Articles | Volume 21, issue 13
Research article 06 Jul 2021
Research article | 06 Jul 2021
Anthropogenic and natural controls on atmospheric δ13C-CO2 variations in the Yangtze River delta: insights from a carbon isotope modeling framework
Cheng Hu et al.
No articles found.
Tao Tang, Drew Shindell, Yuqiang Zhang, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Gunnar Myhre, Gregory Faluvegi, Bjørn H. Samset, Timothy Andrews, Dirk Olivié, Toshihiko Takemura, and Xuhui Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13797–13809,Short summary
Previous studies showed that black carbon (BC) could warm the surface with decreased incoming radiation. With climate models, we found that the surface energy redistribution plays a more crucial role in surface temperature compared with other forcing agents. Though BC could reduce the surface heating, the energy dissipates less efficiently, which is manifested by reduced convective and evaporative cooling, thereby warming the surface.
Xueying Yu, Dylan B. Millet, Kelley C. Wells, Daven K. Henze, Hansen Cao, Timothy J. Griffis, Eric A. Kort, Genevieve Plant, Malte J. Deventer, Randall K. Kolka, D. Tyler Roman, Kenneth J. Davis, Ankur R. Desai, Bianca C. Baier, Kathryn McKain, Alan C. Czarnetzki, and A. Anthony Bloom
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 951–971,Short summary
Methane concentrations have doubled since 1750. The US Upper Midwest is a key region contributing to such trends, but sources are poorly understood. We collected and analyzed aircraft data to resolve spatial and timing biases in wetland and livestock emission estimates and uncover errors in inventory treatment of manure management. We highlight the importance of intensive agriculture for the regional and US methane budgets and the potential for methane mitigation through improved management.
Xiaodan Ma, Jianping Huang, Tianliang Zhao, Cheng Liu, Kaihui Zhao, Jia Xing, and Wei Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1–16,Short summary
The present work aims at identifying and quantifying the relative contributions of the key factors in driving a rapid increase in summertime surface O3 over the North China Plain during 2013–2019. In addition to anthropogenic emission reduction and meteorological variabilities, our study highlights the importance of inclusion of aerosol absorption and scattering properties rather than aerosol abundance only in accurate assessment of aerosol radiative effect on surface O3 formation and change.
Zhen Zhang, Mi Zhang, Chang Cao, Wei Wang, Wei Xiao, Chengyu Xie, Haoran Chu, Jiao Wang, Jiayu Zhao, Lei Jia, Qiang Liu, Wenjing Huang, Wenqing Zhang, Yang Lu, Yanhong Xie, Yi Wang, Yini Pu, Yongbo Hu, Zheng Chen, Zhihao Qin, and Xuhui Lee
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2635–2645,Short summary
Inland lakes play an important role in regulating local climate. In this paper, we describe a dataset on microclimate and eddy covariance variables measured at a network of sites across Lake Taihu. The dataset, which appears to be the first of its kind for lake systems, can be used for validation of lake–air flux parameterizations, investigation of climatic controls on lake evaporation, evaluation of remote-sensing surface data products and global synthesis on lake–air interactions.
Xiaoyan Liu, Yan-Lin Zhang, Yiran Peng, Lulu Xu, Chunmao Zhu, Fang Cao, Xiaoyao Zhai, M. Mozammel Haque, Chi Yang, Yunhua Chang, Tong Huang, Zufei Xu, Mengying Bao, Wenqi Zhang, Meiyi Fan, and Xuhui Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11213–11233,Short summary
Although a total ban on straw burning has been enforced in eastern China, the regionally transported biomass burning emissions remarkably impacted the chemical and optical properties of carbonaceous aerosols in Nanjing, which were quantified by a calculation based on measured data and a simulation based on a model. Results showed that regionally transported biomass burning emissions significantly contributed to the carbonaceous aerosols and impacted the solar radiation balance of the atmosphere.
Yunhua Chang, Kan Huang, Mingjie Xie, Congrui Deng, Zhong Zou, Shoudong Liu, and Yanlin Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11793–11812,Short summary
We continuously performed a one-year and hourly-resolved measurement of 18 atmospheric elements in PM2.5 in Shanghai megacity. Here our high time-resolution observations over a long-term period provide baseline data with high detail, which are of great use for examining acute exposure of morbidity and mortality risk in association with PM2.5 metal species in China's megacities.
Kelley C. Wells, Dylan B. Millet, Nicolas Bousserez, Daven K. Henze, Timothy J. Griffis, Sreelekha Chaliyakunnel, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Eri Saikawa, Gao Xiang, Ronald G. Prinn, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, Ray F. Weiss, Geoff S. Dutton, James W. Elkins, Paul B. Krummel, Ray Langenfelds, and L. Paul Steele
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 735–756,Short summary
This paper uses three different frameworks to derive nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions based on global surface observations. One of these frameworks employs a new approach that allows for fast computation and explores a larger solution space than other methods. Our results point to a few conclusions about the global N2O budget, including a larger contribution from tropical sources, an overestimate of natural soil emissions, and an underestimate of agricultural sources particularly in springtime.
Yunhua Chang, Congrui Deng, Fang Cao, Chang Cao, Zhong Zou, Shoudong Liu, Xuhui Lee, Jun Li, Gan Zhang, and Yanlin Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9945–9964,Short summary
This paper presents the results from a 5-year and near-real-time measurement study of carbonaceous aerosols in PM2.5 conducted at an urban site in Shanghai. Moreover, we integrated the results from historical field measurements and satellite observations, concluding that carbonaceous aerosol pollution in Shanghai has gradually reduced since 2006. This can be largely explained by the introduction of air-cleaning measures such as controlling vehicular emissions.
Lei Zhao, Xuhui Lee, and Natalie M. Schultz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9067–9080,Short summary
Heat stress associated with climate change is one of most severe threats to human society. The problem is further compounded in urban areas by urban heat islands (UHIs). We use an urban climate model to evaluate the cooling benefits of active urban heat mitigation strategies both individually and collectively. We show that by forming UHI mitigation wedges, these strategies have the potential to significantly reduce the UHI effect plus warming induced by greenhouse gases.
Jiaping Xu, Xuhui Lee, Wei Xiao, Chang Cao, Shoudong Liu, Xuefa Wen, Jingzheng Xu, Zhen Zhang, and Jiayu Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3385–3399,Short summary
The Yangtze River Delta is one of the most industrialized regions in China. In situ optical isotopic measurement in Nanjing, a city located in the Delta, showed unusually high atmospheric δ13C signals in the summer (−7.44 ‰, July 2013 mean), which we attributed to the influence of cement production in the region. Flux partitioning calculations revealed that natural ecosystems in the region were a negligibly small source of atmospheric CO2.
Congsheng Fu, Xuhui Lee, Timothy J. Griffis, Edward J. Dlugokencky, and Arlyn E. Andrews
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
To the best of our knowledge, no modeling studies have been published on the relationship between the spatial characteristics of agricultural N2O emissions and the atmospheric N2O mixing ratio at the regional scale. To fill this gap, we proposed a simple inverse analysis method based on tower measurements and an Eulerian model. According to our study, the N2O emissions from the U. S. Corn Belt is clearly estimated by IPCC, and such underestimate is not dependent on tower measurement location.
Timothy J. Griffis, Jeffrey D. Wood, John M. Baker, Xuhui Lee, Ke Xiao, Zichong Chen, Lisa R. Welp, Natalie M. Schultz, Galen Gorski, Ming Chen, and John Nieber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5139–5157,Short summary
Increasing atmospheric humidity and convective precipitation over land provide evidence of intensification of the hydrologic cycle. We present the first multi-annual isotope (oxygen and deuterium) water vapor observations from a very tall tower (185 m) in the upper Midwest, United States, to diagnose the sources, transport, and fractionation of water vapor in the atmosphere. The results show a relatively high degree of summertime water recycling within the region (~30 % mean and ~60 % maximum).
K. C. Wells, D. B. Millet, N. Bousserez, D. K. Henze, S. Chaliyakunnel, T. J. Griffis, Y. Luan, E. J. Dlugokencky, R. G. Prinn, S. O'Doherty, R. F. Weiss, G. S. Dutton, J. W. Elkins, P. B. Krummel, R. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, E. A. Kort, S. C. Wofsy, and T. Umezawa
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3179–3198,Short summary
This paper introduces a new inversion framework for N2O using GEOS-Chem and its adjoint, which we employed in a series of observing system simulation experiments to evaluate the source and sink constraints provided by surface and aircraft-based N2O measurements. We also applied a new approach for estimating a posteriori uncertainty for high-dimensional inversions, and used it to quantify the spatial and temporal resolution of N2O emission constraints achieved with the current observing network.
X. Zhang, X. Lee, T. J. Griffis, J. M. Baker, and W. Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10705–10719,
L. Hu, D. B. Millet, S. Y. Kim, K. C. Wells, T. J. Griffis, E. V. Fischer, D. Helmig, J. Hueber, and A. J. Curtis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3379–3392,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Spatial and temporal variations of CO2 mole fractions observed at Beijing, Xianghe, and Xinglong in North ChinaThe CO2 integral emission by the megacity of St Petersburg as quantified from ground-based FTIR measurements combined with dispersion modellingQuantifying variability, source, and transport of CO in the urban areas over the Himalayas and Tibetan PlateauNew methodology shows short atmospheric lifetimes of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen due to dry depositionUncertainties in eddy covariance air–sea CO2 flux measurements and implications for gas transfer velocity parameterisationsConvergent evidence for the pervasive but limited contribution of biomass burning to atmospheric ammonia in peninsular Southeast AsiaConcurrent variation in oil and gas methane emissions and oil price during the COVID-19 pandemicOzone variability induced by synoptic weather patterns in warm seasons of 2014–2018 over the Yangtze River Delta region, ChinaSeasonal patterns of atmospheric mercury in tropical South America as inferred by a continuous total gaseous mercury record at Chacaltaya station (5240 m) in BoliviaA mass-weighted isentropic coordinate for mapping chemical tracers and computing atmospheric inventoriesMethane mapping, emission quantification, and attribution in two European cities: Utrecht (NL) and Hamburg (DE)Ozone affected by a succession of four landfall typhoons in the Yangtze River Delta, China: major processes and health impacts4D dispersion of total gaseous mercury derived from a mining source: identification of criteria to assess risks related to high concentrations of atmospheric mercuryEstimating CH4, CO2 and CO emissions from coal mining and industrial activities in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin using an aircraft-based mass balance approachProfiling of formaldehyde, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and CO over the Amazon: normalized excess mixing ratios and related emission factors in biomass burning plumesMeasurement report: Leaf-scale gas exchange of atmospheric reactive trace species (NO2, NO, O3) at a northern hardwood forest in MichiganA dedicated flask sampling strategy developed for Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) stations based on CO2 and CO measurements and Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) footprint modellingThe increasing atmospheric burden of the greenhouse gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)Understanding nighttime methane signals at the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO)Background heterogeneity and other uncertainties in estimating urban methane flux: results from the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX)Methane emissions from the Munich OktoberfestA study of the influence of tropospheric subsidence on spring and summer surface ozone concentrations at the JRC Ispra station in northern ItalyLocal and synoptic meteorological influences on daily variability in summertime surface ozone in eastern ChinaVariability in a four-network composite of atmospheric CO2 differences between three primary baseline sitesQuantifying the impact of synoptic circulation patterns on ozone variability in northern China from April to October 2013–2017Multivariate statistical air mass classification for the high-alpine observatory at the Zugspitze Mountain, GermanyEvolution of anthropogenic air pollutant emissions in Guangdong Province, China, from 2006 to 2015Speciated atmospheric mercury and sea–air exchange of gaseous mercury in the South China SeaMethane emissions from oil and gas platforms in the North SeaAssessing London CO2, CH4 and CO emissions using aircraft measurements and dispersion modelling2005–2017 ozone trends and potential benefits of local measures as deduced from air quality measurements in the north of the Barcelona metropolitan areaCountry-scale greenhouse gas budgets using shipborne measurements: a case study for the UK and IrelandIntercomparison of midlatitude tropospheric and lower-stratospheric water vapor measurements and comparison to ECMWF humidity dataEddy flux measurements of sulfur dioxide deposition to the sea surfaceQuantifying uncertainties from mobile-laboratory-derived emissions of well pads using inverse Gaussian methodsObserving local CO2 sources using low-cost, near-surface urban monitorsSpatiotemporal variability of NO2 and PM2.5 over Eastern China: observational and model analyses with a novel statistical methodSpatial–temporal patterns of inorganic nitrogen air concentrations and deposition in eastern ChinaPhenomenology of summer ozone episodes over the Madrid Metropolitan Area, central SpainShip-based MAX-DOAS measurements of tropospheric NO2, SO2, and HCHO distribution along the Yangtze RiverGradient flux measurements of sea–air DMS transfer during the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP) experimentMeasurements of atmospheric ethene by solar absorption FTIR spectrometryOzone pollution around a coastal region of South China Sea: interaction between marine and continental airAbundance and sources of atmospheric halocarbons in the Eastern MediterraneanDiurnal, synoptic and seasonal variability of atmospheric CO2 in the Paris megacity areaAtmospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS) measured remotely by FTIR solar absorption spectrometryTemporal variation of VOC fluxes measured with PTR-TOF above a boreal forestLong-term trends of surface ozone and its influencing factors at the Mt Waliguan GAW station, China – Part 2: The roles of anthropogenic emissions and climate variabilityGaseous elemental mercury (GEM) fluxes over canopy of two typical subtropical forests in south ChinaObservations of ozone depletion events in a Finnish boreal forest
Yang Yang, Minqiang Zhou, Ting Wang, Bo Yao, Pengfei Han, Denghui Ji, Wei Zhou, Yele Sun, Gengchen Wang, and Pucai Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11741–11757,Short summary
This study introduces the in situ CO2 measurement system installed in Beijing (urban), Xianghe (suburban), and Xinglong (rural) in North China for the first time. The spatial and temporal variations in CO2 mole fractions at the three sites between June 2018 and April 2020 are discussed on both seasonal and diurnal scales.
Dmitry V. Ionov, Maria V. Makarova, Frank Hase, Stefani C. Foka, Vladimir S. Kostsov, Carlos Alberti, Thomas Blumenstock, Thorsten Warneke, and Yana A. Virolainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10939–10963,Short summary
Megacities are a significant source of emissions of various substances in the atmosphere, including carbon dioxide, which is the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. In 2019–2020, the Emission Monitoring Mobile Experiment was carried out in St Petersburg, which is the second-largest industrial city in Russia. The results of this experiment, coupled with numerical modelling, helped to estimate the amount of CO2 emitted by the city. This value was twice as high as predicted.
Youwen Sun, Hao Yin, Yuan Cheng, Qianggong Zhang, Bo Zheng, Justus Notholt, Xiao Lu, Cheng Liu, Yuan Tian, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9201–9222,Short summary
We quantified the variability, source, and transport of urban CO over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP) by using measurement, model simulation, and the analysis of meteorological fields. Urban CO over the HTP is dominated by anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions from local, South Asia and East Asia, and oxidation sources. The decreasing trends in surface CO since 2015 in most cities over the HTP are attributed to the reduction in local and transported CO emissions in recent years.
Katherine Hayden, Shao-Meng Li, Paul Makar, John Liggio, Samar G. Moussa, Ayodeji Akingunola, Robert McLaren, Ralf M. Staebler, Andrea Darlington, Jason O'Brien, Junhua Zhang, Mengistu Wolde, and Leiming Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8377–8392,Short summary
We developed a method using aircraft measurements to determine lifetimes with respect to dry deposition for oxidized sulfur and nitrogen compounds over the boreal forest in Alberta, Canada. Atmospheric lifetimes were significantly shorter than derived from chemical transport models with differences related to modelled dry deposition velocities. The shorter lifetimes suggest models need to reassess dry deposition treatment and predictions of sulfur and nitrogen in the atmosphere and ecosystems.
Yuanxu Dong, Mingxi Yang, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Vassilis Kitidis, and Thomas G. Bell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8089–8110,Short summary
Eddy covariance (EC) is the most direct method for measuring air–sea CO2 flux from ships. However, uncertainty in EC air–sea CO2 fluxes has not been well quantified. Here we show that with the state-of-the-art gas analysers, instrumental noise no longer contributes significantly to the CO2 flux uncertainty. Applying an appropriate averaging timescale (1–3 h) and suitable air–sea CO2 fugacity threshold (at least 20 µatm) to EC flux data enables an optimal analysis of the gas transfer velocity.
Yunhua Chang, Yan-Lin Zhang, Sawaeng Kawichai, Qian Wang, Martin Van Damme, Lieven Clarisse, Tippawan Prapamontol, and Moritz F. Lehmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7187–7198,Short summary
In this study, we integrated satellite constraints on atmospheric NH3 levels and fire intensity, discrete NH3 concentration measurement, and N isotopic analysis of NH3 in order to assess the regional-scale contribution of biomass burning to ambient atmospheric NH3 in the heartland of Southeast Asia. The combined approach provides a valuable cross-validation framework for source apportioning of NH3 in the lower atmosphere and will thus help to ameliorate predictions of biomass burning emissions.
David R. Lyon, Benjamin Hmiel, Ritesh Gautam, Mark Omara, Katherine A. Roberts, Zachary R. Barkley, Kenneth J. Davis, Natasha L. Miles, Vanessa C. Monteiro, Scott J. Richardson, Stephen Conley, Mackenzie L. Smith, Daniel J. Jacob, Lu Shen, Daniel J. Varon, Aijun Deng, Xander Rudelis, Nikhil Sharma, Kyle T. Story, Adam R. Brandt, Mary Kang, Eric A. Kort, Anthony J. Marchese, and Steven P. Hamburg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6605–6626,Short summary
The Permian Basin (USA) is the world’s largest oil field. We use tower- and aircraft-based approaches to measure how methane emissions in the Permian Basin changed throughout 2020. In early 2020, 3.3 % of the region’s gas was emitted; then in spring 2020, the loss rate temporarily dropped to 1.9 % as oil price crashed. We find this short-term reduction to be a result of reduced well development, less gas flaring, and fewer abnormal events despite minimal reductions in oil and gas production.
Da Gao, Min Xie, Jane Liu, Tijian Wang, Chaoqun Ma, Haokun Bai, Xing Chen, Mengmeng Li, Bingliang Zhuang, and Shu Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5847–5864,Short summary
O3 has been increasing in recent years over the Yangtze River Delta region of China and is closely associated with dominant weather systems. Still, the study on the impact of changes in synoptic weather patterns (SWPs) on O3 variation is quite limited. This work aims to reveal the unique features of changes in each SWP under O3 variation and quantifies the effects of meteorological conditions on O3 variation. Our findings could be helpful in strategy planning for O3 pollution control.
Alkuin Maximilian Koenig, Olivier Magand, Paolo Laj, Marcos Andrade, Isabel Moreno, Fernando Velarde, Grover Salvatierra, René Gutierrez, Luis Blacutt, Diego Aliaga, Thomas Reichler, Karine Sellegri, Olivier Laurent, Michel Ramonet, and Aurélien Dommergue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3447–3472,Short summary
The environmental cycling of atmospheric mercury, a harmful global contaminant, is still not sufficiently constrained, partly due to missing data in remote regions. Here, we address this issue by presenting 20 months of atmospheric mercury measurements, sampled in the Bolivian Andes. We observe a significant seasonal pattern, whose key features we explore. Moreover, we deduce ratios to constrain South American biomass burning mercury emissions and the mercury uptake by the Amazon rainforest.
Yuming Jin, Ralph F. Keeling, Eric J. Morgan, Eric Ray, Nicholas C. Parazoo, and Britton B. Stephens
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 217–238,Short summary
We propose a new atmospheric coordinate (Mθe) based on equivalent potential temperature (θe) but with mass as the unit. This coordinate is useful in studying the spatial and temporal distribution of long-lived chemical tracers (CO2, CH4, O2 / N2, etc.) from sparse data, like airborne observation. Using this coordinate and sparse airborne observation (HIPPO and ATom), we resolve the Northern Hemisphere mass-weighted average CO2 seasonal cycle with high accuracy.
Hossein Maazallahi, Julianne M. Fernandez, Malika Menoud, Daniel Zavala-Araiza, Zachary D. Weller, Stefan Schwietzke, Joseph C. von Fischer, Hugo Denier van der Gon, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14717–14740,Short summary
Methane accounts for ∼ 25 % of current climate warming. The current lack of methane measurements is a barrier for tracking major sources, which are key for near-term climate mitigation. We use mobile measurements to identify and quantify methane emission sources in Utrecht (NL) and Hamburg (DE) with a focus on natural gas pipeline leaks. The measurements resulted in fixing the major leaks by the local utility, but coordinated efforts are needed at national levels for further emission reductions.
Chenchao Zhan, Min Xie, Chongwu Huang, Jane Liu, Tijian Wang, Meng Xu, Chaoqun Ma, Jianwei Yu, Yumeng Jiao, Mengmeng Li, Shu Li, Bingliang Zhuang, Ming Zhao, and Dongyang Nie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13781–13799,Short summary
The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region has been suffering from severe ozone (O3) pollution in recent years. Synoptic systems, like typhoons, can have a significant effect on O3 episodes. However, research on landfall typhoons affecting O3 in the YRD is limited. This work aims to reveal the main processes of landfall typhoons affecting surface O3 and estimate health impacts of O3 during the study period in the YRD, which can be useful for taking reasonable pollution control measures in this area.
José M. Esbrí, Pablo L. Higueras, Alba Martínez-Coronado, and Rocío Naharro
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12995–13010,Short summary
The aim of this work was to identify criteria to obtain the minimum amount of data with the maximum meaning and representativeness in order to delimit risk areas, both in a spatial and temporal respect. We have constructed a model of vertical mercury movements which could be used to predict the location and timing of mercury inhalation risk. Also, we have designed a monitoring strategy to identify the relevant criteria, which involved the measurement of gaseous mercury in a vertical section.
Alina Fiehn, Julian Kostinek, Maximilian Eckl, Theresa Klausner, Michał Gałkowski, Jinxuan Chen, Christoph Gerbig, Thomas Röckmann, Hossein Maazallahi, Martina Schmidt, Piotr Korbeń, Jarosław Neçki, Pawel Jagoda, Norman Wildmann, Christian Mallaun, Rostyslav Bun, Anna-Leah Nickl, Patrick Jöckel, Andreas Fix, and Anke Roiger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12675–12695,Short summary
A severe reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is necessary to fulfill the Paris Agreement. We use aircraft- and ground-based in situ observations of trace gases and wind speed from two flights over the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland, for independent emission estimation. The derived methane emission estimates are within the range of emission inventories, carbon dioxide estimates are in the lower range and carbon monoxide emission estimates are slightly higher than emission inventory values.
Flora Kluge, Tilman Hüneke, Matthias Knecht, Michael Lichtenstern, Meike Rotermund, Hans Schlager, Benjamin Schreiner, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12363–12389,Short summary
The presented study reports on airborne measurements of formaldehyde, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and CO over the Amazon basin and lays a special focus on the influence of biomass burning emissions on the atmospheric profiles of these carbonyl compounds within the planetary boundary layer as well as in the free and upper troposphere.
Wei Wang, Laurens Ganzeveld, Samuel Rossabi, Jacques Hueber, and Detlev Helmig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11287–11304,Short summary
Trees exchange with the atmosphere nitrogen oxides and ozone, affecting the tropospheric composition and consequently air quality and ecosystem health. We examined the leaf-level gas exchanges for four typical tree species (pine, maple, oak, aspen) found in northern Michigan, US. The leaves largely absorb the gases, showing little evidence of emission. We measured the uptake rates that can be used to improve model studies of the source and sink processes controlling these gases in forests.
Ingeborg Levin, Ute Karstens, Markus Eritt, Fabian Maier, Sabrina Arnold, Daniel Rzesanke, Samuel Hammer, Michel Ramonet, Gabriela Vítková, Sebastien Conil, Michal Heliasz, Dagmar Kubistin, and Matthias Lindauer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11161–11180,Short summary
Based on observations and Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) footprint modelling, a sampling strategy has been developed for tall tower stations of the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) research infrastructure atmospheric station network. This strategy allows independent quality control of in situ measurements, provides representative coverage of the influence area of the sites, and is capable of automated targeted sampling of fossil fuel CO2 emission hotspots.
Peter G. Simmonds, Matthew Rigby, Alistair J. Manning, Sunyoung Park, Kieran M. Stanley, Archie McCulloch, Stephan Henne, Francesco Graziosi, Michela Maione, Jgor Arduini, Stefan Reimann, Martin K. Vollmer, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, Ray F. Weiss, Peter K. Salameh, Christina M. Harth, Mi-Kyung Park, Hyeri Park, Tim Arnold, Chris Rennick, L. Paul Steele, Blagoj Mitrevski, Ray H. J. Wang, and Ronald G. Prinn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7271–7290,Short summary
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is a potent greenhouse gas which is regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. From a 40-year record of measurements, collected at five global monitoring sites and archived air samples, we show that its concentration in the atmosphere has steadily increased. Using modelling techniques, we estimate that global emissions have increased by about 24 % over the past decade. We find that this increase is driven by the demand for SF6-insulated switchgear in developing countries.
Santiago Botía, Christoph Gerbig, Julia Marshall, Jost V. Lavric, David Walter, Christopher Pöhlker, Bruna Holanda, Gilberto Fisch, Alessandro Carioca de Araújo, Marta O. Sá, Paulo R. Teixeira, Angélica F. Resende, Cleo Q. Dias-Junior, Hella van Asperen, Pablo S. Oliveira, Michel Stefanello, and Otávio C. Acevedo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6583–6606,Short summary
A long record of atmospheric methane concentrations in central Amazonia was analyzed. We describe events in which concentrations at 79 m are higher than at 4 m. These events are more frequent during the nighttime of dry season, but we found no association with fire signals. Instead, we suggest that a combination of nighttime transport and a nearby source could explain such events. Our research gives insights into how methane is transported in the complex nocturnal atmosphere in Amazonia.
Nikolay V. Balashov, Kenneth J. Davis, Natasha L. Miles, Thomas Lauvaux, Scott J. Richardson, Zachary R. Barkley, and Timothy A. Bonin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4545–4559,Short summary
An accurate independent verification methodology to estimate methane (a powerful greenhouse gas) emissions is essential for the effective implementation of policies that aim to reduce the impacts of climate change. In this paper, four uncertainties that complicate the independent estimation of urban methane emissions are identified: the definition of urban domain, background heterogeneity, emissions temporal variability, and missing sources. Ways to improve emission estimates are suggested.
Jia Chen, Florian Dietrich, Hossein Maazallahi, Andreas Forstmaier, Dominik Winkler, Magdalena E. G. Hofmann, Hugo Denier van der Gon, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3683–3696,Short summary
We demonstrate for the first time that large festivals can be significant methane sources, though they are not included in emission inventories. We combined in situ measurements with a Gaussian plume model to determine the Oktoberfest emissions and show that they are not due solely to human biogenic emissions, but are instead primarily fossil fuel related. Our study provides the foundation to develop reduction policies for such events and new pathways to mitigate fossil fuel methane emissions.
Pavlos Kalabokas, Niels Roland Jensen, Mauro Roveri, Jens Hjorth, Maxim Eremenko, Juan Cuesta, Gaëlle Dufour, Gilles Foret, and Matthias Beekmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1861–1885,Short summary
The influence of tropospheric ozone on the surface measurements at a regional air pollution station in the pre-Alpine area of northern Italy is investigated. During such episodes the local air pollution parameters show generally very low values, while the ozone levels reach high values, occasionally exceeding the ozone air quality standards. Better understanding of ozone variability over the examined region will help in the formulation of more effective policies for the environment and climate.
Han Han, Jane Liu, Lei Shu, Tijian Wang, and Huiling Yuan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 203–222,Short summary
We statistically assessed the impacts of local and synoptic meteorology on daily surface ozone in eastern China in summer during 2013–2018. The results show that the meteorology described by a multiple linear regression model explains 43 % of variations in surface ozone. The most important local meteorological factors vary with location in eastern China. The maximum impact of the predominant synoptic pattern on surface ozone can reach ± 8 µg m-3 or ± 16 % of the daily mean over some regions.
Roger J. Francey, Jorgen S. Frederiksen, L. Paul Steele, and Ray L. Langenfelds
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14741–14754,Short summary
25-year composites of interhemispheric baseline CO2 differences demonstrate close agreement between 4 monitoring networks. Variability from monthly to multiyear time frames mostly reflects variability in upper troposphere dynamical indices chosen to represent eddy and mean transport interhemispheric exchange. Monthly interhemispheric atmospheric fluxes are much larger than air–surface terrestrial exchanges. The composite differences offer unusual constraints on transport in global carbon models.
Jingda Liu, Lili Wang, Mingge Li, Zhiheng Liao, Yang Sun, Tao Song, Wenkang Gao, Yonghong Wang, Yan Li, Dongsheng Ji, Bo Hu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yuesi Wang, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14477–14492,Short summary
We analyzed the surface ozone variation characteristics and quantified the impact of synoptic and local meteorological factors on northern China during the warm season based on multi-city, in situ ozone and meteorological data, as well as meteorological reanalysis. The results of quantitative exploration on synoptic and local meteorological factors influencing both interannual and day-to-day ozone variations will provide the scientific basis for evaluating emission reduction measures.
Armin Sigmund, Korbinian Freier, Till Rehm, Ludwig Ries, Christian Schunk, Anette Menzel, and Christoph K. Thomas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12477–12494,Short summary
Air masses at the Schneefernerhaus mountain site at Zugspitze Mountain, Germany, were classified with respect to the atmospheric layer from which they originated and their degree of pollution. Measurements of several gases, particulate matter, and standard meteorological quantities indicated that polluted air was lifted to the site in 31 % of cases and clean air descended to the site in approximately 14 % cases while most of the remaining cases were ambiguous.
Yahui Bian, Zhijiong Huang, Jiamin Ou, Zhuangmin Zhong, Yuanqian Xu, Zhiwei Zhang, Xiao Xiao, Xiao Ye, Yuqi Wu, Xiaohong Yin, Cheng Li, Liangfu Chen, Min Shao, and Junyu Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11701–11719,Short summary
During 2006–2015, emissions of SO2, NOx, PM2.5 and PM10 saw an obvious downtrend. However, most emissions still have large reduction potential. On-road mobile sources and solvent use are the two key sources that should receive more effective control measures in GD. Also, controls measures on VOC and NH3 should be weighted since they still increased in 2006–2015. Since most control measures focused on PRD rather than non-PRD in GD, emissions in non-PRD were increasingly important.
Chunjie Wang, Zhangwei Wang, Fan Hui, and Xiaoshan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10111–10127,Short summary
A low GEM level indicated that the SCS suffered less anthropogenic influence. There was no significant difference in GEM and HgP2.5 values between day and night, but the RGM level was higher in daytime than in nighttime. The size distribution of HgP in PM10 was observed to be bi-modal, but the coarse modal was the dominant size. The annual emission flux of Hg0 from the SCS was estimated to be 159 ton yr-1. The dry deposition was an important pathway for the input of atmospheric Hg to the SCS.
Stuart N. Riddick, Denise L. Mauzerall, Michael Celia, Neil R. P. Harris, Grant Allen, Joseph Pitt, John Staunton-Sykes, Grant L. Forster, Mary Kang, David Lowry, Euan G. Nisbet, and Alistair J. Manning
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9787–9796,Short summary
Currently, bottom-up methods estimate that 0.13 % of methane produced by UK North Sea oil and gas installations is lost. Here we measure emissions from eight platforms in the North Sea and, when considered collectively, the methane loss is estimated at 0.19 % of gas production. As this ambient loss is not explicitly accounted for in the bottom-up approach, these measured emissions represent significant additional emissions above previous estimates.
Joseph R. Pitt, Grant Allen, Stéphane J.-B. Bauguitte, Martin W. Gallagher, James D. Lee, Will Drysdale, Beth Nelson, Alistair J. Manning, and Paul I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8931–8945,Short summary
This paper presents a new method to assess inventory estimates of greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions for large cities and their surrounding regions. A case study using data sampled by a research aircraft around London was used to test the method. We found that the UK national inventory agrees with our observations for CO but needed lower emissions for CH4 to agree with the measured data. Repeated studies could help determine how these emissions vary on different timescales.
Jordi Massagué, Cristina Carnerero, Miguel Escudero, José María Baldasano, Andrés Alastuey, and Xavier Querol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7445–7465,
Carole Helfter, Neil Mullinger, Massimo Vieno, Simon O'Doherty, Michel Ramonet, Paul I. Palmer, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3043–3063,Short summary
We present a novel approach to estimate the annual budgets of carbon dioxide (881.0 ± 128.5 Tg) and methane (2.55 ± 0.48 Tg) of the British Isles from shipborne measurements taken over a 3-year period (2015–2017). This study brings independent verification of the emission budgets estimated using alternative products and investigates the seasonality of these emissions, which is usually not possible.
Stefan Kaufmann, Christiane Voigt, Romy Heller, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, Martin Zöger, Andreas Giez, Bernhard Buchholz, Volker Ebert, Troy Thornberry, and Ulrich Schumann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16729–16745,Short summary
We present an intercomparison of the airborne water vapor measurements during the ML-CIRRUS mission. Although the agreement of the hygrometers significantly improved compared to studies from recent decades, systematic differences remain under specific meteorological conditions. We compare the measurements to model data, where we observe a model wet bias in the lower stratosphere close to the tropopause, likely caused by a blurred humidity gradient in the model tropopause.
Jack G. Porter, Warren De Bruyn, and Eric S. Saltzman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15291–15305,Short summary
Deposition to the sea surface is a major loss pathway for highly soluble atmospheric trace gases. These fluxes are important to biogeochemical cycles, climate, and air quality. Here we report measurements of air–sea fluxes of sulfur dioxide, sensible heat, and momentum to coastal waters. Transfer velocities derived from the data show a dependence on molecular diffusivity, demonstrating the importance of diffusion in the interfacial layer on the atmospheric side of the air–sea interface.
Dana R. Caulton, Qi Li, Elie Bou-Zeid, Jeffrey P. Fitts, Levi M. Golston, Da Pan, Jessica Lu, Haley M. Lane, Bernhard Buchholz, Xuehui Guo, James McSpiritt, Lars Wendt, and Mark A. Zondlo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15145–15168,Short summary
Mobile laboratory measurements have been widely used to quantify methane emissions from point sources such as oil and gas wells, but the emission uncertainties are poorly constrained. We designed a hierarchical measurement strategy to sample natural gas emissions in the Marcellus Shale play based upon high-resolution modeling of select sites. Our study quantifies the largest sources of error with this approach and provides guidance on how to best implement mobile laboratory sampling protocols.
Alexis A. Shusterman, Jinsol Kim, Kaitlyn J. Lieschke, Catherine Newman, Paul J. Wooldridge, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13773–13785,Short summary
We describe the diversity and heterogeneity of urban CO2 levels observed using the BErkeley Atmospheric CO2 Observation Network, a distributed instrument of > 50 CO2 sensors stationed every ~ 2 km across the San Francisco Bay Area. We demonstrate that relatively simple mathematical techniques, applied to these observations, can be used to detect the small changes in highway CO2 emissions expected to result from upcoming fuel economy regulations, affirming the policy relevance of low-cost sensors.
Mengyao Liu, Jintai Lin, Yuchen Wang, Yang Sun, Bo Zheng, Jingyuan Shao, Lulu Chen, Yixuan Zheng, Jinxuan Chen, Tzung-May Fu, Yingying Yan, Qiang Zhang, and Zhaohua Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12933–12952,Short summary
Eastern China is heavily polluted by NO2, PM2.5, and other air pollutants. Our study uses EOF–EEMD to analyze the spatiotemporal variability of ground-level NO2, PM2.5, and their associations with meteorological processes. Their regular diurnal cycles are mainly affected by human activities, while irregular day-to-day variations are dominated by weather processes representing synchronous variation or north–south opposing changes over Eastern China.
Wen Xu, Lei Liu, Miaomiao Cheng, Yuanhong Zhao, Lin Zhang, Yuepeng Pan, Xiuming Zhang, Baojing Gu, Yi Li, Xiuying Zhang, Jianlin Shen, Li Lu, Xiaosheng Luo, Yu Zhao, Zhaozhong Feng, Jeffrey L. Collett Jr., Fusuo Zhang, and Xuejun Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10931–10954,Short summary
Our main results demonstrate that atmospheric Nr pollution in eastern China is more serious in the northern region than in the southern region. Any effects of current emission controls are not yet apparent in Nr pollution. NH3 emissions from fertilizer use were the largest contributor (36 %) to total inorganic Nr deposition. Our results provide useful information for policy-makers that mitigation of NH3 emissions should be a priority to tackle serious N deposition.
Xavier Querol, Andrés Alastuey, Gotzon Gangoiti, Noemí Perez, Hong K. Lee, Heeram R. Eun, Yonghee Park, Enrique Mantilla, Miguel Escudero, Gloria Titos, Lucio Alonso, Brice Temime-Roussel, Nicolas Marchand, Juan R. Moreta, M. Arantxa Revuelta, Pedro Salvador, Begoña Artíñano, Saúl García dos Santos, Mónica Anguas, Alberto Notario, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Roy M. Harrison, Millán Millán, and Kang-Ho Ahn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6511–6533,Short summary
We show the main drivers of high O3 episodes in and around Madrid. High levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) are evidenced, but we demonstrate that most O3 arises from the fumigation of high atmospheric layers, whereas UFPs are generated inside the PBL. O3 contributions from the fumigation of the vertical recirculation of regional air masses, hemispheric transport, and horizontally from direct urban plume transport are shown. Complexity arises from the need to quantify them to abate surface O3.
Qianqian Hong, Cheng Liu, Ka Lok Chan, Qihou Hu, Zhouqing Xie, Haoran Liu, Fuqi Si, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5931–5951,Short summary
We presented ship-based MAX-DOAS measurements of tropospheric trace gases' distribution along the eastern part of the Yangtze River during winter 2015. Tropospheric VCDs of NO2, SO2, and HCHO were retrieved from MAX-DOAS measurement spectra. Enhanced tropospheric NO2 and SO2 VCDs were detected over downwind areas of industrial zones over the Yangtze River. Our results indicate that different pollution control strategies should be applied in different provinces.
Murray J. Smith, Carolyn F. Walker, Thomas G. Bell, Mike J. Harvey, Eric S. Saltzman, and Cliff S. Law
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5861–5877,Short summary
The transfer of gases across the air–sea interface has a significant influence on climate. During a research voyage in the South Pacific we measured the transfer rate of the biogenic gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS) from the ocean using two independent methods. The agreement between the techniques provides confidence in their use in compilations of global gas transfer. We also identified physical conditions under which the observations are not well predicted by a standard gas transfer model.
Geoffrey C. Toon, Jean-Francois L. Blavier, and Keeyoon Sung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5075–5088,Short summary
Remote sensing measurements of ethene have been made from the ground and from balloons. Ethene can be measured at low altitudes in polluted regions, such as the Los Angeles basin. Here ethene amounts have decreased by a factor of 3 over the past 25 years due to increasingly strict emission control regulations (e.g., on vehicle exhaust).
Hao Wang, Xiaopu Lyu, Hai Guo, Yu Wang, Shichun Zou, Zhenhao Ling, Xinming Wang, Fei Jiang, Yangzong Zeren, Wenzhuo Pan, Xiaobo Huang, and Jin Shen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4277–4295,Short summary
While oceanic air is generally thought to be clean, the air pollution over waters in proximity to the coasts is not well recognized. This research indicated that ozone was higher over South China Sea (SCS) than that in the adjacent continental area, while continental anticyclone, tropical cyclone and land breeze favored O3 formation over SCS. In addition, weaker NO titration and stronger atmospheric oxidative capacity led to higher O3 production efficiency over SCS.
Fabian Schoenenberger, Stephan Henne, Matthias Hill, Martin K. Vollmer, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Simon O'Doherty, Michela Maione, Lukas Emmenegger, Thomas Peter, and Stefan Reimann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4069–4092,Short summary
Anthropogenic halocarbon emissions contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. We measured atmospheric halocarbons for 6 months on Crete to extend the coverage of the existing observation network to the Eastern Mediterranean. The derived emission estimates showed a contribution of 16.8 % (13.6–23.3 %) and 53.2 % (38.1–84.2 %) of this region to the total HFC and HCFC emissions of the analyzed European domain and a reduction of the underlying uncertainties by 40–80 %.
Irène Xueref-Remy, Elsa Dieudonné, Cyrille Vuillemin, Morgan Lopez, Christine Lac, Martina Schmidt, Marc Delmotte, Frédéric Chevallier, François Ravetta, Olivier Perrussel, Philippe Ciais, François-Marie Bréon, Grégoire Broquet, Michel Ramonet, T. Gerard Spain, and Christophe Ampe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3335–3362,Short summary
Urbanized and industrialized areas are the largest source of fossil CO2. This work analyses the atmospheric CO2 variability observed from the first in situ network deployed in the Paris megacity area. Gradients of several ppm are found between the rural, peri-urban and urban sites at the diurnal to the seasonal scales. Wind direction and speed as well as boundary layer dynamics, correlated to highly variable urban emissions, are shown to be key regulator factors of the observed CO2 records.
Geoffrey C. Toon, Jean-Francois L. Blavier, and Keeyoon Sung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1923–1944,Short summary
OCS is the main form of atmospheric sulfur. It is produced near the earth's surface and destroyed primarily in the stratosphere, where it is converted to stratospheric sulfate aerosol (SSA). SSA plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry and transport and so it is important to better understand the factors that regulate OCS and hence SSA. Ground-based and balloon-borne infrared spectra observed over the past 30 years are analyzed to provide an improved OCS dataset.
Simon Schallhart, Pekka Rantala, Maija K. Kajos, Juho Aalto, Ivan Mammarella, Taina M. Ruuskanen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 815–832,Short summary
Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have impact to air quality, human health and climate. We investigated the development of VOC exchange in a boreal forest between April and June 2013. VOC exchange and diversity increased towards summer, but over 75 % of the biogenic net exchange was driven by methanol, monoterpenes and acetone only. The boreal forest emitted less than 0.2 % carbon in form of VOCs in relation to the carbon uptake.
Wanyun Xu, Xiaobin Xu, Meiyun Lin, Weili Lin, David Tarasick, Jie Tang, Jianzhong Ma, and Xiangdong Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 773–798,Short summary
The impact of anthropogenic emissions and climate variability on the long-term trends and periodicity of surface ozone measured at Mt Waliguan (WLG) for the period of 1994–2013 is studied. STT ozone and rising emissions in eastern China contribute to spring and autumnal increasing trends, respectively. The 2–3-, 3–7-, and 11-year periodicities in the ozone data are linked to the QBO, EASMI, and sunspot cycle, respectively. An empirical model is obtained for normalised monthly ozone at WLG.
Qian Yu, Yao Luo, Shuxiao Wang, Zhiqi Wang, Jiming Hao, and Lei Duan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 495–509,Short summary
This study provides high-quality direct observation data of a clean and a contaminated site in subtropical south China and quantifies the natural forest Hg emission. We find that clean and contaminated forests present a net GEM source with annual average values of 6.67 and 0.30 ng m-2 h-1, respectively; daily variations of GEM fluxes showed a source in the daytime with a peak at 13:00, and as a sink or balance at night; and higher atmospheric GEM concentration restricted the forest GEM emission.
Xuemeng Chen, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Pak L. Fung, Jutta Kesti, Matti P. Rissanen, Jaana Bäck, Petri Keronen, Heikki Junninen, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 49–63,Short summary
We analysed a 20-year-long dataset collected in a Finnish boreal forest at SMEAR II station to investigate the frequency and strength of ozone depletion events. We could identify a number of ozone depletion events that lasted for more than 3 h, mainly in the autumn and winter months. Their occurrence was likely related to the formation of a low mixing layer under the conditions of low temperatures, low wind speeds, high relative humidities and limited intensity of solar radiation.
Alden, C. B., Miller, J. B., and Gatti, L. V.: Regional atmospheric CO2 inversion reveals seasonal and geographic differences in Amazon net biome exchange, Glob. Change Biol., 22, 3427–3443, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13305, 2016.
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Berezin, E. V., Konovalov, I. B., Ciais, P., Richter, A., Tao, S., Janssens-Maenhout, G., Beekmann, M., and Schulze, E.-D.: Multiannual changes of CO2 emissions in China: indirect estimates derived from satellite measurements of tropospheric NO2 columns, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9415–9438, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-9415-2013, 2013.
Boden, T., Andres, R., and Marland, G.: Global, Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions (1751–2013) (V. 2016), Environmental System Science Data Infrastructure for a Virtual Ecosystem; Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) [Data set], Oak Ridge, TN, USA, 2016.
Bréon, F. M., Broquet, G., Puygrenier, V., Chevallier, F., Xueref-Remy, I., Ramonet, M., Dieudonné, E., Lopez, M., Schmidt, M., Perrussel, O., and Ciais, P.: An attempt at estimating Paris area CO2 emissions from atmospheric concentration measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1707–1724, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-1707-2015, 2015.
Brioude, J., Angevine, W. M., Ahmadov, R., Kim, S.-W., Evan, S., McKeen, S. A., Hsie, E.-Y., Frost, G. J., Neuman, J. A., Pollack, I. B., Peischl, J., Ryerson, T. B., Holloway, J., Brown, S. S., Nowak, J. B., Roberts, J. M., Wofsy, S. C., Santoni, G. W., Oda, T., and Trainer, M.: Top-down estimate of surface flux in the Los Angeles Basin using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique: assessing anthropogenic emissions of CO, NOx and CO2 and their impacts, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3661–3677, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-3661-2013, 2013.
Cai, B., Wang, J., He, J., and Geng, Y.: Evaluating CO2 emission performance in China's cement industry: An enterprise perspective, Appl. Energ., 166, 191–200, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.11.006, 2015.
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Chen, J. M., Mo, G., and Deng, F.: A joint global carbon inversion system using both CO2 and 13CO2 atmospheric concentration data, Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1131–1156, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-10-1131-2017, 2017.
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Hu, C., Griffis, T. J., Lee, X., Millet, D. B., Chen, Z., Baker, J. M., and Xiao, K.: Top-Down constraints on anthropogenic CO2 emissions within an agricultural-urban landscape, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 123, 4674–4694, https://doi.org/10.1029/2017JD027881, 2018b.
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Oda, T., Maksyutov, S., and Andres, R. J.: The Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO2, version 2016 (ODIAC2016): a global monthly fossil fuel CO2 gridded emissions data product for tracer transport simulations and surface flux inversions, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 87–107, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-10-87-2018, 2018.
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Seventy percent of global CO2 emissions were emitted from urban landscapes. The Yangtze River delta (YRD) ranks as one of the most densely populated regions in the world and is an anthropogenic CO2 hotspot. Besides anthropogenic factors, natural ecosystems and croplands act as significant CO2 sinks and sources. Independent quantification of the fossil and cement CO2 emission and assessment of their impact on atmospheric δ13C-CO2 have potential to improve our understanding of urban CO2 cycling.
Seventy percent of global CO2 emissions were emitted from urban landscapes. The Yangtze River...