Articles | Volume 11, issue 6
Research article 25 Mar 2011
Research article | 25 Mar 2011
Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau
M. Kopacz et al.
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Climate-driven chemistry and aerosol feedbacks in CMIP6 Earth system modelsSize-resolved aerosol pH over Europe during summerInsights into the aging of biomass burning aerosol from satellite observations and 3D atmospheric modeling: evolution of the aerosol optical properties in Siberian wildfire plumesGlobal modeling of heterogeneous hydroxymethanesulfonate chemistrySignificant wintertime PM2.5 mitigation in the Yangtze River Delta, China, from 2016 to 2019: observational constraints on anthropogenic emission controlsHistorical and future changes in air pollutants from CMIP6 modelsEvaluating trends and seasonality in modeled PM2.5 concentrations using empirical mode decompositionLong-term observational constraints of organic aerosol dependence on inorganic species in the southeast USModel bias in simulating major chemical components of PM2.5 in ChinaAerosol pH and chemical regimes of sulfate formation in aerosol water during winter haze in the North China PlainPollutant emission reductions deliver decreased PM2.5-caused mortality across China during 2015–2017Effects of global ship emissions on European air pollution levelsTreatment of non-ideality in the SPACCIM multiphase model – Part 2: Impacts on the multiphase chemical processing in deliquesced aerosol particlesInverse modeling of fire emissions constrained by smoke plume transport using HYSPLIT dispersion model and geostationary satellite observationsComprehensive analyses of source sensitivities and apportionments of PM2.5 and ozone over Japan via multiple numerical techniquesNumerical analysis of agricultural emissions impacts on PM2.5 in China using a high-resolution ammonia emission inventoryImproving regional air quality predictions in the Indo-Gangetic Plain-Case study of an intensive pollution episode in November 2017Climate and air quality impacts due to mitigation of non-methane near-term climate forcersShipping emissions in the Iberian Peninsula and the impacts on air qualityThe effect of biological particles and their ageing processes on aerosol radiative properties: Model sensitivity studiesModelling of the public health costs of fine particulate matter and results for Finland in 2015Global modelling studies of composition and decadal trends of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol LayerDevelopment and application of the WRFDA-Chem three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) system: aiming to improve air quality forecasting and diagnose model deficienciesAssessment of natural and anthropogenic aerosol air pollution in the Middle East using MERRA-2, CAMS data assimilation products, and high-resolution WRF-Chem model simulationsComparison of Chemical Lateral Boundary Conditions for Air Quality Predictions over the Contiguous United States during Intrusion EventsTrends and spatial shifts in lightning fires and smoke concentrations in response to 21st century climate over the national forests and parks of the western United StatesPredicting secondary organic aerosol phase state and viscosity and its effect on multiphase chemistry in a regional-scale air quality modelRecommendations on benchmarks for photochemical grid model applications in China: Part I – PM2.5 and chemical speciesFuture changes in isoprene-epoxydiol-derived secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA) under the shared socioeconomic pathways: the importance of explicit chemistryThe impact of ship emissions on air quality and human health in the Gothenburg area – Part 1: 2012 emissionsWhy do models perform differently on particulate matter over East Asia? A multi-model intercomparison study for MICS-Asia IIIEvaluating the impact of blowing-snow sea salt aerosol on springtime BrO and O3 in the ArcticImpacts of water partitioning and polarity of organic compounds on secondary organic aerosol over eastern ChinaMultiphase MCM–CAPRAM modeling of the formation and processing of secondary aerosol constituents observed during the Mt. Tai summer campaign in 2014Inverse modeling of SO2 and NOx emissions over China using multisensor satellite data – Part 1: Formulation and sensitivity analysisImproving air quality forecasting with the assimilation of GOCI aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals during the KORUS-AQ periodExploration of oxidative chemistry and secondary organic aerosol formation in the Amazon during the wet season: explicit modeling of the Manaus urban plume with GECKO-AModeling organic aerosol over Europe in summer conditions with the VBS-GECKO parameterization: sensitivity to secondary organic compound properties and IVOC (intermediate-volatility organic compound) emissionsThe acidity of atmospheric particles and cloudsCharacterization of organic aerosol across the global remote troposphere: a comparison of ATom measurements and global chemistry modelsSoccer games and record-breaking PM2.5 pollution events in Santiago, ChileSimulation of organic aerosol formation during the CalNex study: updated mobile emissions and secondary organic aerosol parameterization for intermediate-volatility organic compoundsAerosol pH and liquid water content determine when particulate matter is sensitive to ammonia and nitrate availabilityA predictive group-contribution model for the viscosity of aqueous organic aerosolLocal and remote mean and extreme temperature response to regional aerosol emissions reductionsHow much does traffic contribute to benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon air pollution? Results from a high-resolution North American air quality model centred on Toronto, CanadaModeling diurnal variation of surface PM2.5 concentrations over East China with WRF-Chem: impacts from boundary-layer mixing and anthropogenic emissionAn evaluation of global organic aerosol schemes using airborne observationsMICS-Asia III: overview of model intercomparison and evaluation of acid deposition over AsiaTrends and source apportionment of aerosols in Europe during 1980–2018
Gillian Thornhill, William Collins, Dirk Olivié, Ragnhild B. Skeie, Alex Archibald, Susanne Bauer, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Stephanie Fiedler, Gerd Folberth, Ada Gjermundsen, Larry Horowitz, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Martine Michou, Jane Mulcahy, Pierre Nabat, Vaishali Naik, Fiona M. O'Connor, Fabien Paulot, Michael Schulz, Catherine E. Scott, Roland Séférian, Chris Smith, Toshihiko Takemura, Simone Tilmes, Kostas Tsigaridis, and James Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1105–1126,Short summary
We find that increased temperatures affect aerosols and reactive gases by changing natural emissions and their rates of removal from the atmosphere. Changing the composition of these species in the atmosphere affects the radiative budget of the climate system and therefore amplifies or dampens the climate response of climate models of the Earth system. This study found that the largest effect is a dampening of climate change as warmer temperatures increase the emissions of cooling aerosols.
Stylianos Kakavas, David Patoulias, Maria Zakoura, Athanasios Nenes, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 799–811,Short summary
The dependence of aerosol acidity on particle size, location, and altitude over Europe during a summertime period is investigated. Differences of up to 1–4 pH units are predicted between sub- and supermicron particles in northern and southern Europe. Particles of all sizes become increasingly acidic with altitude (0.5–2.5 pH units decrease over 2.5 km). The size-dependent pH differences carry important implications for pH-sensitive processes in the aerosol.
Igor B. Konovalov, Nikolai A. Golovushkin, Matthias Beekmann, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 357–392,Short summary
A lack of consistent observational constraints on the atmospheric evolution of the optical properties of biomass burning (BB) aerosol limits the accuracy of assessments of the aerosol radiative and climate effects. We show that useful insights into the evolution of the BB aerosol optical properties can be inferred from a combination of satellite observations and 3D modeling. We report major changes that occurred in the optical properties of Siberian BB aerosol during its long-range transport.
Shaojie Song, Tao Ma, Yuzhong Zhang, Lu Shen, Pengfei Liu, Ke Li, Shixian Zhai, Haotian Zheng, Meng Gao, Jonathan M. Moch, Fengkui Duan, Kebin He, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 457–481,Short summary
We simulate the atmospheric chemical processes of an important sulfur-containing organic aerosol species, which is produced by the reaction between sulfur dioxide and formaldehyde. We can predict its distribution on a global scale. We find it is particularly rich in East Asia. This aerosol species is more abundant in the colder season partly because of weaker sunlight.
Liqiang Wang, Shaocai Yu, Pengfei Li, Xue Chen, Zhen Li, Yibo Zhang, Mengying Li, Khalid Mehmood, Weiping Liu, Tianfeng Chai, Yannian Zhu, Daniel Rosenfeld, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14787–14800,Short summary
The Chinese government has made major strides in curbing anthropogenic emissions. In this study, we constrain a state-of-the-art CTM by a reliable data assimilation method with extensive chemical and meteorological observations. This comprehensive technical design provides a crucial advance in isolating the influences of emission changes and meteorological perturbations over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) from 2016 to 2019, thus establishing the first map of the PM2.5 mitigation across the YRD.
Steven T. Turnock, Robert J. Allen, Martin Andrews, Susanne E. Bauer, Makoto Deushi, Louisa Emmons, Peter Good, Larry Horowitz, Jasmin G. John, Martine Michou, Pierre Nabat, Vaishali Naik, David Neubauer, Fiona M. O'Connor, Dirk Olivié, Naga Oshima, Michael Schulz, Alistair Sellar, Sungbo Shim, Toshihiko Takemura, Simone Tilmes, Kostas Tsigaridis, Tongwen Wu, and Jie Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14547–14579,Short summary
A first assessment is made of the historical and future changes in air pollutants from models participating in the 6th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). Substantial benefits to future air quality can be achieved in future scenarios that implement measures to mitigate climate and involve reductions in air pollutant emissions, particularly methane. However, important differences are shown between models in the future regional projection of air pollutants under the same scenario.
Huiying Luo, Marina Astitha, Christian Hogrefe, Rohit Mathur, and S. Trivikrama Rao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13801–13815,Short summary
A new method is introduced to evaluate nonlinear, nonstationary modeled PM2.5 time series by decomposing decadal PM2.5 concentrations and its species onto various timescales. It does not require preselection of temporal scales and assumptions of linearity and stationarity. It provides a unique opportunity to assess the influence of each species on total PM2.5. The results reveal a phase shift in modeled EC/OC concentrations, indicating the need for improved model treatment of organic aerosols.
Yiqi Zheng, Joel A. Thornton, Nga Lee Ng, Hansen Cao, Daven K. Henze, Erin E. McDuffie, Weiwei Hu, Jose L. Jimenez, Eloise A. Marais, Eric Edgerton, and Jingqiu Mao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13091–13107,Short summary
This study aims to address a challenge in biosphere–atmosphere interactions: to what extent can biogenic organic aerosol (OA) be modified through human activities? From three surface network observations, we show OA is weakly dependent on sulfate and aerosol acidity in the summer southeast US, on both long-term trends and monthly variability. The results are in strong contrast to a global model, GEOS-Chem, suggesting the need to revisit the representation of aqueous-phase secondary OA formation.
Ruqian Miao, Qi Chen, Yan Zheng, Xi Cheng, Yele Sun, Paul I. Palmer, Manish Shrivastava, Jianping Guo, Qiang Zhang, Yuhan Liu, Zhaofeng Tan, Xuefei Ma, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Keding Lu, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12265–12284,Short summary
In this study we evaluated the model performances for simulating secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) and organic aerosol (OA) in PM2.5 in China against comprehensive datasets. The potential biases from factors related to meteorology, emission, chemistry, and atmospheric removal are systematically investigated. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of modeling PM2.5, which is important for studies on the effectiveness of emission control strategies.
Wei Tao, Hang Su, Guangjie Zheng, Jiandong Wang, Chao Wei, Lixia Liu, Nan Ma, Meng Li, Qiang Zhang, Ulrich Pöschl, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11729–11746,Short summary
We simulated the thermodynamic and multiphase reactions in aerosol water during a wintertime haze event over the North China Plain. It was found that aerosol pH exhibited a strong spatiotemporal variability, and multiple oxidation pathways were predominant for particulate sulfate formation in different locations. Sensitivity tests further showed that ammonia, crustal particles, and dissolved transition metal ions were important factors for multiphase chemistry during haze episodes.
Ben Silver, Luke Conibear, Carly L. Reddington, Christoph Knote, Steve R. Arnold, and Dominick V. Spracklen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11683–11695,Short summary
China suffers from serious air pollution, which is thought to cause millions of early deaths each year. Measurements on the ground show that overall air quality is improving. Air quality is also affected by weather conditions, which can vary from year to year. We conduct computer simulations to show it is the reduction of the amount of pollution emitted, rather than weather conditions, which caused air quality to improve during 2015–2017. We then estimate that 150 000 fewer people die early.
Jan Eiof Jonson, Michael Gauss, Michael Schulz, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, and Hilde Fagerli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11399–11422,Short summary
We have calculated the effects of air pollution in Europe from shipping on levels of PM2.5 and ozone and depositions of oxidised nitrogen and sulfur from individual sea areas and from all global shipping. Model results are shown for Europe as a whole but also focusing on select, mainly coastal, countries. Calculations are made using 2017 emissions supplemented by calculations reducing sulfur emissions from ships by about 80 % following the implementation of the 2020 global sulfur cap.
Ahmad Jhony Rusumdar, Andreas Tilgner, Ralf Wolke, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10351–10377,Short summary
In the present study, simulations with the SPACCIM-SpactMod multiphase chemistry model are performed. The investigations aim at assessing the impact of a detailed treatment of non-ideality in multiphase models dealing with aqueous aerosol chemistry. The model studies demonstrate that the inclusion of non-ideality considerably affects the multiphase chemical processing of transition metal ions, oxidants, and related chemical subsystems such as organic chemistry in aqueous aerosols.
Hyun Cheol Kim, Tianfeng Chai, Ariel Stein, and Shobha Kondragunta
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10259–10277,Short summary
Smoke forecasts have been challenged by high uncertainty in fire emission estimates. We develop an inverse modeling system, the HYSPLIT-based Emissions Inverse Modeling System for wildfires, that estimates wildfire emissions from the transport and dispersion of smoke plumes as measured by satellite observations. Using NOAA HYSPLIT and GOES Aerosol/Smoke Product (GASP), the system resolves smoke source strength as a function of time and vertical level and outperforms current operational system.
Satoru Chatani, Hikari Shimadera, Syuichi Itahashi, and Kazuyo Yamaji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10311–10329,Short summary
Source sensitivities and apportionments of PM2.5 and ozone concentrations over Japan for 2016 were evaluated using multiple numerical techniques including BFM, HDDM, and ISAM, embedded in regional chemical transport models. Influences of stringent emission controls recently implemented in Asian countries were reflected. Differences between sensitivities and apportionments greatly helped distinguish various direct and indirect effects of emission sources on PM2.5 and ozone concentrations.
Xiao Han, Lingyun Zhu, Mingxu Liu, Yu Song, and Meigen Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9979–9996,Short summary
China is one of the largest agricultural countries in the world. Some of the major PM2.5 particles that cause the atmospheric haze and impact the climate change were converted from agricultural NH3 emission. This paper applied the numerical modeling system, coupled with a high-resolution agricultural NH3 emissions inventory, to investigate the contribution of agricultural NH3 to PM2.5 mass burden in China and obtained some interesting results.
Behrooz Roozitalab, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Sarath K. Guttikunda
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We used air quality modeling to study an extreme pollution episode in November 2017 in India. We found both local and regional emissions contribute to high pollution levels. The extreme pollution values were the result of agricultural fires in the north west of India. Ozone concentrations were also high during this period. Ozone should be considered in future air quality management strategies.
Robert J. Allen, Steven Turnock, Pierre Nabat, David Neubauer, Ulrike Lohmann, Dirk Olivié, Naga Oshima, Martine Michou, Tongwen Wu, Jie Zhang, Toshihiko Takemura, Michael Schulz, Kostas Tsigaridis, Susanne E. Bauer, Louisa Emmons, Larry Horowitz, Vaishali Naik, Twan van Noije, Tommi Bergman, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Prodromos Zanis, Ina Tegen, Daniel M. Westervelt, Philippe Le Sager, Peter Good, Sungbo Shim, Fiona O'Connor, Dimitris Akritidis, Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Makoto Deushi, Lori T. Sentman, Jasmin G. John, Shinichiro Fujimori, and William J. Collins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9641–9663,
Rafael A. O. Nunes, Maria C. M. Alvim-Ferraz, Fernando G. Martins, Fátima Calderay-Cayetano, Vanessa Durán-Grados, Juan Moreno-Gutiérrez, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Hanna Hannuniemi, and Sofia I. V. Sousa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9473–9489,Short summary
The central position of the Iberian Peninsula with ship traffic between the Americas, Africa, and Europe, combined with the known adverse effects of this sector on air quality, emphasises the relevance of a more detailed study of these impacts in this region. Results showed increased levels of SO2 and NO2 near port areas, as well as of O3, sulfate, PM2.5, and PM10 over the Iberian Peninsula coastline due to shipping emissions. To study mitigation measures, application is crucial.
Minghui Zhang, Amina Khaled, Pierre Amato, Anne-Marie Delort, and Barbara Ervens
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Biological aerosol particles (BAP) represent a small fraction of total atmospheric aerosol burden. They attracted attention due to their role for climate and public health. Our study summarizes which BAP properties are important to affect their inclusion in clouds and interaction with light and might also affect their residence time and transport in the atmosphere. Our study highlights that not only chemical and physical but also biological processes can modify these physicochemical properties.
Jaakko Kukkonen, Mikko Savolahti, Yuliia Palamarchuk, Timo Lanki, Väinö Nurmi, Ville-Veikko Paunu, Leena Kangas, Mikhail Sofiev, Ari Karppinen, Androniki Maragkidou, Pekka Tiittanen, and Niko Karvosenoja
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9371–9391,Short summary
We have developed a mathematical model that can be used to analyse the benefits that could be achieved by implementing alternative air quality abatement measures, policies or strategies. The model was applied to determine pollution sources in the whole of Finland in 2015. Clearly the most economically effective measures were the reduction in emissions from low-level sources in urban areas. Such sources include road transport, non-road vehicles and machinery, and residential wood combustion.
Adriana Bossolasco, Fabrice Jegou, Pasquale Sellitto, Gwenaël Berthet, Corinna Kloss, and Bernard Legras
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Using the Community Earth System Model, we simulate the surface aerosols lifted to the Asian tropopause (the ATAL layer), its composition and trend, covering a long-term period (2000–2015). We identify a
double-peakaerosols vertical profile, that we attribute to
convectivecloud-borne aerosols. We find that natural aerosol (mineral dust) is the dominant aerosol type and has no long-term trend. ATAL's anthropogenic fraction, on the contrary, shows a marked positive trend.
Wei Sun, Zhiquan Liu, Dan Chen, Pusheng Zhao, and Min Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9311–9329,Short summary
A new aerosol and gas pollutant assimilation capability is developed within the WRFDA system with the 3D variational algorithm and MOSAIC (Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry) aerosol scheme. By assimilating surface PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, and CO, it improves 24 h air quality forecasting. Based on this system, model deficiencies are explored. Parameterization in the newly added inorganic aerosol heterogeneous reactions should be adjusted and verified by data assimilation.
Alexander Ukhov, Suleiman Mostamandi, Arlindo da Silva, Johannes Flemming, Yasser Alshehri, Illia Shevchenko, and Georgiy Stenchikov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9281–9310,Short summary
The data assimilation products MERRA2 and CAMS are tested over the Middle East (ME) against in situ and satellite observations. For the first time, we compared the new MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval, MAIAC, with the Deep Blue and Dark Target MODIS AOD. We conducted 2-year high-resolution WRF-Chem simulations with the most accurate OMI-HTAP SO2 emissions to estimate the contribution of natural and anthropogenic aerosols to the PM pollution in the ME.
Youhua Tang, Huisheng Bian, Zhining Tao, Luke D. Oman, Daniel Tong, Pius Lee, Patrick C. Campbell, Barry Baker, Cheng-Hsuan Lu, Li Pan, Jun Wang, Jefferey McQueen, and Ivanka Stajner
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The impact of chemical lateral boundary condition (CLBC) is essential for regional air quality prediction, especially during intrusion events. We developed the method of mapping GEOS chemical species to CMAQ CB05-Aero6. The CLBCs' influences depended on not only the distance from the inflow boundary, but also species and their regional characteristics. We also demonstrated a method using satellite retrieved aerosol optical thickness to derive new CLBC and achieve reasonable prediction.
Yang Li, Loretta J. Mickley, Pengfei Liu, and Jed O. Kaplan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8827–8838,Short summary
Using a coupled vegetation–fire–climate modeling framework, we show a northward shift in forests and increased lightning fire activity in northern US states, including Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming. Our findings suggest a large climate penalty on ecosystem, air quality, visibility, and human health in a region valued for its national forests and parks. The fine-scale smoke PM predictions provided in this study should prove useful to human health and environmental assessments.
Ryan Schmedding, Quazi Z. Rasool, Yue Zhang, Havala O. T. Pye, Haofei Zhang, Yuzhi Chen, Jason D. Surratt, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Joel A. Thornton, Allen H. Goldstein, and William Vizuete
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8201–8225,Short summary
Accurate model prediction of aerosol concentrations is a known challenge. It is assumed in many modeling systems that aerosols are in a homogeneously mixed phase state. It has been observed that aerosols do phase separate and can form a highly viscous organic shell with an aqueous core impacting the formation processes of aerosols. This work is a model implementation to determine an aerosol's phase state using glass transition temperature and aerosol composition.
Ling Huang, Yangjun Wang, Hehe Zhai, Shuhui Xue, Tianyi Zhu, Yun Shao, Ziyi Liu, Chris Emery, Joshua Fu, Kun Zhang, Greg Yarwood, and Li Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Photochemical grid models (PGMs) are being applied extensively to address diverse scientific and regulatory compliance associated with deteriorated air quality in China. For any PGM applications, model performance evaluation is a critical step that guarantees the robustness and reliability of the baseline modeling results and subsequent applications. We provided benchmarks for model performance evaluation of PGM applications in China to demonstrate model robustness.
Duseong S. Jo, Alma Hodzic, Louisa K. Emmons, Simone Tilmes, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Michael J. Mills, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Weiwei Hu, Rahul A. Zaveri, Richard C. Easter, Balwinder Singh, Zheng Lu, Christiane Schulz, Johannes Schneider, John E. Shilling, Armin Wisthaler, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is a major component of submicron particulate matter but there are a lot of uncertainties in the future prediction of SOA. We used CESM 2.1 to investigate future IEPOX-SOA concentration changes. The explicit chemistry predicted substantial changes of IEPOX-SOA depending on the future scenario, but the parameterization predicted weak changes due to simplified chemistry, which shows the importance of correct physico-chemical dependencies in future SOA prediction.
Lin Tang, Martin O. P. Ramacher, Jana Moldanová, Volker Matthias, Matthias Karl, Lasse Johansson, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Katarina Yaramenka, Armin Aulinger, and Malin Gustafsson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7509–7530,Short summary
The effects of shipping emissions on air quality and health in the harbour city of Gothenburg were simulated for 2012 with coupled regional and city-scale chemistry transport models. The results show that contributions of shipping to exposure and health impacts from particulate matter and NO2 are significant and that shipping-related exposure to PM is dominated by emissions from regional shipping outside the city domain and is larger than exposure related to emissions from local road traffic.
Jiani Tan, Joshua S. Fu, Gregory R. Carmichael, Syuichi Itahashi, Zhining Tao, Kan Huang, Xinyi Dong, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Xuemei Wang, Yiming Liu, Hyo-Jung Lee, Chuan-Yao Lin, Baozhu Ge, Mizuo Kajino, Jia Zhu, Meigen Zhang, Hong Liao, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7393–7410,Short summary
This study evaluated the performance of 12 chemical transport models from MICS-Asia III for predicting the particulate matter (PM) over East Asia. Four model processes were investigated as the possible reasons for model bias with measurements and the factors causing inconsistent predictions of PM from different models: (1) model inputs, (2) gas–particle conversion, (3) dust emission modules and (4) removal mechanisms (wet and dry depositions). The influence of each process was discussed.
Jiayue Huang, Lyatt Jaeglé, Qianjie Chen, Becky Alexander, Tomás Sherwen, Mat J. Evans, Nicolas Theys, and Sungyeon Choi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7335–7358,Short summary
Large-scale enhancements of tropospheric BrO and the depletion of surface ozone are often observed in the springtime Arctic. Here, we use a chemical transport model to examine the role of sea salt aerosol from blowing snow in explaining these phenomena. We find that our simulation can account for the spatiotemporal variability of satellite observations of BrO. However, the model has difficulty in producing the magnitude of observed ozone depletion events.
Jingyi Li, Haowen Zhang, Qi Ying, Zhijun Wu, Yanli Zhang, Xinming Wang, Xinghua Li, Yele Sun, Min Hu, Yuanhang Zhang, and Jianlin Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7291–7306,Short summary
Large gaps still exist in modeled and observed secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass loading and properties. Here we investigated the impacts of water partitioning into organic aerosol and nonideality of the organic–water mixture on SOA over eastern China using a regional 3D model. SOA is increased more significantly in humid and hot environments. Increases in SOA further cause an enhancement of the cooling effects of aerosols. It is crucial to consider the above processes in modeling SOA.
Yanhong Zhu, Andreas Tilgner, Erik Hans Hoffmann, Hartmut Herrmann, Kimitaka Kawamura, Lingxiao Yang, Likun Xue, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6725–6747,Short summary
The formation and processing of secondary inorganic and organic compounds at Mt. Tai, the highest mountain on the North China Plain, are modeled using a multiphase chemical model. The concentrations of key radical and non-radical oxidations in the formation processes are investigated. Sensitivity tests assess the impacts of emission data and glyoxal partitioning constants on modeled results. The key precursors of secondary organic compounds are also identified.
Yi Wang, Jun Wang, Xiaoguang Xu, Daven K. Henze, Zhen Qu, and Kai Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6631–6650,Short summary
The use of OMPS satellite observations to inverse-model SO2 and NO2 emissions is presented through the GEOS-Chem adjoint modeling framework. The work is illustrated over China. The robustness of the results is studied through separate and joint inversions of SO2 and NO2 and the consideration of NH3 uncertainty. Independent validation is performed with OMI SO2 and NO2 data. It is shown that simultaneous inversion of NO2 and SO2 from OMPS provides an effective way to rapidly update emissions.
Soyoung Ha, Zhiquan Liu, Wei Sun, Yonghee Lee, and Limseok Chang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6015–6036,Short summary
This study examines the effect of aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from the Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) sensors on surface PM2.5 forecasts using the online coupled WRF-Chem forecasting model and the GSI 3D-Var analysis system. During the KORUS-AQ campaign period, the assimilation of GOCI AOD retrieved at the 550 nm wavelength greatly improved air quality forecasting up to 24 h when assimilated with surface PM2.5 observations, particularly for heavy pollution events.
Camille Mouchel-Vallon, Julia Lee-Taylor, Alma Hodzic, Paulo Artaxo, Bernard Aumont, Marie Camredon, David Gurarie, Jose-Luis Jimenez, Donald H. Lenschow, Scot T. Martin, Janaina Nascimento, John J. Orlando, Brett B. Palm, John E. Shilling, Manish Shrivastava, and Sasha Madronich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5995–6014,Short summary
The GoAmazon 2014/5 field campaign took place near the city of Manaus, Brazil, isolated in the Amazon rainforest, to study the impacts of urban pollution on natural air masses. We simulated this campaign with an extremely detailed organic chemistry model to understand how the city would affect the growth and composition of natural aerosol particles. Discrepancies between the model and the measurements indicate that the chemistry of naturally emitted organic compounds is still poorly understood.
Victor Lannuque, Florian Couvidat, Marie Camredon, Bernard Aumont, and Bertrand Bessagnet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4905–4931,Short summary
Large uncertainties remain in modeling secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and evolution and properties in air quality models. In this article, the recently developed VBS-GECKO parameterization for SOA formation has been implemented in the air quality model CHIMERE. Simulations have been driven to identify the main SOA sources and to evaluate the sensitivity of simulated SOA concentrations to (i) secondary organic compound properties and (ii) emissions from traffic and transportation sources.
Havala O. T. Pye, Athanasios Nenes, Becky Alexander, Andrew P. Ault, Mary C. Barth, Simon L. Clegg, Jeffrey L. Collett Jr., Kathleen M. Fahey, Christopher J. Hennigan, Hartmut Herrmann, Maria Kanakidou, James T. Kelly, I-Ting Ku, V. Faye McNeill, Nicole Riemer, Thomas Schaefer, Guoliang Shi, Andreas Tilgner, John T. Walker, Tao Wang, Rodney Weber, Jia Xing, Rahul A. Zaveri, and Andreas Zuend
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4809–4888,Short summary
Acid rain is recognized for its impacts on human health and ecosystems, and programs to mitigate these effects have had implications for atmospheric acidity. Historical measurements indicate that cloud and fog droplet acidity has changed in recent decades in response to controls on emissions from human activity, while the limited trend data for suspended particles indicate acidity may be relatively constant. This review synthesizes knowledge on the acidity of atmospheric particles and clouds.
Alma Hodzic, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Peter R. Colarco, Douglas A. Day, Karl D. Froyd, Bernd Heinold, Duseong S. Jo, Joseph M. Katich, John K. Kodros, Benjamin A. Nault, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Eric Ray, Jacob Schacht, Gregory P. Schill, Jason C. Schroder, Joshua P. Schwarz, Donna T. Sueper, Ina Tegen, Simone Tilmes, Kostas Tsigaridis, Pengfei Yu, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4607–4635,Short summary
Organic aerosol (OA) is a key source of uncertainty in aerosol climate effects. We present the first pole-to-pole OA characterization during the NASA Atmospheric Tomography aircraft mission. OA has a strong seasonal and zonal variability, with the highest levels in summer and over fire-influenced regions and the lowest ones in the southern high latitudes. We show that global models predict the OA distribution well but not the relative contribution of OA emissions vs. chemical production.
Rémy Lapere, Laurent Menut, Sylvain Mailler, and Nicolás Huneeus
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4681–4694,Short summary
Based on measurements and modeling, this study shows that recent record-breaking peak events of fine particles in Santiago, Chile, can be traced back to massive barbecue cooking by its inhabitants during international soccer games. Decontamination plans in Santiago focus on decreasing emissions of pollutants from traffic, industry, and residential heating. This study implies that cultural habits such as barbecue cooking also need to be taken into account.
Quanyang Lu, Benjamin N. Murphy, Momei Qin, Peter J. Adams, Yunliang Zhao, Havala O. T. Pye, Christos Efstathiou, Chris Allen, and Allen L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4313–4332,Short summary
This research work investigates organic aerosol formation in California during the CalNex study. We update the chemical transport model with the most recent mobile-source emission data and introduce a simple parameterization for secondary organic aerosol formed from intermediate-volatility organic compounds. Our results highlight the important contribution of IVOCs to SOA production in the Los Angeles region but underscore that other uncertainties must be addressed to close the SOA mass balance.
Athanasios Nenes, Spyros N. Pandis, Rodney J. Weber, and Armistead Russell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3249–3258,Short summary
We show that aerosol acidity (pH) and liquid water content naturally emerge as previously ignored parameters that drive particulate matter formation in the atmosphere, and its sensitivity to emissions of ammonia and nitric acid. The simple framework presented is easily applied to ambient measurements or model output, and it provides the
chemical regimeof PM sensitivity to ammonia and nitric acid availability.
Natalie R. Gervasi, David O. Topping, and Andreas Zuend
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2987–3008,Short summary
Organic aerosols have been shown to exist often in a semi-solid or amorphous, glassy state. Highly viscous particles behave differently than their well-mixed liquid analogues with consequences for a variety of aerosol processes. Here, we introduce a new predictive mixture viscosity model called AIOMFAC-VISC. It enables us to predict the viscosity of aqueous organic mixtures as a function of temperature and chemical composition, covering the full range of liquid, semi-solid, and glassy states.
Daniel M. Westervelt, Nora R. Mascioli, Arlene M. Fiore, Andrew J. Conley, Jean-François Lamarque, Drew T. Shindell, Greg Faluvegi, Michael Previdi, Gustavo Correa, and Larry W. Horowitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3009–3027,Short summary
We use three Earth system models to estimate the impact of regional air pollutant emissions reductions on global and regional surface temperature. We find that removing human-caused air pollutant emissions from certain world regions (such as the USA) results in warming of up to 0.15 °C. We use our model output to calculate simple climate metrics that will allow for regional-scale climate impact estimates without the use of computationally demanding computer models.
Cynthia H. Whaley, Elisabeth Galarneau, Paul A. Makar, Michael D. Moran, and Junhua Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2911–2925,Short summary
Benzene and polycyclic aromatic compounds are toxic air pollutants and ubiquitous in the environment. Using a chemical transport model, we have determined the net impact of vehicle emissions on ambient concentrations of these species. Traffic emissions were found to be a significant fraction of ambient pollution in the densely populated modelled region of North America. Our simulations demonstrate the air quality benefits that would result from transitioning to a zero-emission vehicle fleet.
Qiuyan Du, Chun Zhao, Mingshuai Zhang, Xue Dong, Yu Chen, Zhen Liu, Zhiyuan Hu, Qiang Zhang, Yubin Li, Renmin Yuan, and Shiguang Miao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2839–2863,Short summary
Simulated diurnal PM2.5 with WRF-Chem is primarily controlled by planetary boundary layer (PBL) mixing and emission variations. Modeling bias is likely primarily due to inefficient PBL mixing of primary PM2.5 during the night. The increase in PBL mixing strength during the night can significantly reduce biases. This study underscores that more effort is needed to improve the boundary mixing processes of pollutants in models with observations of PBL structure and mixing fluxes besides PBL height.
Sidhant J. Pai, Colette L. Heald, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Salvatore C. Farina, Eloise A. Marais, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Ann M. Middlebrook, Hugh Coe, John E. Shilling, Roya Bahreini, Justin H. Dingle, and Kennedy Vu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2637–2665,Short summary
Aerosols in the atmosphere have significant health and climate impacts. Organic aerosol (OA) accounts for a large fraction of the total aerosol burden, but models have historically struggled to accurately simulate it. This study compares two very different OA model schemes and evaluates them against a suite of globally distributed airborne measurements with the goal of providing insight into the strengths and weaknesses of each approach across different environments.
Syuichi Itahashi, Baozhu Ge, Keiichi Sato, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Meigen Zhang, Zhe Wang, Meng Li, Junichi Kurokawa, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2667–2693,Short summary
This study gives an overview of acid deposition from the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) phase III. Wet deposition simulated by a total of nine models is evaluated with observation data from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). The total deposition maps comparing to emissions over Asia are presented. To seek a way to improve the model performance, ensemble approaches and the precipitation-adjusted method are discussed.
Yang Yang, Sijia Lou, Hailong Wang, Pinya Wang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2579–2590,Short summary
Aerosol concentration decreased in Europe during 1980–2018, of which 7 % was induced by the changes in non-European emissions. Aerosols transported from other source regions are increasingly important to air quality in Europe. Contributions to the sulfate radiative forcing over Europe from both European and non-European emissions should decrease at a comparable rate in the next three decades. Future changes in non-European emissions are important in causing regional climate change in Europe.
Allen, R. J. and Sherwood, S. C.: Aerosol-cloud semi-direct effect and land-sea temperature contrast in a gcm, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L07702, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010gl042759, 2010.
Aunan, K., Berntsen, T. K., Myhre, G., Rypdal, K., Streets, D. G., Woo, J.-H., and Smith, K. R.: Radiative forcing from household fuel burning in asia, Atmos. Environ., 43, 5674–5681, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.07.053 2009.
Bauer, S. E., Menon, S., Koch, D., Bond, T. C., and Tsigaridis, K.: A global modeling study on carbonaceous aerosol microphysical characteristics and radiative forcing, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 7439–7456, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-7439-2010, 2010.
Bey, I., Jacob, D. J., Yantosca, R. M., Logan, J. A., Field, B. D., Fiore, A. M., Li, Q., Liu, H. Y., Mickley, L. J., and Schultz, M. G.: Global modeling of tropospheric chemistry with assimilated meteorology: Model description and evaluation, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 23073–23096, 2001.
Bond, T. C., Streets, D. G., Yarber, K. F., Nelson, S. M., Woo, J. H., and Klimont, Z.: A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 109, D14203, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003jd003697, 2004.
Bond, T. C., Bhardwaj, E., Dong, R., Jogani, R., Jung, S. K., Roden, C., Streets, D. G., and Trautmann, N. M.: Historical emissions of black and organic carbon aerosol from energy-related combustion, 1850–2000, Global Biogeochemi. Cy., 21, GB2018, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006gb002840, 2007.
Chen, W. T., Lee, Y. H., Adams, P. J., Nenes, A., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Will black carbon mitigation dampen aerosol indirect forcing?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L09801, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010gl042886, 2010.
Fisher, J. A., Jacob, D. J., Purdy, M. T., Kopacz, M., Le Sager, P., Carouge, C., Holmes, C. D., Yantosca, R. M., Batchelor, R. L., Strong, K., Diskin, G. S., Fuelberg, H. E., Holloway, J. S., Hyer, E. J., McMillan, W. W., Warner, J., Streets, D. G., Zhang, Q., Wang, Y., and Wu, S.: Source attribution and interannual variability of arctic pollution in spring constrained by aircraft (arctas, arcpac) and satellite (airs) observations of carbon monoxide, Atmos. Chem. Phys, 10, 977–996, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-977-2010, 2010.
Flanner, M. G. and Zender, C. S.: Linking snowpack microphysics and albedo evolution, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D12208, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005jd006834, 2006.
Flanner, M. G., Zender, C. S., Randerson, J. T., and Rasch, P. J.: Present-day climate forcing and response from black carbon in snow, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 112, D11202, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006jd008003, 2007.
Flanner, M. G., Zender, C. S., Hess, P. G., Mahowald, N. M., Painter, T. H., Ramanathan, V., and Rasch, P. J.: Springtime warming and reduced snow cover from carbonaceous particles, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 2481–2497, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-2481-2009, 2009.
Forster, P., Ramaswamy, V., Artaxo, P., Berntsen, T., Betts, R. Fahey, D. W., Haywood, J., Lean, J., Lowe, D. C., Myhre, G., Nganga, J., Prinn, R., Raga, G., Schulz, M., van Dorland, R., Bodeker, G., Boucher, O., Collins, W. D., Conway, T. J., Dlugokencky, E., Elkins, J. W., Etheridge, D., Foukal, P., Fraser, P., Geller, M., Joos, F., Keeling, C. D., Kinne, S., Lassey, K., Lohmann, U., Manning, A. C., Montzka, S., Oram, D., O'Shaughnessy, K., Piper, S., Plattner, G.-K., Ponater, M., Ramankutty, N., Reid, G., Rind, D., Rosenlof, K., Sausen, R., Schwarzkopf, D., Solanki, S. K., Stenchikov, G., Stuber, N., Takemura, T., Textor, C., Wang, R., Weiss, R., and Whorf, T.: Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing, in: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the 4th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, USA, 2007.
Fu, Q. and Liou, K. N.: Parameterization of the radiative properties of cirrus clouds, J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 2008–2025, 1993.
Hansen, J. and Nazarenko, L.: Soot climate forcing via snow and ice albedo, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 101, 423–428, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2237157100, 2004.
Hansen, J., Sato, M., Ruedy, R., Nazarenko, L., Lacis, A., Schmidt, G. A., Russell, G., Aleinov, I., Bauer, M., Bauer, S., Bell, N., Cairns, B., Canuto, V., Chandler, M., Cheng, Y., Del Genio, A., Faluvegi, G., Fleming, E., Friend, A., Hall, T., Jackman, C., Kelley, M., Kiang, N., Koch, D., Lean, J., Lerner, J., Lo, K., Menon, S., Miller, R., Minnis, P., Novakov, T., Oinas, V., Perlwitz, J., Perlwitz, J., Rind, D., Romanou, A., Shindell, D., Stone, P., Sun, S., Tausnev, N., Thresher, D., Wielicki, B., Wong, T., Yao, M., and Zhang, S.: Efficacy of climate forcings, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 110, D18104, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD005776, 2005.
Heald, C. L., Daniel, J. J., Arlene, M. F., Louisa, K. E., John, C. G., Merritt, N. D., Juying, W., David, P. E., James, H. C., Amy, J. H., Glen, W. S., Edward, V. B., Melody, A. A., Stephanie, A. V., David, J. W., Donald, R. B., Hanwant, B. S., Scott, T. S., Robert, W. T., and Fuelberg, H. E.: Asian outflow and trans-pacific transport of carbon monoxide and ozone pollution: An integrated satellite, aircraft, and model perspective, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4804, 10.1029/2003JD003507, 2003.
Henze, D. K., Hakami, A., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Development of the adjoint of GEOS-Chem, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 2413–2433, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-2413-2007, 2007.
Henze, D. K., Seinfeld, J. H., and Shindell, D. T.: Inverse modeling and mapping US air quality influences of inorganic PM2.5 precursor emissions using the adjoint of GEOS-Chem, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 5877–5903, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-5877-2009, 2009.
Jacobson, M. Z.: Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols, Nature, 409, 695–697, 2001.
Koch, D., Bond, T. C., Streets, D., Unger, N., and van der Werf, G. R.: Global impacts of aerosols from particular source regions and sectors, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 112, D02205, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005jd007024, 2007.
Koch, D., Menon, S., Del Genio, A., Ruedy, R., Alienov, I., and Schmidt, G. A.: Distinguishing aerosol impacts on climate over the past century, J. Climate, 22, 2659–2677, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2573.1, 2009a.
Koch, D., Schulz, M., Kinne, S., McNaughton, C., Spackman, J. R., Balkanski, Y., Bauer, S., Berntsen, T., Bond, T. C., Boucher, O., Chin, M., Clarke, A., De Luca, N., Dentener, F., Diehl, T., Dubovik, O., Easter, R., Fahey, D. W., Feichter, J., Fillmore, D., Freitag, S., Ghan, S., Ginoux, P., Gong, S., Horowitz, L., Iversen, T., Kirkevåg, A., Klimont, Z., Kondo, Y., Krol, M., Liu, X., Miller, R., Montanaro, V., Moteki, N., Myhre, G., Penner, J. E., Perlwitz, J., Pitari, G., Reddy, S., Sahu, L., Sakamoto, H., Schuster, G., Schwarz, J. P., Seland, Ø., Stier, P., Takegawa, N., Takemura, T., Textor, C., van Aardenne, J. A., and Zhao, Y.: Evaluation of black carbon estimations in global aerosol models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 9001–9026, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-9001-2009, 2009. b.
Koelemeijer, R. B. A., de Haan, J. F., and Stammes, P.: A database of spectral surface reflectivity in the range 335–772 nm derived from 5.5 years of gome observations, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4070, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002429, 2003.
Kopacz, M., Jacob, D. J., Henze, D. K., Heald, C. L., Streets, D. G., and Zhang, Q.: Comparison of adjoint and analytical bayesian inversion methods for constraining asian sources of carbon monoxide using satellite (mopitt) measurements of co columns, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D04305, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD009264, 2009.
Kopacz, M., Jacob, D. J., Fisher, J. A., Logan, J. A., Zhang, L., Megretskaia, I. A., Yantosca, R. M., Singh, K., Henze, D. K., Burrows, J. P., Buchwitz, M., Khlystova, I., McMillan, W. W., Gille, J. C., Edwards, D. P., Eldering, A., Thouret, V., and Nedelec, P.: Global estimates of CO sources with high resolution by adjoint inversion of multiple satellite datasets (MOPITT, AIRS, SCIAMACHY, TES), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 855–876, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-855-2010, 2010.
Kopp, R. E. and Mauzerall, D. L.: Assessing the climatic benefits of black carbon mitigation, PNAS, 107(26), 11703–11708, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0909605107, 2010.
Li, Q., Jacob, D. J., Bey, I., Palmer, P. I., Duncan, B. N., Field, B. D., Martin, R. V., Fiore, A. M., Yantosca, R. M., Parrish, D., D., Simmonds, P. G., and Oltmans, S. J.: Transatlantic transport of pollution and its effects on surface ozone in europe and north america, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4166, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD001422, 2002.
Liou, K. N., Fu, Q., and Ackereman, T. P.: A simple formulation of the d-four-stream approximation for radiative transfer parameterizations, J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 1940–1947, 1988.
Liu, J., Fan, S.-M., Horowitz, L. W., and Levy, H. I.: Factors controlling long-range transport of black carbon to the arctic, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D04307, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JD015145, 2011.
Marinoni, A., Cristofanelli, P., Laj, P., Duchi, R., Calzolari, F., Decesari, S., Sellegri, K., Vuillermoz, E., Verza, G. P., Villani, P., and Bonasoni, P.: Aerosol mass and black carbon concentrations, two year-round observations at NCO-P (5079 m, Southern Himalayas), Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 10, 8379–8413, https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-10-8379-2010, 2010.
Menon, S., Koch, D., Beig, G., Sahu, S., Fasullo, J., and Orlikowski, D.: Black carbon aerosols and the third polar ice cap, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 4559–4571, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-4559-2010, 2010.
Ming, J., Cachier, H., Xiao, C., Qin, D., Kang, S., Hou, S., and Xu, J.: Black carbon record based on a shallow Himalayan ice core and its climatic implications, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 1343–1352, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-1343-2008, 2008.
Ming, J., Xiao, C. D., Cachier, H., Qin, D. H., Qin, X., Li, Z. Q., and Pu, J. C.: Black carbon (bc) in the snow of glaciers in west china and its potential effects on albedos, Atmos. Res., 92, 114–123, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2008.09.007, 2009.
Park, R. J., Jacob, D. J., Palmer, P. I., Clarke, A. D., Weber, R. J., Zondlo, M. A., Eisele, F. L., Bandy, A. R., Thornton, D. C., Sachse, G. W., and Bond, T. C.: Export efficiency of black carbon aerosol in continental outflow: Global implications, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 110, D11205, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004jd005432, 2005.
Quinn, P. K., Bates, T. S., Baum, E., Doubleday, N., Fiore, A. M., Flanner, M., Fridlind, A., Garrett, T. J., Koch, D., Menon, S., Shindell, D., Stohl, A., and Warren, S. G.: Short-lived pollutants in the Arctic: their climate impact and possible mitigation strategies, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 1723–1735, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-1723-2008, 2008.
Ramana, M. V., Ramanathan, V., Feng, Y., Yoon, S.-C., Kim, S.-W., Carmichael, G. R., and Schauer, J. J.: Warming influenced by the ratio of black carbon to sulphate and the black-carbon source, Nat. Geosci., 3(8), 542–545, 2010.
Ramanathan, V. and Carmichael, G.: Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon, Nat. Geosci., 1, 221–227, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo156, 2008.
Shindell, D. and Faluvegi, G.: Climate response to regional radiative forcing during the twentieth century, Nat. Geosci., 2(4), 294–300, 2009.
Shindell, D. T., Levy, H., Schwarzkopf, M. D., Horowitz, L. W., Lamarque, J. F., and Faluvegi, G.: Multimodel projections of climate change from short-lived emissions due to human activities, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 113, D11109, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007jd009152, 2008.
van der Werf, G. R., Randerson, J. T., Giglio, L., Collatz, G. J., Kasibhatla, P. S., and Arellano Jr., A. F.: Interannual variability in global biomass burning emissions from 1997 to 2004, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 3423–3441, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-6-3423-2006, 2006.
Vignati, E., Karl, M., Krol, M., Wilson, J., Stier, P., and Cavalli, F.: Sources of uncertainties in modelling black carbon at the global scale, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 2595–2611, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-2595-2010, 2010.
Wang, J. and Christopher, S. A.: Mesoscale modeling of central American smoke transport to the united states, 2: Smoke regional radiative impacts on surface energy budget and boundary layer evolution, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D14S92, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006720, 2006.
Wang, J. and Martin, S. T.: Satellite characterization of urban aerosols: Importance of including hygroscopicity and mixing state in the retrieval algorithms, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D06301, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD008078, 2007.
Wang, J., Nair, U., and Christopher, S. A.: Goes-8 aerosol optical thickness assimilation in a mesoscale model: Online integration of aerosol radiative effects, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D23203, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD004827, 2004.
Wang, J., Jacob, D. J., and Martin, S. T.: Sensitivity of sulfate direct climate forcing to the hysteresis of particle phase transitions, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 113, D11207, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD009368, 2008.
Warren, S. G. and Wiscombe, W. J.: Dirty snow after nuclear war, Nature, 313, 467–470, 1985.
Xu, B., Yao, T., Liu, X., and Wang, N.: Elemental and organic carbon measurements with a two-step heating-gas chromatography system in snow samples from the tibetan plateau, Ann. Glaciol., 43, 257–262, https://doi.org/10.3189/172756406781812122, 2006.
Xu, B.-Q., Wang, M., Joswiak, D. R., Cao, J.-J., Yao, T.-D., Wu, G.-J., Yang, W., and Zhao, H.-B.: Deposition of anthropogenic aerosols in a southeastern tibetan glacier, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D17209, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD011510, 2009a.
Xu, B., Cao, J., Hansen, J., Yao, T., Joswiak, D. R., Wang, N., Wu, G.-J., Wang, M., Zhao, H.-B., Yang, W., Liu, X., and He, J.: Black soot and the survival of tibetan glaciers, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 106(52), 22114–22118, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.pnas.0910444106, 2009b.
Zhang, L., Jacob, D. J., Boersma, K. F., Jaffe, D. A., Olson, J. R., Bowman, K. W., Worden, J. R., Thompson, A. M., Avery, M. A., Cohen, R. C., Dibb, J. E., Flock, F. M., Fuelberg, H. E., Huey, L. G., McMillan, W. W., Singh, H. B., and Weinheimer, A. J.: Transpacific transport of ozone pollution and the effect of recent Asian emission increases on air quality in North America: an integrated analysis using satellite, aircraft, ozonesonde, and surface observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 6117–6136, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-6117-2008, 2008.
Zhang, L., Jacob, D. J., Kopacz, M., Henze, D. K., Singh, K., and Jaffe, D. A.: Intercontinental source attribution of ozone pollution at western us sites using an adjoint method, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L11810, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009gl037950, 2009.