the photo-aging process not only changed the chemical compositions of chromophoric aerosols but also changed the roles of the chromophoric organic matter in the photo-aging process of aerosol. This study adds to our understanding of how sunlight affects chromophoric aerosol aging.
Louise N. Jensen, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Kasper Kristensen, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Bernadette Rosati, Ricky Teiwes, Marianne Glasius, Henrik B. Pedersen, Mikael Ehn, and Merete Bilde
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11545–11562,Short summary
This work targets the chemical composition of α-pinene-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed in the temperature range from -15 to 20°C. Experiments were conducted in an atmospheric simulation chamber. Positive matrix factorization analysis of data obtained by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer shows that the elemental aerosol composition is controlled by the initial α-pinene concentration and temperature during SOA formation.
Shijie Liu, Dandan Huang, Yiqian Wang, Si Zhang, Can Wu, Wei Du, and Gehui Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
A series of chamber experiments was performed to probe the individual and common effects of NH3 and NOx on toluene SOA formation through OH-photooxidation. the Synergetic effects of NH3 and NOx on the toluene SOA concentration and optical absorption was observed. The higher volatility products which were formed in the presence of NOx could precipitate into the particle-phase when NH3 was added. The formation pathways of NOCs through NOx or NH3 are also discussed.
Yubo Cheng, Yiqiu Ma, and Di Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10589–10608,Short summary
We conducted chemical characterization and source apportionment of PM2.5 in Hong Kong. Secondary formation was the leading contributor to organic carbon (OC) throughout the year. NOx processing played a key role in both daytime and nighttime secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production, and monoterpene SOA was the most abundant. Sulfate was positively related to total and secondary sulfate-related OC, and particle acidity was significantly correlated with SOC from aging of biomass burning.
András Hoffer, Ádám Tóth, Beatrix Jancsek-Turóczi, Attila Machon, Aida Meiramova, Attila Nagy, Luminita Marmureanu, and András Gelencsér
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Due to the widespread use of plastics high amounts of waste are burned in households worldwide emitting vast amounts of PM10 and PAHs into the atmosphere. In this work different types of common plastics were burned in the laboratory with a view to identifying potentially specific tracer compounds and determining their emission factors. The compounds found were also successfully identified in atmospheric PM10 samples indicating their potential use as ambient tracers for illegal waste burning.
Haijie Tong, Fobang Liu, Alexander Filippi, Jake Wilson, Andrea M. Arangio, Yun Zhang, Siyao Yue, Steven Lelieveld, Fangxia Shen, Helmi-Marja K. Keskinen, Jing Li, Haoxuan Chen, Ting Zhang, Thorsten Hoffmann, Pingqing Fu, William H. Brune, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Maosheng Yao, Thomas Berkemeier, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10439–10455,Short summary
We measured radical yields of aqueous PM2.5 extracts and found lower yields at higher concentrations of PM2.5. Abundances of water-soluble transition metals and aromatics in PM2.5 were positively correlated with the relative fraction of •OH but negatively correlated with the relative fraction of C-centered radicals among detected radicals. Composition-dependent reactive species yields may explain differences in the reactivity and health effects of PM2.5 in clean versus polluted air.
Amir Yazdani, Nikunj Dudani, Satoshi Takahama, Amelie Bertrand, André S. H. Prévôt, Imad El Haddad, and Ann M. Dillner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10273–10293,Short summary
Functional group compositions of primary and aged aerosols from wood burning and coal combustion sources from chamber experiments are interpreted through compounds present in the fuels and known gas-phase oxidation products. Infrared spectra of aged wood burning in the chamber and ambient biomass burning samples reveal striking similarities, and a new method for identifying burning-impacted samples in monitoring network measurements is presented.
Jack C. Hensley, Adam W. Birdsall, Gregory Valtierra, Joshua L. Cox, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8809–8821,Short summary
We measured reactions of butenedial, an atmospheric dicarbonyl, in aqueous mixtures that mimic the conditions of aerosol particles. Major reaction products and rates were determined to assess their atmospheric relevance and to compare against other well-studied dicarbonyls. We suggest that the structure of the carbon backbone, not just the dominant functional group, plays a major role in dicarbonyl reactivity, influencing the fate and ability of dicarbonyls to produce brown carbon.
Anke Mutzel, Yanli Zhang, Olaf Böge, Maria Rodigast, Agata Kolodziejczyk, Xinming Wang, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8479–8498,Short summary
This study investigates secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and particle growth from α-pinene, limonene, and m-cresol oxidation through NO3 and OH radicals and the effect of relative humidity. The formed SOA is comprehensively characterized with respect to the content of OC / EC, WSOC, SOA-bound peroxides, and SOA marker compounds. The findings present new insights and implications of nighttime chemistry, which can form SOA more efficiently than OH radical reaction during daytime.
Siqi Hou, Di Liu, Jingsha Xu, Tuan V. Vu, Xuefang Wu, Deepchandra Srivastava, Pingqing Fu, Linjie Li, Yele Sun, Athanasia Vlachou, Vaios Moschos, Gary Salazar, Sönke Szidat, André S. H. Prévôt, Roy M. Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8273–8292,Short summary
This study provides a newly developed method which combines radiocarbon (14C) with organic tracers to enable source apportionment of primary and secondary fossil vs. non-fossil sources of carbonaceous aerosols at an urban and a rural site of Beijing. The source apportionment results were compared with those by chemical mass balance and AMS/ACSM-PMF methods. Correlations of WINSOC and WSOC with different sources of OC were also performed to elucidate the formation mechanisms of SOC.
Zhaomin Yang, Li Xu, Narcisse T. Tsona, Jianlong Li, Xin Luo, and Lin Du
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7963–7981,Short summary
The promotion effects of SO2 and NH3 on particle and organosulfur compound formation from 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (TMB) photooxidation were observed for the first time. The enhanced organosulfur compounds included hitherto unidentified aromatic sulfonates and organosulfates (OSs). OSs were produced via acid-driven heterogeneous chemistry of hydroperoxides. The production of organosulfur compounds might provide a new pathway for the fate of TMB in regions with considerable SO2 emissions.
Zijun Li, Angela Buchholz, Arttu Ylisirniö, Luis Barreira, Liqing Hao, Siegfried Schobesberger, Taina Yli-Juuti, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We compared the evolution of two types of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles during isothermal evaporation. The sesquiterpene SOA particles demonstrated higher resilience to evaporation than α-pinene SOA particles generated under comparable conditions. In-depth analysis showed that under high relative humidity conditions, particulate water drove the evolution of particulate constituents by reducing the particle viscosity and initiating chemical aqueous-phase processes.
Roland Benoit, Nesrine Belhadj, Maxence Lailliau, and Philippe Dagaut
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7845–7862,Short summary
This study compares different modes of limonene oxidation (ozonolysis, photooxidation, and cool flame) on the basis of review articles and experimental results. Although the oxidation conditions are totally different, the results obtained present great similarities in the nature of the products but also specificities related to autooxidation such as the presence of keto-hydroperoxides.
Junling Li, Hong Li, Kun Li, Yan Chen, Hao Zhang, Xin Zhang, Zhenhai Wu, Yongchun Liu, Xuezhong Wang, Weigang Wang, and Maofa Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7773–7789,Short summary
SOA formation from the mixed anthropogenic volatile organic compounds was enhanced compared to the predicted SOA mass concentration based on the SOA yield of single species; interaction occurred between intermediate products from the two precursors. Interactions between the intermediate products from the mixtures and the effect on SOA formation give us a further understanding of the SOA formed in the atmosphere.
Hao Luo, Jiangyao Chen, Guiying Li, and Taicheng An
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7567–7578,Short summary
The formation kinetics and mechanism of O3 and SOA from different AHs are still unclear. Thus the photochemical oxidation mechanism of nine AHs with NO2 is studied. Increased formation rate and yield of O3 and SOA are observed via promoting AH content. Raising the number of AH substituents enhances O3 formation but decreases SOA yield, which is promoted by increasing the methyl group number of AHs. Results help show conversion of AHs to secondary pollutants in the real atmospheric environment.
David M. Bell, Cheng Wu, Amelie Bertrand, Emelie Graham, Janne Schoonbaert, Stamatios Giannoukos, Urs Baltensperger, Andre S. H. Prevot, Ilona Riipinen, Imad El Haddad, and Claudia Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
A series of studies designed to investigate the evolution of organic aerosol were performed in an atmospheric simulation chamber, using an oxidant found at night (NO3). The chemical composition steadily changed from its initial composition through different chemical reactions taking place inside of the aerosol. These results show the composition of organic aerosol is steadily changing during its lifetime in the atmosphere.
Peng Zhang, Tianzeng Chen, Jun Liu, Guangyan Xu, Qingxin Ma, Biwu Chu, Wanqi Sun, and Hong He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7099–7112,Short summary
This work highlights the opposing effects of primary and secondary H2SO4 on both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and constitutes. Our findings revealed that a substantial increase in secondary H2SO4 particles promoted the SOA formation of ethyl methacrylate with increasing SO2 in the absence of seed particles. However, increased primary H2SO4 with seed acidity enhanced ethyl methacrylate uptake but reduced its SOA formation in the presence of seed particles.
Eugene F. Mikhailov, Mira L. Pöhlker, Kathrin Reinmuth-Selzle, Sergey S. Vlasenko, Ovid O. Krüger, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Christopher Pöhlker, Olga A. Ivanova, Alexey A. Kiselev, Leslie A. Kremper, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6999–7022,Short summary
Subpollen particles are a relatively new subset of atmospheric aerosol particles. When pollen grains rupture, they release cytoplasmic fragments known as subpollen particles (SPPs). We found that SPPs, containing a broad spectrum of biopolymers and hydrocarbons, exhibit abnormally high water uptake. This effect may influence the life cycle of SPPs and the related direct and indirect impacts on radiation budget as well as reinforce their allergic potential.
Alexis Dépée, Pascal Lemaitre, Thomas Gelain, Marie Monier, and Andrea Flossmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6963–6984,Short summary
The present article describes a new In-Cloud Aerosol Scavenging Experiment (In-CASE) that has been conceived to measure the collection efficiency of submicron aerosol particles by cloud droplets. The present article focuses on the influence of electrostatic effects on the collection efficiency.
Shunyao Wang, Tengyu Liu, Jinmyung Jang, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, and Arthur W. H. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6647–6661,Short summary
Discrepancies between atmospheric modeling and field observations, especially in highly polluted cities, have highlighted the lack of understanding of sulfate formation mechanisms and kinetics. Here, we directly quantify the reactive uptake coefficient of SO2 onto organic peroxides and study the important governing factors. The SO2 uptake rate was observed to depend on RH, peroxide amount and reactivity, pH, and ionic strength, which provides a framework to better predict sulfate formation.
Yange Deng, Satoshi Inomata, Kei Sato, Sathiyamurthi Ramasamy, Yu Morino, Shinichi Enami, and Hiroshi Tanimoto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5983–6003,Short summary
The temperature and acidity dependence of yields and chemical compositions of the α-pinene ozonolysis SOA were systematically investigated using a newly developed compact chamber system. Increases in SOA yields were observed with the decrease in temperature and under acidic seed conditions. The differences in chemical compositions between acidic and neutral seed conditions were characterized and explained from the viewpoints of acid-catalyzed reactions. Some organosulfates were newly detected.
Joanna E. Dyson, Graham A. Boustead, Lauren T. Fleming, Mark Blitz, Daniel Stone, Stephen R. Arnold, Lisa K. Whalley, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5755–5775,Short summary
The hydroxyl radical (OH) dominates the removal of atmospheric pollutants, with nitrous acid (HONO) recognised as a major OH source. For remote regions HONO production through the action of sunlight on aerosol surfaces can provide a source of nitrogen oxides. In this study, HONO production rates at illuminated aerosol surfaces are measured under atmospheric conditions, a model consistent with the data is developed and aerosol production of HONO in the atmosphere is shown to be significant.
Manpreet Takhar, Yunchun Li, and Arthur W. H. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5137–5149,Short summary
Our study highlights the importance of molecular composition in constraining the chemical properties of cooking SOA as well as understanding the contribution of aldehydes in formation of SOA from cooking emissions. We show that fragmentation reactions are key in atmospheric processing of cooking SOA, and aldehydes emitted from cooking emissions contribute substantially to SOA formation. Our study provides a framework to better predict SOA formation in and downwind of urban atmospheres.
Santosh Kumar Verma, Kimitaka Kawamura, Fei Yang, Pingqing Fu, Yugo Kanaya, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4959–4978,Short summary
We studied aerosol samples collected in autumn 2007 with day and night intervals in a rural site of Mangshan, north of Beijing, for sugar compounds (SCs) that are abundant organic aerosol components and can influence the air quality and climate. We found higher concentrations of biomass burning (BB) products at nighttime than daytime, whereas pollen tracers and other SCs showed an opposite diurnal trend, because this site is meteorologically characterized by a mountain/valley breeze.
Jack J. Lin, Kamal Raj R, Stella Wang, Esko Kokkonen, Mikko-Heikki Mikkelä, Samuli Urpelainen, and Nønne L. Prisle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4709–4727,Short summary
We used surface-sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to study laboratory-generated nanoparticles of atmospheric interest at 0–16 % relative humidity. XPS gives direct information about changes in the chemical state from the binding energies of probed elements. Our results indicate water adsorption and associated chemical changes at the particle surfaces well below deliquescence, with distinct features for different particle components and implications for atmospheric chemistry.
Evangelia Kostenidou, Alvaro Martinez-Valiente, Badr R'Mili, Baptiste Marques, Brice Temime-Roussel, Amandine Durand, Michel André, Yao Liu, Cédric Louis, Boris Vansevenant, Daniel Ferry, Carine Laffon, Philippe Parent, and Barbara D'Anna
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4779–4796,Short summary
Passenger vehicle emissions can be a significant source of particulate matter in urban areas. In this study the particle-phase emissions of seven Euro 5 passenger vehicles were characterized. Changes in engine technologies and after-treatment devices can alter the chemical composition and the size of the emitted particulate matter. The condition of the diesel particle filter (DPF) plays an important role in the emitted pollutants.
Rongzhi Tang, Quanyang Lu, Song Guo, Hui Wang, Kai Song, Ying Yu, Rui Tan, Kefan Liu, Ruizhe Shen, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Spiro D. Jorga, Zhou Zhang, Wenbin Zhang, Shijin Shuai, and Allen L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2569–2583,Short summary
We performed chassis dynamometer experiments to investigate the emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation potential of intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) from an on-road Chinese gasoline vehicle. High IVOC emission factors (EFs) and distinct volatility distribution were recognized. Our results indicate that vehicular IVOCs contribute significantly to SOA, implying the importance of reducing IVOCs when making air pollution control policies in urban areas of China.
Gareth J. Stewart, Beth S. Nelson, W. Joe F. Acton, Adam R. Vaughan, Naomi J. Farren, James R. Hopkins, Martyn W. Ward, Stefan J. Swift, Rahul Arya, Arnab Mondal, Ritu Jangirh, Sakshi Ahlawat, Lokesh Yadav, Sudhir K. Sharma, Siti S. M. Yunus, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Eiko Nemitz, Neil Mullinger, Ranu Gadi, Lokesh K. Sahu, Nidhi Tripathi, Andrew R. Rickard, James D. Lee, Tuhin K. Mandal, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2407–2426,Short summary
Biomass burning releases many lower-molecular-weight organic species which are difficult to analyse but important for the formation of organic aerosol. This study examined a new high-resolution technique to better characterise these difficult-to-analyse organic components. Some burning sources analysed in this study, such as cow dung cake and municipal solid waste, released extremely complex mixtures containing many thousands of different lower-volatility organic compounds.
Hoi Ki Lam, Rongshuang Xu, Jack Choczynski, James F. Davies, Dongwan Ham, Mijung Song, Andreas Zuend, Wentao Li, Ying-Lung Steve Tse, and Man Nin Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2053–2066,Short summary
This work demonstrates that organic compounds present at or near the surface of aerosols can be subjected to oxidation initiated by gas-phase oxidants, such as hydroxyl radicals (OH). The heterogeneous reactivity is sensitive to their surface concentrations, which are determined by the phase separation behavior. This results of this work emphasize the effects of phase separation and potentially distinct aerosol morphologies on the chemical transformation of atmospheric aerosols.
David R. Hanson, Seakh Menheer, Michael Wentzel, and Joan Kunz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1987–2001,Short summary
We report experimental measurements of particle formation in a flow reactor that extend the results from this experiment to a total of more than 270 runs over a time period of ~3 years. This has allowed us to detect a general increase in the cleanliness of the system and improve our knowledge of its chemistry. In-house simulations allowed us to construct phenomenological free energies of molecular clusters of sulfuric acid and ammonia that are appropriate for application to the atmosphere.
Benjamin Woden, Maximilian W. A. Skoda, Adam Milsom, Curtis Gubb, Armando Maestro, James Tellam, and Christian Pfrang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1325–1340,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols contain a large amount of organic compounds, whose oxidation affects their physical properties through a process known as ageing. We have simulated atmospheric ageing experimentally to elucidate the nature and behaviour of residual surface films. Our results show an increasing amount of residue at near-zero temperatures, demonstrating that an inert product film may build up during droplet ageing, even if only ordinarily short-lived reactive species are initially emitted.
Yiwei Gong and Zhongming Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 813–829,Short summary
Stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCIs) are important factors in estimating aerosol formation in the atmosphere. Here the results show that SCIs account for more than 60 % of aerosol formation in limonene ozonolysis and water is an uncertainty in SCI performances. The aerosol formation potential of SCIs under high-humidity conditions is double that under dry and low-humidity conditions, suggesting SCI reactions are still important in contributing to aerosols at high relative humidity.
Jing Dou, Peter A. Alpert, Pablo Corral Arroyo, Beiping Luo, Frederic Schneider, Jacinta Xto, Thomas Huthwelker, Camelia N. Borca, Katja D. Henzler, Jörg Raabe, Benjamin Watts, Hartmut Herrmann, Thomas Peter, Markus Ammann, and Ulrich K. Krieger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 315–338,Short summary
Photochemistry of iron(III) complexes plays an important role in aerosol aging, especially in the lower troposphere. Ensuing radical chemistry leads to decarboxylation, and the production of peroxides, and oxygenated volatile compounds, resulting in particle mass loss due to release of the volatile products to the gas phase. We investigated kinetic transport limitations due to high particle viscosity under low relative humidity conditions. For quantification a numerical model was developed.
Ana C. Morales, Thilina Jayarathne, Jonathan H. Slade, Alexander Laskin, and Paul B. Shepson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 129–145,Short summary
Organic nitrates formed from the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds impact both ozone and particulate matter as they remove nitrogen oxides, but they represent important aerosol precursors. We conducted a series of reaction chamber experiments that quantified the total organic nitrate and secondary organic aerosol yield from the OH-radical-initiated oxidation of ocimene, and also measured their hydrolysis lifetimes in the aqueous phase, as a function of pH.
András Hoffer, Beatrix Jancsek-Turóczi, Ádám Tóth, Gyula Kiss, Anca Naghiu, Erika Andrea Levei, Luminita Marmureanu, Attila Machon, and András Gelencsér
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 16135–16144,Short summary
Emission factors for PM10 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are reported for the first time ever for the indoor combustion of 12 common types of municipal solid waste that are frequently burned in households worldwide. We have found that waste burning emits up to 40 times more PM10 and 800 times more PAHs than the combustion of dry firewood. Our finding highlights the need for coordinated actions against illegal waste combustion and the extreme health hazard associated with it.
Thomas Berkemeier, Masayuki Takeuchi, Gamze Eris, and Nga L. Ng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15513–15535,Short summary
This paper presents how environmental chamber data of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation can be interpreted using kinetic modeling techniques. Utilizing pure and mixed precursor experiments, we show that SOA formation and evaporation can be understood by explicitly treating gas-phase chemistry, gas–particle partitioning, and, notably, particle-phase oligomerization, but some of the non-linear, non-equilibrium effects must be accredited to diffusion limitations in the particle phase.
Liqing Hao, Eetu Kari, Ari Leskinen, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14393–14405,Short summary
Our work presents the observational results of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the presence of ammonia. The particle-phase ammonium was continuously produced even after SOA formation had ceased. The gas-phase organic acids were observed to contribute to the formed particle-phase ammonium salts. This study suggests that the presence of ammonia may change the mass and chemical composition of large-size SOA particles and can potentially alter the aerosol impact on climate change.
Li Wu, Clara Becote, Sophie Sobanska, Pierre-Marie Flaud, Emilie Perraudin, Eric Villenave, Young-Chul Song, and Chul-Un Ro
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14103–14122,Short summary
MBTCA (3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid), a second-generation product of monoterpenes, is one of the most relevant tracer compounds for biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Laboratory-generated, micrometer-sized, pure-MBTCA, mono-/di-/trisodium MBTCA salts and MBTCA–NaCl mixture aerosol particles were examined systematically to observe their hygroscopic behavior, and it was also observed that the monosodium MBTCA salt aerosols were formed through a reaction between MBTCA and NaCl.
Mingjie Xie, Zhenzhen Zhao, Amara L. Holder, Michael D. Hays, Xi Chen, Guofeng Shen, James J. Jetter, Wyatt M. Champion, and Qin'geng Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14077–14090,Short summary
This study investigated the composition, structures, and light absorption of N-containing aromatic compounds (NACs) in PM2.5 emitted from burning red oak and charcoal in a variety of cookstoves. The results suggest that the identified NACs might have substantial fractions remaining in the gas phase. In comparison to other sources, cookstove emissions from red oak or charcoal fuels did not exhibit unique NAC structural features but had distinct NAC composition.
Aiona, P. K., Lee, H. J., Lin, P., Heller, F., Laskin, A., Laskin, J., and Nizkorodov, S. A.: A Role for 2-Methyl Pyrrole in the Browning of 4-Oxopentanal and Limonene Secondary Organic Aerosol, Environ. Sci. Technol., 51, 11048–11056, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b02293, 2017.
Altemose, B., Gong, J., Zhu, T., Hu, M., Zhang, L., Cheng, H., Zhang, L., Tong, J., Kipen, H. M., Ohman-Strickland, P., Meng, Q., Robson, M. G., and Zhang, J.: Aldehydes in relation to air pollution sources: A case study around the Beijing Olympics, Atmos. Environ., 109, 61–69, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.02.056, 2015.
Baker, J., Arey, J., and Atkinson, R.: Formation and reaction of hydroxycarbonyls from the reaction of OH radicals with 1,3-butadiene and isoprene, Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 4091–4099, https://doi.org/10.1021/es047930t, 2005.
Bauer, R., du Toit, M., and Kossmann, J.: Influence of environmental parameters on production of the acrolein precursor 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde by Lactobacillus reuteri DSMZ 20016 and its accumulation by wine lactobacilli, Int. J. Food Microbiol., 137, 28–31, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2009.10.012, 2010.
Bones, D. L., Henricksen, D. K., Mang, S. A., Gonsior, M., Bateman, A. P., Nguyen, T. B., Cooper, W. J., and Nizkorodov, S. A.: Appearance of strong absorbers and fluorophores in limonene-O3 secondary organic aerosol due to -mediated chemical aging over long time scales, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D05203, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD012864, 2010.
Brody, F. and Ruby, P. R.: Synthetic and Natural Sources of the Pyridine Ring, in: Pyridine and Its Derivatives. Part I, Interscience Publishers Inc., New York, 613 pp., 1960.
Cahill, T. M.: Ambient Acrolein Concentrations in Coastal, Remote, and Urban Regions in California, Environ. Sci. Technol., 48, 8507–8513, https://doi.org/10.1021/es5014533, 2014.
Carlier, P., Hannachi, H., and Mouvier, G.: The chemistry of carbonyl-compounds in the atmosphere – a review, Atmos. Environ., 20, 2079–2099, https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(86)90304-5, 1986.
Centeno, S. P., Lopez-Tocon, I., Roman-Perez, J., Arenas, J. F., Soto, J., and Otero, J. C.: Franck-Condon Dominates the Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering of 3-Methylpyridine: Propensity Rules of the Charge-Transfer Mechanism under Reduced Symmetry, J. Phys. Chem. C., 116, 23639–23645, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp307015a, 2012.
Chang, Y., Zou, Z., Deng, C., Huang, K., Collett, J. L., Lin, J., and Zhuang, G.: The importance of vehicle emissions as a source of atmospheric ammonia in the megacity of Shanghai, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3577–3594, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-3577-2016, 2016.
Dai, W., Ho, S. S. H., Ho, K., and Cao, J.: Characterization of Particulate-Phase High Molecular Weight Mono-Carbonyls (C# >5) and Dicarbonyls in Urban Atmosphere of Xi'an, China, Aerosol Air Qual. Res., 12, 892–901, https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2011.12.0228, 2012.
De Haan, D. O., Hawkins, L. N., Kononenko, J. A., Turley, J. J., Corrigan, A. L., Tolbert, M. A., and Jimenez, J. L.: Formation of Nitrogen-Containing Oligomers by Methylglyoxal and Amines in Simulated Evaporating Cloud Droplets, Environ. Sci. Technol., 45, 984–991, 2011.
Feng, Z., Hu, W., Hu, Y., and Tang, M.: Acrolein is a major cigarette-related lung cancer agent: Preferential binding at p53 mutational hotspots and inhibition of DNA repair, P. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 103, 15404–15409, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0607031103, 2006.
Flores, J. M., Washenfelder, R. A., Adler, G., Lee, H. J., Segev, L., Laskin, J., Laskin, A., Nizkorodov, S. A., Brown, S. S., and Rudich, Y.: Complex refractive indices in the near-ultraviolet spectral region of biogenic secondary organic aerosol aged with ammonia, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 16, 10629–10642, https://doi.org/10.1039/c4cp01009d, 2014.
Galloway, M. M., Powelson, M. H., Sedehi, N., Wood, S. E., Millage, K. D., Kononenko, J. A., Rynaski, A. D., and De Haan, D. O.: Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation during Evaporation of Droplets Containing Atmospheric Aldehydes, Amines, and Ammonium Sulfate, Environ. Sci. Technol., 48, 14417–14425, https://doi.org/10.1021/es5044479, 2014.
Garland, R. M., Elrod, M. J., Kincaid, K., Beaver, M. R., Jimenez, J. L., and Tolbert, M. A.: Acid-catalyzed reactions of hexanal on sulfuric acid particles: Identification of reaction products, Atmos. Environ., 40, 6863–6878, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.07.009, 2006.
Grosjean, D.: Formaldehyde and other carbonyls in Los-Angeles ambient air, Environ. Sci. Technol., 16, 254–262, https://doi.org/10.1021/es00099a005, 1982.
Grosjean, D., Grosjean, E., and Gertler, A. W.: On-road emissions of carbonyls from light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, Environ. Sci. Technol., 35, 45–53, https://doi.org/10.1021/es001326a, 2001.
Guerrini, L., Garcia-Ramos, J. V., Domingo, C., and Sanchez-Cortes, S.: Nanosensors Based on Viologen Functionalized Silver Nanoparticles: Few Molecules Surface. Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Interparticle Hot Spots, Anal. Chem., 81, 1418–1425, https://doi.org/10.1021/ac8021746, 2009.
Guo, H., Xu, L., Bougiatioti, A., Cerully, K. M., Capps, S. L., Hite Jr., J. R., Carlton, A. G., Lee, S.-H., Bergin, M. H., Ng, N. L., Nenes, A., and Weber, R. J.: Fine-particle water and pH in the southeastern United States, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5211–5228, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-5211-2015, 2015.
Hawkins, L. N., Welsh, H. G., and Alexander, M. V.: Evidence for pyrazine-based chromophores in cloud water mimics containing methylglyoxal and ammonium sulfate, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12413–12431, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-12413-2018, 2018.
Hennigan, C. J., Izumi, J., Sullivan, A. P., Weber, R. J., and Nenes, A.: A critical evaluation of proxy methods used to estimate the acidity of atmospheric particles, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2775–2790, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-2775-2015, 2015.
Ho, S. and Yu, J. Z.: Concentrations of formaldehyde and other carbonyls in environments affected by incense burning, J. Environ. Monitor., 4, 728–733, https://doi.org/10.1039/b200998f, 2002.
Hu, D., Chen, J., Ye, X., Li, L., and Yang, X.: Hygroscopicity and evaporation of ammonium chloride and ammonium nitrate: Relative humidity and size effects on the growth factor, Atmos. Environ., 45, 2349–2355, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.02.024, 2011.
Huang, Y., Chen, H., Wang, L., Yang, X., and Chen, J.: Single particle analysis of amines in ambient aerosol in Shanghai, Environ. Chem., 9, 202–210, doi:10.1071/en11145, 2012
Jang, M. S., Czoschke, N. M., Lee, S., and Kamens, R. M.: Heterogeneous atmospheric aerosol production by acid-catalyzed particle-phase reactions, Science, 298, 814–817, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1075798, 2002.
Kampf, C. J., Jakob, R., and Hoffmann, T.: Identification and characterization of aging products in the glyoxal/ammonium sulfate system – implications for light-absorbing material in atmospheric aerosols, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 6323–6333, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-6323-2012, 2012.
Kampf, C. J., Filippi, A., Zuth, C., Hoffmann, T., and Opatz, T.: Secondary brown carbon formation via the dicarbonyl imine pathway: nitrogen heterocycle formation and synergistic effects, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 18, 18353–18364, https://doi.org/10.1039/c6cp03029g, 2016.
Laskin, J., Laskin, A., Roach, P. J., Slysz, G. W., Anderson, G. A., Nizkorodov, S. A., Bones, D. L., and Nguyen, L. Q.: High-Resolution Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Chemical Characterization of Organic Aerosols, Anal. Chem., 82, 2048–2058, 2010.
Lin, P., Laskin, J., Nizkorodov, S. A., and Laskin, A.: Revealing Brown Carbon Chromophores Produced in Reactions of Methylglyoxal with Ammonium Sulfate, Environ. Sci. Technol., 49, 14257–14266, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b03608, 2015.
Lipari, F., Dasch, J. M., and Scruggs, W. F.: Aldehyde emissions from wood-burning fireplaces, Environ. Sci. Technol., 18, 326–330, https://doi.org/10.1021/es00123a007, 1984.
Liu, X. Y., Jeffries, H. E., and Sexton, K. G.: Hydroxyl radical and ozone initiated photochemical reactions of 1,3-butadiene, Atmos. Environ., 33, 3005–3022, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(99)00078-3, 1999.
Magneron, I., Thevenet, R., Mellouki, A., Le Bras, G., Moortgat, G. K., and Wirtz, K.: A study of the photolysis and OH-initiated oxidation of acrolein and trans-crotonaldehyde, J. Phys. Chem. A, 106, 2526–2537, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp013413a, 2002.
Maxut, A., Noziere, B., Fenet, B., and Mechakra, H.: Formation mechanisms and yields of small imidazoles from reactions of glyoxal with in water at neutral pH, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 17, 20416–20424, https://doi.org/10.1039/c5cp03113c, 2015.
Mellouki, A., Wallington, T. J., and Chen, J.: Atmospheric Chemistry of Oxygenated Volatile Organic Compounds: Impacts on Air Quality and Climate, Chem. Rev., 115, 3984–4014, https://doi.org/10.1021/cr500549n, 2015.
Nozière, B. and Esteve, W.: Light-absorbing aldol condensation products in acidic aerosols: Spectra, kinetics, and contribution to the absorption index, Atmos. Environ., 41, 1150–1163, 2007.
Nozière, B. and Córdova, A.: A kinetic and mechanistic study of the amino acid catalyzed aldol condensation of acetaldehyde in aqueous and salt solutions, J. Phys. Chem. A, 112, 2827–2837, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp7096845, 2008.
Nozière, B., Voisin, D., Longfellow, C. A., Friedli, H., Henry, B. E., and Hanson, D. R.: The Uptake of Methyl Vinyl Ketone, Methacrolein, and 2-Methyl-3-butene-2-ol onto Sulfuric Acid Solutions, J. Phys. Chem. A, 110, 2387–2395, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp0555899, 2006.
O'Brien, R. E., Laskin, A., Laskin, J., Liu, S., Weber, R., Russell, L. M., and Goldstein, A. H.: Molecular characterization of organic aerosol using nanospray desorption/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: CalNex 2010 field study, Atmos. Environ., 68, 265–272, 2013.
Orlando, J. J. and Tyndall, G. S.: Mechanisms for the reactions of OH with two unsaturated aldehydes: Crotonaldehyde and acrolein, J. Phys. Chem. A, 106, 12252–12259, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp021530f, 2002.
Phillips, S. M., Bellcross, A. D., and Smith, G. D.: Light Absorption by Brown Carbon in the Southeastern United States is pH-dependent, Environ. Sci. Technol., 51, 6782–6790, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b01116, 2017.
Powelson, M. H., Espelien, B. M., Hawkins, L. N., Galloway, M. M., and De Haan, D. O.: Brown Carbon Formation by Aqueous-Phase Carbonyl Compound Reactions with Amines and Ammonium Sulfate, Environ. Sci. Technol., 48, 985–993, https://doi.org/10.1021/es4038325, 2014.
Pszenny, A. A. P., Moldanová, J., Keene, W. C., Sander, R., Maben, J. R., Martinez, M., Crutzen, P. J., Perner, D., and Prinn, R. G.: Halogen cycling and aerosol pH in the Hawaiian marine boundary layer, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 147–168, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-4-147-2004, 2004.
Reda, A. A., Schnelle-Kreis, J., Orasche, J., Abbaszade, G., Lintelmann, J., Arteaga-Salas, J. M., Stengel, B., Rabe, R., Harndorf, H., Sippula, O., Streibel, T., and Zimmermann, R.: Gas phase carbonyl compounds in ship emissions: Differences between diesel fuel and heavy fuel oil operation, Atmos. Environ., 112, 369–380, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.03.058, 2015.
Renard, P., Siekmann, F., Salque, G., Demelas, C., Coulomb, B., Vassalo, L., Ravier, S., Temime-Roussel, B., Voisin, D., and Monod, A.: Aqueous-phase oligomerization of methyl vinyl ketone through photooxidation – Part 1: Aging processes of oligomers, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 21–35, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-21-2015, 2015.
Renard, P., Tlili, S., Ravier, S., Quivet, E., and Monod, A.: Aqueous phase oligomerization of alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyls and acids investigated using ion mobility spectrometry coupled to mass spectrometry (IMS-MS), Atmos. Environ., 130, 153–162, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.10.060, 2016.
Rodriguez, A. A., de Loera, A., Powelson, M. H., Galloway, M. M., and De Haan, D. O.: Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde Increase Aqueous-Phase Production of Imidazoles in Methylglyoxal/Amine Mixtures: Quantifying a Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation Mechanism, Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett., 4, 234–239, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.7b00129, 2017.
Seaman, V. Y., Bennett, D. H. and Cahill, T. M.: Origin, occurrence, and source emission rate of acrolein in residential indoor air, Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 6940–6946, https://doi.org/10.1021/es0707299, 2007.
Shapiro, E. L., Szprengiel, J., Sareen, N., Jen, C. N., Giordano, M. R., and McNeill, V. F.: Light-absorbing secondary organic material formed by glyoxal in aqueous aerosol mimics, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 2289–2300, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-2289-2009, 2009.
Shen, X., Wu, H., Zhao, Y., Huang, D., Huang, L., and Chen, Z.: Heterogeneous reactions of glyoxal on mineral particles: A new avenue for oligomers and organosulfate formation, Atmos. Environ., 131, 133–140, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.01.048, 2016.
Song, S., Gao, M., Xu, W., Shao, J., Shi, G., Wang, S., Wang, Y., Sun, Y., and McElroy, M. B.: Fine-particle pH for Beijing winter haze as inferred from different thermodynamic equilibrium models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7423–7438, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-7423-2018, 2018.
Stitz, F.: Über eine Synthese von b-Picolin aus Acrolein und Ammoniak und die Umwandlung von b-Picolin durch Chlorierung in Nikotinsäure, Österreichische Chemiker Zeitung, 45, 159–162, 1942.
Takahama, S., Pathak, R. K., and Pandis, S. N.: Efflorescence transitions of ammonium sulfate particles coated with secondary organic aerosol, Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 2289–2295, https://doi.org/10.1021/es0619915, 2007.
Teich, M., van Pinxteren, D., Kecorius, S., Wang, Z., and Herrmann, H.: First Quantification of Imidazoles in Ambient Aerosol Particles: Potential Photosensitizers, Brown Carbon Constituents, and Hazardous Components, Environ. Sci. Technol., 50, 1166–1173, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b05474, 2016.
Trainic, M., Abo Riziq, A., Lavi, A., Flores, J. M., and Rudich, Y.: The optical, physical and chemical properties of the products of glyoxal uptake on ammonium sulfate seed aerosols, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 9697–9707, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-9697-2011, 2011.
Tschitschibabin, A. E.: Über Kondensationen der Aldehyde mit Ammonik zu Pyridinbasen, J. Prakt. Chem., 107, 122–128, 1924.
Tschitschibabin, A. E. and Oparina, M. P.: Über die Kondensation des Crotonaldehyds mit Ammoniak bei Gegenwart von Aluminiumoxyd, Ber. Dtsch. Chem. Ges. A/B, 60, 1877–1879, 1927.
Umano, K. and Shibamoto, T.: Analysis of acrolein from heated cooking oils and beef fat, J. Agr. Food Chem., 35, 909–912, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00078a014, 1987.
Updyke, K. M., Nguyen, T. B., and Nizkorodov, S. A.: Formation of brown carbon via reactions of ammonia with secondary organic aerosols from biogenic and anthropogenic precursors, Atmos. Environ., 63, 22–31, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.09.012, 2012.
Van Wyngarden, A. L., Pérez-Montaño, S., Bui, J. V. H., Li, E. S. W., Nelson, T. E., Ha, K. T., Leong, L., and Iraci, L. T.: Complex chemical composition of colored surface films formed from reactions of propanal in sulfuric acid at upper troposphere/lower stratosphere aerosol acidities, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4225–4239, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-4225-2015, 2015.
Volkamer, R., Martini, F. S., Molina, L. T., Salcedo, D., Jimenez, J. L., and Molina, M. J.: A missing sink for gas-phase glyoxal in Mexico City: Formation of secondary organic aerosol, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L1980719, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL030752, 2007.
Wang, X., Gao, S., Yang, X., Chen, H., Chen, J., Zhuang, G., Surratt, J. D., Chan, M. N., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Evidence for High Molecular Weight Nitrogen-Containing Organic Salts in Urban Aerosols, Environ. Sci. Technol., 44, 4441–4446, https://doi.org/10.1021/es1001117, 2010.
Weber, R. J., Guo, H., Russell, A. G., and Nenes, A.: High aerosol acidity despite declining atmospheric sulfate concentrations over the past 15 years, Nat. Geosci., 9, 282–285, https://doi.org/10.1038/NGEO2665, 2016.
Yasmeen, F., Sauret, N., Gal, J.-F., Maria, P.-C., Massi, L., Maenhaut, W., and Claeys, M.: Characterization of oligomers from methylglyoxal under dark conditions: a pathway to produce secondary organic aerosol through cloud processing during nighttime, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 3803–3812, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-3803-2010, 2010.
Ye, X., Ma, Z., Zhang, J., Du, H., Chen, J., Chen, H., Yang, X., Gao, W., and Geng, F.: Important role of ammonia on haze formation in Shanghai, Environ. Res. Lett., 6, 0240192, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/6/2/024019, 2011
Youngman, E. and Rust, F. F.: Production of allyl acrylate from acrolein, United States Patent Office, Patent Number 2991306, 1961.
Yu, G., Bayer, A. R., Galloway, M. M., Korshavn, K. J., Fry, C. G., and Keutsch, F. N.: Glyoxal in Aqueous Ammonium Sulfate Solutions: Products, Kinetics and Hydration Effects, Environ. Sci. Technol., 45, 6336–6342, https://doi.org/10.1021/es200989n, 2011.
Zhang, X., Wu, Z., and Chao, Z.: Mechanism of pyridine bases prepared from acrolein and ammonia by in situ infrared spectroscopy, J. Mol. Catal. A-Chem., 411, 19–26, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcata.2015.08.014, 2016.
Zhao, J., Levitt, N. P., Zhang, R., and Chen, J.: Heterogeneous reactions of methylglyoxal in acidic media: Implications for secondary organic aerosol formation, Environ. Sci. Technol., 40, 7682–7687, https://doi.org/10.1021/es060610k, 2006.
In this work, we found that acrolein, the smallest α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, has the potential to form light-absorbing heterocyclic secondary organic aerosol. In the gaseous phase, acrolein can react with gaseous ammonia, forming 3-picoline. In the liquid phase, the dissolved acrolein can react with ammonium to form higher molecular-weight pyridinium compounds. All the pyridinium compounds can increase the light absorptivity of aerosol particles.
In this work, we found that acrolein, the smallest α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, has the potential...