Articles | Volume 18, issue 7
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4597–4615, 2018
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4597–4615, 2018

Research article 05 Apr 2018

Research article | 05 Apr 2018

Nonlinear response of tropical lower-stratospheric temperature and water vapor to ENSO

Chaim I. Garfinkel et al.

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Cited articles

Aquila, V., Swartz, W. H., Waugh, D. W., Colarco, P. R., Pawson, S., Polvani, L. M., and Stolarski, R. S.: Isolating the roles of different forcing agents in global stratospheric temperature changes using model integrations with incrementally added single forcings, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 121, 8067–8082, 2016. a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h
Avery, M. A., Davis, S. M., Rosenlof, K. H., Ye, H., and Dessler, A.: Large anomalies in lower stratospheric water vapor and ice during the 2015-2016 El Nino, Nat. Geosci., 10, 405–409,, 2017. a, b, c, d, e
Bonazzola, M. and Haynes, P.: A trajectory-based study of the tropical tropopause region, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 109, D20112,, 2004. a, b, c, d
Brinkop, S., Dameris, M., Jöckel, P., Garny, H., Lossow, S., and Stiller, G.: The millennium water vapour drop in chemistry-climate model simulations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8125–8140,, 2016. a, b, c, d
Calvo, N., Garcia, R., Randel, W., and Marsh, D.: Dynamical mechanism for the increase in tropical upwelling in the lowermost tropical stratosphere during warm ENSO events, J. Atmos. Sci., 67, 2331–2340, 2010. a, b, c, d
Short summary
The impact of El Niño in the lower stratosphere is nonlinear in spring. While moderate El Niño events lead to cooling in this region, strong El Niño events appear to lead to warming, and hence the water vapor response is nonlinear too. The net effect is that strong El Nino events, such as in 1997/1998 and 2015/2016, lead to qualitatively different water vapor impacts as compared to moderate El Nino events.
Final-revised paper