Articles | Volume 17, issue 1
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 449–463, 2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
10 Jan 2017
Research article | 10 Jan 2017
Background aerosol over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau: observed characteristics of aerosol mass loading
Bin Liu et al.
No articles found.
Hang Liu, Xiaole Pan, Shandong Lei, Yuting Zhang, Aodong Du, Weijie Yao, Tao Wang, Jinyuan Xin, Jie Li, Yele Sun, Junji Cao, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We provide the average vertical profiles of BC concentration, size distribution and coating thickness at different time of the day in urban area based on 112 vertical profiles. In addition, it’s found BC in the residual layer generally owned a thicker coating, higher absorption enhancement and hygroscopicity than on the surface. Such aged BC could enter into the boundary layer and influence the BC properties in the early morning.
Shaoyong Wang, Xiaobo He, Shichang Kang, Hui Fu, and Xiaofeng Hong
The Cryosphere, 16, 5023–5040,Short summary
This study used the sine-wave exponential model and long-term water stable isotopic data to estimate water mean residence time (MRT) and its influencing factors in a high-altitude permafrost catchment (5300 m a.s.l.) in the central Tibetan Plateau (TP). MRT for stream and supra-permafrost water was estimated at 100 and 255 d, respectively. Climate and vegetation factors affected the MRT of stream and supra-permafrost water mainly by changing the thickness of the permafrost active layer.
Chuanxi Zhao, Wei Yang, Evan Miles, Matthew Westoby, Marin Kneib, Yongjie Wang, Zhen He, and Francesca Pellicciotti
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint under review for TCShort summary
This paper quantifies the thinning and surface mass balance of two neighbouring debris-covered glaciers in southeastern Tibetan Plateau during different seasons, based on high spatio-temporal resolution UAV-derived data and in-situ observations. Through a comparison approach and high precision results, we identify that glacier dynamic, debris thickness and hotspots area (ice cliffs and supraglacial ponds) are strongly related to the future fate of the debris-covered glaciers in this region.
Huiming Lin, Yindong Tong, Long Chen, Chenghao Yu, Zhaohan Chu, Qianru Zhang, Xiufeng Yin, Qianggong Zhang, Shichang Kang, Junfeng Liu, James Schauer, Benjamin de Foy, and Xuejun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Lhasa is the largest city on the Tibetan Plateau and its atmospheric mercury concentrations represent the highest level of pollution in this region. Unexpectedly high concentrations of atmospheric mercury species were found. Combined with the trajectory analysis, the high atmospheric mercury concentrations may have originated from external long-range transport. Local sources, especially special mercury-related sources, are important factors influencing the variability of atmospheric mercury.
Xiufeng Yin, Dipesh Rupakheti, Guoshuai Zhang, Jiali Luo, Shichang Kang, Benjamin de Foy, Junhua Yang, Zhenming Ji, Zhiyuan Cong, Maheswar Rupakheti, Ping Li, and Qianggong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The monthly mean surface ozone concentrations peaked earlier in the south in April and later in the north in July over the High-Mountain Asia. The migration of monthly surface ozone peaks was coupled with the synchronous movement of tropopause folding and westerly jet that created a conducive conditions for stratospheric ozone intrusion. Stratospheric ozone intrusion contributed ~65 % of surface ozone across the High-Mountain Asia.
Fei Xie, Yue Su, Yongli Tian, Yanju Shi, Xingjun Zhou, Peng Wang, Ruihong Yu, Wei Wang, Jiang He, Jinyuna Xin, and Changwei Lü
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This work finds the shifting of secondary inorganic aerosols formation mechanism during haze aggravation and explains the decisive role of aerosol liquid water in a broader scale (~500 μg/m3) in ammonia-rich atmosphere based on the in-situ high-resolution on-line monitoring data sets.
Jizu Chen, Wentao Du, Shichang Kang, Xiang Qin, Weijun Sun, Yang Li, Yushuo Liu, Lihui Luo, and Youyan Jiang
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for TCShort summary
This study developed a dynamic deposition model of light absorbing particles (LAPs), which coupled with a surface energy and mass balance model. Based on the coupled model, we assessed atmospheric deposited BC effect on glacier melting, and quantified global warming and increment of emitted black carbon respective contributions to current accelerated glacier melting.
Chao Yan, Yicheng Shen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Lubna Dada, Ximeng Qi, Simo Hakala, Anu-Maija Sundström, Yishuo Guo, Antti Lipponen, Tom V. Kokkonen, Jenni Kontkanen, Runlong Cai, Jing Cai, Tommy Chan, Liangduo Chen, Biwu Chu, Chenjuan Deng, Wei Du, Xiaolong Fan, Xu-Cheng He, Juha Kangasluoma, Joni Kujansuu, Mona Kurppa, Chang Li, Yiran Li, Zhuohui Lin, Yiliang Liu, Yuliang Liu, Yiqun Lu, Wei Nie, Jouni Pulliainen, Xiaohui Qiao, Yonghong Wang, Yifan Wen, Ye Wu, Gan Yang, Lei Yao, Rujing Yin, Gen Zhang, Shaojun Zhang, Feixue Zheng, Ying Zhou, Antti Arola, Johanna Tamminen, Pauli Paasonen, Yele Sun, Lin Wang, Neil M. Donahue, Yongchun Liu, Federico Bianchi, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Douglas R. Worsnop, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Aijun Ding, Jingkun Jiang, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12207–12220,Short summary
Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is a dominant source of atmospheric ultrafine particles. In urban environments, traffic emissions are a major source of primary pollutants, but their contribution to NPF remains under debate. During the COVID-19 lockdown, traffic emissions were significantly reduced, providing a unique chance to examine their relevance to NPF. Based on our comprehensive measurements, we demonstrate that traffic emissions alone are not able to explain the NPF in Beijing.
Benjamin Foreback, Lubna Dada, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Chao Yan, Lili Wang, Biwu Chu, Ying Zhou, Tom V. Kokkonen, Mona Kurppa, Rosaria E. Pileci, Yonghong Wang, Tommy Chan, Juha Kangasluoma, Lin Zhuohui, Yishou Guo, Chang Li, Rima Baalbaki, Joni Kujansuu, Xiaolong Fan, Zemin Feng, Pekka Rantala, Shahzad Gani, Federico Bianchi, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Yongchun Liu, and Pauli Paasonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11089–11104,Short summary
This study analyzed air quality in Beijing during the Chinese New Year over 7 years, including data from a new in-depth measurement station. This is one of few studies to look at long-term impacts, including the outcome of firework restrictions starting in 2018. Results show that firework pollution has gone down since 2016, indicating a positive result from the restrictions. Results of this study may be useful in making future decisions about the use of fireworks to improve air quality.
Lucía Caudillo, Mihnea Surdu, Brandon Lopez, Mingyi Wang, Markus Thoma, Steffen Bräkling, Angela Buchholz, Mario Simon, Andrea C. Wagner, Tatjana Müller, Manuel Granzin, Martin Heinritzi, Antonio Amorim, David M. Bell, Zoé Brasseur, Lubna Dada, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Xu-Cheng He, Houssni Lamkaddam, Naser G. A. Mahfouz, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Roy L. Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Antti Onnela, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Ana A. Piedehierro, Birte Rörup, Wiebke Scholz, Jiali Shen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Christian Tauber, Ping Tian, António Tomé, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, Dongyu S. Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, André Welti, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Douglas R. Worsnop, Imad El Haddad, Neil M. Donahue, Alexander L. Vogel, Andreas Kürten, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
In this study, we present an intercomparison study of four different techniques for measuring the chemical composition of nanoparticles. The intercomparison was performed based on the observed chemical composition, calculated volatility, and analysis of the thermograms. We found that the methods generally agree on the most important compounds that are found in the nanoparticles. However, they do see different parts of the organic spectrum. We suggest potential explanations for these differences.
Chaman Gul, Shichang Kang, Siva Praveen Puppala, Xiaokang Wu, Cenlin He, Yangyang Xu, Inka Koch, Sher Muhammad, Rajesh Kumar, and Getachew Dubache
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8725–8737,Short summary
This work aims to understand concentrations, spatial variability, and potential source regions of light-absorbing impurities (black carbon aerosols, dust particles, and organic carbon) in the surface snow of central and western Himalayan glaciers and their impact on snow albedo and radiative forcing.
Xinghua Zhang, Wenhui Zhao, Lixiang Zhai, Miao Zhong, Jinsen Shi, Junying Sun, Yanmei Liu, Conghui Xie, Yulong Tan, Kemei Li, Xinlei Ge, Qi Zhang, Shichang Kang, and Jianzhong Xu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
A comprehensive aerosol observation project was carried out in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) in recent years to investigate the properties and sources of atmospheric aerosols as well as their regional differences by performing multiple short-term intensive field observations. The real-time online high-time-resolution (hourly) data of aerosol properties in the different TP region are integrated in a new dataset and can provide supporting for related studies in in the TP.
Chenhong Zhou, Fan Wang, Yike Guo, Cheng Liu, Dongsheng Ji, Yuesi Wang, Xiaobin Xu, Xiao Lu, Yan Wang, Gregory Carmichael, and Meng Gao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
We develop an eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) model integrating high-resolution meteorological data, satellite retrievals of trace gases, etc. to provide reconstructed daily ground-level O3 over 2005–2021 in China. It can facilitate climatological, ecological, and health research. The dataset is freely available at Zenodo (https://zenodo.org/record/6507706#.Yo8hKujP13g; Zhou, 2022).
Yongqin Liu, Pengcheng Fang, Bixi Guo, Mukan Ji, Pengfei Liu, Guannan Mao, Baiqing Xu, Shichang Kang, and Junzhi Liu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2303–2314,Short summary
Glaciers are an important pool of microorganisms, organic carbon, and nitrogen. This study constructed the first dataset of microbial abundance and total nitrogen in Tibetan Plateau (TP) glaciers and the first dataset of dissolved organic carbon in ice cores on the TP. These new data could provide valuable information for research on the glacier carbon and nitrogen cycle and help in assessing the potential impacts of glacier retreat due to global warming on downstream ecosystems.
Chuanxi Zhao, Wei Yang, Matthew Westoby, Baosheng An, Guangjian Wu, Weicai Wang, Zhongyan Wang, Yongjie Wang, and Stuart Dunning
The Cryosphere, 16, 1333–1340,Short summary
On 22 March 2021, a ~ 50 Mm 3 ice-rock avalanche occurred from 6500 m a.s.l. in the Sedongpu basin, southeastern Tibet. It caused temporary blockage of the Yarlung Tsangpo river, a major tributary of the Brahmaputra. We utilize field investigations, high-resolution satellite imagery, seismic records, and meteorological data to analyse the evolution of the 2021 event and its impact, discuss potential drivers, and briefly reflect on implications for the sustainable development of the region.
Mukesh Rai, Shichang Kang, Junhua Yang, Maheswar Rupakheti, Dipesh Rupakheti, Lekhendra Tripathee, Yuling Hu, and Xintong Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Our study revealed distinctive seasonality with the maximum and minimum aerosol concentrations during the winter and summer seasons respectively. However, interestingly summer high (AOD > 0.8) was observed over South Asia. The highest aerosols are laden over South Asia and East China within 1–2 km, however, aerosol overshooting found up to 10 km due to the deep convection process. Whereas, integrated aerosol transport for OC during spring was found to be 5 times higher than the annual mean.
Huiming Lin, Yindong Tong, Chenghao Yu, Long Chen, Xiufeng Yin, Qianggong Zhang, Shichang Kang, Lun Luo, James Schauer, Benjamin de Foy, and Xuejun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2651–2668,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau is known as
The Third Poleand is generally considered to be a clean area owing to its high altitude. However, it may receive be impacted by air pollutants transported from the Indian subcontinent. Pollutants generally enter the Tibetan Plateau in several ways. Among them is the Yarlung Zangbu–Brahmaputra Grand Canyon. In this study, we identified the influence of the Indian summer monsoon on the origin, transport, and behavior of mercury in this area.
Shichang Kang, Yulan Zhang, Pengfei Chen, Junming Guo, Qianggong Zhang, Zhiyuan Cong, Susan Kaspari, Lekhendra Tripathee, Tanguang Gao, Hewen Niu, Xinyue Zhong, Xintong Chen, Zhaofu Hu, Xiaofei Li, Yang Li, Bigyan Neupane, Fangping Yan, Dipesh Rupakheti, Chaman Gul, Wei Zhang, Guangming Wu, Ling Yang, Zhaoqing Wang, and Chaoliu Li
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 683–707,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau is important to the Earth’s climate. However, systematically observed data here are scarce. To perform more integrated and in-depth investigations of the origins and distributions of atmospheric pollutants and their impacts on cryospheric change, systematic data of black carbon and organic carbon from the atmosphere, glaciers, snow cover, precipitation, and lake sediment cores over the plateau based on the Atmospheric Pollution and Cryospheric Change program are provided.
Jinlei Chen, Shichang Kang, Wentao Du, Junming Guo, Min Xu, Yulan Zhang, Xinyue Zhong, Wei Zhang, and Jizu Chen
The Cryosphere, 15, 5473–5482,Short summary
Sea ice is retreating with rapid warming in the Arctic. It will continue and approach the worst predicted pathway released by the IPCC. The irreversible tipping point might show around 2060 when the oldest ice will have completely disappeared. It has a huge impact on human production. Ordinary merchant ships will be able to pass the Northeast Passage and Northwest Passage by the midcentury, and the opening time will advance to the next 10 years for icebreakers with moderate ice strengthening.
Yuting Zhang, Hang Liu, Shandong Lei, Wanyun Xu, Yu Tian, Weijie Yao, Xiaoyong Liu, Qi Liao, Jie Li, Chun Chen, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Jinyuan Xin, Junji Cao, Xiaole Pan, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17631–17648,Short summary
In this study, the authors used a single-particle soot photometer (SP2) to characterize the particle size, mixing state, and optical properties of black carbon aerosols in rural areas of the North China Plain in winter. Relatively warm and high-RH environments (RH > 50 %, −4° < T < 4 °) were more favorable to rBC aging than dry and cold environments (RH < 60 %, T < −8°). The paper emphasizes the importance of meteorological parameters in the mixing state of black carbon.
Lucía Caudillo, Birte Rörup, Martin Heinritzi, Guillaume Marie, Mario Simon, Andrea C. Wagner, Tatjana Müller, Manuel Granzin, Antonio Amorim, Farnoush Ataei, Rima Baalbaki, Barbara Bertozzi, Zoé Brasseur, Randall Chiu, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Loïc Gonzalez Carracedo, Xu-Cheng He, Victoria Hofbauer, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan P. Lee, Brandon Lopez, Naser G. A. Mahfouz, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Ruby Marten, Dario Massabò, Roy L. Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Antti Onnela, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Ana A. Piedehierro, Meredith Schervish, Wiebke Scholz, Benjamin Schulze, Jiali Shen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Yuri Stozhkov, Mihnea Surdu, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, Ping Tian, António Tomé, Steffen Vogt, Mingyi Wang, Dongyu S. Wang, Stefan K. Weber, André Welti, Wang Yonghong, Wu Yusheng, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Kristina Höhler, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Ottmar Möhler, Harald Saathoff, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Neil M. Donahue, Andreas Kürten, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17099–17114,Short summary
We performed experiments in the CLOUD chamber at CERN at low temperatures to simulate new particle formation in the upper free troposphere (at −30 ºC and −50 ºC). We measured the particle and gas phase and found that most of the compounds present in the gas phase are detected as well in the particle phase. The major compounds in the particles are C8–10 and C18–20. Specifically, we showed that C5 and C15 compounds are detected in a mixed system with isoprene and α-pinene at −30 ºC, 20 % RH.
Mao Xiao, Christopher R. Hoyle, Lubna Dada, Dominik Stolzenburg, Andreas Kürten, Mingyi Wang, Houssni Lamkaddam, Olga Garmash, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Andrea Baccarini, Mario Simon, Xu-Cheng He, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Lauri R. Ahonen, Rima Baalbaki, Paulus S. Bauer, Lisa Beck, David Bell, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Dexian Chen, Randall Chiu, António Dias, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Hamish Gordon, Victoria Hofbauer, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Janne Lampilahti, Chuan Ping Lee, Zijun Li, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Ruby Marten, Serge Mathot, Roy L. Mauldin, Wei Nie, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Veronika Pospisilova, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti Rissanen, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wagner, Yonghong Wang, Lena Weitz, Daniela Wimmer, Yusheng Wu, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qing Ye, Qiaozhi Zha, Xueqin Zhou, Antonio Amorim, Ken Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Armin Hansel, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Richard C. Flagan, Markku Kulmala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jasper Kirkby, Neil M. Donahue, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, and Josef Dommen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14275–14291,Short summary
Experiments at CLOUD show that in polluted environments new particle formation (NPF) is largely driven by the formation of sulfuric acid–base clusters, stabilized by amines, high ammonia concentrations or lower temperatures. While oxidation products of aromatics can nucleate, they play a minor role in urban NPF. Our experiments span 4 orders of magnitude variation of observed NPF rates in ambient conditions. We provide a framework based on NPF and growth rates to interpret ambient observations.
Yongchun Liu, Zemin Feng, Feixue Zheng, Xiaolei Bao, Pengfei Liu, Yanli Ge, Yan Zhao, Tao Jiang, Yunwen Liao, Yusheng Zhang, Xiaolong Fan, Chao Yan, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Wei Du, Jing Cai, Federico Bianchi, Tuukka Petäjä, Yujing Mu, Hong He, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13269–13286,Short summary
The mechanisms and kinetics of particulate sulfate formation in the atmosphere are still open questions although they have been extensively discussed. We found that uptake of SO2 is the rate-determining step for the conversion of SO2 to particulate sulfate. NH4NO3 plays an important role in AWC, the phase state of aerosol particles, and subsequently the uptake kinetics of SO2 under high-RH conditions. This work is a good example of the feedback between aerosol physics and aerosol chemistry.
Yuqin Liu, Tao Lin, Juan Hong, Yonghong Wang, Lamei Shi, Yiyi Huang, Xian Wu, Hao Zhou, Jiahua Zhang, and Gerrit de Leeuw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12331–12358,Short summary
The four-dimensional variation of aerosol properties over the BTH, YRD and PRD (east China) were investigated using satellite observations from 2007 to 2020. Distinct differences between the aerosol optical depth and vertical distribution of the occurrence of aerosol types over these regions depend on season, aerosol loading and meteorological conditions. Day–night differences between the vertical distribution of aerosol types suggest effects of boundary layer dynamics and aerosol transport.
Zhuohui Lin, Yonghong Wang, Feixue Zheng, Ying Zhou, Yishuo Guo, Zemin Feng, Chang Li, Yusheng Zhang, Simo Hakala, Tommy Chan, Chao Yan, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, Juha Kangasluoma, Lei Yao, Xiaolong Fan, Wei Du, Jing Cai, Runlong Cai, Tom V. Kokkonen, Putian Zhou, Lili Wang, Tuukka Petäjä, Federico Bianchi, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12173–12187,Short summary
We find that ammonium nitrate and aerosol water content contributed most during low mixing layer height conditions; this may further trigger enhanced formation of sulfate and organic aerosol via heterogeneous reactions. The results of this study contribute towards a more detailed understanding of the aerosol–chemistry–radiation–boundary layer feedback that is likely to be responsible for explosive aerosol mass growth events in urban Beijing.
Xiaolong Fan, Jing Cai, Chao Yan, Jian Zhao, Yishuo Guo, Chang Li, Kaspar R. Dällenbach, Feixue Zheng, Zhuohui Lin, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Lubna Dada, Qiaozhi Zha, Wei Du, Jenni Kontkanen, Theo Kurtén, Siddhart Iyer, Joni T. Kujansuu, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas R. Worsnop, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, Federico Bianchi, Yee Jun Tham, Lei Yao, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11437–11452,Short summary
We observed significant concentrations of gaseous HBr and HCl throughout the winter and springtime in urban Beijing, China. Our results indicate that gaseous HCl and HBr are most likely originated from anthropogenic emissions such as burning activities, and the gas–aerosol partitioning may play a crucial role in contributing to the gaseous HCl and HBr. These observations suggest that there is an important recycling pathway of halogen species in inland megacities.
Meng Gao, Yang Yang, Hong Liao, Bin Zhu, Yuxuan Zhang, Zirui Liu, Xiao Lu, Chen Wang, Qiming Zhou, Yuesi Wang, Qiang Zhang, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Jianlin Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11405–11421,Short summary
Light absorption and radiative forcing of black carbon (BC) is influenced by both BC itself and its interactions with other aerosol chemical compositions. In this study, we used the online coupled WRF-Chem model to examine how emission control measures during the Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference affect the mixing state and light absorption of BC and the associated implications for BC-PBL interactions.
Yongkang Xue, Tandong Yao, Aaron A. Boone, Ismaila Diallo, Ye Liu, Xubin Zeng, William K. M. Lau, Shiori Sugimoto, Qi Tang, Xiaoduo Pan, Peter J. van Oevelen, Daniel Klocke, Myung-Seo Koo, Tomonori Sato, Zhaohui Lin, Yuhei Takaya, Constantin Ardilouze, Stefano Materia, Subodh K. Saha, Retish Senan, Tetsu Nakamura, Hailan Wang, Jing Yang, Hongliang Zhang, Mei Zhao, Xin-Zhong Liang, J. David Neelin, Frederic Vitart, Xin Li, Ping Zhao, Chunxiang Shi, Weidong Guo, Jianping Tang, Miao Yu, Yun Qian, Samuel S. P. Shen, Yang Zhang, Kun Yang, Ruby Leung, Yuan Qiu, Daniele Peano, Xin Qi, Yanling Zhan, Michael A. Brunke, Sin Chan Chou, Michael Ek, Tianyi Fan, Hong Guan, Hai Lin, Shunlin Liang, Helin Wei, Shaocheng Xie, Haoran Xu, Weiping Li, Xueli Shi, Paulo Nobre, Yan Pan, Yi Qin, Jeff Dozier, Craig R. Ferguson, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Qing Bao, Jinming Feng, Jinkyu Hong, Songyou Hong, Huilin Huang, Duoying Ji, Zhenming Ji, Shichang Kang, Yanluan Lin, Weiguang Liu, Ryan Muncaster, Patricia de Rosnay, Hiroshi G. Takahashi, Guiling Wang, Shuyu Wang, Weicai Wang, Xu Zhou, and Yuejian Zhu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4465–4494,Short summary
The subseasonal prediction of extreme hydroclimate events such as droughts/floods has remained stubbornly low for years. This paper presents a new international initiative which, for the first time, introduces spring land surface temperature anomalies over high mountains to improve precipitation prediction through remote effects of land–atmosphere interactions. More than 40 institutions worldwide are participating in this effort. The experimental protocol and preliminary results are presented.
Kun Wang, Shohei Hattori, Mang Lin, Sakiko Ishino, Becky Alexander, Kazuki Kamezaki, Naohiro Yoshida, and Shichang Kang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8357–8376,Short summary
Sulfate aerosols play an important climatic role and exert adverse effects on the ecological environment and human health. In this study, we present the triple oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate from the Mt. Everest region, southern Tibetan Plateau, and decipher the formation mechanisms of atmospheric sulfate in this pristine environment. The results indicate the important role of the S(IV) + O3 pathway in atmospheric sulfate formation promoted by conditions of high cloud water pH.
Karl Espen Yttri, Francesco Canonaco, Sabine Eckhardt, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Markus Fiebig, Hans Gundersen, Anne-Gunn Hjellbrekke, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Stephen Matthew Platt, André S. H. Prévôt, David Simpson, Sverre Solberg, Jason Surratt, Kjetil Tørseth, Hilde Uggerud, Marit Vadset, Xin Wan, and Wenche Aas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7149–7170,Short summary
Carbonaceous aerosol sources and trends were studied at the Birkenes Observatory. A large decrease in elemental carbon (EC; 2001–2018) and a smaller decline in levoglucosan (2008–2018) suggest that organic carbon (OC)/EC from traffic/industry is decreasing, whereas the abatement of OC/EC from biomass burning has been less successful. Positive matrix factorization apportioned 72 % of EC to fossil fuel sources and 53 % (PM2.5) and 78 % (PM10–2.5) of OC to biogenic sources.
Yunyan Jiang, Jinyuan Xin, Ying Wang, Guiqian Tang, Yuxin Zhao, Danjie Jia, Dandan Zhao, Meng Wang, Lindong Dai, Lili Wang, Tianxue Wen, and Fangkun Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6111–6128,Short summary
Multiscale-circulation coupling affects pollution by changing the planetary boundary layer (PBL) structure. The multilayer PBL under cyclonic circulation has no diurnal variation; the temperature inversion and zero-speed zone can reach 600–900 m with strong mountain winds. The monolayer PBL under southwestern circulation can reach 2000 m; the inversion is lower than nocturnal PBL (400 m) with strong ambient winds. The zonal winds' vertical shear produces the inversion under western circulation.
Dandan Zhao, Jinyuan Xin, Chongshui Gong, Jiannong Quan, Yuesi Wang, Guiqian Tang, Yongxiang Ma, Lindong Dai, Xiaoyan Wu, Guangjing Liu, and Yongjing Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5739–5753,Short summary
The influence of aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) on the boundary layer structure is nonlinear. The threshold of the modification effects of ARF on the boundary layer structure was determined for the first time, highlighting that once ARF exceeded a certain value, the boundary layer would quickly stabilize and aggravate air pollution. This could provide useful information for relevant atmospheric-environment improvement measures and policies.
Yishuo Guo, Chao Yan, Chang Li, Wei Ma, Zemin Feng, Ying Zhou, Zhuohui Lin, Lubna Dada, Dominik Stolzenburg, Rujing Yin, Jenni Kontkanen, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Juha Kangasluoma, Lei Yao, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Runlong Cai, Federico Bianchi, Yongchun Liu, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5499–5511,Short summary
Fog, cloud and haze are very common natural phenomena. Sulfuric acid (SA) is one of the key compounds forming those suspended particles, technically called aerosols, through gas-to-particle conversion. Therefore, the concentration level, source and sink of SA is very important. Our results show that ozonolysis of alkenes plays a major role in nighttime SA formation under unpolluted conditions in urban Beijing, and nighttime cluster mode particles are probably driven by SA in urban environments.
Yikun Yang, Chuanfeng Zhao, Quan Wang, Zhiyuan Cong, Xingchuan Yang, and Hao Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4849–4868,Short summary
The occurrence frequency of different aerosol types and aerosol optical depth over the Arctic, Antarctic and Tibetan Plateau (TP) show distinctive spatiotemporal differences. The aerosol extinction coefficient in the Arctic and TP has a broad vertical distribution, while that of the Antarctic has obvious seasonal differences. Compared with the Antarctic, the Arctic and TP are vulnerable to surrounding pollutants, and the source of air masses has obvious seasonal variations.
Jiayun Li, Liming Cao, Wenkang Gao, Lingyan He, Yingchao Yan, Yuexin He, Yuepeng Pan, Dongsheng Ji, Zirui Liu, and Yuesi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4521–4539,Short summary
For the first time, we investigated the highly time-resolved chemical characterization, sources and evolution of atmospheric submicron aerosols at a regional background site in the North China Plain (NCP) using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer and evaluated the seasonal differentials of photochemical and aqueous-phase processing on SOA composition and oxidation degree of OA. The results will help to understand air pollution in the NCP on a regional scale.
Lei Kong, Xiao Tang, Jiang Zhu, Zifa Wang, Jianjun Li, Huangjian Wu, Qizhong Wu, Huansheng Chen, Lili Zhu, Wei Wang, Bing Liu, Qian Wang, Duohong Chen, Yuepeng Pan, Tao Song, Fei Li, Haitao Zheng, Guanglin Jia, Miaomiao Lu, Lin Wu, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 529–570,Short summary
China's air pollution has changed substantially since 2013. Here we have developed a 6-year-long high-resolution air quality reanalysis dataset over China from 2013 to 2018 to illustrate such changes and to provide a basic dataset for relevant studies. Surface fields of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3 concentrations are provided, and the evaluation results indicate that the reanalysis dataset has excellent performance in reproducing the magnitude and variation of air pollution in China.
Lei Zhang, Sunling Gong, Tianliang Zhao, Chunhong Zhou, Yuesi Wang, Jiawei Li, Dongsheng Ji, Jianjun He, Hongli Liu, Ke Gui, Xiaomei Guo, Jinhui Gao, Yunpeng Shan, Hong Wang, Yaqiang Wang, Huizheng Che, and Xiaoye Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 703–718,Short summary
Development of chemical transport models with advanced physics and chemical schemes is important for improving air-quality forecasts. This study develops the chemical module CUACE by updating with a new particle dry deposition scheme and adding heterogenous chemical reactions and couples it with the WRF model. The coupled model (WRF/CUACE) was able to capture well the variations of PM2.5, O3, NO2, and secondary inorganic aerosols in eastern China.
Qingqing Yu, Xiang Ding, Quanfu He, Weiqiang Yang, Ming Zhu, Sheng Li, Runqi Zhang, Ruqin Shen, Yanli Zhang, Xinhui Bi, Yuesi Wang, Ping'an Peng, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14581–14595,Short summary
We carried out a 1-year PM concurrent observation at 12 sites across six regions of China, and size-segregated PAHs were measured. We found both PAHs and BaPeq were concentrated in PM1.1, and northern China had higher PAHs' pollution and inhalation cancer risk than southern China. Nationwide increases in both PAH levels and inhalation cancer risk occurred in winter. We suggest reducing coal and biofuel consumption in the residential sector is an important option to mitigate PAHs' health risks.
Yaoming Ma, Zeyong Hu, Zhipeng Xie, Weiqiang Ma, Binbin Wang, Xuelong Chen, Maoshan Li, Lei Zhong, Fanglin Sun, Lianglei Gu, Cunbo Han, Lang Zhang, Xin Liu, Zhangwei Ding, Genhou Sun, Shujin Wang, Yongjie Wang, and Zhongyan Wang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2937–2957,Short summary
In comparison with other terrestrial regions of the world, meteorological observations are scarce over the Tibetan Plateau. This has limited our understanding of the mechanisms underlying complex interactions between the different earth spheres with heterogeneous land surface conditions. The release of this continuous and long-term dataset with high temporal resolution is expected to facilitate broad multidisciplinary communities in understanding key processes on the
Third Pole of the world.
Yongchun Liu, Yusheng Zhang, Chaofan Lian, Chao Yan, Zeming Feng, Feixue Zheng, Xiaolong Fan, Yan Chen, Weigang Wang, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Jing Cai, Wei Du, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Juha Kangasluoma, Federico Bianchi, Joni Kujansuu, Tuukka Petäjä, Xuefei Wang, Bo Hu, Yuesi Wang, Maofa Ge, Hong He, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13023–13040,Short summary
Understanding of the chemical and physical processes leading to atmospheric aerosol particle formation is crucial to devising effective mitigation strategies to protect the public and reduce uncertainties in climate predictions. We found that the photolysis of nitrous acid could promote the formation of organic and nitrate aerosol and that traffic-related emission is a major contributor to ambient nitrous acid on haze days in wintertime in Beijing.
Jing Cai, Biwu Chu, Lei Yao, Chao Yan, Liine M. Heikkinen, Feixue Zheng, Chang Li, Xiaolong Fan, Shaojun Zhang, Daoyuan Yang, Yonghong Wang, Tom V. Kokkonen, Tommy Chan, Ying Zhou, Lubna Dada, Yongchun Liu, Hong He, Pauli Paasonen, Joni T. Kujansuu, Tuukka Petäjä, Claudia Mohr, Juha Kangasluoma, Federico Bianchi, Yele Sun, Philip L. Croteau, Douglas R. Worsnop, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Wei Du, Markku Kulmala, and Kaspar R. Daellenbach
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12721–12740,Short summary
By applying both OA PMF and size PMF at the same urban measurement site in Beijing, similar particle source types, including vehicular emissions, cooking emissions and secondary formation-related sources, were resolved by both frameworks and agreed well. It is also found that in the absence of new particle formation, vehicular and cooking emissions dominate the particle number concentration, while secondary particulate matter governed PM2.5 mass during spring and summer in Beijing.
Lubna Dada, Ilona Ylivinkka, Rima Baalbaki, Chang Li, Yishuo Guo, Chao Yan, Lei Yao, Nina Sarnela, Tuija Jokinen, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Rujing Yin, Chenjuan Deng, Biwu Chu, Tuomo Nieminen, Yonghong Wang, Zhuohui Lin, Roseline C. Thakur, Jenni Kontkanen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Mikko Sipilä, Tareq Hussein, Pauli Paasonen, Federico Bianchi, Imre Salma, Tamás Weidinger, Michael Pikridas, Jean Sciare, Jingkun Jiang, Yongchun Liu, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11747–11766,Short summary
We rely on sulfuric acid measurements in four contrasting environments, Hyytiälä, Finland; Agia Marina, Cyprus; Budapest, Hungary; and Beijing, China, representing semi-pristine boreal forest, rural environment in the Mediterranean area, urban environment, and heavily polluted megacity, respectively, in order to define the sources and sinks of sulfuric acid in these environments and to derive a new sulfuric acid proxy to be utilized in locations and during periods when it is not measured.
Jenni Kontkanen, Chenjuan Deng, Yueyun Fu, Lubna Dada, Ying Zhou, Jing Cai, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Simo Hakala, Tom V. Kokkonen, Zhuohui Lin, Yongchun Liu, Yonghong Wang, Chao Yan, Tuukka Petäjä, Jingkun Jiang, Markku Kulmala, and Pauli Paasonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11329–11348,Short summary
To estimate the impacts of atmospheric aerosol particles on air quality, knowledge of size distributions of particles emitted from anthropogenic sources is needed. We introduce a new method for determining size-resolved particle number emissions from measured particle size distributions. We apply our method to data measured in Beijing, China. We find that particle number emissions at our site are dominated by emissions of particles smaller than 30 nm, originating mainly from traffic.
Baozhu Ge, Syuichi Itahashi, Keiichi Sato, Danhui Xu, Junhua Wang, Fan Fan, Qixin Tan, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Meigen Zhang, Zhe Wang, Meng Li, Jung-Hun Woo, Junichi Kurokawa, Yuepeng Pan, Qizhong Wu, Xuejun Liu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10587–10610,Short summary
Performances of the simulated deposition for different reduced N (Nr) species in China were conducted with the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia. Results showed that simulated wet deposition of oxidized N was overestimated in northeastern China and underestimated in south China, but Nr was underpredicted in all regions by all models. Oxidized N has larger uncertainties than Nr, indicating that the chemical reaction process is one of the most importance factors affecting model performance.
Miao Yu, Guiqian Tang, Yang Yang, Qingchun Li, Yonghong Wang, Shiguang Miao, Yizhou Zhang, and Yuesi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9855–9870,
Mario Simon, Lubna Dada, Martin Heinritzi, Wiebke Scholz, Dominik Stolzenburg, Lukas Fischer, Andrea C. Wagner, Andreas Kürten, Birte Rörup, Xu-Cheng He, João Almeida, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Paulus S. Bauer, Lisa Beck, Anton Bergen, Federico Bianchi, Steffen Bräkling, Sophia Brilke, Lucia Caudillo, Dexian Chen, Biwu Chu, António Dias, Danielle C. Draper, Jonathan Duplissy, Imad El-Haddad, Henning Finkenzeller, Carla Frege, Loic Gonzalez-Carracedo, Hamish Gordon, Manuel Granzin, Jani Hakala, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Changhyuk Kim, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan P. Lee, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Markus Leiminger, Huajun Mai, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Leonid Nichman, Wei Nie, Andrea Ojdanic, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Ananth Ranjithkumar, Matti P. Rissanen, Simon Schallhart, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Jiali Shen, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee J. Tham, António R. Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Alexander L. Vogel, Robert Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Dongyu S. Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, Yusheng Wu, Mao Xiao, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qing Ye, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Xueqin Zhou, Urs Baltensperger, Josef Dommen, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas R. Worsnop, Neil M. Donahue, Jasper Kirkby, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9183–9207,Short summary
Highly oxygenated organic compounds (HOMs) have been identified as key vapors involved in atmospheric new-particle formation (NPF). The molecular distribution, HOM yield, and NPF from α-pinene oxidation experiments were measured at the CLOUD chamber over a wide tropospheric-temperature range. This study shows on a molecular scale that despite the sharp reduction in HOM yield at lower temperatures, the reduced volatility counteracts this effect and leads to an overall increase in the NPF rate.
Shuang Yi, Chunqiao Song, Kosuke Heki, Shichang Kang, Qiuyu Wang, and Le Chang
The Cryosphere, 14, 2267–2281,Short summary
High-Asia glaciers have been observed to be retreating the fastest in the southeastern Tibeten Plateau, where vast amounts of glacier and snow feed the streamflow of the Brahmaputra. Here, we provide the first monthly glacier and snow mass balance during 2002–2017 based on satellite gravimetry. The results confirm previous long-term decreases but reveal strong seasonal variations. This work helps resolve previous divergent model estimates and underlines the importance of meltwater.
Yuan Yang, Yonghong Wang, Putian Zhou, Dan Yao, Dongsheng Ji, Jie Sun, Yinghong Wang, Shuman Zhao, Wei Huang, Shuanghong Yang, Dean Chen, Wenkang Gao, Zirui Liu, Bo Hu, Renjian Zhang, Limin Zeng, Maofa Ge, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Markku Kulmala, and Yuesi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8181–8200,
Dominik Stolzenburg, Mario Simon, Ananth Ranjithkumar, Andreas Kürten, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Hamish Gordon, Sebastian Ehrhart, Henning Finkenzeller, Lukas Pichelstorfer, Tuomo Nieminen, Xu-Cheng He, Sophia Brilke, Mao Xiao, António Amorim, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Lisa Beck, Steffen Bräkling, Lucía Caudillo Murillo, Dexian Chen, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, António Dias, Josef Dommen, Jonathan Duplissy, Imad El Haddad, Lukas Fischer, Loic Gonzalez Carracedo, Martin Heinritzi, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan Ping Lee, Markus Leiminger, Zijun Li, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Tatjana Müller, Wei Nie, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Matti P. Rissanen, Birte Rörup, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Jiali Shen, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, Daniela Wimmer, Peter J. Wlasits, Yusheng Wu, Qing Ye, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Jos Lelieveld, Rainer Volkamer, Jasper Kirkby, and Paul M. Winkler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7359–7372,Short summary
Sulfuric acid is a major atmospheric vapour for aerosol formation. If new particles grow fast enough, they can act as cloud droplet seeds or affect air quality. In a controlled laboratory set-up, we demonstrate that van der Waals forces enhance growth from sulfuric acid. We disentangle the effects of ammonia, ions and particle hydration, presenting a complete picture of sulfuric acid growth from molecular clusters onwards. In a climate model, we show its influence on the global aerosol budget.
Meixin Zhang, Chun Zhao, Zhiyuan Cong, Qiuyan Du, Mingyue Xu, Yu Chen, Ming Chen, Rui Li, Yunfei Fu, Lei Zhong, Shichang Kang, Delong Zhao, and Yan Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5923–5943,Short summary
Analysis of multiple numerical experiments over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (TP) shows that the complex topography results in 50 % stronger overall cross-Himalayan transport during the pre-monsoon season primarily due to the strengthened efficiency of near-surface meridional transport towards the TP, enhanced wind speed in some valleys and deeper valley channels associated with larger transported BC mass volume, which leads to 30–50 % stronger BC radiative heating over the TP.
Yonghong Wang, Matthieu Riva, Hongbin Xie, Liine Heikkinen, Simon Schallhart, Qiaozhi Zha, Chao Yan, Xu-Cheng He, Otso Peräkylä, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5145–5155,Short summary
Chamber experiments were conducted with alpha-pinene and chlorine under low- and high-nitrogen-oxide (NOX) conditions. We estimated the HOM yields from chlorine-initiated oxidation of alpha-pinene under low-NOX conditions to be around 1.8 %, though with a uncertainty range (0.8 %–4 %) due to lack of suitable calibration methods. Our study clearly demonstrates that the chlorine-atom-initiated oxidation of alpha-pinene can produce low-volatility organic compounds.
Dandan Zhao, Guangjing Liu, Jinyuan Xin, Jiannong Quan, Yuesi Wang, Xin Wang, Lindong Dai, Wenkang Gao, Guiqian Tang, Bo Hu, Yongxiang Ma, Xiaoyan Wu, Lili Wang, Zirui Liu, and Fangkun Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4575–4592,Short summary
Under strong atmospheric oxidization capacity, haze pollution in the summer in Beijing was the result of the synergistic effect of the physicochemical process in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). With the premise of an extremely stable ABL structure, the formation of secondary aerosols dominated by nitrate was quite intense, driving the outbreak of haze pollution.
Khalid Mehmood, Yujie Wu, Liqiang Wang, Shaocai Yu, Pengfei Li, Xue Chen, Zhen Li, Yibo Zhang, Mengying Li, Weiping Liu, Yuesi Wang, Zirui Liu, Yannian Zhu, Daniel Rosenfeld, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2419–2443,Short summary
We selected June 2014 as our study period, which exhibited a complete evolution process of open biomass burning (OBB) dominated by open crop straw burning (OCSB) over central and eastern China (CEC). We established a constraining method that integrates ground-based PM2.5 measurements with the two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ model to derive optimal OBB emissions. It was found that these emissions could allow the model to reproduce meteorological and chemical fields over CEC during the study period.
Zhining Tao, Mian Chin, Meng Gao, Tom Kucsera, Dongchul Kim, Huisheng Bian, Jun-ichi Kurokawa, Yuesi Wang, Zirui Liu, Gregory R. Carmichael, Zifa Wang, and Hajime Akimoto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2319–2339,Short summary
One goal of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) Phase III is to identify strengths and weaknesses of current air quality models to provide insights into reducing uncertainties. This study identified that a 15 km grid would be the optimal horizontal resolution in terms of performance and resource usage to capture average and extreme air quality over East Asia and is thus suggested for use in future MICS-Asia modeling activities if the investigation domain remains the same.
Meng Gao, Zirui Liu, Bo Zheng, Dongsheng Ji, Peter Sherman, Shaojie Song, Jinyuan Xin, Cheng Liu, Yuesi Wang, Qiang Zhang, Jia Xing, Jingkun Jiang, Zifa Wang, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1497–1505,Short summary
We quantified the relative influences of anthropogenic emissions and meteorological conditions on PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing over the winters of 2002–2016. Meteorological conditions over the study period would have led to an increase of haze in Beijing, but the strict emission control measures have suppressed the unfavorable influences of the recent climate.
Lei Kong, Xiao Tang, Jiang Zhu, Zifa Wang, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Syuichi Itahashi, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Chuan-Yao Lin, Lei Chen, Meigen Zhang, Zhining Tao, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Zhe Wang, Kengo Sudo, Yuesi Wang, Yuepeng Pan, Guiqian Tang, Meng Li, Qizhong Wu, Baozhu Ge, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 181–202,Short summary
Evaluation and uncertainty investigation of NO2, CO and NH3 modeling over China were conducted in this study using 14 chemical transport model results from MICS-Asia III. All models largely underestimated CO concentrations and showed very poor performance in reproducing the observed monthly variations of NH3 concentrations. Potential factors related to such deficiencies are investigated and discussed in this paper.
Yonghong Wang, Miao Yu, Yuesi Wang, Guiqian Tang, Tao Song, Putian Zhou, Zirui Liu, Bo Hu, Dongsheng Ji, Lili Wang, Xiaowan Zhu, Chao Yan, Mikael Ehn, Wenkang Gao, Yuepeng Pan, Jinyuan Xin, Yang Sun, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Markku Kulmala, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 45–53,Short summary
We found a positive particle matter-mixing layer height feedback at three observation platforms at the 325 m Beijing meteorology tower, which is characterized by a shallower mixing layer height and a higher particle matter concentration. Measurements of solar radiation, aerosol chemical composition, meteorology parameters, trace gases and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) could explain the feedback mechanism to some extent.
Danhui Xu, Baozhu Ge, Xueshun Chen, Yele Sun, Nianliang Cheng, Mei Li, Xiaole Pan, Zhiqiang Ma, Yuepeng Pan, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15569–15581,Short summary
Wet deposition is one of the most important and efficient removal mechanisms in the evolution of the air pollution. Due to the lack of a localized parameterization scheme and some mechanisms being neglected in theoretical estimations and modeling calculations, below-cloud wet scavenging coefficients (BWSC) have large uncertainties. We compare the BWSCs under the same conditions to perform a multi-method evaluation in order to describe their characteristics.
Jun Zhu, Xiangao Xia, Huizheng Che, Jun Wang, Zhiyuan Cong, Tianliang Zhao, Shichang Kang, Xuelei Zhang, Xingna Yu, and Yanlin Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14637–14656,Short summary
The long-term temporal–spatial variations of the aerosol optical properties over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) based on the multiple ground-based sun photometer sites and the MODIS product are presented. Besides, the aerosol pollution and aerosol transport processes over the TP are also analyzed by the observations and models. The results in this region could help reduce the assessment uncertainties of aerosol radiative forcing and provide more information on aerosol transportation.
Jingda Liu, Lili Wang, Mingge Li, Zhiheng Liao, Yang Sun, Tao Song, Wenkang Gao, Yonghong Wang, Yan Li, Dongsheng Ji, Bo Hu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yuesi Wang, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14477–14492,Short summary
We analyzed the surface ozone variation characteristics and quantified the impact of synoptic and local meteorological factors on northern China during the warm season based on multi-city, in situ ozone and meteorological data, as well as meteorological reanalysis. The results of quantitative exploration on synoptic and local meteorological factors influencing both interannual and day-to-day ozone variations will provide the scientific basis for evaluating emission reduction measures.
Lei Chen, Jia Zhu, Hong Liao, Yi Gao, Yulu Qiu, Meigen Zhang, Zirui Liu, Nan Li, and Yuesi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10845–10864,Short summary
The formation mechanism of a severe haze episode that occurred over North China in December 2015, the aerosol radiative impacts on the haze event and the influence mechanism were examined. The PM2.5 increase during the aerosol accumulation stage was mainly attributed to strong production by the aerosol chemistry process and weak removal by advection and vertical mixing. Restrained vertical mixing was the main reason for near-surface PM2.5 increase when aerosol radiative feedback was considered.
Jiarui Wu, Naifang Bei, Bo Hu, Suixin Liu, Meng Zhou, Qiyuan Wang, Xia Li, Lang Liu, Tian Feng, Zirui Liu, Yichen Wang, Junji Cao, Xuexi Tie, Jun Wang, Luisa T. Molina, and Guohui Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8703–8719,Short summary
In the present study, simulations during a persistent and heavy haze pollution episode from 5 December 2015 to 4 January 2016 in the North China Plain (NCP) were performed using the WRF-Chem model to comprehensively quantify contributions of the aerosol shortwave radiative feedback (ARF) to near-surface PM2.5 mass concentrations. During the episode, the ARF deteriorates the haze pollution, increasing the near-surface PM2.5 concentration in the NCP by 10.2 μg m−3 (7.8 %) on average.
Jiarui Wu, Naifang Bei, Bo Hu, Suixin Liu, Meng Zhou, Qiyuan Wang, Xia Li, Lang Liu, Tian Feng, Zirui Liu, Yichen Wang, Junji Cao, Xuexi Tie, Jun Wang, Luisa T. Molina, and Guohui Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8721–8739,Short summary
The near-surface PM2.5 contribution of the ALW total effect is 17.5 % in NCP, indicating that ALW plays an important role in the PM2.5 formation during the wintertime haze pollution. Moreover, the ALW-HET overwhelmingly dominates the PM2.5 enhancement due to the ALW. The ALW does not consistently enhance near-surface [PM2.5] with increasing RH. When the RH exceeds 80 %, the contribution of the ALW begins to decrease, which is caused by the high occurrence frequencies of precipitation.
Dongsheng Ji, Wenkang Gao, Willy Maenhaut, Jun He, Zhe Wang, Jiwei Li, Wupeng Du, Lili Wang, Yang Sun, Jinyuan Xin, Bo Hu, and Yuesi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8569–8590,Short summary
This study reveals an obvious decreasing trend in OC and EC concentrations in urban Beijing. Higher concentrations were related to air masses originating from the northeast sector at wind speeds of approximately 5 km h−1. The potential source regions of the carbonaceous aerosols stretched to broader areas in the northwestern and western regions where coal mining and coal-fired power generation activities are intensive, which is fairly consistent with the MEIC inventory for China.
Xinghua Zhang, Jianzhong Xu, Shichang Kang, Qi Zhang, and Junying Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7897–7911,Short summary
Highly time resolved chemistry and sources of PM1 were measured by an Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS at Waliguan Baseline Observatory, a high-altitude background station at the northeastern edge of Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (QTP), during summer 2017. Relatively higher mass concentration of PM1 and dominant sulfate contribution were observed in this site compared to those at other high-elevation sites in the southern or central QTP, indicating the different aerosol sources between them.
Yonghong Wang, Yuesi Wang, Lili Wang, Tuukka Petäjä, Qiaozhi Zha, Chongshui Gong, Sixuan Li, Yuepeng Pan, Bo Hu, Jinyuan Xin, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5881–5888,Short summary
Satellite observations combined with in situ measurements demonstrate that increased inorganic aerosol fractions of NO2 and SO2 contribute to air pollution and frequently occurring haze in China from 1980 to 2010. Currently, the reduction of nitrate, sulfate and their precursor gases would contribute towards better visibility in China.
Zhenying Xu, Mingxu Liu, Minsi Zhang, Yu Song, Shuxiao Wang, Lin Zhang, Tingting Xu, Tiantian Wang, Caiqing Yan, Tian Zhou, Yele Sun, Yuepeng Pan, Min Hu, Mei Zheng, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5605–5613,
Xin Wan, Shichang Kang, Maheswar Rupakheti, Qianggong Zhang, Lekhendra Tripathee, Junming Guo, Pengfei Chen, Dipesh Rupakheti, Arnico K. Panday, Mark G. Lawrence, Kimitaka Kawamura, and Zhiyuan Cong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2725–2747,Short summary
The sources of primary and secondary aerosols in the Hindu Kush–Himalayan–Tibetan Plateau region are not well known. Organic molecular tracers are useful for aerosol source apportionment. The characterization of molecular tracers were first systemically investigated and the contribution from primary and secondary sources to carbonaceous aerosols was estimated in the Kathmandu Valley. Our results demonstrate that biomass burning contributed a significant fraction to OC in the Kathmandu Valley.
Yanqing An, Jianzhong Xu, Lin Feng, Xinghua Zhang, Yanmei Liu, Shichang Kang, Bin Jiang, and Yuhong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1115–1128,Short summary
Detailed molecular chemical composition of water-soluble organic matter in the Himalayas was characterized by positive electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry for the first time. Many products formed from biogenic volatile organic compounds and biomass-burning-emitted compounds were found in the organic compounds, suggesting the important contribution of these two sources in the Himalayas.
Mingxu Liu, Xin Huang, Yu Song, Tingting Xu, Shuxiao Wang, Zhijun Wu, Min Hu, Lin Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Yuepeng Pan, Xuejun Liu, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17933–17943,
Zhiwen Dong, Shichang Kang, Dahe Qin, Yaping Shao, Sven Ulbrich, and Xiang Qin
The Cryosphere, 12, 3877–3890,Short summary
This study aimed to provide a first and unique record of physicochemical properties and mixing states of LAPs at the glacier and atmosphere interface over the northeastern Tibetan Plateau to determine the individual LAPs' structure aging and mixing state changes through the atmospheric deposition process from atmosphere to glacier–snowpack surface, thereby helping to characterize the LAPs' radiative forcing and climate effects in the cryosphere region.
Qiaozhi Zha, Chao Yan, Heikki Junninen, Matthieu Riva, Nina Sarnela, Juho Aalto, Lauriane Quéléver, Simon Schallhart, Lubna Dada, Liine Heikkinen, Otso Peräkylä, Jun Zou, Clémence Rose, Yonghong Wang, Ivan Mammarella, Gabriel Katul, Timo Vesala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Federico Bianchi, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17437–17450,Short summary
Vertical measurements of highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) below and above the forest canopy were performed for the first time in a boreal forest during September 2016. Our results highlight that near-ground HOM measurements may only be representative of a small fraction of the entire nocturnal boundary layer, which may sequentially influence the growth of newly formed particles and SOA formation close to ground surface, where the majority of measurements are conducted.
Zhiyuan Cong, Shaopeng Gao, Wancang Zhao, Xin Wang, Guangming Wu, Yulan Zhang, Shichang Kang, Yongqin Liu, and Junfeng Ji
The Cryosphere, 12, 3177–3186,Short summary
Cryoconites from glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding area were studied for iron oxides. We found that goethite is the predominant iron oxide form. Using the abundance, speciation and optical properties of iron oxides, the total light absorption was quantitatively attributed to goethite, hematite, black carbon and organic matter. Such findings are essential to understand the relative significance of anthropogenic and natural impacts.
Chao Yan, Lubna Dada, Clémence Rose, Tuija Jokinen, Wei Nie, Siegfried Schobesberger, Heikki Junninen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Nina Sarnela, Ulla Makkonen, Olga Garmash, Yonghong Wang, Qiaozhi Zha, Pauli Paasonen, Federico Bianchi, Mikko Sipilä, Mikael Ehn, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13231–13243,Short summary
Ions can play an important role in atmospheric new particle formation by stabilizing the embryonic clusters. Such a process is called ion-induced nucleation (IIN). We found two distinct IIN mechanisms – driven by H2SO4-NH3 clusters and by organic vapors, respectively. The concentration ratio of organic vapors to H2SO4 regulates via which pathway the IIN occur. As the organic vapor concentration is influenced by temperature, a seasonal variation in the main IIN mechanism can be expected.
Xintong Chen, Shichang Kang, Zhiyuan Cong, Junhua Yang, and Yaoming Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12859–12875,Short summary
To understand the impact of transboundary atmospheric black carbon on the Mt. Everest region and depict the transport pathways in different spatiotemporal scales, we first investigated the concentration level, temporal variation, and sources of black carbon based on high-resolution (2-year) measurements at Qomolangma (Mt. Everest) Station (4276 m a.s.l.). Next, the WRF-Chem simulations were used to reveal the transport mechanisms of black carbon from southern Asia to the Mt. Everest region.
Cenlin He, Mark G. Flanner, Fei Chen, Michael Barlage, Kuo-Nan Liou, Shichang Kang, Jing Ming, and Yun Qian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11507–11527,Short summary
Snow albedo plays a key role in the Earth and climate system. It can be affected by impurities and snow properties. This study implements new parameterizations into a widely used snow model to account for effects of snow shape and black carbon–snow mixing state on snow albedo reduction in the Tibetan Plateau. This study points toward an imperative need for extensive measurements and improved model characterization of snow grain shape and aerosol–snow mixing state in Tibet and elsewhere.
Wen Xu, Lei Liu, Miaomiao Cheng, Yuanhong Zhao, Lin Zhang, Yuepeng Pan, Xiuming Zhang, Baojing Gu, Yi Li, Xiuying Zhang, Jianlin Shen, Li Lu, Xiaosheng Luo, Yu Zhao, Zhaozhong Feng, Jeffrey L. Collett Jr., Fusuo Zhang, and Xuejun Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10931–10954,Short summary
Our main results demonstrate that atmospheric Nr pollution in eastern China is more serious in the northern region than in the southern region. Any effects of current emission controls are not yet apparent in Nr pollution. NH3 emissions from fertilizer use were the largest contributor (36 %) to total inorganic Nr deposition. Our results provide useful information for policy-makers that mitigation of NH3 emissions should be a priority to tackle serious N deposition.
Xiufeng Yin, Shichang Kang, Benjamin de Foy, Yaoming Ma, Yindong Tong, Wei Zhang, Xuejun Wang, Guoshuai Zhang, and Qianggong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10557–10574,Short summary
Total gaseous mercury concentrations were measured at Nam Co Station on the inland Tibetan Plateau for ~ 3 years. The mean concentration of TGM during the entire monitoring period was 1.33 ± 0.24 ngm-3, ranking it the lowest in China and indicating the pristine atmospheric environment of the inland Tibetan Plateau. Variation of TGM at Nam Co was affected by regional surface reemission, vertical mixing and long-range transported atmospheric mercury, which was associated with the Indian monsoon.
Zirui Liu, Wenkang Gao, Yangchun Yu, Bo Hu, Jinyuan Xin, Yang Sun, Lili Wang, Gehui Wang, Xinhui Bi, Guohua Zhang, Honghui Xu, Zhiyuan Cong, Jun He, Jingsha Xu, and Yuesi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8849–8871,Short summary
We have established a national-level network (CARE-China) that conducted continuous monitoring of PM2.5 and its chemical compositions in China. Our analysis reveals the spatial and seasonal variabilities of the urban and background aerosol species and their contributions to the PM2.5 budget. The integration of data provided an extensive spatial coverage of fine-particle concentrations and could be used to validate model results and implement effective air pollution control strategies.
Hewen Niu, Shichang Kang, Hailong Wang, Rudong Zhang, Xixi Lu, Yun Qian, Rukumesh Paudyal, Shijin Wang, Xiaofei Shi, and Xingguo Yan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6441–6460,Short summary
Deposition of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol on the surface of glaciers can greatly alter the energy fluxes of glaciers. Two years of continuous observations of carbonaceous aerosols in a glacierized region are analyzed. We mainly studied the light absorption properties of carbonaceous aerosol and have employed a global aerosol–climate model to estimate source attributions of atmospheric black carbon.
D. Rupakheti, S. Kang, Z. Cong, M. Rupakheti, L. Tripathee, A. K. Panday, and B. Holben
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-3, 1493–1497,
Chaman Gul, Siva Praveen Puppala, Shichang Kang, Bhupesh Adhikary, Yulan Zhang, Shaukat Ali, Yang Li, and Xiaofei Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4981–5000,Short summary
Snow and ice samples were collected from six glaciers and multiple mountain valleys from northern Pakistan. Samples were analyzed for black carbon and water-insoluble organic carbon. Relatively high concentrations of black carbon, organic carbon, and dust were reported. Snow albedo and radiative forcing were estimated for the snow samples. Possible source regions of pollutants were identified through various techniques.
Xiaowan Zhu, Guiqian Tang, Jianping Guo, Bo Hu, Tao Song, Lili Wang, Jinyuan Xin, Wenkang Gao, Christoph Münkel, Klaus Schäfer, Xin Li, and Yuesi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4897–4910,Short summary
Our study first conducted a long-term observation of mixing layer height (MLH) with high resolution on the North China Plain (NCP), analyzed the spatiotemporal variations of regional MLH, investigated the reasons for MLH differences in the NCP and revealed the meteorological reasons for heavy haze pollution in southern Hebei. The study results provide scientific suggestions for regional industrial structure readjustment and have great importance for achieving the integrated development goals.
Meng Gao, Zhiwei Han, Zirui Liu, Meng Li, Jinyuan Xin, Zhining Tao, Jiawei Li, Jeong-Eon Kang, Kan Huang, Xinyi Dong, Bingliang Zhuang, Shu Li, Baozhu Ge, Qizhong Wu, Yafang Cheng, Yuesi Wang, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Joshua S. Fu, Tijian Wang, Mian Chin, Jung-Hun Woo, Qiang Zhang, Zifa Wang, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4859–4884,Short summary
Topic 3 of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) Phase III examines how online coupled air quality models perform in simulating high aerosol pollution in the North China Plain region during wintertime haze events and evaluates the importance of aerosol radiative and microphysical feedbacks. A comprehensive overview of the MICS-ASIA III Topic 3 study design is presented.
Xinghua Zhang, Jianzhong Xu, Shichang Kang, Yanmei Liu, and Qi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4617–4638,Short summary
Highly time and chemically resolved submicron aerosol properties were characterized online for the first time in a high-altitude site (Qomolangma station, 4276 m a.s.l.) in the northern Himalayas by using the Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS. Biomass burning plumes were frequently observed and the dynamic processes (emissions, transport, and chemical processing) were characterized. The source and chemical composition of organic aerosol were further elucidated using positive matrix factorization analysis.
Haipeng Wang, Jianhui Chen, Shengda Zhang, David D. Zhang, Zongli Wang, Qinghai Xu, Shengqian Chen, Shijin Wang, Shichang Kang, and Fahu Chen
Clim. Past, 14, 383–396,Short summary
The chironomid-inferred temperature record from Gonghai Lake exhibits a stepwise decreasing trend since 4 ka. A cold event in the Era of Disunity, the Sui-Tang Warm Period, the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age can all be recognized in our record, as well as in many other temperature reconstructions in China. Local wars in Shanxi Province, documented in the historical literature during the past 2700 years, are statistically significantly correlated with changes in temperature.
Syuichi Itahashi, Keiya Yumimoto, Itsushi Uno, Hiroshi Hayami, Shin-ichi Fujita, Yuepeng Pan, and Yuesi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2835–2852,Short summary
Ground-based observations of precipitation chemistry over China, Korea, and Japan from 2001 to 2015 were compiled, and the ratio of nitrate to non-sea-salt sulfate concentration in precipitation was analyzed to identify the long-term record of acidifying species. The variations in the ratio in East Asia corresponded to the NOx / SO2 emission ratio and the NO2 / SO2 column ratio in China. The results indicated that the acidity of precipitation shifted from sulfur to nitrogen.
Xin Wang, Hui Wen, Jinsen Shi, Jianrong Bi, Zhongwei Huang, Beidou Zhang, Tian Zhou, Kaiqi Fu, Quanliang Chen, and Jinyuan Xin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2119–2138,Short summary
A ground-based mobile laboratory was deployed near the dust source regions over northwestern China. We not only captured natural dust but also characterized the properties of anthropogenic soil dust produced by agricultural cultivations. The results indicate that large differences were found between the optical and microphysical properties of anthropogenic and natural dust.
Yulan Zhang, Shichang Kang, Michael Sprenger, Zhiyuan Cong, Tanguang Gao, Chaoliu Li, Shu Tao, Xiaofei Li, Xinyue Zhong, Min Xu, Wenjun Meng, Bigyan Neupane, Xiang Qin, and Mika Sillanpää
The Cryosphere, 12, 413–431,Short summary
Light-absorbing impurities deposited on snow can reduce surface albedo and contribute to the near-worldwide melting of snowpack and ice. This study focused on the black carbon and mineral dust in snow cover on the Tibetan Plateau. We discussed their concentrations, distributions, possible sources, and albedo reduction and radiative forcing. Findings indicated that the impacts of black carbon and mineral dust need to be properly accounted for in future regional climate projections.
Xinyue Zhong, Tingjun Zhang, Shichang Kang, Kang Wang, Lei Zheng, Yuantao Hu, and Huijuan Wang
The Cryosphere, 12, 227–245,
Jianzhong Xu, Qi Zhang, Jinsen Shi, Xinlei Ge, Conghui Xie, Junfeng Wang, Shichang Kang, Ruixiong Zhang, and Yuhang Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 427–443,Short summary
This manuscript presents results from a comprehensive field study using an HR-AMS coupled with a suite of other instruments in central Tibetan Plateau. The study discusses the chemical composition, sources, and processes of submicron aerosol during the transition from pre-monsoon to monsoon. Organic aerosol was overall highly oxidized during the entire study with higher O / C ratios during the pre-monsoon period. Sensitivity of air pollution transport with synoptic process was also evaluated.
Lin Zhang, Youfan Chen, Yuanhong Zhao, Daven K. Henze, Liye Zhu, Yu Song, Fabien Paulot, Xuejun Liu, Yuepeng Pan, Yi Lin, and Binxiang Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 339–355,Short summary
Substantial differences exist in current estimates of agricultural ammonia emissions in China, hindering understanding of their environmental consequences. This study applies both bottom-up and top-down methods to better quantify agricultural ammonia sources in China using observations from satellite and surface networks interpreted by a chemical transport model. Our estimate of annual Chinese anthropogenic ammonia emission is 11.7 tg (teragram) for 2008 with a strong seasonality peak in summer.
Lin Feng, Yanqing An, Jianzhong Xu, Shichang Kang, Xiaofei Li, Yongqiang Zhou, Yunlin Zhang, Bin Jiang, and Yuhong Liao
Revised manuscript not accepted
Xiaojuan Huang, Zirui Liu, Jingyun Liu, Bo Hu, Tianxue Wen, Guiqian Tang, Junke Zhang, Fangkun Wu, Dongsheng Ji, Lili Wang, and Yuesi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12941–12962,Short summary
Recently, haze pollution has frequently occurred in North China. Therefore, we conducted synchronous measurements of PM2.5 for 1 year to investigate the haze formation mechanism, sources, and influences of regional transport. The results revealed that secondary aerosols, coal combustion, and motor vehicle exhaust exerted significant impacts on urban haze formation. The mitigation strategy of reducing gaseous precursors emitted from fossil fuel combustion was suggested.
Chaoliu Li, Fangping Yan, Shichang Kang, Pengfei Chen, Xiaowen Han, Zhaofu Hu, Guoshuai Zhang, Ye Hong, Shaopeng Gao, Bin Qu, Zhejing Zhu, Jiwei Li, Bing Chen, and Mika Sillanpää
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11899–11912,Short summary
In this study, we found, due to contribution of carbonates, previously reported BC concentration in atmosphere of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP) were overestimated by around 39–52 %. Meanwhile, we found BC deposition of lake cores overestimated the atmospheric deposition of BC in the HTP; BC depositions of glacier region reflected actual values of 17.9 ± 5.3 mg m−2 a−1. The above results are critical for studying atmospheric distribution and chemical transport of BC in and around the HTP.
Xiufeng Yin, Shichang Kang, Benjamin de Foy, Zhiyuan Cong, Jiali Luo, Lang Zhang, Yaoming Ma, Guoshuai Zhang, Dipesh Rupakheti, and Qianggong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11293–11311,Short summary
We presented 5-year surface ozone measurements at Nam Co in the inland Tibetan Plateau and made a synthesis comparison of diurnal and seasonal patterns on regional and hemispheric scales. Surface ozone at Nam Co is mainly dominated by natural processes and is less influenced by stratospheric intrusions and human activities than on the rim of the Tibetan Plateau. Ozone at Nam Co is representative of background that is valuable for studying ozone-related effects on large scales.
Dipesh Rupakheti, Bhupesh Adhikary, Puppala Siva Praveen, Maheswar Rupakheti, Shichang Kang, Khadak Singh Mahata, Manish Naja, Qianggong Zhang, Arnico Kumar Panday, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11041–11063,Short summary
For the first time, atmospheric composition was monitored during pre-monsoon season of 2013 at Lumbini (UNESCO world heritage site as birthplace of the Buddha). PM and O3 frequently exceeded WHO guidelines. Pollution concentration, diurnal characteristics and influence of open burning on air quality in Lumbini were investigated. Potential source regions were also identified. Results show that air pollution at this site is of a great concern, requiring prompt attention for mitigation.
Yuanhong Zhao, Lin Zhang, Amos P. K. Tai, Youfan Chen, and Yuepeng Pan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9781–9796,Short summary
Human activities have substantially enhanced atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen, inducing complex environmental consequences. This study presents a first quantitative investigation of how anthropogenic nitrogen deposition could impact surface ozone air quality through surface–atmosphere exchange processes. We find important surface ozone changes driven by nitrogen deposition, which can be comparable with those due to historical climate and land use changes.
Xin Wan, Shichang Kang, Quanlian Li, Dipesh Rupakheti, Qianggong Zhang, Junming Guo, Pengfei Chen, Lekhendra Tripathee, Maheswar Rupakheti, Arnico K. Panday, Wu Wang, Kimitaka Kawamura, Shaopeng Gao, Guangming Wu, and Zhiyuan Cong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8867–8885,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) tracers in the aerosols in Lumbini, northern IGP, were studied for the first time. The levoglucosan was the predominant tracer and BB significantly contributed to the air quality in Lumbini. Mixed crop residues and hardwood were main burning materials. BB emissions constituted large fraction of OC, especially during the post-monsoon season. The sources of BB aerosols in Lumbini varies seasonally due to the influence of local emissions and long-range transport.
Yuqin Liu, Gerrit de Leeuw, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jiahua Zhang, Putian Zhou, Wei Nie, Ximeng Qi, Juan Hong, Yonghong Wang, Aijun Ding, Huadong Guo, Olaf Krüger, Markku Kulmala, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5623–5641,Short summary
The aerosol effects on warm cloud parameters over the Yangtze River Delta are systematically examined using multi-sensor retrievals. This study shows that the COT–CDR and CWP–CDR relationships are not unique, but are affected by atmospheric aerosol loading. CDR and cloud fraction show different behaviours for low and high AOD. Aerosol–cloud interaction (ACI) is stronger for clouds mixed with smoke aerosol than for clouds mixed with dust. Meteorological conditions play an important role in ACI.
Dongwei Liu, Weixing Zhu, Xiaobo Wang, Yuepeng Pan, Chao Wang, Dan Xi, Edith Bai, Yuesi Wang, Xingguo Han, and Yunting Fang
Biogeosciences, 14, 989–1001,Short summary
The use of 15N natural abundance of soil ammonium and nitrate demonstrates a clear shifting contribution from abiotic to biotic controls on N cycling along a 3200 km dryland transect in northern China, with a threshold at mean annual precipitation of 100 mm. Abiotic factors were the main driver below threshold, shown by the accumulation of atmospheric N and NH3 losses. In the area above threshold, soil N cycling was controlled mainly by biological factors, e.g., plant uptake and denitrification.
Wen Xu, Wei Song, Yangyang Zhang, Xuejun Liu, Lin Zhang, Yuanhong Zhao, Duanyang Liu, Aohan Tang, Daowei Yang, Dandan Wang, Zhang Wen, Yuepeng Pan, David Fowler, Jeffrey L. Collett Jr., Jan Willem Erisman, Keith Goulding, Yi Li, and Fusuo Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 31–46,Short summary
This paper evaluates the effectiveness of emission control measures implemented in Beijing during the Parade Blue period by integrating our own results, official-released data and modeling data. We demonstrate that emission control measures make a major contribution to air quality improvement in Beijing and surrounding regions. We conclude a joint local and regional control of secondary aerosol precursors to be key to curbing air pollution in Beijing.
Jianzhong Xu, Jinsen Shi, Qi Zhang, Xinlei Ge, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Matthias Vonwiller, Sönke Szidat, Jinming Ge, Jianmin Ma, Yanqing An, Shichang Kang, and Dahe Qin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14937–14957,Short summary
This study deployed an AMS field study in Lanzhou, a city in northwestern China, evaluating the chemical composition, sources, and processes of urban aerosols during wintertime. In comparison with the results during summer in Lanzhou, the air pollution during winter was more severe and the sources were more complex. In addition, this paper estimates the contributions of fossil and non-fossil sources of organic carbon to primary and secondary organic carbon using the carbon isotopic method.
Fangping Yan, Shichang Kang, Chaoliu Li, Yulan Zhang, Xiang Qin, Yang Li, Xiaopeng Zhang, Zhaofu Hu, Pengfei Chen, Xiaofei Li, Bin Qu, and Mika Sillanpää
The Cryosphere, 10, 2611–2621,Short summary
DOC release of Laohugou Glacier No. 12 was 192 kg km−2 yr−1, of which 43.2 % could be decomposed and return to atmosphere as CO2 within 28 days, producing positive feedback in the warming process and influencing downstream ecosystems. Radiative forcing of snow pit DOC was calculated to be 0.43 W m−2, accounting for about 10 % of the radiative forcing caused by BC. Therefore, DOC is also a light-absorbing agent in glacierized regions, influencing the albedo of glacier surface and glacier melting.
Shengyun Chen, Wenjie Liu, Qian Zhao, Lin Zhao, Qingbai Wu, Xingjie Lu, Shichang Kang, Xiang Qin, Shilong Chen, Jiawen Ren, and Dahe Qin
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Experimental warming was manipulated using open top chambers in alpine grassland ecosystem in the permafrost regions of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The results revealed variations of earlier thawing, later freezing and longer freezing-thawing periods in shallow soil. Further, the estimated permafrost table declined under the warming scenarios. The work will be helpful to evaluate the stability of Qinghai-Tibet Railway/Highway and estimate the release of carbon under the future climate warming.
Xiao Tang, Jiang Zhu, ZiFa Wang, Alex Gbaguidi, CaiYan Lin, JinYuan Xin, Tao Song, and Bo Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6395–6405,Short summary
Chemical data assimilation through adjusting precursor emissions has brought out notable impacts on improving ozone forecasts in previous studies. This paper, from another point of view, investigated in detail the impacts of adjusting nitrogen oxide emissions on the forecasts of nitrogen dioxide through assimilating ozone observations. Limitations of the existing chemical data assimilation methods in a highly nonlinear system were identified and highlighted.
Yang Li, Jizu Chen, Shichang Kang, Chaoliu Li, Bin Qu, Lekhendra Tripathee, Fangping Yan, Yulan Zhang, Junmin Guo, Chaman Gul, and Xiang Qin
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
To our knowledge, this study constitutes the first quantitative dataset of the impacts of light absorbing particles (LAPs) on glacier ablation estimated directly from the northeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau (TP).The average concentrations of black carbon (BC) and mineral dust (MD) in surface snow and ice at Laohugou Glacier No. 12 (LHG) were much higher than those detected in snow pits and ice cores in TP and Tien Shan mountains.
Andrea Ghirardo, Junfei Xie, Xunhua Zheng, Yuesi Wang, Rüdiger Grote, Katja Block, Jürgen Wildt, Thomas Mentel, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Mattias Hallquist, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, and Jörg-Peter Schnitzler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2901–2920,Short summary
Trees can impact urban air quality. Large emissions of plant volatiles are emitted in Beijing as a stress response to the urban polluted environment, but their impacts on secondary particulate matter remain relatively low compared to those originated from anthropogenic activities. The present study highlights the importance of including stress-induced compounds when studying plant volatile emissions.
Guiqian Tang, Jinqiang Zhang, Xiaowan Zhu, Tao Song, Christoph Münkel, Bo Hu, Klaus Schäfer, Zirui Liu, Junke Zhang, Lili Wang, Jinyuan Xin, Peter Suppan, and Yuesi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2459–2475,Short summary
This is the first paper to validate and characterize mixing layer height and discuss its relationship with air pollution, using a ceilometer in Beijing. The novelty, originality, and importance of this paper are as follows: (1) the applicable conditions of the ceilometer; (2) the variations of mixing layer height; (3) thermal/dynamic structure inside mixing layers with different degrees of pollution; and (4) critical meteorological conditions for the formation of heavy air pollution.
M. Gao, G. R. Carmichael, Y. Wang, P. E. Saide, M. Yu, J. Xin, Z. Liu, and Z. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1673–1691,Short summary
The WRF-Chem model was applied to study the 2010 winter haze in North China. Air pollutants outside Beijing contributed about 64.5 % to the PM2.5 levels in Beijing during this haze event, and most of them are from south Hebei, Tianjin city, Shandong and Henan provinces. In addition, aerosol feedback has important impacts on surface temperature, Relative Humidity (RH) and wind speeds, and these meteorological variables affect aerosol distribution and formation in turn.
S. L. Tian, Y. P. Pan, and Y. S. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1–19,Short summary
Size-resolved chemical information of particulate matter remains unclear in China due to a paucity of measurement data. One-year observation of water-soluble ions, carbonaceous species and trace elements in size-resolved particles with cutoff points as 0.43, 0.65, 1.1, 2.1, 3.3, 4.7, 5.8 and 9.0 μm were conducted in mega city Beijing. This unique dataset provided multidimensional insights into the sources among different size fractions, seasons or wind flows and between non-haze and haze days.
G. Tang, X. Zhu, B. Hu, J. Xin, L. Wang, C. Münkel, G. Mao, and Y. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12667–12680,Short summary
The manuscript is the first paper to validate and discuss the high-resolution vertical profiles of aerosols using a ceilometer in Beijing, China. We introduce the contribution of aerosols during different air pollution episodes in Beijing. Also, we seize the opportunity of emission reduction during APEC to study the contribution of aerosols. The results are helpful to provide guidance in redefining coordinated emission control strategies to control the regional pollution over northern China.
W. Xu, X. S. Luo, Y. P. Pan, L. Zhang, A. H. Tang, J. L. Shen, Y. Zhang, K. H. Li, Q. H. Wu, D. W. Yang, Y. Y. Zhang, J. Xue, W. Q. Li, Q. Q. Li, L. Tang, S. H. Lu, T. Liang, Y. A. Tong, P. Liu, Q. Zhang, Z. Q. Xiong, X. J. Shi, L. H. Wu, W. Q. Shi, K. Tian, X. H. Zhong, K. Shi, Q. Y. Tang, L. J. Zhang, J. L. Huang, C. E. He, F. H. Kuang, B. Zhu, H. Liu, X. Jin, Y. J. Xin, X. K. Shi, E. Z. Du, A. J. Dore, S. Tang, J. L. Collett Jr., K. Goulding, Y. X. Sun, J. Ren, F. S. Zhang, and X. J. Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12345–12360,Short summary
The annual average concentrations (1.3-47.0µg N m-3) and dry plus wet/bulk deposition fluxes (2.9-83.3kg N ha-1 yr-1) of inorganic Nr species ranked by land use as urban > rural > background sites and by regions as north China > southeast China > southwest China > northeast China > northwest China > Tibetan Plateau, reflecting the impact of anthropogenic Nr emission. Average dry and wet/bulk N deposition fluxes were 20.6 ± 11.2 and 19.3 ± 9.2kg kg N ha-1 yr-1 across China, respectively.
Y. W. Liu, Xu-Ri, Y. S. Wang, Y. P. Pan, and S. L. Piao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11683–11700,Short summary
We investigated inorganic N wet deposition at five sites in the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Combining in situ measurements in this and previous studies, the average wet deposition of NH4+-N, NO3--N, and inorganic N in the TP was estimated to be 1.06, 0.51, and 1.58 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively. Results suggest that earlier estimations based on chemical transport model simulations and/or limited field measurements likely overestimated substantially the regional inorganic N wet deposition in the TP.
J.-T. Lin, M.-Y. Liu, J.-Y. Xin, K. F. Boersma, R. Spurr, R. Martin, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11217–11241,Short summary
We conduct an improved OMI-based retrieval of tropospheric NO2 VCDs (POMINO) over China by explicitly accounting for aerosol optical effects and surface reflectance anisotropy. Compared to the traditional implicit aerosol treatment, an explicit treatment greatly lowers NO2 VCDs and subsequently estimated NOx emissions over eastern China, but with large spatiotemporal dependence. An explicit treatment also better captures high-pollution days. Effects of surface reflectance treatments are smaller.
Y. Zhao, L. Zhang, Y. Pan, Y. Wang, F. Paulot, and D. K. Henze
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10905–10924,Short summary
Rapid Asian industrialization has led to increased atmospheric nitrogen deposition downwind. This work analyzes the sources and processes controlling atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the northwestern Pacific. Both nitrogen emissions and meteorology, largely controlled by the East Asian Monsoon, determine the seasonality of nitrogen deposition. Ascribing deposition over the marginal seas to nitrogen sources from different regions and sectors shows important contribution from fertilizer use.
R.-Q. Shen, X. Ding, Q.-F. He, Z.-Y. Cong, Q.-Q. Yu, and X.-M. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8781–8793,Short summary
1) Seasonal trends of SOA tracers and origins were studied in the remote TP for the first time. 2) Seasonal variation of isoprene SOA tracers was mainly influenced by emission. 3) Due to the transport of air pollutants from the Indian subcontinent, aromatics SOA tracer presented relatively higher levels in the summer and elevated mass fractions in the winter. 4) Biogenic SOC dominated over anthropogenic SOC in the remote TP.
J. K. Zhang, D. S. Ji, Z. R. Liu, B. Hu, L. L. Wang, X. J. Huang, and Y. S. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
S. Song, N. E. Selin, A. L. Soerensen, H. Angot, R. Artz, S. Brooks, E.-G. Brunke, G. Conley, A. Dommergue, R. Ebinghaus, T. M. Holsen, D. A. Jaffe, S. Kang, P. Kelley, W. T. Luke, O. Magand, K. Marumoto, K. A. Pfaffhuber, X. Ren, G.-R. Sheu, F. Slemr, T. Warneke, A. Weigelt, P. Weiss-Penzias, D. C. Wip, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7103–7125,Short summary
A better knowledge of mercury (Hg) emission fluxes into the global atmosphere is important for assessing its human health impacts and evaluating the effectiveness of corresponding policy actions. We for the first time apply a top-down approach at a global scale to quantitatively estimate present-day mercury emission sources as well as key parameters in a chemical transport model, in order to better constrain the global biogeochemical cycle of mercury.
S. Kang, F. Wang, U. Morgenstern, Y. Zhang, B. Grigholm, S. Kaspari, M. Schwikowski, J. Ren, T. Yao, D. Qin, and P. A. Mayewski
The Cryosphere, 9, 1213–1222,
Y. H. Wang, Z. R. Liu, J. K. Zhang, B. Hu, D. S. Ji, Y. C. Yu, and Y. S. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3205–3215,
Z. Cong, S. Kang, K. Kawamura, B. Liu, X. Wan, Z. Wang, S. Gao, and P. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1573–1584,
Y. P. Pan and Y. S. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 951–972,Short summary
This paper presents the first concurrent measurements of wet and dry deposition of various trace elements in Northern China, covering an extensive area over 3 years in a global hotspot of air pollution. The unique field data can serve as a sound basis for the validation of regional emission inventories and biogeochemical or atmospheric chemistry models. The findings are very important for policy makers to create legislation to reduce the emissions and protect soil and water from air pollution.
J. K. Zhang, Y. Sun, Z. R. Liu, D. S. Ji, B. Hu, Q. Liu, and Y. S. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2887–2903,
Y. H. Wang, B. Hu, D. S. Ji, Z. R. Liu, G. Q. Tang, J. Y. Xin, H. X. Zhang, T. Song, L. L. Wang, W. K. Gao, X. K. Wang, and Y. S. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2419–2429,
N. Chao, G. Tang, Y. Wang, H. Wang, J. Huang, and J. Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Y. Kanaya, H. Akimoto, Z.-F. Wang, P. Pochanart, K. Kawamura, Y. Liu, J. Li, Y. Komazaki, H. Irie, X.-L. Pan, F. Taketani, K. Yamaji, H. Tanimoto, S. Inomata, S. Kato, J. Suthawaree, K. Okuzawa, G. Wang, S. G. Aggarwal, P. Q. Fu, T. Wang, J. Gao, Y. Wang, and G. Zhuang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8265–8283,
Y. P. Pan, Y. S. Wang, G. Q. Tang, and D. Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1675–1688,
Babu, S. S., Chaubey, J. P., Krishna Moorthy, K., Gogoi, M. M., Kompalli, S. K., Sreekanth, V., Bagare, S. P., Bhatt, B. C., Gaur, V. K., Prabhu, T. P., and Singh, N. S.: High altitude ( ∼ 4520 m amsl) measurements of black carbon aerosols over western trans-Himalayas: Seasonal heterogeneity and source apportionment, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D24201, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011jd016722, 2011.
Broxton, P. D., Zeng, X., Sulla-Menashe, D., and Troch, P. A.: A Global Land Cover Climatology Using MODIS Data, J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim., 53, 1593–1605, 2014.
Cao, J. J., Xu, B. Q., He, J. Q., Liu, X. Q., Han, Y. M., Wang, G. H., and Zhu, C. S.: Concentrations, seasonal variations, and transport of carbonaceous aerosols at a remote Mountainous region in western China, Atmos. Environ., 43, 4444–4452, 2009.
Cong, Z., Kang, S., Kawamura, K., Liu, B., Wan, X., Wang, Z., Gao, S., and Fu, P.: Carbonaceous aerosols on the south edge of the Tibetan Plateau: concentrations, seasonality and sources, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1573–1584, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-1573-2015, 2015.
Cong, Z. Y., Kang, S. C., Liu, X. D., and Wang, G. F.: Elemental composition of aerosol in the Nam Co region, Tibetan Plateau, during summer monsoon season, Atmos. Environ., 41, 1180–1187, 2007.
Decesari, S., Facchini, M. C., Carbone, C., Giulianelli, L., Rinaldi, M., Finessi, E., Fuzzi, S., Marinoni, A., Cristofanelli, P., Duchi, R., Bonasoni, P., Vuillermoz, E., Cozic, J., Jaffrezo, J. L., and Laj, P.: Chemical composition of PM10 and PM1 at the high-altitude Himalayan station Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P) (5079 m a.s.l.), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 4583–4596, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-4583-2010, 2010.
Huang, J., Minnis, P., Yi, Y., Tang, Q., Wang, X., Hu, Y., Liu, Z., Ayers, K., Trepte, C., and Winker, D.: Summer dust aerosols detected from CALIPSO over the Tibetan Plateau, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L18805, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL029938, 2007.
Kang, S., Chen, P., Li, C., Liu, B., and Cong, Z.: Atmospheric aerosol elements over the inland Tibetan Plateau: concentration, seasonality, and transport, Aerosol Air Qual. Res., 16, 789–800, 2016.
Kaufman, Y. J., Smirnov, A., Holben, B. N., and Dubovik, O.: Baseline maritime aerosol: Methodology to Derive the optical thickness and scattering properties, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3251–3254, 2001.
Kivekäs, N., Sun, J., Zhan, M., Kerminen, V.-M., Hyvärinen, A., Komppula, M., Viisanen, Y., Hong, N., Zhang, Y., Kulmala, M., Zhang, X.-C., Deli-Geer, and Lihavainen, H.: Long term particle size distribution measurements at Mount Waliguan, a high-altitude site in inland China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 5461–5474, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-5461-2009, 2009.
Lau, K., Kim, M., and Kim, K.: Asian summer monsoon anomalies induced by aerosol direct forcing: the role of the Tibetan Plateau, Clim. Dynam., 26, 855–864, 2006.
Lawrence, M. G.: Atmospheric science: Asia under a high-level brown cloud, Nat. Geosci., 4, 352–353, 2011.
Lin, W., Zhu, T., Song, Y., Zou, H., Tang, M., Tang, X., and Hu, J.: Photolysis of surface O3 and production potential of OH radicals in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D02309, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007jd008831, 2008.
Liu, B., Kang, S., Sun, J., Zhang, Y., Xu, R., Wang, Y., Liu, Y., and Cong, Z.: Wet precipitation chemistry at a high-altitude site (3,326 m a.s.l.) in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, Environ. Sci. Poll. Res., 20, 5013–5027, 2013.
Liu, B., Kang, S., Sun, J., Wan, X., Wang, Y., Gao, S., and Cong, Z.: Low-molecular-weight organic acids in the Tibetan Plateau: Results from one-year of precipitation samples at the SET station, Atmos. Environ., 86, 68–73, 2014.
Liu, Y. W., Xu-Ri, Wang, Y. S., Pan, Y. P., and Piao, S. L.: Wet deposition of atmospheric inorganic nitrogen at five remote sites in the Tibetan Plateau, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11683–11700, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-11683-2015, 2015.
Liu, Z., Liu, D., Huang, J., Vaughan, M., Uno, I., Sugimoto, N., Kittaka, C., Trepte, C., Wang, Z., Hostetler, C., and Winker, D.: Airborne dust distributions over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas derived from the first year of CALIPSO lidar observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 5045–5060, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-5045-2008, 2008.
Lüthi, Z. L., Škerlak, B., Kim, S.-W., Lauer, A., Mues, A., Rupakheti, M., and Kang, S.: Atmospheric brown clouds reach the Tibetan Plateau by crossing the Himalayas, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6007–6021, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-6007-2015, 2015.
Maenhaut, W., Raes, N., Chi, X., Cafmeyer, J., Wang, W., and Salma, I.: Chemical composition and mass closure for fine and coarse aerosols at a kerbside in Budapest, Hungary, in spring 2002, X-Ray Spectrom., 34, 290–296, 2005.
Mbourou, G. N. T., Bertrand, J. J., and Nicholson, S. E.: The Diurnal and Seasonal Cycles of Wind-Borne Dust over Africa North of the Equator, J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol., 36, 868–882, 1997.
Ming, J., Cachier, H., Xiao, C., Qin, D., Kang, S., Hou, S., and Xu, J.: Black carbon record based on a shallow Himalayan ice core and its climatic implications, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 1343–1352, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-1343-2008, 2008.
Ming, J., Du, Z., Xiao, C., Xu, X., and Zhang, D.: Darkening of the mid-Himalaya glaciers since 2000 and the potential causes, Environ. Res. Lett., 7, 014021, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/7/1/014021, 2012.
Panwar, T. S., Hooda, R. K., Lihavainen, H., Hyvarinen, A. P., Sharma, V. P., and Viisanen, Y.: Atmospheric aerosols at a regional background Himalayan site – Mukteshwar, India, Environ. Monit. Assess., 185, 4753–4764, 2013.
Patashnick, H. and Rupprecht, E. G.: Continuous PM-10s Measurements Using the Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance, J. Air Waste Manage., 41, 1079–1083, 1991.
Qu, B., Ming, J., Kang, S.-C., Zhang, G.-S., Li, Y.-W., Li, C.-D., Zhao, S.-Y., Ji, Z.-M., and Cao, J.-J.: The decreasing albedo of the Zhadang glacier on western Nyainqentanglha and the role of light-absorbing impurities, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11117–11128, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-11117-2014, 2014.
Ramanathan, V., Crutzen, P. J., Lelieveld, J., Mitra, A. P., Althausen, D., Anderson, J., Andreae, M. O., Cantrell, W., Cass, G. R., Chung, C. E., Clarke, A. D., Coakley, J. A., Collins, W. D., Conant, W. C., Dulac, F., Heintzenberg, J., Heymsfield, A. J., Holben, B., Howell, S., Hudson, J., Jayaraman, A., Kiehl, J. T., Krishnamurti, T. N., Lubin, D., McFarquhar, G., Novakov, T., Ogren, J. A., Podgorny, I. A., Prather, K., Priestley, K., Prospero, J. M., Quinn, P. K., Rajeev, K., Rasch, P., Rupert, S., Sadourny, R., Satheesh, S. K., Shaw, G. E., Sheridan, P., and Valero, F. P. J.: Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 28371–28398, 2001.
Ramanathan, V., Chung, C., Kim, D., Bettge, T., Buja, L., Kiehl, J. T., Washington, W. M., Fu, Q., Sikka, D. R., and Wild, M.: Atmospheric brown clouds: Impacts on South Asian climate and hydrological cycle, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 102, 5326–5333, 2005.
Shen, R.-Q., Ding, X., He, Q.-F., Cong, Z.-Y., Yu, Q.-Q., and Wang, X.-M.: Seasonal variation of secondary organic aerosol tracers in Central Tibetan Plateau, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8781–8793, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-8781-2015, 2015.
Sheng, J., Wang, X., Gong, P., Joswiak, D. R., Tian, L., Yao, T., and Jones, K. C.: Monsoon-Driven Transport of Organochlorine Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls to the Tibetan Plateau: Three Year Atmospheric Monitoring Study, Environ. Sci. Technol., 47, 3199–3208, 2013.
Stout, J. E.: Diurnal patterns of blowing sand, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 35, 314–318, 2010.
Vernier, J. P., Thomason, L. W., and Kar, J.: CALIPSO detection of an Asian tropopause aerosol layer, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L07804, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL046614, 2011.
Wang, Q., Han, Z., Tijian, W., and Yoshiro, H.: An estimate of biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds during summertime in China, Environ. Sci. Poll. Res., 14, 69–75, 2007.
Willeke, K. and Whitby, K. T.: Atmospheric Aerosols: Size Distribution Interpretation, J. Air Poll. Control Assoc., 25, 529–534, 1975.
Xia, X., Wang, P., Wang, Y., Li, Z., Xin, J., Liu, J., and Chen, H.: Aerosol optical depth over the Tibetan Plateau and its relation to aerosols over the Taklimakan Desert, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L16804, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008gl034981, 2008.
Xia, X., Zong, X., Cong, Z., Chen, H., Kang, S., and Wang, P.: Baseline continental aerosol over the central Tibetan plateau and a case study of aerosol transport from South Asia, Atmos. Environ., 45, 7370–7378, 2011.
Xin, J., Wang, Y., Pan, Y., Ji, D., Liu, Z., Wen, T., Wang, Y., Li, X., Sun, Y., Sun, J., Wang, P., Wang, G., Wang, X., Cong, Z., Song, T., Hu, B., Wang, L., Tang, G., Gao, W., Guo, Y., Miao, H., Tian, S., and Wang, L.: The Campaign on Atmospheric Aerosol Research Network of China: CARE-China, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 96, 1137–1155, 2015.
Xu, B., Cao, J., Hansen, J., Yao, T., Joswia, D. R., Wang, N., Wu, G., Wang, M., Zhao, H., Yang, W., Liu, X., and He, J.: Black soot and the survival of Tibetan glaciers, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 106, 22114–22118, 2009.
Xu, J., Wang, Z., Yu, G., Qin, X., Ren, J., and Qin, D.: Characteristics of water soluble ionic species in fine particles from a high altitude site on the northern boundary of Tibetan Plateau: Mixture of mineral dust and anthropogenic aerosol, Atmos. Res., 143, 43–56, 2014.
Yan, N., Wu, G., Zhang, X., Zhang, C., Xu, T., and Lazhu: Variation of aerosol optical properties from AERONET observation at Mt. Muztagh Ata, Eastern Pamirs, Atmos. Res., 153, 480–488, 2015.
Zhang, X. Y., Arimoto, R., Cao, J. J., An, Z. S., and Wang, D.: Atmospheric dust aerosol over the Tibetan Plateau, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 106, 18471–18476, 2001.
Zhang, Y., Sillanpää, M., Li, C., Guo, J., Qu, B., and Kang, S.: River water quality across the Himalayan regions: elemental concentrations in headwaters of Yarlung Tsangbo, Indus and Ganges River, Environ. Earth Sci., 73, 4151–4163, 2015.
Zhao, Z., Cao, J., Shen, Z., Xu, B., Zhu, C., Chen, L. W. A., Su, X., Liu, S., Han, Y., Wang, G., and Ho, K.: Aerosol particles at a high-altitude site on the Southeast Tibetan Plateau, China: Implications for pollution transport from South Asia, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 11360–11375, 2013.
The first observation net of background atmospheric aerosols of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau were conducted in 2011–2013, and the aerosol mass loadings were especially illustrated in this paper. Consequently, these terrestrial aerosol masses were strongly ecosystem-dependent, with various seasonality and diurnal cycles at these sites. These findings implicate that regional characteristics and fine-particle emissions need to be treated sensitively when assessing their climatic effects.
The first observation net of background atmospheric aerosols of the Himalayas and Tibetan...