Articles | Volume 22, issue 12
Research article
21 Jun 2022
Research article |  | 21 Jun 2022

The formation and composition of the Mount Everest plume in winter

Edward E. Hindman and Scott Lindstrom

Related subject area

Subject: Clouds and Precipitation | Research Activity: Remote Sensing | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)
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Cited articles

Anker, C., Hornbein, T., Lageson, D., Coburn, B., Byers, A., McDonald, B., Johnson, B., Jenkins, M., and Breashears, D.: The call of Everest, 1st Edn., National Geographic Society, 303 pp., ISBN 978-1-4262-1016-7, 2013. 
Anonymous Referee: Referee comment 1,, 2022. 
Baker, B. A. and Lawson, R. P.: In situ observations of the microphysical properties of wave, cirrus, and anvil clouds. Part I: wave clouds, J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 3160–3185,, 2006. 
Douglas, C. K. M.: Some alpine cloud forms, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 5, 175–177,, 1928. 
Grey, L., Johnson, A. V., Matthews, T., Perry, L. B., Elmore, A. C., Khadka, A., Shrestha, D., Tuladhar, S., Baidya, S. K., Aryal, D., and Gajurel, A. P.: Mount Everest's photogenic weather during the post-monsoon, Weather, 77, 156–160,, 2022.  
Short summary
Winds buffeting the Mt. Everest massif often produce plumes. This systematic study identified plumes from daily observations of real-time, on-line images from a geosynchronous meteorological satellite. The corresponding meteorological data were used with a cloud-forming model to show the plumes were composed, depending on the temperature, of droplets, crystals or both. They were not composed of resuspended snow, which is a common belief. We estimated the plumes may produce significant snowfall.
Final-revised paper