Articles | Volume 19, issue 21
Research article
05 Nov 2019
Research article |  | 05 Nov 2019

What controls the formation of nocturnal low-level stratus clouds over southern West Africa during the monsoon season?

Karmen Babić, Norbert Kalthoff, Bianca Adler, Julian F. Quinting, Fabienne Lohou, Cheikh Dione, and Marie Lothon

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Cited articles

Adler, B., Kalthoff, N., and Gantner, L.: Nocturnal low-level clouds over southern West Africa analysed using high-resolution simulations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 899–910,, 2017. a, b, c, d
Adler, B., Babić, K., Kalthoff, N., Lohou, F., Lothon, M., Dione, C., Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, X., and Andersen, H.: Nocturnal low-level clouds in the atmospheric boundary layer over southern West Africa: an observation-based analysis of conditions and processes, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 663–681,, 2019. a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o
Babić, K., Adler, B., Kalthoff, N., Andersen, H., Dione, C., Lohou, F., Lothon, M., and Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, X.: The observed diurnal cycle of low-level stratus clouds over southern West Africa: a case study, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1281–1299,, 2019. a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i
Bessardon, G., Brooks, B., Abiye, O., Adler, B., Ajao, A., Ajileye, O., Altstädter, B., Amekudzi, L. K., Aryee, J. N. A., Atiah, W. A., Ayoola, M., Babić, K., Bärfuss, K., Bezombes, Y., Bret, G., Brilouet, P.-E., Cayle-Aethelhard, F., Danuor, S., Delon, C., Derrien, S., Dione, C., Durand, P., Fosu-Amankwah, K., Gabella, O., Groves, J., Handwerker, J., Kalthoff, N., Kohler, M., Kunka, N., Jambert, C., Jegede, G., Lampert, A., Leclercq, J., Lohou, F., Lothon, M., Medina, P., Pätzold, F., Pedruzo Bagazgoitia, X., Reinares, I., Sharpe, S., Smith, V., Sunmonu, L. A., Tan, N., and Wieser, A.: A dataset of the 2016 monsoon season meteorology in southern West Africa – an overview from the DACCIWA campaign, Sci. Data, in review, 2019. a, b
Copernicus Climate Change Service: ERA5: Fifth generation of ECMWF atmospheric reanalyses of the global climate, Copernicus Climate Change Service Climate Data Store (CDS), available at:!/home (last access: 3 November 2019), 2017. a
Short summary
This study investigates differences in atmospheric conditions between nights with and without low-level stratus clouds (LLCs) over southern West Africa. We use high-quality observations collected during 2016 summer monsoon season and the ERA5 reanalysis data set. Our results show that the formation of LLCs depends on the interplay between the onset time and strength of the nocturnal low-level jet, horizontal cold-air advection, and the overall moisture level in the whole region.
Final-revised paper