Articles | Volume 14, issue 12
27 Jun 2014
Research article | 27 Jun 2014
Growth of sulphuric acid nanoparticles under wet and dry conditions
L. Skrabalova et al.
No articles found.
Konstantinos Matthaios Doulgeris, Ville Vakkari, Ewan J. O'Connor, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Heikki Lihavainen, and David Brus
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We investigated how different long-range transport air masses can affect the microphysical properties of low-level clouds in a clean subarctic environment. A connection was revealed. Higher values of cloud droplet number concentrations were related to continental air masses whereas the lowest values of number concentrations were related marine air masses. Marine air masses were characterized by larger cloud droplets. Cloud droplets were more prone to grow in liquid clouds in warmer air.
Zoé Brasseur, Dimitri Castarède, Erik S. Thomson, Michael P. Adams, Saskia Drossaart van Dusseldorp, Paavo Heikkilä, Kimmo Korhonen, Janne Lampilahti, Mikhail Paramonov, Julia Schneider, Franziska Vogel, Yusheng Wu, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Nina S. Atanasova, Dennis H. Bamford, Barbara Bertozzi, Matthew Boyer, David Brus, Martin I. Daily, Romy Fösig, Ellen Gute, Alexander D. Harrison, Paula Hietala, Kristina Höhler, Zamin A. Kanji, Jorma Keskinen, Larissa Lacher, Markus Lampimäki, Janne Levula, Antti Manninen, Jens Nadolny, Maija Peltola, Grace C. E. Porter, Pyry Poutanen, Ulrike Proske, Tobias Schorr, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, János Stenszky, Annele Virtanen, Dmitri Moisseev, Markku Kulmala, Benjamin J. Murray, Tuukka Petäjä, Ottmar Möhler, and Jonathan Duplissy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5117–5145,Short summary
The present measurement report introduces the ice nucleation campaign organized in Hyytiälä, Finland, in 2018 (HyICE-2018). We provide an overview of the campaign settings, and we describe the measurement infrastructure and operating procedures used. In addition, we use results from ice nucleation instrument inter-comparison to show that the suite of these instruments deployed during the campaign reports consistent results.
Joseph Girdwood, Warren Stanley, Chris Stopford, and David Brus
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2061–2076,Short summary
UAVs have great potential to be used for airborne measurements of cloud and aerosol properties, which are of particular importance due to the largely uncharacterised nature of such phenomena. However, since UAVs are a new tool in atmospheric physics expensive platform validation and characterisation of UAV-instrument combinations needs to be performed. This paper presents an evaluation of a fixed-wing UAV in combination with an instrument that measures cloud droplet diameter.
Konstantinos Matthaios Doulgeris, Heikki Lihavainen, Anti-Pekka Hyvärinen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and David Brus
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 637–649,Short summary
We produced and summarized data sets obtained from two cloud ground-based spectrometers (CAPS and FSSP-100 ground setups) during 8 years of Pallas Cloud Experiment campaigns conducted in autumn from 2004 until 2019 along with several meteorological variables. The campaigns took place in the Finnish sub-Arctic region in a clear environment in temperatures that were usually below zero. This data set provides a helpful contribution to cloud microphysics processes.
Jutta Kesti, John Backman, Ewan J. O'Connor, Anne Hirsikko, Eija Asmi, Minna Aurela, Ulla Makkonen, Maria Filioglou, Mika Komppula, Hannele Korhonen, and Heikki Lihavainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 481–503,Short summary
In this study we combined aerosol particle measurements at the surface with a scanning Doppler lidar providing vertical profiles of the atmosphere to study the effect of different boundary layer conditions on aerosol particle properties in the understudied Arabian Peninsula region. The instrumentation used in this study enabled us to identify periods when pollution from remote sources was mixed down to the surface and initiated new particle formation in the growing boundary layer.
Clémence Rose, Martine Collaud Coen, Elisabeth Andrews, Yong Lin, Isaline Bossert, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Thomas Tuch, Alfred Wiedensohler, Markus Fiebig, Pasi Aalto, Andrés Alastuey, Elisabeth Alonso-Blanco, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Todor Arsov, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Juan Andrés Casquero-Vera, Sébastien Conil, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Francisco Javier Gómez-Moreno, Martin Gysel-Beer, Anna Gannet Hallar, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Melita Keywood, Jeong Eun Kim, Sang-Woo Kim, Adam Kristensson, Markku Kulmala, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Jakub Ondracek, Marco Pandolfi, Noemi Pérez, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Fabienne Reisen, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Junying Sun, Pierre Tulet, Ville Vakkari, Pieter Gideon van Zyl, Fernando Velarde, Paolo Villani, Stergios Vratolis, Zdenek Wagner, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Vladimir Zdimal, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17185–17223,Short summary
Aerosol particles are a complex component of the atmospheric system the effects of which are among the most uncertain in climate change projections. Using data collected at 62 stations, this study provides the most up-to-date picture of the spatial distribution of particle number concentration and size distribution worldwide, with the aim of contributing to better representation of aerosols and their interactions with clouds in models and, therefore, better evaluation of their impact on climate.
David Brus, Jani Gustafsson, Osku Kemppinen, Gijs de Boer, and Anne Hirsikko
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2909–2922,Short summary
This publication summarizes measurements collected and datasets generated by the Finnish Meteorological Institute and Kansas State University teams during the LAPSE-RATE campaign that took place in San Luis Valley, Colorado, during summer 2018. We provide an overview of the rotorcraft and offer insights into the payloads that were used. We describe the teams’ scientific goals, flight strategies, and the datasets, including a description of the measurement validation techniques applied.
David Brus, Jani Gustafsson, Ville Vakkari, Osku Kemppinen, Gijs de Boer, and Anne Hirsikko
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 517–533,Short summary
This paper summarizes Finnish Meteorological Institute and Kansas State University unmanned aerial vehicle measurements during the summer 2018 Lower Atmospheric Process Studies at Elevation – a Remotely-piloted Aircraft Team Experiment (LAPSE-RATE) campaign in the San Luis Valley, providing an overview of the rotorcraft deployed, payloads, scientific goals and flight strategies and presenting observations of atmospheric thermodynamics and aerosol and gas parameters in the vertical column.
Marta Wenta, David Brus, Konstantinos Doulgeris, Ville Vakkari, and Agnieszka Herman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 33–42,Short summary
Representations of the atmospheric boundary layer over sea ice are a challenge for numerical weather prediction models. To increase our understanding of the relevant processes, a field campaign was carried out over the sea ice in the Baltic Sea from 27 February to 2 March 2020. Observations included 27 unmanned aerial vehicle flights, four photogrammetry missions, and shore-based automatic weather station and lidar wind measurements. The dataset obtained is used to validate model results.
Gijs de Boer, Adam Houston, Jamey Jacob, Phillip B. Chilson, Suzanne W. Smith, Brian Argrow, Dale Lawrence, Jack Elston, David Brus, Osku Kemppinen, Petra Klein, Julie K. Lundquist, Sean Waugh, Sean C. C. Bailey, Amy Frazier, Michael P. Sama, Christopher Crick, David Schmale III, James Pinto, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Victoria Natalie, and Anders Jensen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3357–3366,Short summary
This paper provides an overview of the Lower Atmospheric Profiling Studies at Elevation – a Remotely-piloted Aircraft Team Experiment (LAPSE-RATE) field campaign, held from 14 to 20 July 2018. This field campaign spanned a 1-week deployment to Colorado's San Luis Valley, involving over 100 students, scientists, engineers, pilots, and outreach coordinators. This overview paper provides insight into the campaign for a special issue focused on the datasets collected during LAPSE-RATE.
Joseph Girdwood, Helen Smith, Warren Stanley, Zbigniew Ulanowski, Chris Stopford, Charles Chemel, Konstantinos-Matthaios Doulgeris, David Brus, David Campbell, and Robert Mackenzie
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6613–6630,Short summary
We present the design and validation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with a bespoke optical particle counter (OPC). This is used to monitor atmospheric particles, which have significant effects on our weather and climate. These effects are hard to characterise properly, partly because they occur in regions that are not commonly accessible to traditional instrumentation. Our new platform gives us the capability to access these regions.
Konstantinos-Matthaios Doulgeris, Mika Komppula, Sami Romakkaniemi, Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and David Brus
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5129–5147,Short summary
We intercompared three cloud spectrometers ground setups in conditions with frequently occurring supercooled clouds. The measurements were conducted during the Pallas Cloud Experiment (PaCE) in 2013, in the Finnish sub-Arctic region at Sammaltunturi station. The main meteorological parameters influencing the spectrometers' performance was the wind direction. Final recommendations and our view on the main limitations of each spectrometer ground setup are presented.
Paolo Laj, Alessandro Bigi, Clémence Rose, Elisabeth Andrews, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Martine Collaud Coen, Yong Lin, Alfred Wiedensohler, Michael Schulz, John A. Ogren, Markus Fiebig, Jonas Gliß, Augustin Mortier, Marco Pandolfi, Tuukka Petäja, Sang-Woo Kim, Wenche Aas, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Olga Mayol-Bracero, Melita Keywood, Lorenzo Labrador, Pasi Aalto, Erik Ahlberg, Lucas Alados Arboledas, Andrés Alastuey, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Stina Ausmeel, Todor Arsov, Eija Asmi, John Backman, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Sébastien Conil, Cedric Couret, Derek Day, Wan Dayantolis, Anna Degorska, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Asta Gregorič, Martin Gysel-Beer, A. Gannet Hallar, Jenny Hand, Andras Hoffer, Christoph Hueglin, Rakesh K. Hooda, Antti Hyvärinen, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Jeong Eun Kim, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Irena Kranjc, Radovan Krejci, Markku Kulmala, Casper Labuschagne, Hae-Jung Lee, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Gunter Löschau, Krista Luoma, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Nhat Anh Nguyen, Jakub Ondracek, Noemi Pérez, Maria Rita Perrone, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Natalia Prats, Anthony Prenni, Fabienne Reisen, Salvatore Romano, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Maik Schütze, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Martin Steinbacher, Junying Sun, Gloria Titos, Barbara Toczko, Thomas Tuch, Pierre Tulet, Peter Tunved, Ville Vakkari, Fernando Velarde, Patricio Velasquez, Paolo Villani, Sterios Vratolis, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Jesus Yus-Diez, Vladimir Zdimal, Paul Zieger, and Nadezda Zikova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4353–4392,Short summary
The paper establishes the fiducial reference of the GAW aerosol network providing the fully characterized value chain to the provision of four climate-relevant aerosol properties from ground-based sites. Data from almost 90 stations worldwide are reported for a reference year, 2017, providing a unique and very robust view of the variability of these variables worldwide. Current gaps in the GAW network are analysed and requirements for the Global Climate Monitoring System are proposed.
Maria Filioglou, Elina Giannakaki, John Backman, Jutta Kesti, Anne Hirsikko, Ronny Engelmann, Ewan O'Connor, Jari T. T. Leskinen, Xiaoxia Shang, Hannele Korhonen, Heikki Lihavainen, Sami Romakkaniemi, and Mika Komppula
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8909–8922,Short summary
Dust optical properties are region-dependent. Saharan, Asian, and Arabian dusts do not pose similar optical properties in terms of lidar ratios; thus, a universal lidar ratio for dust particles will lead to biases. The present study analyses observations over the United Arab Emirates, quantifying the optical and geometrical extents of the aerosol layers in the area, providing at the same time the Arabian dust properties along with chemical analysis of dust samples collected in the region.
Simo Hakala, Mansour A. Alghamdi, Pauli Paasonen, Ville Vakkari, Mamdouh I. Khoder, Kimmo Neitola, Lubna Dada, Ahmad S. Abdelmaksoud, Hisham Al-Jeelani, Ibrahim I. Shabbaj, Fahd M. Almehmadi, Anu-Maija Sundström, Heikki Lihavainen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jenni Kontkanen, Markku Kulmala, Tareq Hussein, and Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10537–10555,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols have significant effects on human health and the climate. A large fraction of these aerosols originate from new particle formation, where atmospheric vapors form small nanosized particles that grow into larger sizes, thus becoming climatically relevant. We show that large amounts of fast-growing particles are formed frequently at a site located in western Saudi Arabia and that these particles are likely connected to strong nearby emissions from human activities.
Michael Boy, Erik S. Thomson, Juan-C. Acosta Navarro, Olafur Arnalds, Ekaterina Batchvarova, Jaana Bäck, Frank Berninger, Merete Bilde, Zoé Brasseur, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Dimitri Castarède, Maryam Dalirian, Gerrit de Leeuw, Monika Dragosics, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Jonathan Duplissy, Annica M. L. Ekman, Keyan Fang, Jean-Charles Gallet, Marianne Glasius, Sven-Erik Gryning, Henrik Grythe, Hans-Christen Hansson, Margareta Hansson, Elisabeth Isaksson, Trond Iversen, Ingibjorg Jonsdottir, Ville Kasurinen, Alf Kirkevåg, Atte Korhola, Radovan Krejci, Jon Egill Kristjansson, Hanna K. Lappalainen, Antti Lauri, Matti Leppäranta, Heikki Lihavainen, Risto Makkonen, Andreas Massling, Outi Meinander, E. Douglas Nilsson, Haraldur Olafsson, Jan B. C. Pettersson, Nønne L. Prisle, Ilona Riipinen, Pontus Roldin, Meri Ruppel, Matthew Salter, Maria Sand, Øyvind Seland, Heikki Seppä, Henrik Skov, Joana Soares, Andreas Stohl, Johan Ström, Jonas Svensson, Erik Swietlicki, Ksenia Tabakova, Throstur Thorsteinsson, Aki Virkkula, Gesa A. Weyhenmeyer, Yusheng Wu, Paul Zieger, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2015–2061,Short summary
The Nordic Centre of Excellence CRAICC (Cryosphere–Atmosphere Interactions in a Changing Arctic Climate), funded by NordForsk in the years 2011–2016, is the largest joint Nordic research and innovation initiative to date and aimed to strengthen research and innovation regarding climate change issues in the Nordic region. The paper presents an overview of the main scientific topics investigated and provides a state-of-the-art comprehensive summary of what has been achieved in CRAICC.
Tuomo Nieminen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Pasi P. Aalto, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Urs Baltensperger, David C. S. Beddows, Johan Paul Beukes, Don Collins, Aijun Ding, Roy M. Harrison, Bas Henzing, Rakesh Hooda, Min Hu, Urmas Hõrrak, Niku Kivekäs, Kaupo Komsaare, Radovan Krejci, Adam Kristensson, Lauri Laakso, Ari Laaksonen, W. Richard Leaitch, Heikki Lihavainen, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Zoltán Németh, Wei Nie, Colin O'Dowd, Imre Salma, Karine Sellegri, Birgitta Svenningsson, Erik Swietlicki, Peter Tunved, Vidmantas Ulevicius, Ville Vakkari, Marko Vana, Alfred Wiedensohler, Zhijun Wu, Annele Virtanen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14737–14756,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols have diverse effects on air quality, human health, and global climate. One important source of aerosols is their formation via nucleation and growth in the atmosphere. We have analyzed long-term observations of regional new particle formation events around the globe and provide a comprehensive view on the characteristics of this phenomenon in diverse environments. The results are useful in developing more realistic representation of atmospheric aerosols in global models.
Marco Pandolfi, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Andrés Alastuey, Marcos Andrade, Christo Angelov, Begoña Artiñano, John Backman, Urs Baltensperger, Paolo Bonasoni, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Martine Collaud Coen, Sébastien Conil, Esther Coz, Vincent Crenn, Vadimas Dudoitis, Marina Ealo, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Olivier Favez, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Markus Fiebig, Harald Flentje, Patrick Ginot, Martin Gysel, Bas Henzing, Andras Hoffer, Adela Holubova Smejkalova, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Adam Kristensson, Markku Kulmala, Heikki Lihavainen, Chris Lunder, Krista Luoma, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Marcel Moerman, José Nicolas, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Eudes Petit, Jean Marc Pichon, Nina Prokopciuk, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Sergio Rodríguez, Jean Sciare, Karine Sellegri, Erik Swietlicki, Gloria Titos, Thomas Tuch, Peter Tunved, Vidmantas Ulevicius, Aditya Vaishya, Milan Vana, Aki Virkkula, Stergios Vratolis, Ernest Weingartner, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7877–7911,Short summary
This investigation presents the variability in near-surface in situ aerosol particle light-scattering measurements obtained over the past decade at 28 measuring atmospheric observatories which are part of the ACTRIS Research Infrastructure, and most of them belong to the GAW network. This paper provides a comprehensive picture of the spatial and temporal variability of aerosol particles optical properties in Europe.
Jonas Svensson, Johan Ström, Niku Kivekäs, Nathaniel B. Dkhar, Shresth Tayal, Ved P. Sharma, Arttu Jutila, John Backman, Aki Virkkula, Meri Ruppel, Antti Hyvärinen, Anna Kontu, Henna-Reetta Hannula, Matti Leppäranta, Rakesh K. Hooda, Atte Korhola, Eija Asmi, and Heikki Lihavainen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1403–1416,Short summary
Receding glaciers in the Himalayas are of concern. Here we present measurements of light-absorbing impurities, known to contribute to the ongoing glacier decrease, in snow from Indian Himalayas and compare them to snow samples from the Finnish Arctic. The soot particles in the snow are shown to have lower light absorbing efficiency, possibly affecting their radiative forcing potential in the snow. Further, dust influences the snow in the Himalayas to a much greater extent than in Finland.
Maria Filioglou, Anna Nikandrova, Sami Niemelä, Holger Baars, Tero Mielonen, Ari Leskinen, David Brus, Sami Romakkaniemi, Elina Giannakaki, and Mika Komppula
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4303–4316,
Emilie Öström, Zhou Putian, Guy Schurgers, Mikhail Mishurov, Niku Kivekäs, Heikki Lihavainen, Mikael Ehn, Matti P. Rissanen, Theo Kurtén, Michael Boy, Erik Swietlicki, and Pontus Roldin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8887–8901,Short summary
We used a model to study how biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from the boreal forest contribute to the formation and growth of particles in the atmosphere. Some of these particles are important climate forcers, acting as seeds for cloud droplet fomation. We implemented a new gas chemistry mechanism that describes how the BVOCs are oxidized and form low-volatility highly oxidized organic molecules. With the new mechanism we are able to accurately predict the particle growth.
Tomi Raatikainen, David Brus, Rakesh K. Hooda, Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen, Eija Asmi, Ved P. Sharma, Antti Arola, and Heikki Lihavainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 371–383,Short summary
We have measured black carbon aerosol properties in northern India at two sites: the first site is located at the polluted Indo-Gangetic Plain, while the second site is at the Himalayan foothills in a significantly cleaner environment. The observations show a clear difference in black carbon concentrations, but individual aerosol particles seem to be similar in both sites. Indirect evidence suggests that the particles are highly irregular resembling freshly emitted soot.
Hanna K. Lappalainen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Theo Kurten, Aleksander Baklanov, Anatoly Shvidenko, Jaana Bäck, Timo Vihma, Pavel Alekseychik, Meinrat O. Andreae, Stephen R. Arnold, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Boris Belan, Leonid Bobylev, Sergey Chalov, Yafang Cheng, Natalia Chubarova, Gerrit de Leeuw, Aijun Ding, Sergey Dobrolyubov, Sergei Dubtsov, Egor Dyukarev, Nikolai Elansky, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Igor Esau, Nikolay Filatov, Mikhail Flint, Congbin Fu, Olga Glezer, Aleksander Gliko, Martin Heimann, Albert A. M. Holtslag, Urmas Hõrrak, Juha Janhunen, Sirkku Juhola, Leena Järvi, Heikki Järvinen, Anna Kanukhina, Pavel Konstantinov, Vladimir Kotlyakov, Antti-Jussi Kieloaho, Alexander S. Komarov, Joni Kujansuu, Ilmo Kukkonen, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Ari Laaksonen, Tuomas Laurila, Heikki Lihavainen, Alexander Lisitzin, Alexsander Mahura, Alexander Makshtas, Evgeny Mareev, Stephany Mazon, Dmitry Matishov, Vladimir Melnikov, Eugene Mikhailov, Dmitri Moisseev, Robert Nigmatulin, Steffen M. Noe, Anne Ojala, Mari Pihlatie, Olga Popovicheva, Jukka Pumpanen, Tatjana Regerand, Irina Repina, Aleksei Shcherbinin, Vladimir Shevchenko, Mikko Sipilä, Andrey Skorokhod, Dominick V. Spracklen, Hang Su, Dmitry A. Subetto, Junying Sun, Arkady Y. Terzhevik, Yuri Timofeyev, Yuliya Troitskaya, Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen, Viacheslav I. Kharuk, Nina Zaytseva, Jiahua Zhang, Yrjö Viisanen, Timo Vesala, Pertti Hari, Hans Christen Hansson, Gennady G. Matvienko, Nikolai S. Kasimov, Huadong Guo, Valery Bondur, Sergej Zilitinkevich, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14421–14461,Short summary
After kick off in 2012, the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) program has expanded fast and today the multi-disciplinary research community covers ca. 80 institutes and a network of ca. 500 scientists from Europe, Russia, and China. Here we introduce scientific topics relevant in this context. This is one of the first multi-disciplinary overviews crossing scientific boundaries, from atmospheric sciences to socio-economics and social sciences.
Hilkka Timonen, Mike Cubison, Minna Aurela, David Brus, Heikki Lihavainen, Risto Hillamo, Manjula Canagaratna, Bettina Nekat, Rolf Weller, Douglas Worsnop, and Sanna Saarikoski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3263–3281,Short summary
The applicability, methods and limitations of constrained peak fitting on mass spectra of low mass resolving power (m∕Δm50 ∼ 500) recorded with a time-of-flight aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ToF-ACSM) are explored. Calibration measurements and ambient data are used to exemplify the methods that should be applied to maximise data quality and assess confidence in peak-fitting results.
Fanni Mylläri, Eija Asmi, Tatu Anttila, Erkka Saukko, Ville Vakkari, Liisa Pirjola, Risto Hillamo, Tuomas Laurila, Anna Häyrinen, Jani Rautiainen, Heikki Lihavainen, Ewan O'Connor, Ville Niemelä, Jorma Keskinen, Miikka Dal Maso, and Topi Rönkkö
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7485–7496,Short summary
The primary emissions of a coal-fired power plant were highly affected by the flue-gas cleaning technologies. The primary emission results were used as input values for a Gaussian plume model and the model correlated well with the atmospheric measurements from the flue-gas plume. Concentrations of newly formed particles in the flue gas plume were higher than the primary particle concentration, and thus the source of particle-forming precursors should be characterized in more detail.
Miska Olin, Tatu Anttila, and Miikka Dal Maso
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7067–7090,Short summary
We introduce a new representation of particle size distribution, in which a power law form is used in addition to the most commonly used log-normal representation. The new representation is beneficial in simulations involving the initial steps of aerosol formation, where power law behaviour is typically seen, instead of less accurate pure log-normal representation or computationally more expensive sectional representation.
David Brus, Lenka Skrabalova, Erik Herrmann, Tinja Olenius, Tereza Travnickova, and Joonas Merikanto
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We report laboratory measurements of the diffusion coefficient of sulfuric acid in humidified air. To our best knowledge, this is the first study, which investigates systematically the temperature dependency of the diffusion coefficient of H2SO4. We observed a rather strong power dependence with power of 5.4 when compared to 1.75 observed for other gases. We suggest that observed higher temperature dependence might be due to strong clustering of H2SO4 with base-impurities like amines.
Holger Baars, Thomas Kanitz, Ronny Engelmann, Dietrich Althausen, Birgit Heese, Mika Komppula, Jana Preißler, Matthias Tesche, Albert Ansmann, Ulla Wandinger, Jae-Hyun Lim, Joon Young Ahn, Iwona S. Stachlewska, Vassilis Amiridis, Eleni Marinou, Patric Seifert, Julian Hofer, Annett Skupin, Florian Schneider, Stephanie Bohlmann, Andreas Foth, Sebastian Bley, Anne Pfüller, Eleni Giannakaki, Heikki Lihavainen, Yrjö Viisanen, Rakesh Kumar Hooda, Sérgio Nepomuceno Pereira, Daniele Bortoli, Frank Wagner, Ina Mattis, Lucja Janicka, Krzysztof M. Markowicz, Peggy Achtert, Paulo Artaxo, Theotonio Pauliquevis, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Ved Prakesh Sharma, Pieter Gideon van Zyl, Johan Paul Beukes, Junying Sun, Erich G. Rohwer, Ruru Deng, Rodanthi-Elisavet Mamouri, and Felix Zamorano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5111–5137,Short summary
The findings from more than 10 years of global aerosol lidar measurements with Polly systems are summarized, and a data set of optical properties for specific aerosol types is given. An automated data retrieval algorithm for continuous Polly lidar observations is presented and discussed by means of a Saharan dust advection event in Leipzig, Germany. Finally, a statistic on the vertical aerosol distribution including the seasonal variability at PollyNET locations around the globe is presented.
E. Asmi, V. Kondratyev, D. Brus, T. Laurila, H. Lihavainen, J. Backman, V. Vakkari, M. Aurela, J. Hatakka, Y. Viisanen, T. Uttal, V. Ivakhov, and A. Makshtas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1271–1287,Short summary
Aerosol number size distributions were measured in Arctic Russia continuously during 4 years. The particles' seasonal characteristics and sources were identified based on these data. In early spring, elevated concentrations were detected during episodes of Arctic haze and during days of secondary particle formation. In summer, Siberian forests biogenic emissions had a significant impact on particle number and mass. These are the first such results obtained from the region.
J. I. Peltoniemi, M. Gritsevich, T. Hakala, P. Dagsson-Waldhauserová, Ó. Arnalds, K. Anttila, H.-R. Hannula, N. Kivekäs, H. Lihavainen, O. Meinander, J. Svensson, A. Virkkula, and G. de Leeuw
The Cryosphere, 9, 2323–2337,Short summary
Light-absorbing impurities change the reflectance of snow in different ways. Some particles are heated by the Sun and they sink out of sight. During the process, snow may look darker than pure snow when observed by nadir, but at larger view zenith angles the snow may look as white as clean snow. Thus an observer on the ground may overestimate the albedo, while a satellite underestimates the albedo. Climate studies need to examine how the contaminants behave in snow, not only their total amounts.
A. Arola, G. L. Schuster, M. R. A. Pitkänen, O. Dubovik, H. Kokkola, A. V. Lindfors, T. Mielonen, T. Raatikainen, S. Romakkaniemi, S. N. Tripathi, and H. Lihavainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12731–12740,Short summary
There have been relatively few measurement-based estimates for the direct radiative effect of brown carbon so far. This is first time that the direct radiative effect of brown carbon is estimated by exploiting the AERONET-retrieved imaginary indices. We estimated it for four sites in the Indo-Gangetic Plain: Karachi, Lahore, Kanpur and Gandhi College.
M. Paramonov, V.-M. Kerminen, M. Gysel, P. P. Aalto, M. O. Andreae, E. Asmi, U. Baltensperger, A. Bougiatioti, D. Brus, G. P. Frank, N. Good, S. S. Gunthe, L. Hao, M. Irwin, A. Jaatinen, Z. Jurányi, S. M. King, A. Kortelainen, A. Kristensson, H. Lihavainen, M. Kulmala, U. Lohmann, S. T. Martin, G. McFiggans, N. Mihalopoulos, A. Nenes, C. D. O'Dowd, J. Ovadnevaite, T. Petäjä, U. Pöschl, G. C. Roberts, D. Rose, B. Svenningsson, E. Swietlicki, E. Weingartner, J. Whitehead, A. Wiedensohler, C. Wittbom, and B. Sierau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12211–12229,Short summary
The research paper presents the first comprehensive overview of field measurements with the CCN Counter performed at a large number of locations around the world within the EUCAARI framework. The paper sheds light on the CCN number concentrations and activated fractions around the world and their dependence on the water vapour supersaturation ratio, the dependence of aerosol hygroscopicity on particle size, and seasonal and diurnal variation of CCN activation and hygroscopic properties.
T. Raatikainen, D. Brus, A.-P. Hyvärinen, J. Svensson, E. Asmi, and H. Lihavainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10057–10070,Short summary
We have measured atmospheric aerosol composition by using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) in the Finnish Arctic during winter 2011-2012. SP2 can give detailed information about mass distributions and mixing state of refractory black carbon (rBC). The measurements showed varying rBC mass concentrations, but relatively constant rBC core size distributions and mixing state parameters. On average, 24% of all particles contain rBC and the observed rBC cores are always thickly coated.
J.-P. Pietikäinen, K. Kupiainen, Z. Klimont, R. Makkonen, H. Korhonen, R. Karinkanta, A.-P. Hyvärinen, N. Karvosenoja, A. Laaksonen, H. Lihavainen, and V.-M. Kerminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5501–5519,Short summary
The global aerosol--climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ is used to study the aerosol burden and forcing changes in the coming decades. We show that aerosol burdens overall can have a decreasing trend leading to reductions in the direct aerosol effect being globally 0.06--0.4W/m2 by 2030, whereas the aerosol indirect radiative effect could decline 0.25--0.82W/m2. We also show that the targeted emission reduction measures can be a much better choice for the climate than overall high reductions globally.
E. Giannakaki, A. Pfüller, K. Korhonen, T. Mielonen, L. Laakso, V. Vakkari, H. Baars, R. Engelmann, J. P. Beukes, P. G. Van Zyl, M. Josipovic, P. Tiitta, K. Chiloane, S. Piketh, H. Lihavainen, K. E. J. Lehtinen, and M. Komppula
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5429–5442,Short summary
In this study we summarize 1 year of Raman lidar observations over South Africa. The analyses of lidar measurements presented here could assist in bridging existing gaps in the knowledge of vertical distribution of aerosols above South Africa, since limited long-term data of this type are available for this region. For the first time, we have been able to cover the full seasonal cycle on geometrical characteristics and optical properties of free tropospheric aerosol layers in the region.
K. Neitola, D. Brus, U. Makkonen, M. Sipilä, R. L. Mauldin III, N. Sarnela, T. Jokinen, H. Lihavainen, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3429–3443,Short summary
A discrepancy of 2 orders of magnitude was found between the measured sulfuric acid monomer concentration and total sulfate, when measured with independent methods (mass spectrometry and ion chromatography) with the same source of sulphuric acid vapor. The ion chromatography method produces the exact concentrations predicted by empirical equations, and the mass spectrometry method shows significantly lower values. The discrepancy is investigated thoroughly from different points of views.
J. Svensson, A. Virkkula, O. Meinander, N. Kivekäs, H.-R. Hannula, O. Järvinen, J. I. Peltoniemi, M. Gritsevich, A. Heikkilä, A. Kontu, A.-P. Hyvärinen, K. Neitola, D. Brus, P. Dagsson-Waldhauserova, K. Anttila, T. Hakala, H. Kaartinen, M. Vehkamäki, G. de Leeuw, and H. Lihavainen
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Soot's (including black carbon and organics) negative effect on a natural snow pack is experimentally addressed in this paper through a series of experiments. Soot concentrations in the snow in the range of 200-200 000 ppb verify the negative effects on the albedo, the physical snow characteristics, as well as increasing the melt rate of the snow pack. Our experimental data generally agrees when compared with the Snow, Ice and Aerosol Radiation model.
S. V. Henriksson, J.-P. Pietikäinen, A.-P. Hyvärinen, P. Räisänen, K. Kupiainen, J. Tonttila, R. Hooda, H. Lihavainen, D. O'Donnell, L. Backman, Z. Klimont, and A. Laaksonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10177–10192,
A. Hirsikko, E. J. O'Connor, M. Komppula, K. Korhonen, A. Pfüller, E. Giannakaki, C. R. Wood, M. Bauer-Pfundstein, A. Poikonen, T. Karppinen, H. Lonka, M. Kurri, J. Heinonen, D. Moisseev, E. Asmi, V. Aaltonen, A. Nordbo, E. Rodriguez, H. Lihavainen, A. Laaksonen, K. E. J. Lehtinen, T. Laurila, T. Petäjä, M. Kulmala, and Y. Viisanen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1351–1375,
D. C. S. Beddows, M. Dall'Osto, R. M. Harrison, M. Kulmala, A. Asmi, A. Wiedensohler, P. Laj, A.M. Fjaeraa, K. Sellegri, W. Birmili, N. Bukowiecki, E. Weingartner, U. Baltensperger, V. Zdimal, N. Zikova, J.-P. Putaud, A. Marinoni, P. Tunved, H.-C. Hansson, M. Fiebig, N. Kivekäs, E. Swietlicki, H. Lihavainen, E. Asmi, V. Ulevicius, P. P. Aalto, N. Mihalopoulos, N. Kalivitis, I. Kalapov, G. Kiss, G. de Leeuw, B. Henzing, C. O'Dowd, S. G. Jennings, H. Flentje, F. Meinhardt, L. Ries, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, and A. J. H. Visschedijk
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4327–4348,
C. E. Scott, A. Rap, D. V. Spracklen, P. M. Forster, K. S. Carslaw, G. W. Mann, K. J. Pringle, N. Kivekäs, M. Kulmala, H. Lihavainen, and P. Tunved
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 447–470,
R. Väänänen, E.-M. Kyrö, T. Nieminen, N. Kivekäs, H. Junninen, A. Virkkula, M. Dal Maso, H. Lihavainen, Y. Viisanen, B. Svenningsson, T. Holst, A. Arneth, P. P. Aalto, M. Kulmala, and V.-M. Kerminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11887–11903,
A. Asmi, M. Collaud Coen, J. A. Ogren, E. Andrews, P. Sheridan, A. Jefferson, E. Weingartner, U. Baltensperger, N. Bukowiecki, H. Lihavainen, N. Kivekäs, E. Asmi, P. P. Aalto, M. Kulmala, A. Wiedensohler, W. Birmili, A. Hamed, C. O'Dowd, S. G Jennings, R. Weller, H. Flentje, A. M. Fjaeraa, M. Fiebig, C. L. Myhre, A. G. Hallar, E. Swietlicki, A. Kristensson, and P. Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 895–916,
M. Collaud Coen, E. Andrews, A. Asmi, U. Baltensperger, N. Bukowiecki, D. Day, M. Fiebig, A. M. Fjaeraa, H. Flentje, A. Hyvärinen, A. Jefferson, S. G. Jennings, G. Kouvarakis, H. Lihavainen, C. Lund Myhre, W. C. Malm, N. Mihapopoulos, J. V. Molenar, C. O'Dowd, J. A. Ogren, B. A. Schichtel, P. Sheridan, A. Virkkula, E. Weingartner, R. Weller, and P. Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 869–894,
K. Neitola, D. Brus, U. Makkonen, M. Sipilä, R. L. Mauldin III, K. Kyllönen, H. Lihavainen, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
V.-M. Kerminen, M. Paramonov, T. Anttila, I. Riipinen, C. Fountoukis, H. Korhonen, E. Asmi, L. Laakso, H. Lihavainen, E. Swietlicki, B. Svenningsson, A. Asmi, S. N. Pandis, M. Kulmala, and T. Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 12037–12059,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Laboratory Studies | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Comparing the ice nucleation properties of the kaolin minerals kaolinite and halloysitePhysicochemical properties of charcoal aerosols derived from biomass pyrolysis affect their ice-nucleating abilities at cirrus and mixed-phase cloud conditionsReconsideration of surface tension and phase state effects on cloud condensation nuclei activity based on the atomic force microscopy measurementHygroscopicity and CCN potential of DMS-derived aerosol particlesHybrid water adsorption and solubility partitioning for aerosol hygroscopicity and droplet growthMicrophysics of liquid water in sub-10 nm ultrafine aerosol particlesExperimental development of a lake spray source function and its model implementation for Great Lakes surface emissionsThe effectiveness of the coagulation sink of 3–10 nm atmospheric particlesWhat caused the interdecadal shift in the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) impact on dust mass concentration over northwestern South Asia?Measurement report: An exploratory study of fluorescence and cloud condensation nuclei activity of urban aerosols in San Juan, Puerto RicoViscosity and physical state of sucrose mixed with ammonium sulfate dropletsDistribution and stable carbon isotopic composition of dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in fresh and aged biomass burning aerosolsTime dependence of heterogeneous ice nucleation by ambient aerosols: laboratory observations and a formulation for modelsLaboratory studies of ice nucleation onto bare and internally mixed soot–sulfuric acid particlesEnhanced soot particle ice nucleation ability induced by aggregate compaction and densificationOpinion: Insights into updating Ambient Air Quality Directive 2008/50/ECOn the evolution of sub- and super-saturated water uptake of secondary organic aerosol in chamber experiments from mixed precursorsHygroscopicity of organic compounds as a function of organic functionality, water solubility, molecular weight, and oxidation levelParticle emissions from a modern heavy-duty diesel engine as ice nuclei in immersion freezing mode: a laboratory study on fossil and renewable fuelsComparison of saturation vapor pressures of α-pinene + O3 oxidation products derived from COSMO-RS computations and thermal desorption experimentsPhysical and chemical properties of black carbon and organic matter from different combustion and photochemical sources using aerodynamic aerosol classificationTechnical note: Pyrolysis principles explain time-resolved organic aerosol release from biomass burningThe effect of (NH4)2SO4 on the freezing properties of non-mineral dust ice-nucleating substances of atmospheric relevanceHeterogeneous ice nucleation ability of aerosol particles generated from Arctic sea surface microlayer and surface seawater samples at cirrus temperaturesAerosol formation and growth rates from chamber experiments using Kalman smoothingPhase state of secondary organic aerosol in chamber photo-oxidation of mixed precursorsIce nucleation on surrogates of boreal forest SOA particles: effect of water content and oxidative ageViscosity and phase state of aerosol particles consisting of sucrose mixed with inorganic saltsObservations on hygroscopic growth and phase transitions of mixed 1, 2, 6-hexanetriol ∕ (NH4)2SO4 particles: investigation of the liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS) dynamic process and mechanism and secondary LLPS during the dehumidificationBoundary layer structure characteristics under objective classification of persistent pollution weather types in the Beijing areaProperties and emission factors of cloud condensation nuclei from biomass cookstoves – observations of a strong dependency on potassium content in the fuelMeasurement report: Effects of NOx and seed aerosol on highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) from cyclohexene ozonolysisInteractions of organosulfates with water vapor under sub- and supersaturated conditionsLaboratory study of the collection efficiency of submicron aerosol particles by cloud droplets – Part I: Influence of relative humiditySize-resolved atmospheric ice-nucleating particles during East Asian dust eventsAqueous-phase behavior of glyoxal and methylglyoxal observed with carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopyBrown carbon's emission factors and optical characteristics in household biomass burning: developing a novel algorithm for estimating the contribution of brown carbonEffect of mixing structure on the water uptake of mixtures of ammonium sulfate and phthalic acid particlesToward closure between predicted and observed particle viscosity over a wide range of temperatures and relative humidityThe effects of morphology, mobility size, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) material coating on the ice nucleation activity of black carbon in the cirrus regimeThe ice-nucleating activity of Arctic sea surface microlayer samples and marine algal culturesComparing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) volatility distributions derived from isothermal SOA particle evaporation data and FIGAERO–CIMS measurementsLaboratory studies of fresh and aged biomass burning aerosol emitted from east African biomass fuels – Part 1: Optical propertiesEnhanced growth rate of atmospheric particles from sulfuric acidComposition and volatility of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from oxidation of real tree emissions compared to simplified volatile organic compound (VOC) systemsEffects of SO2 on optical properties of secondary organic aerosol generated from photooxidation of toluene under different relative humidity conditionsInfluence of the dry aerosol particle size distribution and morphology on the cloud condensation nuclei activation. An experimental and theoretical investigationExperimental investigation into the volatilities of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs)Detection of tar brown carbon with a single particle soot photometer (SP2)Complex refractive indices and single-scattering albedo of global dust aerosols in the shortwave spectrum and relationship to size and iron content
Kristian Klumpp, Claudia Marcolli, Ana Alonso-Hellweg, Christopher H. Dreimol, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1579–1598,Short summary
The prerequisites of a particle surface for efficient ice nucleation are still poorly understood. This study compares the ice nucleation activity of two chemically identical but morphologically different minerals (kaolinite and halloysite). We observe, on average, not only higher ice nucleation activities for halloysite than kaolinite but also higher diversity between individual samples. We identify the particle edges as being the most likely site for ice nucleation.
Fabian Mahrt, Carolin Rösch, Kunfeng Gao, Christopher H. Dreimol, Maria A. Zawadowicz, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1285–1308,Short summary
Major aerosol types emitted by biomass burning include soot, ash, and charcoal particles. Here, we investigated the ice nucleation activity of 400 nm size-selected particles of two different pyrolyis-derived charcoal types in the mixed phase and cirrus cloud regime. We find that ice nucleation is constrained to cirrus cloud conditions, takes place via pore condensation and freezing, and is largely governed by the particle porosity and mineral content.
Chun Xiong, Xueyan Chen, Xiaolei Ding, Binyu Kuang, Xiangyu Pei, Zhengning Xu, Shikuan Yang, Huan Hu, and Zhibin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 16123–16135,Short summary
Water surface tension is applied widely in current aerosol–cloud models but could be inappropriate in the presence of atmospheric surfactants. With cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurement results of mixed inorganic salt and dicarboxylic acid particles, we concluded that surface tension reduction and phase state should be carefully considered in aerosol–cloud interactions. Our results could help to decease uncertainties in climate models.
Bernadette Rosati, Sini Isokääntä, Sigurd Christiansen, Mads Mørk Jensen, Shamjad P. Moosakutty, Robin Wollesen de Jonge, Andreas Massling, Marianne Glasius, Jonas Elm, Annele Virtanen, and Merete Bilde
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13449–13466,Short summary
Sulfate aerosols have a strong influence on climate. Due to the reduction in sulfur-based fossil fuels, natural sulfur emissions play an increasingly important role. Studies investigating the climate relevance of natural sulfur aerosols are scarce. We study the water uptake of such particles in the laboratory, demonstrating a high potential to take up water and form cloud droplets. During atmospheric transit, chemical processing affects the particles’ composition and thus their water uptake.
Kanishk Gohil, Chun-Ning Mao, Dewansh Rastogi, Chao Peng, Mingjin Tang, and Akua Asa-Awuku
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12769–12787,Short summary
The Hybrid Activity Model (HAM) is a promising new droplet growth model that can be potentially used for the analysis of any type of atmospheric compound. HAM may potentially improve the representation of hygroscopicity of organic aerosols in large-scale global climate models (GCMs), hence reducing the uncertainties in the climate forcing due to the aerosol indirect effect.
Xiaohan Li and Ian C. Bourg
Aerosol particles with sizes smaller than 50 nm impact cloud formation and precipitation. Representation of this effect is hindered by limited understanding of the properties of liquid water in these particles. Our simulations of aerosol particles containing salt or organic compounds reveal that water becomes a less cohesive phase at droplet sizes below 4 nm. This effect causes important deviations from theoretical predictions of aerosol properties, including phase state and hygroscopic growth.
Charbel Harb and Hosein Foroutan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11759–11779,Short summary
A model representation of lake spray aerosol (LSA) ejection from freshwater breaking waves is crucial for understanding their climatic and public health impacts. We develop an LSA emission parameterization and implement it in an atmospheric model to investigate Great Lakes surface emissions. We find that the same breaking wave is likely to produce fewer aerosols in freshwater than in saltwater and that Great Lakes emissions influence the regional aerosol burden and can reach the cloud layer.
Runlong Cai, Ella Häkkinen, Chao Yan, Jingkun Jiang, Markku Kulmala, and Juha Kangasluoma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11529–11541,Short summary
The influences of new particle formation on the climate and air quality are governed by particle survival, which has been under debate due to uncertainties in the coagulation sink. Here we measure the coagulation coefficient of sub-10 nm particles and demonstrate that collisions between the freshly nucleated and background particles can effectively lead to coagulation. We further show that the effective coagulation sink is consistent with the new particle formation measured in urban Beijing.
Lamei Shi, Jiahua Zhang, Da Zhang, Jingwen Wang, Xianglei Meng, Yuqin Liu, and Fengmei Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11255–11274,Short summary
Dust impacts climate and human life. Analyzing the interdecadal change in dust activity and its influence factors is crucial for disaster mitigation. Based on a linear regression method, this study revealed the interdecadal variability of relationships between ENSO and dust over northwestern South Asia from 1982 to 2014 and analyzed the effects of atmospheric factors on this interdecadal variability. The result sheds new light on numerical simulation involving the interdecadal variation of dust.
Bighnaraj Sarangi, Darrel Baumgardner, Benjamin Bolaños-Rosero, and Olga L. Mayol-Bracero
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9647–9661,Short summary
Here, the fluorescent characteristics and cloud-forming efficiency of aerosols at an urban site in Puerto Rico are discussed. The results from this pilot study highlight the capabilities of ultraviolet-induced fluorescence (UV-IF) measurements for characterizing the properties of fluorescing aerosol particles, as they relate to the daily evolution of primary biological aerosol particles. This work has established a database of measurements on which future, longer-term studies will be initiated.
Rani Jeong, Joseph Lilek, Andreas Zuend, Rongshuang Xu, Man Nin Chan, Dohyun Kim, Hi Gyu Moon, and Mijung Song
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8805–8817,Short summary
In this study, the viscosities of particles of sucrose–H2O, AS–H2O, and sucrose–AS–H2O for OIRs of 4:1, 1:1, and 1:4 for decreasing RH, were quantified by poke-and-flow and bead-mobility techniques at 293 ± 1 K. Based on the viscosity results, the particles of binary and ternary systems ranged from liquid to semisolid, and even the solid state depending on the RH. Moreover, we compared the measured viscosities of ternary systems to the predicted viscosities with excellent agreement.
Minxia Shen, Kin Fai Ho, Wenting Dai, Suixin Liu, Ting Zhang, Qiyuan Wang, Jingjing Meng, Judith C. Chow, John G. Watson, Junji Cao, and Jianjun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7489–7504,Short summary
Looking at characteristics and δ13C compositions of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in BB aerosols, we used a combined combustion and aging system to generate fresh and aged aerosols from burning straw. The results showed the emission factors (EFaged) of total diacids of aging experiments were around an order of magnitude higher than EFfresh. This meant that dicarboxylic acids are involved with secondary photochemical processes in the atmosphere rather than primary emissions from BB.
Jonas K. F. Jakobsson, Deepak B. Waman, Vaughan T. J. Phillips, and Thomas Bjerring Kristensen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6717–6748,Short summary
Long-lived cold-layer clouds at subzero temperatures are observed to be remarkably persistent in their generation of ice particles and snow precipitation. There is uncertainty about why this is so. This motivates the present lab study to observe the long-term ice-nucleating ability of aerosol samples from the real troposphere. Time dependence of their ice nucleation is observed to be weak in lab experiments exposing the samples to isothermal conditions for up to about 10 h.
Kunfeng Gao, Chong-Wen Zhou, Eszter J. Barthazy Meier, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5331–5364,Short summary
Incomplete combustion of fossil fuel produces carbonaceous particles called soot. These particles can affect cloud formation by acting as centres for droplet or ice formation. The atmospheric residence time of soot particles is of the order of days to weeks, which can result in them becoming coated by various trace species in the atmosphere such as acids. In this study, we quantify the cirrus cloud-forming ability of soot particles coated with the atmospherically ubiquitous sulfuric acid.
Kunfeng Gao, Franz Friebel, Chong-Wen Zhou, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4985–5016,Short summary
Soot particles impact cloud formation and radiative properties in the upper atmosphere where aircraft emit carbonaceous particles. We use cloud chambers to mimic the upper atmosphere temperature and humidity to test the influence of the morphology of the soot particles on ice cloud formation. For particles larger than 200 nm, the compacted (densified) samples have a higher affinity for ice crystal formation in the cirrus regime than the fluffy (un-compacted) soot particles of the same sample.
Joel Kuula, Hilkka Timonen, Jarkko V. Niemi, Hanna E. Manninen, Topi Rönkkö, Tareq Hussein, Pak Lun Fung, Sasu Tarkoma, Mikko Laakso, Erkka Saukko, Aino Ovaska, Markku Kulmala, Ari Karppinen, Lasse Johansson, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4801–4808,Short summary
Modern and up-to-date policies and air quality management strategies are instrumental in tackling global air pollution. As the European Union is preparing to revise Ambient Air Quality Directive 2008/50/EC, this paper initiates discussion on selected features of the directive that we believe would benefit from a reassessment. The scientific community has the most recent and deepest understanding of air pollution; thus, its contribution is essential.
Yu Wang, Aristeidis Voliotis, Dawei Hu, Yunqi Shao, Mao Du, Ying Chen, Judith Kleinheins, Claudia Marcolli, M. Rami Alfarra, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4149–4166,Short summary
Aerosol water uptake plays a key role in atmospheric physicochemical processes. We designed chamber experiments on aerosol water uptake of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from mixed biogenic and anthropogenic precursors with inorganic seed. Our results highlight this chemical composition influences the reconciliation of the sub- and super-saturated water uptake, providing laboratory evidence for understanding the chemical controls of water uptake of the multi-component aerosol.
Shuang Han, Juan Hong, Qingwei Luo, Hanbing Xu, Haobo Tan, Qiaoqiao Wang, Jiangchuan Tao, Yaqing Zhou, Long Peng, Yao He, Jingnan Shi, Nan Ma, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3985–4004,Short summary
We present the hygroscopicity of 23 organic species with different physicochemical properties using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) and compare the results with previous studies. Based on the hygroscopicity parameter κ, the influence of different physicochemical properties that potentially drive hygroscopicity, such as the functionality, water solubility, molar volume, and O : C ratio of organics, are examined separately.
Kimmo Korhonen, Thomas Bjerring Kristensen, John Falk, Vilhelm B. Malmborg, Axel Eriksson, Louise Gren, Maja Novakovic, Sam Shamun, Panu Karjalainen, Lassi Markkula, Joakim Pagels, Birgitta Svenningsson, Martin Tunér, Mika Komppula, Ari Laaksonen, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1615–1631,Short summary
We investigated the ice-nucleating abilities of particulate emissions from a modern diesel engine using the portable ice-nuclei counter SPIN, a continuous-flow diffusion chamber instrument. Three different fuels were studied without blending, including fossil diesel and two renewable fuels, testing different emission aftertreatment systems and photochemical aging. We found that the diesel emissions were inefficient ice nuclei, and aging had no or little effect on their ice-nucleating abilities.
Noora Hyttinen, Iida Pullinen, Aki Nissinen, Siegfried Schobesberger, Annele Virtanen, and Taina Yli-Juuti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1195–1208,Short summary
Accurate saturation vapor pressure estimates of atmospherically relevant organic compounds are critical for modeling secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. We investigated vapor pressures of highly oxygenated SOA constituents using state-of-the-art computational and experimental methods. We found a good agreement between low and extremely low vapor pressures estimated using the two methods, and the smallest molecules detected in our experiment were likely products of thermal decomposition.
Dawei Hu, M. Rami Alfarra, Kate Szpek, Justin M. Langridge, Michael I. Cotterell, Claire Belcher, Ian Rule, Zixia Liu, Chenjie Yu, Yunqi Shao, Aristeidis Voliotis, Mao Du, Brett Smith, Greg Smallwood, Prem Lobo, Dantong Liu, Jim M. Haywood, Hugh Coe, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16161–16182,Short summary
Here, we developed new techniques for investigating these properties in the laboratory and applied these to BC and BrC from different sources, including diesel exhaust, inverted propane flame and wood combustion. These have allowed us to quantify the changes in shape and chemical composition of different soots according to source and variables such as the moisture content of wood.
Mariam Fawaz, Anita Avery, Timothy B. Onasch, Leah R. Williams, and Tami C. Bond
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15605–15618,Short summary
Biomass burning is responsible for 90 % of the emissions of primary organic aerosols to the atmosphere. Emissions from biomass burning sources are considered chaotic. In this work, we developed a controlled experimental approach to understand the controlling factors in emission. Our results showed that emissions are repeatable and deterministic and that emissions from wood can be constrained.
Soleil E. Worthy, Anand Kumar, Yu Xi, Jingwei Yun, Jessie Chen, Cuishan Xu, Victoria E. Irish, Pierre Amato, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14631–14648,Short summary
We studied the effect of (NH4)2SO4 on the immersion freezing of non-mineral dust ice-nucleating substances (INSs) and mineral dusts. (NH4)2SO4 had no effect on the median freezing temperature of 9 of the 10 tested non-mineral dust INSs, slightly decreased that of the other, and increased that of all the mineral dusts. The difference in the response of mineral dust and non-mineral dust INSs to (NH4)2SO4 suggests that they nucleate ice and/or interact with (NH4)2SO4 via different mechanisms.
Robert Wagner, Luisa Ickes, Allan K. Bertram, Nora Els, Elena Gorokhova, Ottmar Möhler, Benjamin J. Murray, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, and Matthew E. Salter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13903–13930,Short summary
Sea spray aerosol particles are a mixture of inorganic salts and organic matter from phytoplankton organisms. At low temperatures in the upper troposphere, both inorganic and organic constituents can induce the formation of ice crystals and thereby impact cloud properties and climate. In this study, we performed experiments in a cloud simulation chamber with particles produced from Arctic seawater samples to quantify the relative contribution of inorganic and organic species in ice formation.
Matthew Ozon, Dominik Stolzenburg, Lubna Dada, Aku Seppänen, and Kari E. J. Lehtinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12595–12611,Short summary
Measuring the rate at which aerosol particles are formed is of importance for understanding climate change. We present an analysis method based on Kalman smoothing, which retrieves new particle formation and growth rates from size-distribution measurements. We apply it to atmospheric simulation chamber experiments and show that it agrees well with traditional methods. In addition, it provides reliable uncertainty estimates, and we suggest instrument design optimisation for signal processing.
Yu Wang, Aristeidis Voliotis, Yunqi Shao, Taomou Zong, Xiangxinyue Meng, Mao Du, Dawei Hu, Ying Chen, Zhijun Wu, M. Rami Alfarra, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11303–11316,Short summary
Aerosol phase behaviour plays a profound role in atmospheric physicochemical processes. We designed dedicated chamber experiments to study the phase state of secondary organic aerosol from biogenic and anthropogenic mixed precursors. Our results highlight the key role of the organic–inorganic ratio and relative humidity in phase state, but the sources and organic composition are less important. The result provides solid laboratory evidence for understanding aerosol phase in a complex atmosphere.
Ana A. Piedehierro, André Welti, Angela Buchholz, Kimmo Korhonen, Iida Pullinen, Ilkka Summanen, Annele Virtanen, and Ari Laaksonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11069–11078,Short summary
Ice crystals in cirrus clouds contain particles that start ice formation. We study whether particles forming above boreal forests can help in the making of cirrus clouds and if the water content in the particles affects this property. In the laboratory, we made boreal-forest-like particles and cooled and humidified them to measure whether an ice crystal develops. We found that only when dry can these particles form an ice crystal but no better than solution droplets.
Young-Chul Song, Joseph Lilek, Jae Bong Lee, Man Nin Chan, Zhijun Wu, Andreas Zuend, and Mijung Song
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10215–10228,Short summary
We report viscosity of binary mixtures of organic material / H2O and inorganic salts / H2O, as well as ternary mixtures of organic material / inorganic salts/ H2O, over the atmospheric relative humidity (RH) range. The viscosity measurements indicate that the studied mixed organic–inorganic particles range in phase state from liquid to semi-solid or even solid across the atmospheric RH range at a temperature of 293 K.
Shuaishuai Ma, Zhe Chen, Shufeng Pang, and Yunhong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9705–9717,Short summary
LLPS, efflorescence and deliquescence of aerosol particles can be observed visually and determined quantitatively. Different LLPS mechanisms may dominate successively in mixed organic–inorganic particles. The formation of more concentrated inorganic inclusions may cause secondary LLPS. Furthermore, high inorganic factions may result in an inorganic salt crust enclosing the separated organic phases.
Zhaobin Sun, Xiujuan Zhao, Ziming Li, Guiqian Tang, and Shiguang Miao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8863–8882,Short summary
Different weather types will shape significantly different structures of the pollution boundary layer. The findings of this study allow us to understand the inherent difference among heavy pollution boundary layers; in addition, they reveal the formation mechanism of haze pollution from an integrated synoptic-scale and boundary layer structure perspective.
Thomas Bjerring Kristensen, John Falk, Robert Lindgren, Christina Andersen, Vilhelm B. Malmborg, Axel C. Eriksson, Kimmo Korhonen, Ricardo Luis Carvalho, Christoffer Boman, Joakim Pagels, and Birgitta Svenningsson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8023–8044,Short summary
Residential biomass combustion is a major anthropogenic source of aerosol particles on regional and global scales. Nevertheless, little is known about those aerosol particles' ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and thus influence cloud properties and climate. Our study shows a strong link between the potassium content in the fuel and emissions of CCN for different stove technologies. Previous studies may have underestimated the anthropogenic climate impact of these emissions.
Meri Räty, Otso Peräkylä, Matthieu Riva, Lauriane Quéléver, Olga Garmash, Matti Rissanen, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7357–7372,Short summary
Cyclohexene resembles certain relatively complex compounds in the atmosphere that through oxidation produce vapours that take part in aerosol formation. We studied the highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) formed in cyclohexene ozonolysis, the relationship between their chemical composition and their tendency to condense onto seed aerosol, as well as the effect of NOx pollutants on their signals. Two existing models were also tested for their ability to predict the volatility of the HOMs.
Chao Peng, Patricia N. Razafindrambinina, Kotiba A. Malek, Lanxiadi Chen, Weigang Wang, Ru-Jin Huang, Yuqing Zhang, Xiang Ding, Maofa Ge, Xinming Wang, Akua A. Asa-Awuku, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7135–7148,Short summary
Organosulfates are important constituents in tropospheric aerosol particles, but their hygroscopic properties and cloud condensation nuclei activities are not well understood. In our work, three complementary techniques were employed to investigate the interactions of 11 organosulfates with water vapor under sub- and supersaturated conditions.
Alexis Dépée, Pascal Lemaitre, Thomas Gelain, Marie Monier, and Andrea Flossmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6945–6962,Short summary
Present article describe a new In-Cloud Aerosol Scavenging Experiment (In-CASE) that has been conceived to measure the collection efficiency of submicron aerosol particles by cloud droplets. The present article focuses on the influence of phoretic effects on the collection efficiency.
Jingchuan Chen, Zhijun Wu, Jie Chen, Naama Reicher, Xin Fang, Yinon Rudich, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3491–3506,Short summary
Asian mineral dust is a crucial contributor to global ice-nucleating particles (INPs), while its size-resolved information on freezing activity is extremely rare. Here we conducted the first known INP measurements of size-resolved airborne East Asian dust particles. An explicit size dependence of both INP concentration and surface ice-active-site density was observed. The new parameterizations can be widely applied in models to better characterize and predict ice nucleation activities of dust.
Georgia Michailoudi, Jack J. Lin, Hayato Yuzawa, Masanari Nagasaka, Marko Huttula, Nobuhiro Kosugi, Theo Kurtén, Minna Patanen, and Nønne L. Prisle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2881–2894,Short summary
This study provides insight into hydration of two significant atmospheric compounds, glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Using synchrotron radiation excited X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we confirm that glyoxal is fully hydrated in water, and for the first time, we experimentally detect enol structures in aqueous methylglyoxal. Our results support the contribution of these compounds to secondary organic aerosol formation, known to have a large uncertainty in atmospheric models and climate predictions.
Jianzhong Sun, Yuzhe Zhang, Guorui Zhi, Regina Hitzenberger, Wenjing Jin, Yingjun Chen, Lei Wang, Chongguo Tian, Zhengying Li, Rong Chen, Wen Xiao, Yuan Cheng, Wei Yang, Liying Yao, Yang Cao, Duo Huang, Yueyuan Qiu, Jiali Xu, Xiaofei Xia, Xin Yang, Xi Zhang, Zheng Zong, Yuchun Song, and Changdong Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2329–2341,Short summary
Brown carbon (BrC) emission factors from household biomass fuels were measured with an integrating sphere optics approach supported by iterative calculations. A novel algorithm to directly estimate the absorption contribution of BrC relative to that of BrC + black carbon (FBrC) was proposed based purely on the absorption exponent (AAE) (FBrC = 0.5519 lnAAE + 0.0067). The FBrC for household biomass fuels was as high as 50.8 % across the strongest solar spectral range of 350−850 nm.
Weigang Wang, Ting Lei, Andreas Zuend, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Yajun Shi, Maofa Ge, and Mingyuan Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2179–2190,Short summary
Aerosol mixing state regulates the interactions between water molecules and particles and thus controls aerosol activation and hygroscopic growth, which thereby influences visibility degradation, cloud formation, and its radiative forcing. However, there are few studies attempting to investigate their interactions with water molecules. Here, we investigated the effect of organic coatings on the hygroscopic behavior of the inorganic core.
Sabin Kasparoglu, Ying Li, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Markus D. Petters
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1127–1141,Short summary
Viscosity is important because it determines the lifetime, impact, and fate of particulate matter. We collected new data to rigorously test a framework that is used to constrain the phase state in global simulations. We find that the framework is accurate as long as appropriate compound specific inputs are available.
Cuiqi Zhang, Yue Zhang, Martin J. Wolf, Leonid Nichman, Chuanyang Shen, Timothy B. Onasch, Longfei Chen, and Daniel J. Cziczo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13957–13984,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) is considered the second most important global warming agent. However, the role of BC aerosol–cloud–climate interactions in the cirrus formation remains uncertain. Our study of selected BC types and sizes suggests that increases in diameter, compactness, and/or surface oxidation of BC particles lead to more efficient ice nucleation (IN) via pore condensation freezing (PCF) pathways，and that coatings of common secondary organic aerosol (SOA) materials can inhibit ice formation.
Luisa Ickes, Grace C. E. Porter, Robert Wagner, Michael P. Adams, Sascha Bierbauer, Allan K. Bertram, Merete Bilde, Sigurd Christiansen, Annica M. L. Ekman, Elena Gorokhova, Kristina Höhler, Alexei A. Kiselev, Caroline Leck, Ottmar Möhler, Benjamin J. Murray, Thea Schiebel, Romy Ullrich, and Matthew E. Salter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11089–11117,Short summary
The Arctic is a region where aerosols are scarce. Sea spray might be a potential source of aerosols acting as ice-nucleating particles. We investigate two common phytoplankton species (Melosira arctica and Skeletonema marinoi) and present their ice nucleation activity in comparison with Arctic seawater microlayer samples from different field campaigns. We also aim to understand the aerosolization process of marine biological samples and the potential effect on the ice nucleation activity.
Olli-Pekka Tikkanen, Angela Buchholz, Arttu Ylisirniö, Siegfried Schobesberger, Annele Virtanen, and Taina Yli-Juuti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10441–10458,Short summary
We compared the volatility distributions of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) constituents estimated from isothermal evaporation experiments from either particle size change data, by process modelling and global optimization, or from mass spectrometer data with positive matrix factorization analysis. Our results show that, despite the two very different estimation methods, the volatility distributions are comparable if uncertainties are taken into account.
Damon M. Smith, Marc N. Fiddler, Rudra P. Pokhrel, and Solomon Bililign
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10149–10168,Short summary
Biomass burning aerosol can scatter and absorb light, contributing to the cooling or warming of the planet. The scattering and absorption properties (optical properties) change as aerosol ages and interacts with atmospheric gases. Optical properties also depend on burning conditions, fuel type, and morphology. Africa is a major source of biomass burning aerosols, but there are very few laboratory studies. This study focuses on the optical properties of aerosols from east African biomass fuels.
Dominik Stolzenburg, Mario Simon, Ananth Ranjithkumar, Andreas Kürten, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Hamish Gordon, Sebastian Ehrhart, Henning Finkenzeller, Lukas Pichelstorfer, Tuomo Nieminen, Xu-Cheng He, Sophia Brilke, Mao Xiao, António Amorim, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Lisa Beck, Steffen Bräkling, Lucía Caudillo Murillo, Dexian Chen, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, António Dias, Josef Dommen, Jonathan Duplissy, Imad El Haddad, Lukas Fischer, Loic Gonzalez Carracedo, Martin Heinritzi, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan Ping Lee, Markus Leiminger, Zijun Li, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Tatjana Müller, Wei Nie, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Matti P. Rissanen, Birte Rörup, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Jiali Shen, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, Daniela Wimmer, Peter J. Wlasits, Yusheng Wu, Qing Ye, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Jos Lelieveld, Rainer Volkamer, Jasper Kirkby, and Paul M. Winkler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7359–7372,Short summary
Sulfuric acid is a major atmospheric vapour for aerosol formation. If new particles grow fast enough, they can act as cloud droplet seeds or affect air quality. In a controlled laboratory set-up, we demonstrate that van der Waals forces enhance growth from sulfuric acid. We disentangle the effects of ammonia, ions and particle hydration, presenting a complete picture of sulfuric acid growth from molecular clusters onwards. In a climate model, we show its influence on the global aerosol budget.
Arttu Ylisirniö, Angela Buchholz, Claudia Mohr, Zijun Li, Luis Barreira, Andrew Lambe, Celia Faiola, Eetu Kari, Taina Yli-Juuti, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Douglas R. Worsnop, Annele Virtanen, and Siegfried Schobesberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5629–5644,Short summary
We studied the chemical composition and volatility of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles formed from emissions of Scots pines and compared those results to SOA formed from α-pinene and from a sesquiterpene mixture. We found that SOA formed from single precursors cannot capture the properties of SOA formed from real plant emissions.
Wenyu Zhang, Weigang Wang, Junling Li, Chao Peng, Kun Li, Li Zhou, Bo Shi, Yan Chen, Mingyuan Liu, and Maofa Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4477–4492,Short summary
We investigated the effect of SO2 under different humidities on optical properties of toluene-derived SOA under four conditions with CRDs and PAX at 532 and 375 nm, respectively. Our results showed that SO2 under different humidities can change the refractive complex index of toluene SOA by influencing the multiphase processes and altering the aerosol chemical compositions. Different atmospheric conditions could affect the properties of toluene SOA, as well as the global radiative balance.
Junteng Wu, Alessandro Faccinetto, Symphorien Grimonprez, Sébastien Batut, Jérôme Yon, Pascale Desgroux, and Denis Petitprez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4209–4225,Short summary
Soot particles released during anthropogenic activities may lead to positive direct or negative indirect climate forcing depending on their aging in the atmosphere. The latter occurs whenever soot particles act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and trigger the formation of persistent clouds. Herein, we investigate the impact of the size distribution and morphology of freshly emitted soot particles on their aging process and propose a model to quantitatively predict their efficiency as CCN.
Otso Peräkylä, Matthieu Riva, Liine Heikkinen, Lauriane Quéléver, Pontus Roldin, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 649–669,Short summary
Highly oxygenated organic molecules have been suggested to form a large part of secondary organic aerosol. However, with their exotic structures, their volatilities are not well known, making their exact role in particle formation hard to assess. In laboratory experiments, we found the volatility of HOMs formed in the ozonolysis of the monoterpene alpha-pinene to be in the middle of earlier estimates. The volatilities of HOMs could be well explained in terms of their molecular formulae.
Joel C. Corbin and Martin Gysel-Beer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15673–15690,Short summary
We review the literature to refine the definition of "tar balls" (or tar particles). Then, using a marine-engine data set, we show that a standard SP2 can identify tar particles in two ways, as evaporating and non-incandescing (30 % of tar particles by number) or incandescing particles which scatter more light than soot at incandescence (70 % of tar particles by number). To our knowledge, no other technique can provide in situ, real-time evidence for the presence of tar particles in an aerosol.
Claudia Di Biagio, Paola Formenti, Yves Balkanski, Lorenzo Caponi, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Emilie Journet, Sophie Nowak, Meinrat O. Andreae, Konrad Kandler, Thuraya Saeed, Stuart Piketh, David Seibert, Earle Williams, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15503–15531,Short summary
This paper presents a new dataset of laboratory measurements of the shortwave (SW) spectral complex refractive index and single-scattering albedo (SSA) for global mineral dust aerosols of varying origin and composition. Our results show that the dust refractive index and SSA vary strongly from source to source, mostly due to particle iron content changes. We recommend that source-dependent values of the SW spectral refractive index and SSA be used in models and remote sensing applications.
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