Articles | Volume 19, issue 2
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 877–886, 2019
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 877–886, 2019

Research article 23 Jan 2019

Research article | 23 Jan 2019

New type of evidence for secondary ice formation at around −15 °C in mixed-phase clouds

Claudia Mignani et al.

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Cited articles

Bacon, N. J., Swanson, B. D., Baker, M. B., and Davis, E. J.: Breakup of levitated frost particles, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 13763–13775,, 1998. 
Bailey, M. P. and Hallett, J.: A comprehensive habit diagram for atmospheric ice crystals: confirmation from the laboratory, AIRS II, and other field studies, J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 2888–2899,, 2009. 
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Short summary
A snow crystal can be generated from an ice nucleating particle or from an ice splinter. In this study we made use of the fact that snow crystals with a particular shape (dendrites) grow within a narrow temperature range (−12 to −17 °C) and can be analysed individually for the presence of an ice nucleating particle. Our direct approach revealed that only one in eight crystals contained such a particle and was of primary origin. The other crystals must have grown from ice splinters.
Final-revised paper