Articles | Volume 21, issue 14
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10851–10879, 2021
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
19 Jul 2021
Research article | 19 Jul 2021
The 2019 Raikoke volcanic eruption – Part 1: Dispersion model simulations and satellite retrievals of volcanic sulfur dioxide
Johannes de Leeuw et al.
Martin J. Osborne, Johannes de Leeuw, Claire Witham, Anja Schmidt, Frances Beckett, Nina Kristiansen, Joelle Buxmann, Cameron Saint, Ellsworth J. Welton, Javier Fochesatto, Ana R. Gomes, Ulrich Bundke, Andreas Petzold, Franco Marenco, and Jim Haywood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2975–2997,Short summary
Using the Met Office NAME dispersion model, supported by satellite- and ground-based remote-sensing observations, we describe the dispersion of aerosols from the 2019 Raikoke eruption and the concurrent wildfires in Alberta Canada. We show how the synergy of dispersion modelling and multiple observation sources allowed observers in the London VAAC to arrive at a more complete picture of the aerosol loading at altitudes commonly used by aviation.
Caroline Dang, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Haochi Che, Lu Zhang, Paola Formenti, Jonathan Taylor, Amie Dobracki, Sara Purdue, Pui-Shan Wong, Athanasios Nenes, Arthur Sedlacek III, Hugh Coe, Jens Redemann, Paquita Zuidema, Steven Howell, and James Haywood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9389–9412,Short summary
Transmission electron microscopy was used to analyze aged African smoke particles and how the smoke interacts with the marine atmosphere. We found that the volatility of organic aerosol increases with biomass burning plume age, that black carbon is often mixed with potassium salts and that the marine atmosphere can incorporate Na and Cl into smoke particles. Marine salts are more processed when mixed with smoke plumes, and there are interesting Cl-rich yet Na-absent marine particles.
Natalie J. Harvey, Helen F. Dacre, Cameron Saint, Andrew T. Prata, Helen N. Webster, and Roy G. Grainger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8529–8545,Short summary
In the event of a volcanic eruption, airlines need to make decisions about which routes are safe to operate and ensure that airborne aircraft land safely. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the application of a statistical technique that best combines ash information from satellites and a suite of computer forecasts of ash concentration to provide a range of plausible estimates of how much volcanic ash emitted from a volcano is available to undergo long-range transport.
Miriam Latsch, Andreas Richter, Henk Eskes, Maarten Sneep, Ping Wang, Pepijn Veefkind, Ronny Lutz, Diego Loyola, Athina Argyrouli, Pieter Valks, Thomas Wagner, Holger Sihler, Michel van Roozendael, Nicolas Theys, Huan Yu, Richard Siddans, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
The article investigates different S5P TROPOMI cloud retrieval algorithms for tropospheric trace gas retrievals. The cloud products show differences primarily over snow and ice and for scenes under sun glint. Some issues regarding across-track dependence are found for the cloud fractions as well as for the cloud heights.
Andrew T. Prata, Roy G. Grainger, Isabelle A. Taylor, Adam C. Povey, Simon R. Proud, and Caroline A. Poulsen
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Satellite observations can be used to track volcanic ash clouds as well as estimate their height, particle sizes and mass; however, the techniques used to extract this information are always associated some uncertainty. Here we describe advances in a satellite-based technique that is used to estimate ash cloud properties of the June 2019 Raikoke (Russia) eruption. Our results are significant because ash warning centres will require uncertainty information in the future.
Nicolas Theys, Christophe Lerot, Hugues Brenot, Jeroen van Gent, Isabelle De Smedt, Lieven Clarisse, Mike Burton, Matthew Varnam, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Sulfur dioxide plume height after a volcanic eruption is an important information for many different scientific studies and applications. Satellite UV retrievals are useful in this respect but available algorithms have shown so far limited sensitivity to SO2 height. Here we present a new technique to improve the retrieval of SO2 plume height for SO2 columns as low as 5 DU. We demonstrate the algorithm using TROPOMI measurements and compare with other height estimates.
Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Konstantinos Michailidis, Pascal Hedelt, Isabelle A. Taylor, Antje Inness, Lieven Clarisse, Dimitris Balis, Dmitry Efremenko, Diego Loyola, Roy G. Grainger, and Christian Retscher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5665–5683,Short summary
Volcanic eruptions eject large amounts of ash and trace gases into the atmosphere. The use of space-borne instruments enables the global monitoring of volcanic SO2 emissions in an economical and risk-free manner. The main aim of this paper is to present its extensive verification, accomplished within the ESA S5P+I: SO2LH project, over major recent volcanic eruptions, against collocated space-borne measurements, as well as assess its impact on the forecasts provided by CAMS.
Richard J. Pope, Rebecca Kelly, Eloise A. Marais, Ailish M. Graham, Chris Wilson, Jeremy J. Harrison, Savio J. A. Moniz, Mohamed Ghalaieny, Steve R. Arnold, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4323–4338,Short summary
Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are potent air pollutants which directly impact on human health. In this study, we use satellite nitrogen dioxide (NO2) data to evaluate the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of the UK official NOx emissions inventory, with reasonable agreement. We also derived satellite-based NOx emissions for several UK cities. In the case of London and Birmingham, the NAEI NOx emissions are potentially too low by >50%.
Luca Bugliaro, Dennis Piontek, Stephan Kox, Marius Schmidl, Bernhard Mayer, Richard Müller, Margarita Vázquez-Navarro, Daniel M. Peters, Roy G. Grainger, Josef Gasteiger, and Jayanta Kar
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1029–1054,Short summary
The monitoring of ash dispersion in the atmosphere is an important task for satellite remote sensing since ash represents a threat to air traffic. We present an AI-based method that retrieves the spatial extension and properties of volcanic ash clouds with high temporal resolution during day and night by means of geostationary satellite measurements. This algorithm, trained on realistic observations simulated with a radiative transfer model, runs operationally at the German Weather Service.
Michael P. Cartwright, Richard J. Pope, Jeremy J. Harrison, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Chris Wilson, Wuhu Feng, David P. Moore, and Parvadha Suntharalingam
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
A 3-D chemical transport model, TOMCAT, is used to simulate global atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS) distribution. We test the validity of using gross primary productivity to estimate OCS vegetative uptake and show that the array of emissions used offers an improvement on a control set of emissions. Model simulations also compare adequately with surface and atmospheric observations, suitably capturing seasonality of OCS and background concentration.
Davide Zanchettin, Claudia Timmreck, Myriam Khodri, Anja Schmidt, Matthew Toohey, Manabu Abe, Slimane Bekki, Jason Cole, Shih-Wei Fang, Wuhu Feng, Gabriele Hegerl, Ben Johnson, Nicolas Lebas, Allegra N. LeGrande, Graham W. Mann, Lauren Marshall, Landon Rieger, Alan Robock, Sara Rubinetti, Kostas Tsigaridis, and Helen Weierbach
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2265–2292,Short summary
This paper provides metadata and first analyses of the volc-pinatubo-full experiment of CMIP6-VolMIP. Results from six Earth system models reveal significant differences in radiative flux anomalies that trace back to different implementations of volcanic forcing. Surface responses are in contrast overall consistent across models, reflecting the large spread due to internal variability. A second phase of VolMIP shall consider both aspects toward improved protocol for volc-pinatubo-full.
Frances Beckett, Eduardo Rossi, Benjamin Devenish, Claire Witham, and Costanza Bonadonna
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3409–3431,Short summary
As volcanic ash is transported through the atmosphere, it may collide and stick together to form aggregates. Neglecting the process of aggregation in atmospheric dispersion models could lead to inaccurate forecasts used by civil aviation for hazard assessment. We developed an aggregation scheme for use with the model NAME, which is used by the London Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre. Using our scheme, we investigate the impact of aggregation on simulations of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull ash cloud.
Martin J. Osborne, Johannes de Leeuw, Claire Witham, Anja Schmidt, Frances Beckett, Nina Kristiansen, Joelle Buxmann, Cameron Saint, Ellsworth J. Welton, Javier Fochesatto, Ana R. Gomes, Ulrich Bundke, Andreas Petzold, Franco Marenco, and Jim Haywood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2975–2997,Short summary
Using the Met Office NAME dispersion model, supported by satellite- and ground-based remote-sensing observations, we describe the dispersion of aerosols from the 2019 Raikoke eruption and the concurrent wildfires in Alberta Canada. We show how the synergy of dispersion modelling and multiple observation sources allowed observers in the London VAAC to arrive at a more complete picture of the aerosol loading at altitudes commonly used by aviation.
Matilda A. Pimlott, Richard J. Pope, Brian J. Kerridge, Barry G. Latter, Diane S. Knappett, Dwayne E. Heard, Lucy J. Ventress, Richard Siddans, Wuhu Feng, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We present a new method to derive global information of the hydroxyl radical (OH), an important atmospheric oxidant. OH controls the lifetime of trace gases important to air quality and climate. We use satellite observations of ozone, carbon monoxide, methane and water vapour in a simple expression to derive OH around 3–4 km altitude. The derived OH compares well to model and aircraft OH data. We then apply the method to 10 years of satellite data to study the inter-annual variability of OH.
Catherine Hardacre, Jane P. Mulcahy, Richard J. Pope, Colin G. Jones, Steven T. Rumbold, Can Li, Colin Johnson, and Steven T. Turnock
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18465–18497,Short summary
We investigate UKESM1's ability to represent the sulfur (S) cycle in the recent historical period. The S cycle is a key driver of historical radiative forcing. Earth system models such as UKESM1 should represent the S cycle well so that we can have confidence in their projections of future climate. We compare UKESM1 to observations of sulfur compounds, finding that the model generally performs well. We also identify areas for UKESM1’s development, focussing on how SO2 is removed from the air.
Christophe Lerot, François Hendrick, Michel Van Roozendael, Leonardo M. A. Alvarado, Andreas Richter, Isabelle De Smedt, Nicolas Theys, Jonas Vlietinck, Huan Yu, Jeroen Van Gent, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Jean-François Müller, Pieter Valks, Diego Loyola, Hitoshi Irie, Vinod Kumar, Thomas Wagner, Stefan F. Schreier, Vinayak Sinha, Ting Wang, Pucai Wang, and Christian Retscher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7775–7807,Short summary
Global measurements of glyoxal tropospheric columns from the satellite instrument TROPOMI are presented. Such measurements can contribute to the estimation of atmospheric emissions of volatile organic compounds. This new glyoxal product has been fully characterized with a comprehensive error budget, with comparison with other satellite data sets as well as with validation based on independent ground-based remote sensing glyoxal observations.
Nicolas Theys, Vitali Fioletov, Can Li, Isabelle De Smedt, Christophe Lerot, Chris McLinden, Nickolay Krotkov, Debora Griffin, Lieven Clarisse, Pascal Hedelt, Diego Loyola, Thomas Wagner, Vinod Kumar, Antje Innes, Roberto Ribas, François Hendrick, Jonas Vlietinck, Hugues Brenot, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16727–16744,Short summary
We present a new algorithm to retrieve sulfur dioxide from space UV measurements. We apply the technique to high-resolution TROPOMI measurements and demonstrate the high sensitivity of the approach to weak SO2 emissions worldwide with an unprecedented limit of detection of 8 kt yr−1. This result has broad implications for atmospheric science studies dealing with improving emission inventories and identifying and quantifying missing sources, in the context of air quality and climate.
Hugues Brenot, Nicolas Theys, Lieven Clarisse, Jeroen van Gent, Daniel R. Hurtmans, Sophie Vandenbussche, Nikolaos Papagiannopoulos, Lucia Mona, Timo Virtanen, Andreas Uppstu, Mikhail Sofiev, Luca Bugliaro, Margarita Vázquez-Navarro, Pascal Hedelt, Michelle Maree Parks, Sara Barsotti, Mauro Coltelli, William Moreland, Simona Scollo, Giuseppe Salerno, Delia Arnold-Arias, Marcus Hirtl, Tuomas Peltonen, Juhani Lahtinen, Klaus Sievers, Florian Lipok, Rolf Rüfenacht, Alexander Haefele, Maxime Hervo, Saskia Wagenaar, Wim Som de Cerff, Jos de Laat, Arnoud Apituley, Piet Stammes, Quentin Laffineur, Andy Delcloo, Robertson Lennart, Carl-Herbert Rokitansky, Arturo Vargas, Markus Kerschbaum, Christian Resch, Raimund Zopp, Matthieu Plu, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Michel Van Roozendael, and Gerhard Wotawa
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3367–3405,Short summary
The purpose of the EUNADICS-AV (European Natural Airborne Disaster Information and Coordination System for Aviation) prototype early warning system (EWS) is to develop the combined use of harmonised data products from satellite, ground-based and in situ instruments to produce alerts of airborne hazards (volcanic, dust, smoke and radionuclide clouds), satisfying the requirement of aviation air traffic management (ATM) stakeholders (https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/723986).
Dawei Hu, M. Rami Alfarra, Kate Szpek, Justin M. Langridge, Michael I. Cotterell, Claire Belcher, Ian Rule, Zixia Liu, Chenjie Yu, Yunqi Shao, Aristeidis Voliotis, Mao Du, Brett Smith, Greg Smallwood, Prem Lobo, Dantong Liu, Jim M. Haywood, Hugh Coe, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16161–16182,Short summary
Here, we developed new techniques for investigating these properties in the laboratory and applied these to BC and BrC from different sources, including diesel exhaust, inverted propane flame and wood combustion. These have allowed us to quantify the changes in shape and chemical composition of different soots according to source and variables such as the moisture content of wood.
Zixia Liu, Martin Osborne, Karen Anderson, Jamie D. Shutler, Andy Wilson, Justin Langridge, Steve H. L. Yim, Hugh Coe, Suresh Babu, Sreedharan K. Satheesh, Paquita Zuidema, Tao Huang, Jack C. H. Cheng, and James Haywood
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6101–6118,Short summary
This paper first validates the performance of an advanced aerosol observation instrument POPS against a reference instrument and examines any biases introduced by operating it on a quadcopter drone. The results show the POPS performs relatively well on the ground. The impact of the UAV rotors on the POPS is small at low wind speeds, but when operating under higher wind speeds, larger discrepancies occur. It appears that the POPS measures sub-micron aerosol particles more accurately on the UAV.
Isabelle De Smedt, Gaia Pinardi, Corinne Vigouroux, Steven Compernolle, Alkis Bais, Nuria Benavent, Folkert Boersma, Ka-Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Kai-Uwe Eichmann, Pascal Hedelt, François Hendrick, Hitoshi Irie, Vinod Kumar, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Bavo Langerock, Christophe Lerot, Cheng Liu, Diego Loyola, Ankie Piters, Andreas Richter, Claudia Rivera Cárdenas, Fabian Romahn, Robert George Ryan, Vinayak Sinha, Nicolas Theys, Jonas Vlietinck, Thomas Wagner, Ting Wang, Huan Yu, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12561–12593,Short summary
This paper assess the performances of the TROPOMI formaldehyde observations compared to its predecessor OMI at different spatial and temporal scales. We also use a global network of MAX-DOAS instruments to validate both satellite datasets for a large range of HCHO columns. The precision obtained with daily TROPOMI observations is comparable to monthly OMI observations. We present clear detection of weak HCHO column enhancements related to shipping emissions in the Indian Ocean.
Claire Lamotte, Jonathan Guth, Virginie Marécal, Martin Cussac, Paul David Hamer, Nicolas Theys, and Philipp Schneider
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11379–11404,Short summary
Improvements are made in a global chemical transfer model by considering a new volcanic SO2 emissions inventory, with more volcanoes referenced and more information on the altitude of injection. Better constraining volcanic emissions with this inventory improves the global, but mostly local, tropospheric sulfur composition. The tropospheric sulfur budget shows a nonlinearity to the volcanic contribution, especially to the sulfate aerosol burden and sulfur wet deposition.
Pieternel F. Levelt, Deborah C. Stein Zweers, Ilse Aben, Maite Bauwens, Tobias Borsdorff, Isabelle De Smedt, Henk J. Eskes, Christophe Lerot, Diego G. Loyola, Fabian Romahn, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Nicolas Theys, Michel Van Roozendael, J. Pepijn Veefkind, and Tijl Verhoelst
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Using the COVID-19 lockdown periods as an example, we show how the Sentinel-5P/TROPOMI trace gas data (NO2, SO2, CO, HCHO and CHOCHO) can be used to understand impacts on air quality for regions and cities around the globe. We also provide information for both experienced and inexperienced users about how we created the data using state-of-the-art algorithms, where to get the data, methods taking meteorological and seaonal variability into consideration, and insights for future studies.
John Staunton-Sykes, Thomas J. Aubry, Youngsub M. Shin, James Weber, Lauren R. Marshall, Nathan Luke Abraham, Alex Archibald, and Anja Schmidt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9009–9029,
Akash Biswal, Vikas Singh, Shweta Singh, Amit P. Kesarkar, Khaiwal Ravindra, Ranjeet S. Sokhi, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip S. Dhomse, Richard J. Pope, Tanbir Singh, and Suman Mor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5235–5251,Short summary
Satellite and surface observations show a reduction in NO2 levels over India during the lockdown compared to business-as-usual years. A substantial reduction, proportional to the population, was observed over the urban areas. The changes in NO2 levels at the surface during the lockdown appear to be present in the satellite observations. However, TROPOMI showed a better correlation with surface NO2 and was more sensitive to the changes than OMI because of the finer resolution.
Thomas Thorp, Stephen R. Arnold, Richard J. Pope, Dominick V. Spracklen, Luke Conibear, Christoph Knote, Mikhail Arshinov, Boris Belan, Eija Asmi, Tuomas Laurila, Andrei I. Skorokhod, Tuomo Nieminen, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4677–4697,Short summary
We compare modelled near-surface pollutants with surface and satellite observations to better understand the controls on the regional concentrations of pollution in western Siberia for late spring and summer in 2011. We find two commonly used emission inventories underestimate human emissions when compared to observations. Transport emissions are the main source of pollutants within the region during this period, whilst fire emissions peak during June and are only significant south of 60° N.
Margot Clyne, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Michael J. Mills, Myriam Khodri, William Ball, Slimane Bekki, Sandip S. Dhomse, Nicolas Lebas, Graham Mann, Lauren Marshall, Ulrike Niemeier, Virginie Poulain, Alan Robock, Eugene Rozanov, Anja Schmidt, Andrea Stenke, Timofei Sukhodolov, Claudia Timmreck, Matthew Toohey, Fiona Tummon, Davide Zanchettin, Yunqian Zhu, and Owen B. Toon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3317–3343,Short summary
This study finds how and why five state-of-the-art global climate models with interactive stratospheric aerosols differ when simulating the aftermath of large volcanic injections as part of the Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing (VolMIP). We identify and explain the consequences of significant disparities in the underlying physics and chemistry currently in some of the models, which are problems likely not unique to the models participating in this study.
Jens Redemann, Robert Wood, Paquita Zuidema, Sarah J. Doherty, Bernadette Luna, Samuel E. LeBlanc, Michael S. Diamond, Yohei Shinozuka, Ian Y. Chang, Rei Ueyama, Leonhard Pfister, Ju-Mee Ryoo, Amie N. Dobracki, Arlindo M. da Silva, Karla M. Longo, Meloë S. Kacenelenbogen, Connor J. Flynn, Kristina Pistone, Nichola M. Knox, Stuart J. Piketh, James M. Haywood, Paola Formenti, Marc Mallet, Philip Stier, Andrew S. Ackerman, Susanne E. Bauer, Ann M. Fridlind, Gregory R. Carmichael, Pablo E. Saide, Gonzalo A. Ferrada, Steven G. Howell, Steffen Freitag, Brian Cairns, Brent N. Holben, Kirk D. Knobelspiesse, Simone Tanelli, Tristan S. L'Ecuyer, Andrew M. Dzambo, Ousmane O. Sy, Greg M. McFarquhar, Michael R. Poellot, Siddhant Gupta, Joseph R. O'Brien, Athanasios Nenes, Mary Kacarab, Jenny P. S. Wong, Jennifer D. Small-Griswold, Kenneth L. Thornhill, David Noone, James R. Podolske, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Peter Pilewskie, Hong Chen, Sabrina P. Cochrane, Arthur J. Sedlacek, Timothy J. Lang, Eric Stith, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Richard A. Ferrare, Sharon P. Burton, Chris A. Hostetler, David J. Diner, Felix C. Seidel, Steven E. Platnick, Jeffrey S. Myers, Kerry G. Meyer, Douglas A. Spangenberg, Hal Maring, and Lan Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1507–1563,Short summary
Southern Africa produces significant biomass burning emissions whose impacts on regional and global climate are poorly understood. ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) is a 5-year NASA investigation designed to study the key processes that determine these climate impacts. The main purpose of this paper is to familiarize the broader scientific community with the ORACLES project, the dataset it produced, and the most important initial findings.
Andy Jones, Jim M. Haywood, Anthony C. Jones, Simone Tilmes, Ben Kravitz, and Alan Robock
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1287–1304,Short summary
Two different methods of simulating a geoengineering scenario are compared using data from two different Earth system models. One method is very idealised while the other includes details of a plausible mechanism. The results from both models agree that the idealised approach does not capture an impact found when detailed modelling is included, namely that geoengineering induces a positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation which leads to warmer, wetter winters in northern Europe.
Larry W. Thomason, Mahesh Kovilakam, Anja Schmidt, Christian von Savigny, Travis Knepp, and Landon Rieger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1143–1158,Short summary
Measurements of the impact of volcanic eruptions on stratospheric aerosol loading by space-based instruments show show a fairly well-behaved relationship between the magnitude and the apparent changes to aerosol size over several orders of magnitude. This directly measured relationship provides a unique opportunity to verify the performance of interactive aerosol models used in climate models.
Gaia Pinardi, Michel Van Roozendael, François Hendrick, Nicolas Theys, Nader Abuhassan, Alkiviadis Bais, Folkert Boersma, Alexander Cede, Jihyo Chong, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Anatoly Dzhola, Henk Eskes, Udo Frieß, José Granville, Jay R. Herman, Robert Holla, Jari Hovila, Hitoshi Irie, Yugo Kanaya, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Natalia Kouremeti, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Jianzhong Ma, Enno Peters, Ankie Piters, Oleg Postylyakov, Andreas Richter, Julia Remmers, Hisahiro Takashima, Martin Tiefengraber, Pieter Valks, Tim Vlemmix, Thomas Wagner, and Folkard Wittrock
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6141–6174,Short summary
We validate several GOME-2 and OMI tropospheric NO2 products with 23 MAX-DOAS and 16 direct sun instruments distributed worldwide, highlighting large horizontal inhomogeneities at several sites affecting the validation results. We propose a method for quantification and correction. We show the application of such correction reduces the satellite underestimation in almost all heterogeneous cases, but a negative bias remains over the MAX-DOAS and direct sun network ensemble for both satellites.
Huihui Wu, Jonathan W. Taylor, Kate Szpek, Justin M. Langridge, Paul I. Williams, Michael Flynn, James D. Allan, Steven J. Abel, Joseph Pitt, Michael I. Cotterell, Cathryn Fox, Nicholas W. Davies, Jim Haywood, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12697–12719,Short summary
Airborne measurements of highly aged biomass burning aerosols (BBAs) over the remote southeast Atlantic provide unique aerosol parameters for climate models. Our observations demonstrate the persistence of strongly absorbing BBAs across wide regions of the South Atlantic. We also found significant vertical variation in the single-scattering albedo of these BBAs, as a function of relative chemical composition and size. Aerosol properties in the marine BL are suggested to be separated from the FT.
Ilias Bougoudis, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Andreas Richter, Sora Seo, John Philip Burrows, Nicolas Theys, and Annette Rinke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11869–11892,Short summary
A 22-year (1996 to 2017) consistent Arctic tropospheric BrO dataset derived from four satellite remote sensing instruments is presented. An increase in tropospheric BrO VCDs over this period, and especially during polar springs, can be seen. Comparisons of tropospheric BrO VCDs with first-year sea ice reveal a moderate spatial and temporal correlation between the two, suggesting that the increase in first-year sea ice in the Arctic has an impact on tropospheric BrO abundancies.
Matthew J. Rowlinson, Alexandru Rap, Douglas S. Hamilton, Richard J. Pope, Stijn Hantson, Steve R. Arnold, Jed O. Kaplan, Almut Arneth, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Piers M. Forster, and Lars Nieradzik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10937–10951,Short summary
Tropospheric ozone is an important greenhouse gas which contributes to anthropogenic climate change; however, the effect of human emissions is uncertain because pre-industrial ozone concentrations are not well understood. We use revised inventories of pre-industrial natural emissions to estimate the human contribution to changes in tropospheric ozone. We find that tropospheric ozone radiative forcing is up to 34 % lower when using improved pre-industrial biomass burning and vegetation emissions.
Caroline A. Poulsen, Gregory R. McGarragh, Gareth E. Thomas, Martin Stengel, Matthew W. Christensen, Adam C. Povey, Simon R. Proud, Elisa Carboni, Rainer Hollmann, and Roy G. Grainger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2121–2135,Short summary
We have created a satellite cloud and radiation climatology from the ATSR-2 and AATSR on board ERS-2 and Envisat, respectively, which spans the period 1995–2012. The data set was created using a combination of optimal estimation and neural net techniques. The data set was created as part of the ESA Climate Change Initiative program. The data set has been compared with active CALIOP lidar measurements and compared with MAC-LWP AND CERES-EBAF measurements and is shown to have good performance.
Yajuan Li, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Sandip S. Dhomse, Richard J. Pope, Faquan Li, and Dong Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8627–8639,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau (TP) exerts important thermal and dynamical effects on atmospheric circulation, climate change as well as the ozone distribution. In this study, we use updated observations and model simulations to investigate the ozone trends and variations over the TP. Wintertime TP ozone variations are largely controlled by tropical to high-latitude transport processes, whereas summertime concentrations are a combined effect of photochemical decay and tropical processes.
Jiayue Huang, Lyatt Jaeglé, Qianjie Chen, Becky Alexander, Tomás Sherwen, Mat J. Evans, Nicolas Theys, and Sungyeon Choi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7335–7358,Short summary
Large-scale enhancements of tropospheric BrO and the depletion of surface ozone are often observed in the springtime Arctic. Here, we use a chemical transport model to examine the role of sea salt aerosol from blowing snow in explaining these phenomena. We find that our simulation can account for the spatiotemporal variability of satellite observations of BrO. However, the model has difficulty in producing the magnitude of observed ozone depletion events.
Marcus Hirtl, Delia Arnold, Rocio Baro, Hugues Brenot, Mauro Coltelli, Kurt Eschbacher, Helmut Hard-Stremayer, Florian Lipok, Christian Maurer, Dieter Meinhard, Lucia Mona, Marie D. Mulder, Nikolaos Papagiannopoulos, Michael Pernsteiner, Matthieu Plu, Lennart Robertson, Carl-Herbert Rokitansky, Barbara Scherllin-Pirscher, Klaus Sievers, Mikhail Sofiev, Wim Som de Cerff, Martin Steinheimer, Martin Stuefer, Nicolas Theys, Andreas Uppstu, Saskia Wagenaar, Roland Winkler, Gerhard Wotawa, Fritz Zobl, and Raimund Zopp
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1719–1739,Short summary
The paper summarizes the set-up and outcome of a volcanic-hazard demonstration exercise, with the goals of assessing and mitigating the impacts of volcanic ash clouds on civil and military aviation. Experts in the field simulated the sequence of procedures for an artificial eruption of the Etna volcano in Italy. The scope of the exercise ranged from the detection of the assumed event to the issuance of early warnings and optimized rerouting of flights.
Vitali Fioletov, Chris A. McLinden, Debora Griffin, Nicolas Theys, Diego G. Loyola, Pascal Hedelt, Nickolay A. Krotkov, and Can Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5591–5607,
Adrianus de Laat, Margarita Vazquez-Navarro, Nicolas Theys, and Piet Stammes
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1203–1217,Short summary
TROPOMI satellite measurements can accurately determine the height of thick volcanic ash clouds from a short-lived volcanic eruption of the Sinabung volcano in Indonesia. Standard geostationary satellite detection of volcanic ash was limited due to the presence of water and ice in the upper parts of volcanic ash clouds, a known issue. The TROPOMI satellite measurements do not suffer from this limitation, hence providing information where standard geostationary volcanic ash detection is limited.
Alexander T. Archibald, Fiona M. O'Connor, Nathan Luke Abraham, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Mohit Dalvi, Gerd A. Folberth, Fraser Dennison, Sandip S. Dhomse, Paul T. Griffiths, Catherine Hardacre, Alan J. Hewitt, Richard S. Hill, Colin E. Johnson, James Keeble, Marcus O. Köhler, Olaf Morgenstern, Jane P. Mulcahy, Carlos Ordóñez, Richard J. Pope, Steven T. Rumbold, Maria R. Russo, Nicholas H. Savage, Alistair Sellar, Marc Stringer, Steven T. Turnock, Oliver Wild, and Guang Zeng
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1223–1266,Short summary
Here we present a description and evaluation of the UKCA stratosphere–troposphere chemistry scheme (StratTrop vn 1.0) implemented in the UK Earth System Model (UKESM1). UKCA StratTrop represents a substantial step forward compared to previous versions of UKCA. We show here that it is fully suited to the challenges of representing interactions in a coupled Earth system model and identify key areas and components for future development that will make it even better in the future.
Ignacio Pisso, Espen Sollum, Henrik Grythe, Nina I. Kristiansen, Massimo Cassiani, Sabine Eckhardt, Delia Arnold, Don Morton, Rona L. Thompson, Christine D. Groot Zwaaftink, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Harald Sodemann, Leopold Haimberger, Stephan Henne, Dominik Brunner, John F. Burkhart, Anne Fouilloux, Jerome Brioude, Anne Philipp, Petra Seibert, and Andreas Stohl
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 4955–4997,Short summary
We present the latest release of the Lagrangian transport model FLEXPART, which simulates the transport, diffusion, dry and wet deposition, radioactive decay, and 1st-order chemical reactions of atmospheric tracers. The model has been recently updated both technically and in the representation of physicochemical processes. We describe the changes, document the most recent input and output files, provide working examples, and introduce testing capabilities.
Isabelle A. Taylor, Elisa Carboni, Lucy J. Ventress, Tamsin A. Mather, and Roy G. Grainger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3853–3883,Short summary
Volcanic ash is a hazard associated with volcanoes. Knowing an ash cloud’s location is essential for minimising the hazard. This includes knowing the height. This study adapted a well-known technique for obtaining the height of meteorological clouds, known as CO2 slicing, for volcanic ash. Modelled data were used to refine the method and then demonstrate that the technique could work for volcanic ash. It was then successfully applied to data from the Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn eruptions.
Matthew J. Rowlinson, Alexandru Rap, Stephen R. Arnold, Richard J. Pope, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Joe McNorton, Piers Forster, Hamish Gordon, Kirsty J. Pringle, Wuhu Feng, Brian J. Kerridge, Barry L. Latter, and Richard Siddans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8669–8686,Short summary
Wildfires and meteorology have a substantial effect on atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases such as methane and ozone. During the 1997 El Niño event, unusually large fire emissions indirectly increased global methane through carbon monoxide emission, which decreased the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere. There were also large regional changes to tropospheric ozone concentrations, but contrasting effects of fire and meteorology resulted in a small change to global radiative forcing.
Lorenzo M. Polvani, Antara Banerjee, and Anja Schmidt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6351–6366,Short summary
This study provides compelling new evidence that the surface winter warming observed over the Northern Hemisphere continents following the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo was, very likely, completely unrelated to the eruption. This result has implications for earlier eruptions, as the evidence presented here demonstrates that the surface signal of even the very largest known eruptions may be swamped by the internal variability at high latitudes.
Eoghan Darbyshire, William T. Morgan, James D. Allan, Dantong Liu, Michael J. Flynn, James R. Dorsey, Sebastian J. O'Shea, Douglas Lowe, Kate Szpek, Franco Marenco, Ben T. Johnson, Stephane Bauguitte, Jim M. Haywood, Joel F. Brito, Paulo Artaxo, Karla M. Longo, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5771–5790,Short summary
A novel analysis of aerosol and gas-phase vertical profiles shows a marked regional pollution contrast: composition is driven by the fire regime and vertical distribution is driven by thermodynamics. These drivers ought to be well represented in simulations to ensure realistic prediction of climate and air quality impacts. The BC : CO ratio in haze and plumes increases with altitude – long-range transport or fire stage coupled to plume dynamics may be responsible. Further enquiry is advocated.
Yang Wang, Steffen Dörner, Sebastian Donner, Sebastian Böhnke, Isabelle De Smedt, Russell R. Dickerson, Zipeng Dong, Hao He, Zhanqing Li, Zhengqiang Li, Donghui Li, Dong Liu, Xinrong Ren, Nicolas Theys, Yuying Wang, Yang Wang, Zhenzhu Wang, Hua Xu, Jiwei Xu, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5417–5449,Short summary
A MAX-DOAS instrument was operated to derive tropospheric vertical profiles of NO2, SO2, HONO, HCHO, CHOCHO and aerosols in the central western North China Plain in May and June 2016. The MAX-DOAS results are verified by comparisons with a collocated Raman lidar, overpass aircraft measurements, a sun photometer and in situ measurements. The contributions of regional transports and local emissions to the pollutants are evaluated based on case studies and statistic analysis.
Ayoe Buus Hansen, Claire Suzanne Witham, Wei Ming Chong, Emma Kendall, Boon Ning Chew, Christopher Gan, Matthew Craig Hort, and Shao-Yi Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5363–5385,Short summary
We have modelled biomass burning haze concentrations in Singapore between 2010 and 2015. The major contributing haze source regions at two monitoring stations located in the western and eastern part of Singapore, less than 30 km apart, show significant variation on seasonal and annual timescales, as well as between the stations. Our results show that haze concentrations in Singapore are driven by a combination of local and regional weather, climate, and the location of regional burning.
Elisa Carboni, Tamsin A. Mather, Anja Schmidt, Roy G. Grainger, Melissa A. Pfeffer, Iolanda Ialongo, and Nicolas Theys
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4851–4862,Short summary
The 2014–2015 Holuhraun eruption was the largest in Iceland for 200 years, emitting huge quantities of gas into the troposphere, at times overwhelming European anthropogenic emissions. Infrared Atmospheric sounding Interferometer data are used to derive the first time series of daily sulfur dioxide mass and vertical distribution over the eruption period. A scheme is used to estimate sulfur dioxide fluxes, the total erupted mass, and how long the sulfur dioxide remains in the atmosphere.
Raid M. Suleiman, Kelly Chance, Xiong Liu, Gonzalo González Abad, Thomas P. Kurosu, Francois Hendrick, and Nicolas Theys
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2067–2084,Short summary
This paper presents the retrieval algorithm for the operational OMBRO data product and shows comparisons with correlative measurements and retrieval results. We highlight the physics of the retrieval. We compare the OMBRO products with other satellite and in situ measurements of BrO and illustrate the quality of the product on a global scale. We study OMBRO enhancements in volcanic plumes and over salt lakes. We also discuss the shortcomings and future updates of the OMBRO product.
Martin Osborne, Florent F. Malavelle, Mariana Adam, Joelle Buxmann, Jaqueline Sugier, Franco Marenco, and Jim Haywood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3557–3578,Short summary
In this paper we present an analysis of the unusual
red skyevent that occurred over the UK on 15 and 16 October 2017. We use measurements from the Met Office operational lidar and sun-photometer network, as well as other data and model output, to show that the event was caused by the passage of ex-hurricane Ophelia which transported unusual amounts of dust from the Sahara to the UK as well as smoke from forest fires in Portugal.
Florent F. Malavelle, Jim M. Haywood, Lina M. Mercado, Gerd A. Folberth, Nicolas Bellouin, Stephen Sitch, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1301–1326,Short summary
Diffuse light can increase the efficiency of vegetation photosynthesis. Diffuse light results from scattering by either clouds or aerosols in the atmosphere. During the dry season biomass burning (BB) on the edges of the Amazon rainforest contributes significantly to the aerosol burden over the entire region. We show that despite a modest effect of change in light conditions, the overall impact of BB aerosols on the vegetation is still important when indirect climate feedbacks are considered.
Ting Wang, Pucai Wang, Nicolas Theys, Dan Tong, François Hendrick, Qiang Zhang, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 18063–18078,Short summary
In the last decade, four temporal regimes of SO2 in China have been identified. After an initial rise, SO2 undergoes two sharp drops in 2007–2008 and 2014–2016, during which 5-year rebounding is sustained. Different mechanisms are tied to North and South China. The industrial emission is responsible for SO2 variation in North China, while in South China the meteorological conditions make a large contribution. The result is crucial to the understanding of SO2 changes and future polices.
Ben Kravitz, Philip J. Rasch, Hailong Wang, Alan Robock, Corey Gabriel, Olivier Boucher, Jason N. S. Cole, Jim Haywood, Duoying Ji, Andy Jones, Andrew Lenton, John C. Moore, Helene Muri, Ulrike Niemeier, Steven Phipps, Hauke Schmidt, Shingo Watanabe, Shuting Yang, and Jin-Ho Yoon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13097–13113,Short summary
Marine cloud brightening has been proposed as a means of geoengineering/climate intervention, or deliberately altering the climate system to offset anthropogenic climate change. In idealized simulations that highlight contrasts between land and ocean, we find that the globe warms, including the ocean due to transport of heat from land. This study reinforces that no net energy input into the Earth system does not mean that temperature will necessarily remain unchanged.
Claudia Timmreck, Graham W. Mann, Valentina Aquila, Rene Hommel, Lindsay A. Lee, Anja Schmidt, Christoph Brühl, Simon Carn, Mian Chin, Sandip S. Dhomse, Thomas Diehl, Jason M. English, Michael J. Mills, Ryan Neely, Jianxiong Sheng, Matthew Toohey, and Debra Weisenstein
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 2581–2608,Short summary
The paper describes the experimental design of the Interactive Stratospheric Aerosol Model Intercomparison Project (ISA-MIP). ISA-MIP will improve understanding of stratospheric aerosol processes, chemistry, and dynamics and constrain climate impacts of background aerosol variability and small and large volcanic eruptions. It will help to asses the stratospheric aerosol contribution to the early 21st century global warming hiatus period and the effects from hypothetical geoengineering schemes.
Richard J. Pope, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Stephen R. Arnold, Norbert Glatthor, Wuhu Feng, Sandip S. Dhomse, Brian J. Kerridge, Barry G. Latter, and Richard Siddans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8389–8408,
Daniel T. McCoy, Paul R. Field, Anja Schmidt, Daniel P. Grosvenor, Frida A.-M. Bender, Ben J. Shipway, Adrian A. Hill, Jonathan M. Wilkinson, and Gregory S. Elsaesser
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5821–5846,Short summary
Here we use a combination of global convection-permitting models, satellite observations and the Holuhraun volcanic eruption to demonstrate that aerosol enhances the cloud liquid content and brightness of midlatitude cyclones. This is important because the strength of anthropogenic radiative forcing is uncertain, leading to uncertainty in the climate sensitivity consistent with observed temperature record.
Isabelle De Smedt, Nicolas Theys, Huan Yu, Thomas Danckaert, Christophe Lerot, Steven Compernolle, Michel Van Roozendael, Andreas Richter, Andreas Hilboll, Enno Peters, Mattia Pedergnana, Diego Loyola, Steffen Beirle, Thomas Wagner, Henk Eskes, Jos van Geffen, Klaas Folkert Boersma, and Pepijn Veefkind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2395–2426,Short summary
This paper introduces the formaldehyde (HCHO) tropospheric vertical column retrieval algorithm implemented in the TROPOMI/Sentinel-5 Precursor operational processor, and comprehensively describes its various retrieval steps. Furthermore, algorithmic improvements developed in the framework of the EU FP7-project QA4ECV are described for future updates of the processor. Detailed error estimates are discussed in the light of Copernicus user requirements and needs for validation are highlighted.
Amy K. Hodgson, William T. Morgan, Sebastian O'Shea, Stéphane Bauguitte, James D. Allan, Eoghan Darbyshire, Michael J. Flynn, Dantong Liu, James Lee, Ben Johnson, Jim M. Haywood, Karla M. Longo, Paulo E. Artaxo, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5619–5638,Short summary
We flew a large atmospheric research aircraft across a number of different biomass burning environments in the Amazon Basin in September and October 2012. In this paper, we focus on smoke sampled very close to fresh fires (only 600–900 m above the fires and smoke that was 4–6 min old) to examine the chemical components that make up the smoke and their abundance. We found substantial differences in the emitted smoke that are due to the fuel type and combustion processes driving the fires.
Nicholas W. Davies, Michael I. Cotterell, Cathryn Fox, Kate Szpek, Jim M. Haywood, and Justin M. Langridge
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2313–2324,Short summary
The poorly characterised optical properties of atmospheric aerosols are one of the major uncertainties when modelling future climate change. Photoacoustic spectroscopy is an accurate and sensitive method for measurement of aerosol light absorption. Photoacoustic spectrometers require calibration; hence this study validates the use of ozone as a calibrant and simultaneously verifies the accuracy of the photoacoustic spectrometers in question.
Maria Elissavet Koukouli, Nicolas Theys, Jieying Ding, Irene Zyrichidou, Bas Mijling, Dimitrios Balis, and Ronald Johannes van der A
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1817–1832,Short summary
Within the framework of the EU FP7 project MarcoPolo (Monitoring and Assessment of Regional air quality in China using space Observations), a new SO2 emission inventory over China was calculated using the CHIMERE CTM simulations, 10 years of OMI/Aura total SO2 columns and the bottom-up Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC v1.2).
Thibaut Lurton, Fabrice Jégou, Gwenaël Berthet, Jean-Baptiste Renard, Lieven Clarisse, Anja Schmidt, Colette Brogniez, and Tjarda J. Roberts
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3223–3247,Short summary
We quantify the chemical and microphysical effects of volcanic SO2 and HCl from the June 2009 Sarychev Peak eruption using a comprehensive aerosol–chemistry model combined with in situ measurements and satellite retrievals. Our results suggest that previous studies underestimated the eruption's atmospheric and climatic impact, mainly because previous model-to-satellite comparisons had to make assumptions about the aerosol size distribution and were based on biased satellite retrievals of AOD.
Lauren Marshall, Anja Schmidt, Matthew Toohey, Ken S. Carslaw, Graham W. Mann, Michael Sigl, Myriam Khodri, Claudia Timmreck, Davide Zanchettin, William T. Ball, Slimane Bekki, James S. A. Brooke, Sandip Dhomse, Colin Johnson, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Allegra N. LeGrande, Michael J. Mills, Ulrike Niemeier, James O. Pope, Virginie Poulain, Alan Robock, Eugene Rozanov, Andrea Stenke, Timofei Sukhodolov, Simone Tilmes, Kostas Tsigaridis, and Fiona Tummon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2307–2328,Short summary
We use four global aerosol models to compare the simulated sulfate deposition from the 1815 Mt. Tambora eruption to ice core records. Inter-model volcanic sulfate deposition differs considerably. Volcanic sulfate deposited on polar ice sheets is used to estimate the atmospheric sulfate burden and subsequently radiative forcing of historic eruptions. Our results suggest that deriving such relationships from model simulations may be associated with greater uncertainties than previously thought.
Camilla W. Stjern, Helene Muri, Lars Ahlm, Olivier Boucher, Jason N. S. Cole, Duoying Ji, Andy Jones, Jim Haywood, Ben Kravitz, Andrew Lenton, John C. Moore, Ulrike Niemeier, Steven J. Phipps, Hauke Schmidt, Shingo Watanabe, and Jón Egill Kristjánsson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 621–634,Short summary
Marine cloud brightening (MCB) has been proposed to help limit global warming. We present here the first multi-model assessment of idealized MCB simulations from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project. While all models predict a global cooling as intended, there is considerable spread between the models both in terms of radiative forcing and the climate response, largely linked to the substantial differences in the models' representation of clouds.
Sarah A. Monks, Stephen R. Arnold, Michael J. Hollaway, Richard J. Pope, Chris Wilson, Wuhu Feng, Kathryn M. Emmerson, Brian J. Kerridge, Barry L. Latter, Georgina M. Miles, Richard Siddans, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3025–3057,Short summary
The TOMCAT chemical transport model has been updated with the chemical degradation of ethene, propene, toluene, butane and monoterpenes. The tropospheric chemical mechanism is documented and the model is evaluated against surface, balloon, aircraft and satellite data. The model is generally able to capture the main spatial and seasonal features of carbon monoxide, ozone, volatile organic compounds and reactive nitrogen. However, some model biases are found that require further investigation.
Birthe Marie Steensen, Arve Kylling, Nina Iren Kristiansen, and Michael Schulz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9205–9222,Short summary
An inversion method is tested in a forecasting setting for constraining ash dispersion by satellite observations. The sensitivity of a priori and satellite uncertainties is tested for the a posteriori term. The a posteriori is also tested with four different assumptions affecting the retrieved ash satellite data. In forecasting mode, the a posteriori changes after only 12 h of satellite observations and produces better forecasts than a priori.
Yang Wang, Steffen Beirle, Johannes Lampel, Mariliza Koukouli, Isabelle De Smedt, Nicolas Theys, Ang Li, Dexia Wu, Pinhua Xie, Cheng Liu, Michel Van Roozendael, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Jean-François Müller, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5007–5033,Short summary
A long-term MAX-DOAS measurement from 2011 to 2014 was operated in Wuxi, part of the most industrialized area of the Yangtze River delta region of China. The tropospheric VCDs and vertical profiles of NO2, SO2 and HCHO derived from the MAX-DOAS are used to validate the products derived from OMI and GOME-2A/B by different scientific teams (daily- and bimonthly-averaged data). We investigate the effects of clouds, aerosols and a priori profile shapes on satellite retrievals of tropospheric VCDs.
Anja Schönhardt, Andreas Richter, Nicolas Theys, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4857–4870,Short summary
Iodine monoxide, IO, is observed in satellite measurements following the eruption of the Kasatochi volcano, Alaska, in August 2008. Large IO columns are detected by SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT and by GOME-2 on MetOp-A for several days. IO amounts are approximately 1 order of magnitude smaller than those of BrO. Details in the spatial distributions differ between IO, BrO and sulfur dioxide, SO2. The total mass of IO in the volcanic plume is determined to be on the order of 10 Mg.
Henrik Grythe, Nina I. Kristiansen, Christine D. Groot Zwaaftink, Sabine Eckhardt, Johan Ström, Peter Tunved, Radovan Krejci, and Andreas Stohl
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1447–1466,Short summary
A new and more physically based treatment of how removal by precipitation is calculated by FLEXPART is introduced to take into account more aspects of aerosol diversity. Also new is the definition of clouds and cloud properties. Results from simulations show good agreement with observed atmospheric concentrations for distinctly different aerosols. Atmospheric lifetimes were found to vary from a few hours (large aerosol particles) up to a month (small non-soluble particles)
Frances Beckett, Arve Kylling, Guðmunda Sigurðardóttir, Sibylle von Löwis, and Claire Witham
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4401–4418,Short summary
Ash deposits can be remobilized for years following a volcanic eruption, and the resulting resuspended ash clouds can pose a significant hazard to local populations and airports. The aim of this work is to improve our ability to forecast resuspended ash storms. We use satellite imagery to constrain the emission rate of resuspended particles in an atmospheric dispersion model used to forecast resuspension events in Iceland.
Ronald J. van der A, Bas Mijling, Jieying Ding, Maria Elissavet Koukouli, Fei Liu, Qing Li, Huiqin Mao, and Nicolas Theys
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1775–1789,Short summary
The SO2 concentrations and NOx emissions over China derived from satellite observations are compared with the national fossil fuel consumption and air quality regulations. It is shown that not only NO2 concentrations but also NOx emissions in all Chinese provinces decreased in the last 2 years. We conclude that without the air quality regulations the SO2 concentrations would be about 2.5 times higher and the NO2 concentrations would be at least 25 % higher than they are today in China.
Nicolas Theys, Isabelle De Smedt, Huan Yu, Thomas Danckaert, Jeroen van Gent, Christoph Hörmann, Thomas Wagner, Pascal Hedelt, Heiko Bauer, Fabian Romahn, Mattia Pedergnana, Diego Loyola, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 119–153,Short summary
This paper provides a thorough description of the algorithm to retrieve SO2 columns from TROPOMI/Sentinel-5 Precursor measurements. The different algorithmic steps including error analysis are detailed. Scientific verification of the algorithm and validation needs are also discussed.
Ben T. Johnson, James M. Haywood, Justin M. Langridge, Eoghan Darbyshire, William T. Morgan, Kate Szpek, Jennifer K. Brooke, Franco Marenco, Hugh Coe, Paulo Artaxo, Karla M. Longo, Jane P. Mulcahy, Graham W. Mann, Mohit Dalvi, and Nicolas Bellouin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14657–14685,Short summary
Biomass burning is a large source of carbonaceous aerosols, which scatter and absorb solar radiation, and modify cloud properties. We evaluate the simulation of biomass burning aerosol processes and properties in the HadGEM3 climate model using observations, including those from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis. We find that modelled aerosol optical depths are underestimated unless aerosol emissions (Global Fire Emission Database v3) are increased by a factor of 1.6–2.0.
Lucy J. Ventress, Gregory McGarragh, Elisa Carboni, Andrew J. Smith, and Roy G. Grainger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5407–5422,Short summary
The detection of volcanic ash plumes and knowledge of their properties have been of increasing interest due to the effect ash particles can have on the aviation industry. A new method is shown for use with hyperspectral satellite instruments, such as the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer, to derive optical and physical properties of volcanic ash. The results are compared to ancillary data sources, showing good agreement, which indicates better characterisation of volcanic plumes.
Richard J. Pope, Nigel A. D. Richards, Martyn P. Chipperfield, David P. Moore, Sarah A. Monks, Stephen R. Arnold, Norbert Glatthor, Michael Kiefer, Tom J. Breider, Jeremy J. Harrison, John J. Remedios, Carsten Warneke, James M. Roberts, Glenn S. Diskin, Lewis G. Huey, Armin Wisthaler, Eric C. Apel, Peter F. Bernath, and Wuhu Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13541–13559,
Vitali E. Fioletov, Chris A. McLinden, Nickolay Krotkov, Can Li, Joanna Joiner, Nicolas Theys, Simon Carn, and Mike D. Moran
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11497–11519,Short summary
We introduce the first space-based catalogue of SO2 emission sources seen by OMI. The inventory contains about 500 sources. They account for about a half of all SO2 emissions; the remaining half is likely related to sources emitting less than 30 kt yr−1 and not detected by OMI. The sources are grouped by type (volcanoes, power plants, oil- and gas-related sources, and smelters) and country. The catalogue presented herein can be used for verification of available SO2 emission inventories.
Marie Boichu, Isabelle Chiapello, Colette Brogniez, Jean-Christophe Péré, Francois Thieuleux, Benjamin Torres, Luc Blarel, Augustin Mortier, Thierry Podvin, Philippe Goloub, Nathalie Söhne, Lieven Clarisse, Sophie Bauduin, François Hendrick, Nicolas Theys, Michel Van Roozendael, and Didier Tanré
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10831–10845,Short summary
Bárðarbunga eruption emitted huge amounts of sulfur into the lower troposphere causing an unprecedented air pollution in the modern era. A wealth of remote sensing and in situ data allows us to jointly analyse the dynamics of volcanic SO2 and sulfate aerosols. Based on this panel of observations, success and challenges in simulating such volcanogenic long-range pollution events are exposed, focusing on the boundary layer dynamics.
Davide Zanchettin, Myriam Khodri, Claudia Timmreck, Matthew Toohey, Anja Schmidt, Edwin P. Gerber, Gabriele Hegerl, Alan Robock, Francesco S. R. Pausata, William T. Ball, Susanne E. Bauer, Slimane Bekki, Sandip S. Dhomse, Allegra N. LeGrande, Graham W. Mann, Lauren Marshall, Michael Mills, Marion Marchand, Ulrike Niemeier, Virginie Poulain, Eugene Rozanov, Angelo Rubino, Andrea Stenke, Kostas Tsigaridis, and Fiona Tummon
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2701–2719,Short summary
Simulating volcanically-forced climate variability is a challenging task for climate models. The Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to volcanic forcing (VolMIP) – an endorsed contribution to CMIP6 – defines a protocol for idealized volcanic-perturbation experiments to improve comparability of results across different climate models. This paper illustrates the design of VolMIP's experiments and describes the aerosol forcing input datasets to be used.
Birthe Marie Steensen, Michael Schulz, Nicolas Theys, and Hilde Fagerli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9745–9760,Short summary
The Bardarbunga volcanic fissure during the second half of 2014 caused large amounts of SO2 emission. The paper studies the effects of this increase in pollution levels over Europe during the first 3 months of the eruption with a dispersion model. The model results are compared to satellite and surface concentration observations. The biggest differences are found in Iceland and on the coast of northern Norway. For the average pollution levels over Europe, Iceland is located too far away.
Dimitris Balis, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Nikolaos Siomos, Spyridon Dimopoulos, Lucia Mona, Gelsomina Pappalardo, Franco Marenco, Lieven Clarisse, Lucy J. Ventress, Elisa Carboni, Roy G. Grainger, Ping Wang, Gijsbert Tilstra, Ronald van der A, Nicolas Theys, and Claus Zehner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5705–5720,Short summary
The ESA-funded SACS-2 and SMASH projects developed and improved dedicated satellite-derived ash plume and sulfur dioxide level assessments. These estimates were validated using ground-based and aircraft lidar measurements. The validation results are promising for most satellite products and are within the estimated uncertainties of each of the comparative data sets. The IASI data show a better consistency concerning the ash optical depth and ash layer height.
N. I. Kristiansen, A. Stohl, D. J. L. Olivié, B. Croft, O. A. Søvde, H. Klein, T. Christoudias, D. Kunkel, S. J. Leadbetter, Y. H. Lee, K. Zhang, K. Tsigaridis, T. Bergman, N. Evangeliou, H. Wang, P.-L. Ma, R. C. Easter, P. J. Rasch, X. Liu, G. Pitari, G. Di Genova, S. Y. Zhao, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, G. S. Faluvegi, H. Kokkola, R. V. Martin, J. R. Pierce, M. Schulz, D. Shindell, H. Tost, and H. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3525–3561,Short summary
Processes affecting aerosol removal from the atmosphere are not fully understood. In this study we investigate to what extent atmospheric transport models can reproduce observed loss of aerosols. We compare measurements of radioactive isotopes, that attached to ambient sulfate aerosols during the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident, to 19 models using identical emissions. Results indicate aerosol removal that is too fast in most models, and apply to aerosols that have undergone long-range transport.
Sophie Bauduin, Lieven Clarisse, Juliette Hadji-Lazaro, Nicolas Theys, Cathy Clerbaux, and Pierre-François Coheur
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 721–740,Short summary
The paper presents the development of a new retrieval scheme to infer near-surface sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations at a global scale from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). It demonstrates the capability of such an instrument to globally monitor anthropogenic SO2 pollution in the case of favourable geophysical conditions, especially high thermal contrast and low humidity.
Franco Marenco, Ben Johnson, Justin M. Langridge, Jane Mulcahy, Angela Benedetti, Samuel Remy, Luke Jones, Kate Szpek, Jim Haywood, Karla Longo, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2155–2174,Short summary
A widespread and persistent smoke layer was observed in the Amazon region during the biomass burning season, spanning a distance of 2200 km and a period of 14 days. The larger smoke content was typically found in elevated layers, from 1–1.5 km to 4–6 km. Measurements have been compared to model predictions, and the latter were able to reproduce the general features of the smoke layer, but with some differences which are analysed and described in the paper.
A.-M. Blechschmidt, A. Richter, J. P. Burrows, L. Kaleschke, K. Strong, N. Theys, M. Weber, X. Zhao, and A. Zien
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1773–1788,Short summary
A comprehensive case study of a comma-shaped bromine monoxide plume in the Arctic, which was transported by a polar cyclone and was observed by the GOME-2 satellite sensor over several days, is presented. By making combined use of different kinds of satellite data and numerical models, we demonstrate the important role of the frontal weather system in favouring the bromine activation cycle and blowing snow production, which may have acted as a bromine source during the bromine explosion event.
S. Hassinen, D. Balis, H. Bauer, M. Begoin, A. Delcloo, K. Eleftheratos, S. Gimeno Garcia, J. Granville, M. Grossi, N. Hao, P. Hedelt, F. Hendrick, M. Hess, K.-P. Heue, J. Hovila, H. Jønch-Sørensen, N. Kalakoski, A. Kauppi, S. Kiemle, L. Kins, M. E. Koukouli, J. Kujanpää, J.-C. Lambert, R. Lang, C. Lerot, D. Loyola, M. Pedergnana, G. Pinardi, F. Romahn, M. van Roozendael, R. Lutz, I. De Smedt, P. Stammes, W. Steinbrecht, J. Tamminen, N. Theys, L. G. Tilstra, O. N. E. Tuinder, P. Valks, C. Zerefos, W. Zimmer, and I. Zyrichidou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 383–407,Short summary
The three GOME-2 instruments will provide unique and long data sets for atmospheric research and applications. The complete time period will be 2007–2022, including the period of ozone depletion as well as the beginning of ozone layer recovery. The GOME-2 products (ozone, trace gases, aerosols and UV radiation) are important for ozone chemistry, air quality studies, climate modeling, policy monitoring and hazard warnings. The processing and dissemination is done by EUMETSAT O3M SAF project.
E. W. Butt, A. Rap, A. Schmidt, C. E. Scott, K. J. Pringle, C. L. Reddington, N. A. D. Richards, M. T. Woodhouse, J. Ramirez-Villegas, H. Yang, V. Vakkari, E. A. Stone, M. Rupakheti, P. S. Praveen, P. G. van Zyl, J. P. Beukes, M. Josipovic, E. J. S. Mitchell, S. M. Sallu, P. M. Forster, and D. V. Spracklen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 873–905,Short summary
We estimate the impact of residential emissions (cooking and heating) on atmospheric aerosol, human health, and climate. We find large contributions to annual mean ambient PM2.5 in residential sources regions resulting in significant but uncertain global premature mortality when key uncertainties in emission flux are considered. We show that residential emissions exert an uncertain global radiative effect and suggest more work is needed to characterise residential emissions climate importance.
I. De Smedt, T. Stavrakou, F. Hendrick, T. Danckaert, T. Vlemmix, G. Pinardi, N. Theys, C. Lerot, C. Gielen, C. Vigouroux, C. Hermans, C. Fayt, P. Veefkind, J.-F. Müller, and M. Van Roozendael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12519–12545,Short summary
We present the new version of the BIRA-IASB algorithm for the retrieval of H2CO columns from OMI and GOME-2A and B measurements. Validation results at seven stations in Europe, China and Africa confirm the capacity of the satellite measurements to resolve diurnal variations in H2CO columns. Furthermore, vertical profiles derived from MAX-DOAS measurements in Beijing and in Bujumbura are used for a more detailed validation exercise. Finally trends are estimated using 10 years of OMI observations.
A. C. Povey and R. G. Grainger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4699–4718,Short summary
Clear communication of the uncertainty on data is necessary for users to make appropriate use of it. This paper discusses the representation of uncertainty in satellite observations of the environment, arguing that the dominant sources of error are assumptions made during data analysis. The resulting uncertainty may be more usefully represented using ensemble techniques (a set of analyses using different assumptions to illustrate their impact) than with traditional statistical metrics.
R. J. Pope, N. H. Savage, M. P. Chipperfield, C. Ordóñez, and L. S. Neal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11201–11215,
S. T. Turnock, D. V. Spracklen, K. S. Carslaw, G. W. Mann, M. T. Woodhouse, P. M. Forster, J. Haywood, C. E. Johnson, M. Dalvi, N. Bellouin, and A. Sanchez-Lorenzo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9477–9500,Short summary
We evaluate HadGEM3-UKCA over Europe for the period 1960-2009 against observations of aerosol mass and number, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and surface solar radiation (SSR). The model underestimates aerosol mass and number but is less biased if compared to AOD and SSR. Observed trends in aerosols are well simulated by the model and necessary for reproducing the observed increase in SSR since 1990. European all-sky top of atmosphere aerosol radiative forcing increased by > 3 Wm-2 from 1970 to 2009.
R. J. Pope, M. P. Chipperfield, N. H. Savage, C. Ordóñez, L. S. Neal, L. A. Lee, S. S. Dhomse, N. A. D. Richards, and T. D. Keslake
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5611–5626,
J. Brito, L. V. Rizzo, W. T. Morgan, H. Coe, B. Johnson, J. Haywood, K. Longo, S. Freitas, M. O. Andreae, and P. Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12069–12083,Short summary
This paper details the physical--chemical characteristics of aerosols in a region strongly impacted by biomass burning in the western part of the Brazilian Amazon region. For such, a large suite of state-of-the-art instruments for realtime analysis was deployed at a ground site. Among the key findings, we observe the strong prevalence of organic aerosols associated to fire emissions, with important climate effects, and indications of its very fast processing in the atmosphere.
T. Wang, F. Hendrick, P. Wang, G. Tang, K. Clémer, H. Yu, C. Fayt, C. Hermans, C. Gielen, J.-F. Müller, G. Pinardi, N. Theys, H. Brenot, and M. Van Roozendael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11149–11164,
H. Brenot, N. Theys, L. Clarisse, J. van Geffen, J. van Gent, M. Van Roozendael, R. van der A, D. Hurtmans, P.-F. Coheur, C. Clerbaux, P. Valks, P. Hedelt, F. Prata, O. Rasson, K. Sievers, and C. Zehner
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 1099–1123,
L. Clarisse, P.-F. Coheur, N. Theys, D. Hurtmans, and C. Clerbaux
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3095–3111,
A. I. Partanen, A. Laakso, A. Schmidt, H. Kokkola, T. Kuokkanen, J.-P. Pietikäinen, V.-M. Kerminen, K. E. J. Lehtinen, L. Laakso, and H. Korhonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12059–12071,
M. Yoshida, J. M. Haywood, T. Yokohata, H. Murakami, and T. Nakajima
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10827–10845,
P. Kokkalis, A. Papayannis, V. Amiridis, R. E. Mamouri, I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, G. Tsaknakis, N. I. Kristiansen, A. Stohl, and L. Mona
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9303–9320,
F. Jégou, G. Berthet, C. Brogniez, J.-B. Renard, P. François, J. M. Haywood, A. Jones, Q. Bourgeois, T. Lurton, F. Auriol, S. Godin-Beekmann, C. Guimbaud, G. Krysztofiak, B. Gaubicher, M. Chartier, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, J. Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, and D. Daugeron
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6533–6552,
N. Theys, R. Campion, L. Clarisse, H. Brenot, J. van Gent, B. Dils, S. Corradini, L. Merucci, P.-F. Coheur, M. Van Roozendael, D. Hurtmans, C. Clerbaux, S. Tait, and F. Ferrucci
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5945–5968,
A. E. Jones, E. W. Wolff, N. Brough, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, R. Weller, M. Yela, M. Navarro-Comas, H. A. Ochoa, and N. Theys
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1457–1467,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Stratosphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)The roles of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation and El Niño for entry stratospheric water vapor in observations and coupled chemistry–ocean CCMI and CMIP6 modelsImproved estimation of volcanic SO2 injections from satellite retrievals and Lagrangian transport simulations: the 2019 Raikoke eruptionHemispheric asymmetries in recent changes in the stratospheric circulationA stratospheric prognostic ozone for seamless Earth system models: performance, impacts and futureThe stratospheric Brewer–Dobson circulation inferred from age of air in the ERA5 reanalysisSimulations of anthropogenic bromoform indicate high emissions at the coast of East AsiaSensitivity of stratospheric water vapour to variability in tropical tropopause temperatures and large-scale transportTechnical note: Lowermost-stratosphere moist bias in ECMWF IFS model diagnosed from airborne GLORIA observations during winter–spring 2016The response of stratospheric water vapor to climate change driven by different forcing agentsInfluence of convection on stratospheric water vapor in the North American monsoon regionElectricity savings and greenhouse gas emission reductions from global phase-down of hydrofluorocarbonsImpact of convectively lofted ice on the seasonal cycle of water vapor in the tropical tropopause layerSimulating the atmospheric response to the 11-year solar cycle forcing with the UM-UKCA model: the role of detection method and natural variabilityTransport of trace gases via eddy shedding from the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone and associated impacts on ozone heating ratesDetectability of the impacts of ozone-depleting substances and greenhouse gases upon stratospheric ozone accounting for nonlinearities in historical forcingsMulti-decadal records of stratospheric composition and their relationship to stratospheric circulation changeBrominated VSLS and their influence on ozone under a changing climateContribution of different processes to changes in tropical lower-stratospheric water vapor in chemistry–climate modelsQuantifying pollution transport from the Asian monsoon anticyclone into the lower stratosphereA new time-independent formulation of fractional releaseThe millennium water vapour drop in chemistry–climate model simulationsImpact of major volcanic eruptions on stratospheric water vapourVariability of water vapour in the Arctic stratosphereOn the hiatus in the acceleration of tropical upwelling since the beginning of the 21st centuryTrends in peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over southern Asia during the summer monsoon season: regional impactsSpatial regression analysis on 32 years of total column ozone dataOzone seasonality above the tropical tropopause: reconciling the Eulerian and Lagrangian perspectives of transport processesModeling upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric water vapor anomaliesEvolution of Antarctic ozone in September–December predicted by CCMVal-2 model simulations for the 21st centuryAssessment of the interannual variability and influence of the QBO and upwelling on tracer–tracer distributions of N2O and O3 in the tropical lower stratosphereOCS photolytic isotope effects from first principles: sulfur and carbon isotopes, temperature dependence and implications for the stratosphereOn the relationship between total ozone and atmospheric dynamics and chemistry at mid-latitudes – Part 2: The effects of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, volcanic eruptions and contributions of atmospheric dynamics and chemistry to long-term total ozone changesRelationships between Brewer-Dobson circulation, double tropopauses, ozone and stratospheric water vapourSimulation of stratospheric water vapor and trends using three reanalysesClimatological perspectives of air transport from atmospheric boundary layer to tropopause layer over Asian monsoon regions during boreal summer inferred from Lagrangian approachSolar response in tropical stratospheric ozone: a 3-D chemical transport model study using ERA reanalysesGeomagnetic activity related NOx enhancements and polar surface air temperature variability in a chemistry climate model: modulation of the NAM indexForecasts and assimilation experiments of the Antarctic ozone hole 2008Extreme events in total ozone over Arosa – Part 2: Fingerprints of atmospheric dynamics and chemistry and effects on mean values and long-term changesTechnical Note: Trend estimation from irregularly sampled, correlated dataModeling the transport of very short-lived substances into the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere
Shlomi Ziskin Ziv, Chaim I. Garfinkel, Sean Davis, and Antara Banerjee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7523–7538,Short summary
Stratospheric water vapor is important for Earth's overall greenhouse effect and for ozone chemistry; however the factors governing its variability on interannual timescales are not fully known, and previous modeling studies have indicated that models struggle to capture this interannual variability. We demonstrate that nonlinear interactions are important for determining overall water vapor concentrations and also that models have improved in their ability to capture these connections.
Zhongyin Cai, Sabine Griessbach, and Lars Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6787–6809,Short summary
Using AIRS and TROPOMI sulfur dioxide retrievals and the Lagrangian transport model MPTRAC, we present an improved reconstruction of injection parameters of the 2019 Raikoke eruption. Reconstructions agree well between using AIRS nighttime and TROPOMI daytime retrievals, showing the potential of our approach to create a long-term volcanic sulfur dioxide inventory from nearly 20 years of AIRS retrievals.
Felix Ploeger and Hella Garny
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5559–5576,Short summary
We investigate hemispheric asymmetries in stratospheric circulation changes in the last 2 decades in model simulations and atmospheric observations. We find that observed trace gas changes can be explained by a structural circulation change related to a deepening circulation in the Northern Hemisphere relative to the Southern Hemisphere. As this asymmetric signal is small compared to internal variability observed circulation trends over the recent past are not in contradiction to climate models.
Beatriz M. Monge-Sanz, Alessio Bozzo, Nicholas Byrne, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Michail Diamantakis, Johannes Flemming, Lesley J. Gray, Robin J. Hogan, Luke Jones, Linus Magnusson, Inna Polichtchouk, Theodore G. Shepherd, Nils Wedi, and Antje Weisheimer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4277–4302,Short summary
The stratosphere is emerging as one of the keys to improve tropospheric weather and climate predictions. This study provides evidence of the role the stratospheric ozone layer plays in improving weather predictions at different timescales. Using a new ozone modelling approach suitable for high-resolution global models that provide operational forecasts from days to seasons, we find significant improvements in stratospheric meteorological fields and stratosphere–troposphere coupling.
Felix Ploeger, Mohamadou Diallo, Edward Charlesworth, Paul Konopka, Bernard Legras, Johannes C. Laube, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Gebhard Günther, Andreas Engel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8393–8412,Short summary
We investigate the global stratospheric circulation (Brewer–Dobson circulation) in the new ECMWF ERA5 reanalysis based on age of air simulations, and we compare it to results from the preceding ERA-Interim reanalysis. Our results show a slower stratospheric circulation and higher age for ERA5. The age of air trend in ERA5 over the 1989–2018 period is negative throughout the stratosphere, related to multi-annual variability and a potential contribution from changes in the reanalysis system.
Josefine Maas, Susann Tegtmeier, Yue Jia, Birgit Quack, Jonathan V. Durgadoo, and Arne Biastoch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4103–4121,Short summary
Cooling-water disinfection at coastal power plants is a known source of atmospheric bromoform. A large source of anthropogenic bromoform is the industrial regions in East Asia. In current bottom-up flux estimates, these anthropogenic emissions are missing, underestimating the global air–sea flux of bromoform. With transport simulations, we show that by including anthropogenic bromoform from cooling-water treatment, the bottom-up flux estimates significantly improve in East and Southeast Asia.
Jacob W. Smith, Peter H. Haynes, Amanda C. Maycock, Neal Butchart, and Andrew C. Bushell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2469–2489,Short summary
This paper informs realistic simulation of stratospheric water vapour by clearly attributing each of the two key influences on water vapour entry to the stratosphere. Presenting modified trajectory models, the results of this paper show temperatures dominate on annual and inter-annual variations; however, transport has a significant effect in reducing the annual cycle maximum. Furthermore, sub-seasonal variations in temperature have an important overall influence.
Wolfgang Woiwode, Andreas Dörnbrack, Inna Polichtchouk, Sören Johansson, Ben Harvey, Michael Höpfner, Jörn Ungermann, and Felix Friedl-Vallon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15379–15387,Short summary
The lowermost-stratosphere moist bias in ECMWF analyses and 12 h forecasts is diagnosed for the Arctic winter-spring 2016 period by using two-dimensional GLORIA water vapor observations. The bias is already present in the initial conditions (i.e., the analyses), and sensitivity forecasts on time scales of < 12 h show hardly any sensitivity to modified spatial resolution and output frequency.
Xun Wang and Andrew E. Dessler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13267–13282,Short summary
We investigate the response of stratospheric water vapor (SWV) to different forcing agents, including greenhouse gases and aerosols. For most forcing agents, the SWV response is dominated by a slow response, which is coupled to surface temperature changes and exhibits a similar sensitivity to the surface temperature across all forcing agents. The fast SWV adjustment due to forcing is important when the forcing agent directly heats the cold-point region, e.g., black carbon.
Wandi Yu, Andrew E. Dessler, Mijeong Park, and Eric J. Jensen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12153–12161,Short summary
The stratospheric water vapor mixing ratio over North America (NA) region is up to ~ 1 ppmv higher when deep convection occurs. We find substantial consistency in the interannual variations of NA water vapor anomaly and deep convection and explain both the summer seasonal cycle and interannual variability of the convective moistening efficiency. We show that the NA anticyclone and tropical upper tropospheric temperature determine how much deep convection moistens the lower stratosphere.
Pallav Purohit, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, John Dulac, Nihar Shah, Max Wei, Peter Rafaj, and Wolfgang Schöpp
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11305–11327,Short summary
This study shows that if energy efficiency improvements in cooling technologies are addressed simultaneously with a phase-down of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), not only will global warming be mitigated through the elimination of HFCs but also by saving about a fifth of future global electricity consumption. This means preventing between 411 and 631 Pg CO2 equivalent of greenhouse gases between today and 2100, thereby offering a significant contribution towards staying well below 2 °C warming.
Xun Wang, Andrew E. Dessler, Mark R. Schoeberl, Wandi Yu, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14621–14636,Short summary
We use a trajectory model to diagnose mechanisms that produce the observed and modeled tropical lower stratospheric water vapor seasonal cycle. We confirm that the seasonal cycle of water vapor is primarily determined by the seasonal cycle of tropical tropopause layer (TTL) temperatures. However, between 10° N and 40° N, we find that evaporation of convective ice in the TTL plays a key role contributing to the water vapor seasonal cycle there. The Asian monsoon region is the most important region.
Ewa M. Bednarz, Amanda C. Maycock, Paul J. Telford, Peter Braesicke, N. Luke Abraham, and John A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5209–5233,Short summary
Following model improvements, the atmospheric response to the 11-year solar cycle forcing simulated in the UM-UKCA chemistry–climate model is discussed for the first time. In contrast to most previous studies in the literature, we compare the results diagnosed using both a composite and a MLR methodology, and we show that apparently different signals can be diagnosed in the troposphere. In addition, we look at the role of internal atmospheric variability for the detection of the solar response.
Suvarna Fadnavis, Chaitri Roy, Rajib Chattopadhyay, Christopher E. Sioris, Alexandru Rap, Rolf Müller, K. Ravi Kumar, and Raghavan Krishnan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11493–11506,Short summary
Rapid industrialization, traffic growth and urbanization resulted in a significant increase in the tropospheric trace gases over Asia. There is global concern about rising levels of these trace gases. The monsoon convection transports these gases to the upper-level-anticyclone. In this study, we show transport of these gases to the extratropics via eddy-shedding from the anticyclone. We also deliberate on changes in ozone heating rates due to the transport of Asian trace gases.
Justin Bandoro, Susan Solomon, Benjamin D. Santer, Douglas E. Kinnison, and Michael J. Mills
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 143–166,Short summary
We studied the attribution of stratospheric ozone changes and identified similarities between observations and human fingerprints from both emissions of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs). We developed an improvement on the traditional pattern correlation method that accounts for nonlinearities in the climate forcing time evolution. Use of the latter resulted in increased S / N ratios for the ODS fingerprint. The GHG fingerprint was not identifiable.
Anne R. Douglass, Susan E. Strahan, Luke D. Oman, and Richard S. Stolarski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12081–12096,Short summary
Data records from instruments on satellites and on the ground are compared with a simulation for 1980–2016 that is made using winds and temperatures that are derived from measurements. The simulation tracks the observations faithfully after about 2000, but there are systematic errors for earlier years. Scientists must take this into account when trying to detect and quantify changes in the stratospheric circulation that are caused by climate change.
Stefanie Falk, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Gisèle Krysztofiak, Patrick Jöckel, Phoebe Graf, and Sinikka T. Lennartz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11313–11329,Short summary
Brominated very short-lived source gases (VSLS) contribute significantly to the tropospheric and stratospheric bromine loading. We find an increase of future ocean–atmosphere flux of brominated VSLS of 8–10 % compared to present day. A decrease in the tropospheric mixing ratios of VSLS and an increase in the lower stratosphere are attributed to changes in atmospheric chemistry and transport. Bromine impact on stratospheric ozone at the end of the 21st century is reduced compared to present day.
Kevin M. Smalley, Andrew E. Dessler, Slimane Bekki, Makoto Deushi, Marion Marchand, Olaf Morgenstern, David A. Plummer, Kiyotaka Shibata, Yousuke Yamashita, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8031–8044,Short summary
This paper explains a new way to evaluate simulated lower-stratospheric water vapor. We use a multivariate linear regression to predict 21st century lower stratospheric water vapor within 12 chemistry climate models using tropospheric warming, the Brewer–Dobson circulation, and the quasi-biennial oscillation as predictors. This methodology produce strong fits to simulated water vapor, and potentially represents a superior method to evaluate model trends in lower-stratospheric water vapor.
Felix Ploeger, Paul Konopka, Kaley Walker, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7055–7066,Short summary
Pollution transport from the surface to the stratosphere within the Asian summer monsoon circulation may cause harmful effects on stratospheric chemistry and climate. We investigate air mass transport from the monsoon anticyclone into the stratosphere, combining model simulations with satellite trace gas measurements. We show evidence for two transport pathways from the monsoon: (i) into the tropical stratosphere and (ii) into the Northern Hemisphere extratropical lower stratosphere.
Jennifer Ostermöller, Harald Bönisch, Patrick Jöckel, and Andreas Engel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3785–3797,Short summary
We analysed the temporal evolution of fractional release factors (FRFs) from EMAC model simulations for several halocarbons and nitrous oxide. The current formulation of FRFs yields values that depend on the tropospheric trend of the species. This is a problematic issue for the application of FRF in the calculation of steady-state quantities (e.g. ODP). Including a loss term in the calculation, we develop a new formulation of FRF and find that the time dependence can almost be compensated.
Sabine Brinkop, Martin Dameris, Patrick Jöckel, Hella Garny, Stefan Lossow, and Gabriele Stiller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8125–8140,Short summary
This study investigates the water vapour decline in the stratosphere beginning in the year 2000 and other similarly strong stratospheric water vapour reductions. The driving forces are tropical sea surface temperature (SST) changes due to coincidence with a preceding ENSO event and supported by the west to east change of the QBO. There are indications that both SSTs and the specific dynamical state of the atmosphere contribute to the long period of low water vapour values from 2001 to 2006.
Michael Löffler, Sabine Brinkop, and Patrick Jöckel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6547–6562,Short summary
After the two major volcanic eruptions of El Chichón in Mexico in 1982 and Mount Pinatubo on the Philippines in 1991, stratospheric water vapour is significantly increased. This results from increased stratospheric heating rates due to volcanic aerosol and the subsequent changes in stratospheric and tropopause temperatures in the tropics. The tropical vertical advection and the South Asian summer monsoon are identified as important sources for the additional water vapour in the stratosphere.
Laura Thölix, Leif Backman, Rigel Kivi, and Alexey Yu. Karpechko
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4307–4321,
J. Aschmann, J. P. Burrows, C. Gebhardt, A. Rozanov, R. Hommel, M. Weber, and A. M. Thompson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12803–12814,Short summary
This study compares observations and simulation results of ozone in the lower tropical stratosphere. It shows that ozone in this region decreased from 1985 up to about 2002, which is consistent with an increase in tropical upwelling predicted by climate models. However, the decrease effectively stops after 2002, indicating that significant changes in tropical upwelling have occurred. The most important factor appears to be that the vertical ascent in the tropics is no longer accelerating.
S. Fadnavis, M. G. Schultz, K. Semeniuk, A. S. Mahajan, L. Pozzoli, S. Sonbawne, S. D. Ghude, M. Kiefer, and E. Eckert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12725–12743,Short summary
The Asian summer monsoon transports pollutants from local emission sources to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). The increasing trend of these pollutants may have climatic impact. This study addresses the impact of convectively lifted Indian and Chinese emissions on the ULTS. Sensitivity experiments with emission changes in particular regions show that Chinese emissions have a greater impact on the concentrations of NOY species than Indian emissions.
J. S. Knibbe, R. J. van der A, and A. T. J. de Laat
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8461–8482,
M. Abalos, F. Ploeger, P. Konopka, W. J. Randel, and E. Serrano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10787–10794,
M. R. Schoeberl, A. E. Dessler, and T. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7783–7793,
J. M. Siddaway, S. V. Petelina, D. J. Karoly, A. R. Klekociuk, and R. J. Dargaville
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4413–4427,
F. Khosrawi, R. Müller, J. Urban, M. H. Proffitt, G. Stiller, M. Kiefer, S. Lossow, D. Kinnison, F. Olschewski, M. Riese, and D. Murtagh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3619–3641,
J. A. Schmidt, M. S. Johnson, S. Hattori, N. Yoshida, S. Nanbu, and R. Schinke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1511–1520,
H. E. Rieder, L. Frossard, M. Ribatet, J. Staehelin, J. A. Maeder, S. Di Rocco, A. C. Davison, T. Peter, P. Weihs, and F. Holawe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 165–179,
J. M. Castanheira, T. R. Peevey, C. A. F. Marques, and M. A. Olsen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 10195–10208,
M. R. Schoeberl, A. E. Dessler, and T. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 6475–6487,
B. Chen, X. D. Xu, S. Yang, and T. L. Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 5827–5839,
S. Dhomse, M. P. Chipperfield, W. Feng, and J. D. Haigh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 12773–12786,
A. J. G. Baumgaertner, A. Seppälä, P. Jöckel, and M. A. Clilverd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 4521–4531,
J. Flemming, A. Inness, L. Jones, H. J. Eskes, V. Huijnen, M. G. Schultz, O. Stein, D. Cariolle, D. Kinnison, and G. Brasseur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 1961–1977,
H. E. Rieder, J. Staehelin, J. A. Maeder, T. Peter, M. Ribatet, A. C. Davison, R. Stübi, P. Weihs, and F. Holawe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 10033–10045,
T. von Clarmann, G. Stiller, U. Grabowski, E. Eckert, and J. Orphal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 6737–6747,
J. Aschmann, B.-M. Sinnhuber, E. L. Atlas, and S. M. Schauffler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 9237–9247,
Boichu, M., Menut, L., Khvorostyanov, D., Clarisse, L., Clerbaux, C., Turquety, S., and Coheur, P.-F.: Inverting for volcanic SO2 flux at high temporal resolution using spaceborne plume imagery and chemistry-transport modelling: the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption case study, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8569–8584, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-8569-2013, 2013. a, b
Brier, G. W.: Verification of forecasts expressed in terms of probability, Mon. Weather Rev., 78, 1–3, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1950)078<0001:VOFEIT>2.0.CO;2, 1950. a
Bruckert, J., Hoshyaripour, G. A., Horváth, Á., Muser, L., Prata, F. J., Hoose, C., and Vogel, B.: Online treatment of eruption dynamics improves the volcanic ash and SO2 dispersion forecast: case of the Raikoke 2019 eruption, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. [preprint], https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2021-459, in review, 2021. a, b
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Using the NAME dispersion model in combination with high-resolution SO2 satellite data from TROPOMI, we investigate the dispersion of volcanic SO2 from the 2019 Raikoke eruption. NAME accurately simulates the dispersion of SO2 during the first 2–3 weeks after the eruption and illustrates the potential of using high-resolution satellite data to identify potential limitations in dispersion models, which will ultimately help to improve efforts to forecast the dispersion of volcanic clouds.
Using the NAME dispersion model in combination with high-resolution SO2 satellite data from...