Articles | Volume 17, issue 11
16 Jun 2017
Research article | 16 Jun 2017
TEMIS UV product validation using NILU-UV ground-based measurements in Thessaloniki, Greece
Melina-Maria Zempila et al.
No articles found.
John Douros, Henk Eskes, Jos van Geffen, K. Folkert Boersma, Steven Compernolle, Gaia Pinardi, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Augustin Colette, and Pepijn Veefkind
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 509–534,Short summary
We focus on the challenges associated with comparing atmospheric composition models with satellite products such as tropospheric NO2 columns. The aim is to highlight the methodological difficulties and propose sound ways of doing such comparisons. Building on the comparisons, a new satellite product is proposed and made available, which takes advantage of higher-resolution, regional atmospheric modelling to improve estimates of troposheric NO2 columns over Europe.
Katerina Garane, Ka Lok Chan, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Diego Loyola, and Dimitris Balis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 57–74,Short summary
In this work, 2.5 years of TROPOMI/S5P Total Column Water Vapor (TCWV) observations retrieved from the blue wavelength band are validated against co-located precipitable water measurements from NASA AERONET, which uses Cimel Sun photometers globally. Overall, the TCWV product agrees well on a global scale with the ground-based dataset (Pearson correl. coefficient 0.909) and has a mean relative bias of −2.7 ± 4.9 % with respect to the AERONET observations for moderate albedo and cloudiness.
Xiaojuan Lin, Ronald van der A, Jos de Laat, Henk Eskes, Frédéric Chevallier, Philippe Ciais, Zhu Deng, Yuanhao Geng, Xuanren Song, Xiliang Ni, Da Huo, Xinyu Dou, and Zhu Liu
Satellite observations provide evidence for CO2 emission signals from isolated power plants. We use these satellite observations to quantify emissions. We found that for power plants with multiple observations, the correlation of estimated and reported emissions is significantly improved compared to a single observation case. This demonstrates that accurate estimation of power plant emissions can be achieved by monitoring from future satellite missions with more frequent observations.
Kyriakoula Papachristopoulou, Ioannis-Panagiotis Raptis, Antonis Gkikas, Ilias Fountoulakis, Akriti Masoom, and Stelios Kazadzis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15703–15727,Short summary
Megacities' air quality is determined by atmospheric aerosols. We focus on changes over the last two decades in the 81 largest cities, using satellite data. European and American cities have lower aerosol compared to African and Asian cities. For European, North American and East Asian cities, aerosols are decreasing over time, especially in China and the US. In the remaining cities, aerosol loads are increasing, particularly in India.
Xiumei Zhang, Ronald van der A, Jieying Ding, Xin Zhang, and Yan Yin
We compiled a ship emission inventory based on Automatic Identification System signals in the Jiangsu section of the Yangtze River. This ship emission inventory was compared with Chinese bottom-up inventories and the satellite-derived emissions from TROPOMI. The result shows a consistent spatial distribution, with riverine cities having higher NOx emissions. Inland ship emissions of NOx and SO2 are shown to contribute with each at least 40 % to air pollution along the river.
Kostas Eleftheratos, John Kapsomenakis, Ilias Fountoulakis, Christos S. Zerefos, Patrick Jöckel, Martin Dameris, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Germar Bernhard, Dimitra Kouklaki, Kleareti Tourpali, Scott Stierle, J. Ben Liley, Colette Brogniez, Frédérique Auriol, Henri Diémoz, Stana Simic, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Kaisa Lakkala, and Kostas Douvis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12827–12855,Short summary
We present the future evolution of DNA-active ultraviolet (UV) radiation in view of increasing greenhouse gases (GHGs) and decreasing ozone depleting substances (ODSs). It is shown that DNA-active UV radiation might increase after 2050 between 50° N–50° S due to GHG-induced reductions in clouds and ozone, something that is likely not to happen at high latitudes, where DNA-active UV radiation will continue its downward trend mainly due to stratospheric ozone recovery from the reduction in ODSs.
Ka Lok Chan, Pieter Valks, Klaus-Peter Heue, Ronny Lutz, Pascal Hedelt, Diego Loyola, Gaia Pinardi, Michel Van Roozendael, François Hendrick, Thomas Wagner, Vinod Kumar, Alkis Bais, Ankie Piters, Hitoshi Irie, Yugo Kanaya, Hisahiro Takashima, Yongjoo Choi, Kihong Park, Jihyo Chong, Alexander Cede, Udo Frieß, Andreas Richter, Jianzhong Ma, Nuria Benavent, Robert Holla, Oleg Postylyakov, Claudia Rivera Cárdenas, and Mark Wenig
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
This paper is to present the theoretical basis as well as the verification and validation of the GOME-2 daily and monthly level 3 products.
Hanqing Kang, Bin Zhu, Gerrit de Leeuw, Bu Yu, Ronald J. van der A, and Wen Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10623–10634,Short summary
This study quantified the contribution of each urban-induced meteorological effect (temperature, humidity, and circulation) to aerosol concentration. We found that the urban heat island (UHI) circulation dominates the UHI effects on aerosol. The UHI circulation transports aerosol and its precursor gases from the warmer lower boundary layer to the colder lower free troposphere and promotes the secondary formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol in the cold atmosphere.
Konstantinos Michailidis, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Dimitris Balis, Pepijn Veefkind, Martin de Graaf, Lucia Mona, Nikolaos Papagianopoulos, Gesolmina Pappalardo, Ioanna Tsikoudi, Vassilis Amiridis, Eleni Marinou, Anna Gialitaki, Rodanthi-Elissavet Mamouri, Argyro Nisantzi, Daniele Bortoli, Maria João Costa, Vanda Salgueiro, Alexandros Papayannis, Maria Mylonaki, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Salvatore Romano, Maria Rita Perrone, and Holger Baars
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Modern satellite-born sensors have the ability to derive accurate geometrical features of lofted aerosol layers on a continental scale, such as the S5P/TROPOMI instrument. Comparisons with ground-based correlative measurements constitute a key component in the validation of the more recent-in-existence satellite aerosol products. Three days with sufficient dust and smoke aerosol load over the Mediterranean are used to illustrate the performance of the TROPOMI ALH product.
Antonis Gkikas, Anna Gialitaki, Ioannis Binietoglou, Eleni Marinou, Maria Tsichla, Nikolaos Siomos, Peristera Paschou, Anna Kampouri, Kalliopi Artemis Voudouri, Emmanouil Proestakis, Maria Mylonaki, Christina-Anna Papanikolaou, Konstantinos Michailidis, Holger Baars, Anne Grete Straume, Dimitris Balis, Alexandros Papayannis, Tomasso Parrinello, and Vassilis Amiridis
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
We perform an assessment analysis of Aeolus L2A backscatter coefficient retrievals against reference observations acquired at three Greek lidar stations (Athens, Thessaloniki, Antikythera) of the PANACEA network. Overall, 46 cases are analyzed whereas emphasis is given of specific aerosol scenarios in the vicinity of the Antikythera island (SW Greece). All key Cal/Val aspects and recommendations as well as the ongoing related activities are thoroughly discussed.
Francisco J. Pérez-Invernón, Heidi Huntrieser, Thilo Erbertseder, Diego Loyola, Pieter Valks, Song Liu, Dale J. Allen, Kenneth E. Pickering, Eric J. Bucsela, Patrick Jöckel, Jos van Geffen, Henk Eskes, Sergio Soler, Francisco J. Gordillo-Vázquez, and Jeff Lapierre
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3329–3351,Short summary
Lightning, one of the major sources of nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere, contributes to the tropospheric concentration of ozone and to the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. In this work, we contribute to improving the estimation of lightning-produced nitrogen oxides in the Ebro Valley and the Pyrenees by using two different TROPOMI products and comparing the results.
Xin Zhang, Yan Yin, Ronald van der A, Henk Eskes, Jos van Geffen, Yunyao Li, Xiang Kuang, Jeff L. Lapierre, Kui Chen, Zhongxiu Zhen, Jianlin Hu, Chuan He, Jinghua Chen, Rulin Shi, Jun Zhang, Xingrong Ye, and Hao Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5925–5942,Short summary
The importance of convection to the ozone and nitrogen oxides (NOx) produced from lightning has long been an open question. We utilize the high-resolution chemistry model with ozonesondes and space observations to discuss the effects of convection over southeastern China, where few studies have been conducted. Our results show the transport and chemistry contributions for various storms and demonstrate the ability of TROPOMI to estimate the lightning NOx production over small-scale convection.
Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Konstantinos Michailidis, Pascal Hedelt, Isabelle A. Taylor, Antje Inness, Lieven Clarisse, Dimitris Balis, Dmitry Efremenko, Diego Loyola, Roy G. Grainger, and Christian Retscher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5665–5683,Short summary
Volcanic eruptions eject large amounts of ash and trace gases into the atmosphere. The use of space-borne instruments enables the global monitoring of volcanic SO2 emissions in an economical and risk-free manner. The main aim of this paper is to present its extensive verification, accomplished within the ESA S5P+I: SO2LH project, over major recent volcanic eruptions, against collocated space-borne measurements, as well as assess its impact on the forecasts provided by CAMS.
Peristera Paschou, Nikolaos Siomos, Alexandra Tsekeri, Alexandros Louridas, George Georgoussis, Volker Freudenthaler, Ioannis Binietoglou, George Tsaknakis, Alexandros Tavernarakis, Christos Evangelatos, Jonas von Bismarck, Thomas Kanitz, Charikleia Meleti, Eleni Marinou, and Vassilis Amiridis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2299–2323,Short summary
The eVe lidar delivers quality-assured aerosol and cloud optical properties according to the standards of ACTRIS. It is a mobile reference system for the validation of the ESA's Aeolus satellite mission (L2 aerosol and cloud products). eVe provides linear and circular polarisation measurements with Raman capabilities. Here, we describe the system design, the polarisation calibration techniques, and the software for the retrieval of the optical products.
Jos van Geffen, Henk Eskes, Steven Compernolle, Gaia Pinardi, Tijl Verhoelst, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Maarten Sneep, Mark ter Linden, Antje Ludewig, K. Folkert Boersma, and J. Pepijn Veefkind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2037–2060,Short summary
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of the main data products measured by the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) on the Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) satellite. This study describes improvements in the TROPOMI NO2 retrieval leading to version v2.2, operational since 1 July 2021. It compares results with previous versions v1.2–v1.4 and with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and ground-based measurements.
Tobias Christoph Valentin Werner Riess, Klaas Folkert Boersma, Jasper van Vliet, Wouter Peters, Maarten Sneep, Henk Eskes, and Jos van Geffen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1415–1438,Short summary
This paper reports on improved monitoring of ship nitrogen oxide emissions by TROPOMI. With its fantastic resolution we can identify lanes of ship nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollution not detected from space before. The quality of TROPOMI NO2 data over sea is improved further by recent upgrades in cloud retrievals and the use of sun glint scenes. Lastly, we study the impact of COVID-19 on ship NO2 in European seas and compare the found reductions to emission estimates gained from ship-specific data.
Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Martina Michaela Friedrich, Steffen Beirle, Alkiviadis Bais, François Hendrick, Kalliopi Artemis Voudouri, Ilias Fountoulakis, Angelos Karanikolas, Paraskevi Tzoumaka, Michel Van Roozendael, Dimitris Balis, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1269–1301,Short summary
In this study we focus on the retrieval of aerosol, NO2, and HCHO vertical profiles from multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) observations for the first time over Thessaloniki, Greece. We use two independent inversion algorithms for the profile retrievals. We evaluate their performance, we intercompare their results, and we validate their products with ancillary data, measured by other co-located reference instruments.
Antje Inness, Melanie Ades, Dimitris Balis, Dmitry Efremenko, Johannes Flemming, Pascal Hedelt, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Diego Loyola, and Roberto Ribas
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 971–994,Short summary
This paper describes the way that the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) produces forecasts of volcanic SO2. These forecasts are provided routinely every day. They are created by blending SO2 data from satellite instruments (TROPOMI and GOME-2) with the CAMS model. We show that the quality of the CAMS SO2 forecasts can be improved if additional information about the height of volcanic plumes is provided in the satellite data.
Ilias Fountoulakis, Henri Diémoz, Anna Maria Siani, Alcide di Sarra, Daniela Meloni, and Damiano M. Sferlazzo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18689–18705,Short summary
The variability and trends of solar spectral UV irradiance have been studied for the periods 1996–2020 (for Rome) and 2006–2020 (for Lampedusa, Rome, and Aosta) with respect to the variability and trends of total ozone and geopotential height. Analyses revealed increasing UV in particular months at all sites, possibly due to decreasing lower-stratospheric ozone (at Rome in 1996–2020) and decreasing attenuation by aerosols and/or clouds (at all stations in 2006–2020).
Song Liu, Pieter Valks, Gaia Pinardi, Jian Xu, Ka Lok Chan, Athina Argyrouli, Ronny Lutz, Steffen Beirle, Ehsan Khorsandi, Frank Baier, Vincent Huijnen, Alkiviadis Bais, Sebastian Donner, Steffen Dörner, Myrto Gratsea, François Hendrick, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Kezia Lange, Ankie J. M. Piters, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, Michel Van Roozendael, Thomas Wagner, Mark Wenig, and Diego G. Loyola
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7297–7327,Short summary
In this work, an improved tropospheric NO2 retrieval algorithm from TROPOMI measurements over Europe is presented. The stratospheric estimation is implemented with correction for the dependency of the stratospheric NO2 on the viewing geometry. The AMF calculation is implemented using improved surface albedo, a priori NO2 profiles, and cloud correction. The improved tropospheric NO2 data show good correlations with ground-based MAX-DOAS measurements.
Isabelle De Smedt, Gaia Pinardi, Corinne Vigouroux, Steven Compernolle, Alkis Bais, Nuria Benavent, Folkert Boersma, Ka-Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Kai-Uwe Eichmann, Pascal Hedelt, François Hendrick, Hitoshi Irie, Vinod Kumar, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Bavo Langerock, Christophe Lerot, Cheng Liu, Diego Loyola, Ankie Piters, Andreas Richter, Claudia Rivera Cárdenas, Fabian Romahn, Robert George Ryan, Vinayak Sinha, Nicolas Theys, Jonas Vlietinck, Thomas Wagner, Ting Wang, Huan Yu, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12561–12593,Short summary
This paper assess the performances of the TROPOMI formaldehyde observations compared to its predecessor OMI at different spatial and temporal scales. We also use a global network of MAX-DOAS instruments to validate both satellite datasets for a large range of HCHO columns. The precision obtained with daily TROPOMI observations is comparable to monthly OMI observations. We present clear detection of weak HCHO column enhancements related to shipping emissions in the Indian Ocean.
Panagiotis G. Kosmopoulos, Stelios Kazadzis, Alois W. Schmalwieser, Panagiotis I. Raptis, Kyriakoula Papachristopoulou, Ilias Fountoulakis, Akriti Masoom, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Julia Bilbao, Mario Blumthaler, Axel Kreuter, Anna Maria Siani, Kostas Eleftheratos, Chrysanthi Topaloglou, Julian Gröbner, Bjørn Johnsen, Tove M. Svendby, Jose Manuel Vilaplana, Lionel Doppler, Ann R. Webb, Marina Khazova, Hugo De Backer, Anu Heikkilä, Kaisa Lakkala, Janusz Jaroslawski, Charikleia Meleti, Henri Diémoz, Gregor Hülsen, Barbara Klotz, John Rimmer, and Charalampos Kontoes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5657–5699,Short summary
Large-scale retrievals of the ultraviolet index (UVI) in real time by exploiting the modern Earth observation data and techniques are capable of forming operational early warning systems that raise awareness among citizens of the health implications of high UVI doses. In this direction a novel UVI operating system, the so-called UVIOS, was introduced for massive outputs, while its performance was tested against ground-based measurements revealing a dependence on the input quality and resolution.
Cheng Fan, Zhengqiang Li, Ying Li, Jiantao Dong, Ronald van der A, and Gerrit de Leeuw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7723–7748,Short summary
Emission control policy in China has resulted in the decrease of nitrogen dioxide concentrations, which however leveled off and stabilized in recent years, as shown from satellite data. The effects of the further emission reduction during the COVID-19 lockdown in 2020 resulted in an initial improvement of air quality, which, however, was offset by chemical and meteorological effects. The study shows the regional dependence over east China, and results have a wider application than China only.
Wannan Wang, Ronald van der A, Jieying Ding, Michiel van Weele, and Tianhai Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7253–7269,Short summary
We developed a method to determine the type of photochemical regime of ozone formation by using only satellite observations of formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide as well as ozone measurements on the ground. It was found that many cities in China, because of their high level of air pollution, are in the so-called VOC-limited photochemical regime. This means that the current reductions of nitrogen dioxide resulted in higher levels of photochemical smog in these cities.
Ioanna Skoulidou, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Astrid Manders, Arjo Segers, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Myrto Gratsea, Dimitris Balis, Alkiviadis Bais, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, Trisevgeni Stavrakou, Jos van Geffen, Henk Eskes, and Andreas Richter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5269–5288,Short summary
The performance of LOTOS-EUROS v2.2.001 regional chemical transport model NO2 simulations is investigated over Greece from June to December 2018. Comparison with in situ NO2 measurements shows a spatial correlation coefficient of 0.86, while the model underestimates the concentrations mostly during daytime (12 to 15:00 local time). Further, the simulated tropospheric NO2 columns are evaluated against ground-based MAX-DOAS NO2 measurements and S5P/TROPOMI observations for July and December 2018.
Nicola Zoppetti, Simone Ceccherini, Bruno Carli, Samuele Del Bianco, Marco Gai, Cecilia Tirelli, Flavio Barbara, Rossana Dragani, Antti Arola, Jukka Kujanpää, Jacob C. A. van Peet, Ronald van der A, and Ugo Cortesi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2041–2053,Short summary
The new platforms for Earth observation from space will provide an enormous amount of data that can be hard to exploit as a whole. The Complete Data Fusion algorithm can reduce the data volume while retaining the information of the full dataset. In this work, we applied the Complete Data Fusion algorithm to simulated ozone profiles, and the results show that the fused products are characterized by higher information content compared to individual L2 products.
Konstantinos Michailidis, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Nikolaos Siomos, Dimitris Balis, Olaf Tuinder, L. Gijsbert Tilstra, Lucia Mona, Gelsomina Pappalardo, and Daniele Bortoli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3193–3213,Short summary
The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of the GOME-2 instrument aboard the MetOp-A, MetOp-B and MetOp-C platforms to deliver accurate geometrical features of lofted aerosol layers. For this purpose, we use archived ground-based data from lidar stations available from the EARLINET database. We show that for this well-developed and spatially well-spread aerosol layer, most GOME-2 retrievals fall within 1 km of the exact temporally collocated lidar observation.
Wannan Wang, Tianhai Cheng, Ronald J. van der A, Jos de Laat, and Jason E. Williams
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1673–1687,Short summary
This paper is an evaluation of the AIRS and MLS ozone (O3) algorithms via comparison with daytime and night-time O3 datasets. Results show that further refinements of the AIRS O3 algorithm are required for better surface emissivity retrievals and that cloud cover is another problem that needs to be solved. An inconsistency is found in the
AscDescModeflag of the MLS v4.20 standard O3 product for 90–60° S and 60–90° N, resulting in inconsistent O3 profiles in these regions before May 2015.
Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Ioanna Skoulidou, Andreas Karavias, Isaak Parcharidis, Dimitris Balis, Astrid Manders, Arjo Segers, Henk Eskes, and Jos van Geffen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1759–1774,Short summary
In recent years, satellite observations have contributed to monitoring air quality. During the first COVID-19 lockdown, lower levels of nitrogen dioxide were observed over Greece by S5P/TROPOMI for March and April 2020 (than the preceding year) due to decreased transport emissions. Taking meteorology into account, using LOTOS-EUROS CTM simulations, the resulting decline due to the lockdown was estimated to range between 0 % and −37 % for the five largest Greek cities, with an average of ~ −10 %.
Tijl Verhoelst, Steven Compernolle, Gaia Pinardi, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Henk J. Eskes, Kai-Uwe Eichmann, Ann Mari Fjæraa, José Granville, Sander Niemeijer, Alexander Cede, Martin Tiefengraber, François Hendrick, Andrea Pazmiño, Alkiviadis Bais, Ariane Bazureau, K. Folkert Boersma, Kristof Bognar, Angelika Dehn, Sebastian Donner, Aleksandr Elokhov, Manuel Gebetsberger, Florence Goutail, Michel Grutter de la Mora, Aleksandr Gruzdev, Myrto Gratsea, Georg H. Hansen, Hitoshi Irie, Nis Jepsen, Yugo Kanaya, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Rigel Kivi, Karin Kreher, Pieternel F. Levelt, Cheng Liu, Moritz Müller, Monica Navarro Comas, Ankie J. M. Piters, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Thierry Portafaix, Cristina Prados-Roman, Olga Puentedura, Richard Querel, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, John Rimmer, Claudia Rivera Cárdenas, Lidia Saavedra de Miguel, Valery P. Sinyakov, Wolfgang Stremme, Kimberly Strong, Michel Van Roozendael, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Thomas Wagner, Folkard Wittrock, Margarita Yela González, and Claus Zehner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 481–510,Short summary
This paper reports on the ground-based validation of the NO2 data produced operationally by the TROPOMI instrument on board the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite. Tropospheric, stratospheric, and total NO2 columns are compared to measurements collected from MAX-DOAS, ZSL-DOAS, and PGN/Pandora instruments respectively. The products are found to satisfy mission requirements in general, though negative mean differences are found at sites with high pollution levels. Potential causes are discussed.
Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Udo Frieß, François Hendrick, Carlos Alberti, Marc Allaart, Arnoud Apituley, Alkis Bais, Steffen Beirle, Stijn Berkhout, Kristof Bognar, Tim Bösch, Ilya Bruchkouski, Alexander Cede, Ka Lok Chan, Mirjam den Hoed, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Caroline Fayt, Martina M. Friedrich, Arnoud Frumau, Lou Gast, Clio Gielen, Laura Gomez-Martín, Nan Hao, Arjan Hensen, Bas Henzing, Christian Hermans, Junli Jin, Karin Kreher, Jonas Kuhn, Johannes Lampel, Ang Li, Cheng Liu, Haoran Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Alexis Merlaud, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Ankie Piters, Ulrich Platt, Olga Puentedura, Andreas Richter, Stefan Schmitt, Elena Spinei, Deborah Stein Zweers, Kimberly Strong, Daan Swart, Frederik Tack, Martin Tiefengraber, René van der Hoff, Michel van Roozendael, Tim Vlemmix, Jan Vonk, Thomas Wagner, Yang Wang, Zhuoru Wang, Mark Wenig, Matthias Wiegner, Folkard Wittrock, Pinhua Xie, Chengzhi Xing, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Xiaoyi Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1–35,Short summary
Multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) is a ground-based remote sensing measurement technique that derives atmospheric aerosol and trace gas vertical profiles from skylight spectra. In this study, consistency and reliability of MAX-DOAS profiles are assessed by applying nine different evaluation algorithms to spectral data recorded during an intercomparison campaign in the Netherlands and by comparing the results to colocated supporting observations.
Kaisa Lakkala, Jukka Kujanpää, Colette Brogniez, Nicolas Henriot, Antti Arola, Margit Aun, Frédérique Auriol, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Germar Bernhard, Veerle De Bock, Maxime Catalfamo, Christine Deroo, Henri Diémoz, Luca Egli, Jean-Baptiste Forestier, Ilias Fountoulakis, Katerina Garane, Rosa Delia Garcia, Julian Gröbner, Seppo Hassinen, Anu Heikkilä, Stuart Henderson, Gregor Hülsen, Bjørn Johnsen, Niilo Kalakoski, Angelos Karanikolas, Tomi Karppinen, Kevin Lamy, Sergio F. León-Luis, Anders V. Lindfors, Jean-Marc Metzger, Fanny Minvielle, Harel B. Muskatel, Thierry Portafaix, Alberto Redondas, Ricardo Sanchez, Anna Maria Siani, Tove Svendby, and Johanna Tamminen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6999–7024,Short summary
The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) onboard the Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) satellite was launched on 13 October 2017 to provide the atmospheric composition for atmosphere and climate research. Ground-based data from 25 sites located in Arctic, subarctic, temperate, equatorial and Antarctic areas were used for the validation of the TROPOMI surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation product. For most sites 60 %–80 % of TROPOMI data was within ± 20 % of ground-based data.
Anna Gialitaki, Alexandra Tsekeri, Vassilis Amiridis, Romain Ceolato, Lucas Paulien, Anna Kampouri, Antonis Gkikas, Stavros Solomos, Eleni Marinou, Moritz Haarig, Holger Baars, Albert Ansmann, Tatyana Lapyonok, Anton Lopatin, Oleg Dubovik, Silke Groß, Martin Wirth, Maria Tsichla, Ioanna Tsikoudi, and Dimitris Balis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14005–14021,Short summary
Stratospheric smoke particles are found to significantly depolarize incident light, while this effect is also accompanied by a strong spectral dependence. We utilize scattering simulations to show that this behaviour can be attributed to the near-spherical shape of the particles. We also examine whether an extension of the current AERONET scattering model to include the near-spherical shapes could be of benefit to the AERONET retrieval for stratospheric smoke associated with enhanced PLDR.
Gaia Pinardi, Michel Van Roozendael, François Hendrick, Nicolas Theys, Nader Abuhassan, Alkiviadis Bais, Folkert Boersma, Alexander Cede, Jihyo Chong, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Anatoly Dzhola, Henk Eskes, Udo Frieß, José Granville, Jay R. Herman, Robert Holla, Jari Hovila, Hitoshi Irie, Yugo Kanaya, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Natalia Kouremeti, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Jianzhong Ma, Enno Peters, Ankie Piters, Oleg Postylyakov, Andreas Richter, Julia Remmers, Hisahiro Takashima, Martin Tiefengraber, Pieter Valks, Tim Vlemmix, Thomas Wagner, and Folkard Wittrock
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6141–6174,Short summary
We validate several GOME-2 and OMI tropospheric NO2 products with 23 MAX-DOAS and 16 direct sun instruments distributed worldwide, highlighting large horizontal inhomogeneities at several sites affecting the validation results. We propose a method for quantification and correction. We show the application of such correction reduces the satellite underestimation in almost all heterogeneous cases, but a negative bias remains over the MAX-DOAS and direct sun network ensemble for both satellites.
Mariana Adam, Doina Nicolae, Iwona S. Stachlewska, Alexandros Papayannis, and Dimitris Balis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13905–13927,Short summary
Biomass burning events measured by EARLINET are analysed using intensive parameters. The pollution layers are labelled smoke layers if fires were found along the air-mass back trajectory. The number of contributing fires to the smoke measurements is quantified. It is shown that most of the time we measure mixed smoke. The methodology provides three research directions: fires measured by several stations, long-range transport from N. America, and an analysis function of continental sources.
Ilias Fountoulakis, Henri Diémoz, Anna Maria Siani, Gregor Hülsen, and Julian Gröbner
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2787–2810,Short summary
In this study we discuss the procedures and the technical aspects which ensure the high quality of the measurements of the global solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiance performed by a Bentham spectroradiometer located at Aosta–Saint-Christophe (north-western Alps), Italy. This particular instrument is the reference for the Aosta Valley UV monitoring network, which is the first UV monitoring network in Italy. The final spectra constitute one of the most accurate datasets globally.
Yang Wang, Arnoud Apituley, Alkiviadis Bais, Steffen Beirle, Nuria Benavent, Alexander Borovski, Ilya Bruchkouski, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Henning Finkenzeller, Martina M. Friedrich, Udo Frieß, David Garcia-Nieto, Laura Gómez-Martín, François Hendrick, Andreas Hilboll, Junli Jin, Paul Johnston, Theodore K. Koenig, Karin Kreher, Vinod Kumar, Aleksandra Kyuberis, Johannes Lampel, Cheng Liu, Haoran Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Oleg L. Polyansky, Oleg Postylyakov, Richard Querel, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Stefan Schmitt, Xin Tian, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Michel Van Roozendael, Rainer Volkamer, Zhuoru Wang, Pinhua Xie, Chengzhi Xing, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5087–5116,
Nikolaos Papagiannopoulos, Giuseppe D'Amico, Anna Gialitaki, Nicolae Ajtai, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Aldo Amodeo, Vassilis Amiridis, Holger Baars, Dimitris Balis, Ioannis Binietoglou, Adolfo Comerón, Davide Dionisi, Alfredo Falconieri, Patrick Fréville, Anna Kampouri, Ina Mattis, Zoran Mijić, Francisco Molero, Alex Papayannis, Gelsomina Pappalardo, Alejandro Rodríguez-Gómez, Stavros Solomos, and Lucia Mona
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10775–10789,Short summary
Volcanic and desert dust particles affect human activities in manifold ways; consequently, mitigation tools are important. Their early detection and the issuance of early warnings are key elements in the initiation of operational response procedures. A methodology for the early warning of these hazards using European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) data is presented. The tailored product is investigated during a volcanic eruption and mineral dust advected in the eastern Mediterranean.
Ka Lok Chan, Matthias Wiegner, Jos van Geffen, Isabelle De Smedt, Carlos Alberti, Zhibin Cheng, Sheng Ye, and Mark Wenig
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4499–4520,Short summary
The paper presents 2D MAX-DOAS observations of vertical distributions of aerosol extinction, NO2 and HCHO in Munich. The measured surface aerosol extinction coefficients and NO2 mixing ratios are compared to in situ monitoring data. The NO2 and HCHO data are subsequently used to validate satellite measurements. The MAX-DOAS measurements are also used to investigate the spatiotemporal characteristic of NO2 and HCHO in Munich.
Marielle Saunois, Ann R. Stavert, Ben Poulter, Philippe Bousquet, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Peter A. Raymond, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Sander Houweling, Prabir K. Patra, Philippe Ciais, Vivek K. Arora, David Bastviken, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Lori Bruhwiler, Kimberly M. Carlson, Mark Carrol, Simona Castaldi, Naveen Chandra, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick M. Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles L. Curry, Giuseppe Etiope, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Michaela I. Hegglin, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Gustaf Hugelius, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Katherine M. Jensen, Fortunat Joos, Thomas Kleinen, Paul B. Krummel, Ray L. Langenfelds, Goulven G. Laruelle, Licheng Liu, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Joe McNorton, Paul A. Miller, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Jurek Müller, Fabiola Murguia-Flores, Vaishali Naik, Yosuke Niwa, Sergio Noce, Simon O'Doherty, Robert J. Parker, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, Pierre Regnier, William J. Riley, Judith A. Rosentreter, Arjo Segers, Isobel J. Simpson, Hao Shi, Steven J. Smith, L. Paul Steele, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Francesco N. Tubiello, Aki Tsuruta, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Thomas S. Weber, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray F. Weiss, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Yi Yin, Yukio Yoshida, Wenxin Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Yuanhong Zhao, Bo Zheng, Qing Zhu, Qiuan Zhu, and Qianlai Zhuang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1561–1623,Short summary
Understanding and quantifying the global methane (CH4) budget is important for assessing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. We have established a consortium of multidisciplinary scientists under the umbrella of the Global Carbon Project to synthesize and stimulate new research aimed at improving and regularly updating the global methane budget. This is the second version of the review dedicated to the decadal methane budget, integrating results of top-down and bottom-up estimates.
Steven Compernolle, Tijl Verhoelst, Gaia Pinardi, José Granville, Daan Hubert, Arno Keppens, Sander Niemeijer, Bruno Rino, Alkis Bais, Steffen Beirle, Folkert Boersma, John P. Burrows, Isabelle De Smedt, Henk Eskes, Florence Goutail, François Hendrick, Alba Lorente, Andrea Pazmino, Ankie Piters, Enno Peters, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, Jos van Geffen, Michel Van Roozendael, Thomas Wagner, and Jean-Christopher Lambert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8017–8045,Short summary
Tropospheric and stratospheric NO2 columns from the OMI QA4ECV NO2 satellite product are validated by comparison with ground-based measurements at 11 sites. The OMI stratospheric column has a small negative bias, and the OMI tropospheric column has a stronger negative bias relative to the ground-based data. Discrepancies are attributed to comparison errors (e.g. difference in horizontal smoothing) and measurement errors (e.g. clouds, aerosols, vertical smoothing and a priori proﬁle assumptions).
Karin Kreher, Michel Van Roozendael, Francois Hendrick, Arnoud Apituley, Ermioni Dimitropoulou, Udo Frieß, Andreas Richter, Thomas Wagner, Johannes Lampel, Nader Abuhassan, Li Ang, Monica Anguas, Alkis Bais, Nuria Benavent, Tim Bösch, Kristof Bognar, Alexander Borovski, Ilya Bruchkouski, Alexander Cede, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Caroline Fayt, Henning Finkenzeller, David Garcia-Nieto, Clio Gielen, Laura Gómez-Martín, Nan Hao, Bas Henzing, Jay R. Herman, Christian Hermans, Syedul Hoque, Hitoshi Irie, Junli Jin, Paul Johnston, Junaid Khayyam Butt, Fahim Khokhar, Theodore K. Koenig, Jonas Kuhn, Vinod Kumar, Cheng Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Alexis Merlaud, Abhishek K. Mishra, Moritz Müller, Monica Navarro-Comas, Mareike Ostendorf, Andrea Pazmino, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Manuel Pinharanda, Ankie Piters, Ulrich Platt, Oleg Postylyakov, Cristina Prados-Roman, Olga Puentedura, Richard Querel, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Anja Schönhardt, Stefan F. Schreier, André Seyler, Vinayak Sinha, Elena Spinei, Kimberly Strong, Frederik Tack, Xin Tian, Martin Tiefengraber, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Jeroen van Gent, Rainer Volkamer, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Shanshan Wang, Zhuoru Wang, Mark Wenig, Folkard Wittrock, Pinhua H. Xie, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Xiaoyi Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2169–2208,Short summary
In September 2016, 36 spectrometers from 24 institutes measured a number of key atmospheric pollutants during an instrument intercomparison campaign (CINDI-2) at Cabauw, the Netherlands. Here we report on the outcome of this intercomparison exercise. The three major goals were to characterise the differences between the participating instruments, to define a robust methodology for performance assessment, and to contribute to the harmonisation of the measurement settings and retrieval methods.
Kalliopi Artemis Voudouri, Elina Giannakaki, Mika Komppula, and Dimitris Balis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4427–4444,Short summary
In this paper we present the variability in cirrus cloud properties using a PollyXT Raman lidar over high and tropical latitudes. The kind of information presented here can be rather useful in the cirrus parameterisations required as input to radiative transfer models and can be a complementary tool for satellite products that cannot provide cloud vertical structure.
Xin Zhang, Yan Yin, Ronald van der A, Jeff L. Lapierre, Qian Chen, Xiang Kuang, Shuqi Yan, Jinghua Chen, Chuan He, and Rulin Shi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1709–1734,Short summary
Lightning NOx has a strong impact on ozone and the hydroxyl radical production. However, the production efficiency of lightning NOx is still quite uncertain. This work develops the algorithm of estimating lightning NOx for both clean and polluted regions and evaluates the sensitivity of estimates to the model setting of lightning NO. Results reveal that our method reduces the sensitivity to the background NO2 and includes much of the below-cloud LNO2.
Ping Wang, Ankie Piters, Jos van Geffen, Olaf Tuinder, Piet Stammes, and Stefan Kinne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1413–1426,Short summary
The comparison of shipborne MAX-DOAS and TROPOMI NO2 products is important for the evaluation of the TROPOMI products. The ship cruises were mainly over remote oceans, thus we only measured background tropospheric NO2. Stratospheric NO2 was measured more accurately because there was almost no contamination from tropospheric NO2. We found that the TROPOMI stratospheric NO2 vertical column densities were slightly higher than the MAX-DOAS measurements.
Jos van Geffen, K. Folkert Boersma, Henk Eskes, Maarten Sneep, Mark ter Linden, Marina Zara, and J. Pepijn Veefkind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1315–1335,Short summary
The Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) provides atmospheric trace gase and cloud and aerosol property measurements at unprecedented spatial resolution. This study focusses on the TROPOMI NO2 slant column density (SCD) retrieval: the retrieval method used, the stability of and uncertainties in the SCDs, and a comparison with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 SCDs. TROPOMI shows a superior performance compared to OMI/QA4ECV and operates as anticipated from instrument specifications.
Sebastian Donner, Jonas Kuhn, Michel Van Roozendael, Alkiviadis Bais, Steffen Beirle, Tim Bösch, Kristof Bognar, Ilya Bruchkouski, Ka Lok Chan, Steffen Dörner, Theano Drosoglou, Caroline Fayt, Udo Frieß, François Hendrick, Christian Hermans, Junli Jin, Ang Li, Jianzhong Ma, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Andreas Richter, Stefan F. Schreier, André Seyler, Kimberly Strong, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Yang Wang, Pinhua Xie, Jin Xu, Xiaoyi Zhao, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 685–712,Short summary
The calibration of the elevation angles of MAX-DOAS instruments is important for the correct interpretation of such MAX-DOAS measurements. We present and evaluate different methods for the elevation calibration of MAX-DOAS instruments which were applied during the CINDI-2 field campaign.
Katerina Garane, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Tijl Verhoelst, Christophe Lerot, Klaus-Peter Heue, Vitali Fioletov, Dimitrios Balis, Alkiviadis Bais, Ariane Bazureau, Angelika Dehn, Florence Goutail, Jose Granville, Debora Griffin, Daan Hubert, Arno Keppens, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Diego Loyola, Chris McLinden, Andrea Pazmino, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Alberto Redondas, Fabian Romahn, Pieter Valks, Michel Van Roozendael, Jian Xu, Claus Zehner, Christos Zerefos, and Walter Zimmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5263–5287,Short summary
The Sentinel-5 Precursor TROPOMI near real time (NRTI) and offline (OFFL) total ozone column (TOC) products are validated against direct-sun and twilight zenith-sky ground-based TOC measurements and other already known spaceborne sensors. The results show that the TROPOMI TOC measurements are in very good agreement with the ground-based measurements and satellite sensor measurements and that they are well within the product requirements.
Emmanouil Proestakis, Vassilis Amiridis, Eleni Marinou, Ioannis Binietoglou, Albert Ansmann, Ulla Wandinger, Julian Hofer, John Yorks, Edward Nowottnick, Abduvosit Makhmudov, Alexandros Papayannis, Aleksander Pietruczuk, Anna Gialitaki, Arnoud Apituley, Artur Szkop, Constantino Muñoz Porcar, Daniele Bortoli, Davide Dionisi, Dietrich Althausen, Dimitra Mamali, Dimitris Balis, Doina Nicolae, Eleni Tetoni, Gian Luigi Liberti, Holger Baars, Ina Mattis, Iwona Sylwia Stachlewska, Kalliopi Artemis Voudouri, Lucia Mona, Maria Mylonaki, Maria Rita Perrone, Maria João Costa, Michael Sicard, Nikolaos Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos Siomos, Pasquale Burlizzi, Rebecca Pauly, Ronny Engelmann, Sabur Abdullaev, and Gelsomina Pappalardo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11743–11764,Short summary
To increase accuracy and validate satellite-based products, comparison with ground-based reference observations is required. To do this, we present evaluation activity of EARLINET for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of NASA's CATS lidar operating aboard the International Space Station (ISS) while identified discrepancies are discussed. Better understanding CATS performance and limitations provides a valuable basis for scientific studies implementing the satellite-based lidar system.
Kalliopi Artemis Voudouri, Nikolaos Siomos, Konstantinos Michailidis, Nikolaos Papagiannopoulos, Lucia Mona, Carmela Cornacchia, Doina Nicolae, and Dimitris Balis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10961–10980,Short summary
In this study, a first attempt at comparing and evaluating two classification tools developed within EARLINET that provide near-real-time aerosol typing information for the lidar profiles of Thessaloniki is presented. Our aim is (i) to check the performance of both supervised learning techniques in their low-resolution mode and (ii) to investigate the reasons for typing agreement and disagreement with respect to the uncertainties and the threshold criteria applied.
Jacob C. A. van Peet and Ronald J. van der A
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8297–8309,Short summary
In this research, we combine satellite measurements of ozone with a chemical transport model of the atmosphere. The focus is on the ozone concentration between the surface and 6 km above mean sea level, since in that altitude range ozone has the highest impact on living organisms. Monthly mean ozone fields show significant improvements and more detail, especially for features such as biomass-burning-enhanced ozone concentrations and outflow of ozone-rich air from Asia over the Pacific.
Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Ronald J. van der A, Piet Stammes, K. Folkert Boersma, and Henk J. Eskes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6269–6294,Short summary
In this paper, a ∼21-year self-consistent global dataset from four different satellite sensors is compiled for the first time to study the long-term tropospheric NO2 patterns and trends. A novel method capable of detecting the year when a reversal of trends happened shows that tropospheric NO2 concentrations switched from positive to negative trends and vice versa over several regions around the globe during the last 2 decades.
Anna Katinka Petersen, Guy P. Brasseur, Idir Bouarar, Johannes Flemming, Michael Gauss, Fei Jiang, Rostislav Kouznetsov, Richard Kranenburg, Bas Mijling, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Matthieu Pommier, Arjo Segers, Mikhail Sofiev, Renske Timmermans, Ronald van der A, Stacy Walters, Ying Xie, Jianming Xu, and Guangqiang Zhou
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1241–1266,Short summary
An operational multi-model forecasting system for air quality is providing daily forecasts of ozone, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter for 37 urban areas of China. The paper presents the evaluation of the different forecasts performed during the first year of operation.
Kostas Eleftheratos, Christos S. Zerefos, Dimitris S. Balis, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, John Kapsomenakis, Diego G. Loyola, Pieter Valks, Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Christophe Lerot, Stacey M. Frith, Amund S. Haslerud, Ivar S. A. Isaksen, and Seppo Hassinen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 987–1011,Short summary
We examine the ability of GOME-2A total ozone data to capture variability related to known natural oscillations, such as the QBO, ENSO and NAO, with respect to other satellite datasets, ground-based data, and chemical transport model simulations. The analysis is based on the GOME-2 satellite total ozone columns for the period 2007–2016 which form part of the operational EUMETSAT AC SAF GOME-2 MetOp A GDP4.8 latest data product.
Guy P. Brasseur, Ying Xie, Anna Katinka Petersen, Idir Bouarar, Johannes Flemming, Michael Gauss, Fei Jiang, Rostislav Kouznetsov, Richard Kranenburg, Bas Mijling, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Matthieu Pommier, Arjo Segers, Mikhail Sofiev, Renske Timmermans, Ronald van der A, Stacy Walters, Jianming Xu, and Guangqiang Zhou
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 33–67,Short summary
An operational multi-model forecasting system for air quality provides daily forecasts of ozone, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter for 37 urban areas in China. The paper presents an intercomparison of the different forecasts performed during a specific period of time and highlights recurrent differences between the model output. Pathways to improve the forecasts by the multi-model system are suggested.
K. Folkert Boersma, Henk J. Eskes, Andreas Richter, Isabelle De Smedt, Alba Lorente, Steffen Beirle, Jos H. G. M. van Geffen, Marina Zara, Enno Peters, Michel Van Roozendael, Thomas Wagner, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Ronald J. van der A, Joanne Nightingale, Anne De Rudder, Hitoshi Irie, Gaia Pinardi, Jean-Christopher Lambert, and Steven C. Compernolle
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6651–6678,Short summary
This paper describes a new, improved data record of 22+ years of coherent nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollution measurements from different satellite instruments. Our work helps to ensure that climate data are of sufficient quality to draw reliable conclusions and shape decisions. It shows how dedicated intercomparisons of retrieval sub-steps have led to improved NO2 measurements from the GOME, SCIAMACHY, GOME-2(A), and OMI sensors, and how quality assurance of the new data product is achieved.
Larisa Sogacheva, Edith Rodriguez, Pekka Kolmonen, Timo H. Virtanen, Giulia Saponaro, Gerrit de Leeuw, Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Georgia Alexandri, Konstantinos Kourtidis, and Ronald J. van der A
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16631–16652,Short summary
Understanding long-term trends in aerosol optical density (AOD) is essential for evaluating health and climate effects and the effectiveness of pollution control policies. A method to construct a combined AOD long time series (1995-2017) using ATSR and MODIS spaceborne instruments is introduced. The effect of changes in the emission regulation policy in China is seen in a gradual AOD decrease after 2011. The effect is more visible in highly populated and industrialized areas in southeast China.
Anne Boynard, Daniel Hurtmans, Katerina Garane, Florence Goutail, Juliette Hadji-Lazaro, Maria Elissavet Koukouli, Catherine Wespes, Corinne Vigouroux, Arno Keppens, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Andrea Pazmino, Dimitris Balis, Diego Loyola, Pieter Valks, Ralf Sussmann, Dan Smale, Pierre-François Coheur, and Cathy Clerbaux
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5125–5152,Short summary
In this paper, we perform a comprehensive validation of the IASI/Metop ozone data using independent observations (satellite, ground-based and ozonesonde). The quality of the IASI total and tropospheric ozone columns in terms of bias and long-term stability is generally good. Compared with ozonesonde data, IASI overestimates (underestimates) the ozone abundance in the stratosphere (troposphere). A negative drift in tropospheric ozone is observed, which is not well understood at this point.
Nikolaos Siomos, Dimitris S. Balis, Kalliopi A. Voudouri, Eleni Giannakaki, Maria Filioglou, Vassilis Amiridis, Alexandros Papayannis, and Konstantinos Fragkos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11885–11903,Short summary
In this study we investigate the climatological behavior of the aerosol optical properties over Thessaloniki during the years 2003–2017. For this purpose, measurements from two individual networks, the European Lidar Aerosol Network (EARLINET) and the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), were deployed. The analysis implies that the EARLINET sampling schedule can be quite effective in producing data that can be applied to climatological studies.
Larisa Sogacheva, Gerrit de Leeuw, Edith Rodriguez, Pekka Kolmonen, Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Georgia Alexandri, Konstantinos Kourtidis, Emmanouil Proestakis, Eleni Marinou, Vassilis Amiridis, Yong Xue, and Ronald J. van der A
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11389–11407,Short summary
Using AATSR ADV (1995–2011) and MODIS C6.1 (2000–2017) annual and seasonal aerosol optical depth (AOD) aggregates, we obtained information regarding the occurrence of aerosols and their spatial and temporal variation over China. We specifically focused on regional differences in annual and seasonal AOD behavior for selected regions. AOD dataset comparisons, validation results and AOD tendencies during the overlapping period (2000–2011) are discussed.
Marina Zara, K. Folkert Boersma, Isabelle De Smedt, Andreas Richter, Enno Peters, Jos H. G. M. van Geffen, Steffen Beirle, Thomas Wagner, Michel Van Roozendael, Sergey Marchenko, Lok N. Lamsal, and Henk J. Eskes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4033–4058,Short summary
Nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde satellite data are used for air quality and climate studies. We quantify and characterise slant column uncertainties from different research groups. Our evaluation is motivated by recently improved techniques and by a desire to provide fully traceable uncertainty budget for climate records generated within the QA4ECV project. The improved slant columns are in agreement but with substantial differences in the reported uncertainties between groups and instruments.
Alberto Redondas, Virgilio Carreño, Sergio F. León-Luis, Bentorey Hernández-Cruz, Javier López-Solano, Juan J. Rodriguez-Franco, José M. Vilaplana, Julian Gröbner, John Rimmer, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Vladimir Savastiouk, Juan R. Moreta, Lamine Boulkelia, Nis Jepsen, Keith M. Wilson, Vadim Shirotov, and Tomi Karppinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9441–9455,Short summary
This work shows an overview of the total ozone comparison of the Brewer instrument during the 10th RBCC-E campaign in a joint effort with the EUBREWNET COST 1207 action. The status of the network after 2 years of calibration shows 16 out of the 21 participating Brewer instruments (76 %) agreed within better than ±1 %, and 10 instruments (50 %) agreed within better than ±0.5 %. After applying the final calibration and the stray light correction all working instruments agreed at the ±0.5 % level.
Arno Keppens, Jean-Christopher Lambert, José Granville, Daan Hubert, Tijl Verhoelst, Steven Compernolle, Barry Latter, Brian Kerridge, Richard Siddans, Anne Boynard, Juliette Hadji-Lazaro, Cathy Clerbaux, Catherine Wespes, Daniel R. Hurtmans, Pierre-François Coheur, Jacob C. A. van Peet, Ronald J van der A, Katerina Garane, Maria Elissavet Koukouli, Dimitris S. Balis, Andy Delcloo, Rigel Kivi, Réné Stübi, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Michel Van Roozendael, and Claus Zehner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3769–3800,Short summary
This work, performed at the Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy and the second in a series of four Ozone_cci papers, reports for the first time on data content studies, information content studies, and comparisons with co-located ground-based reference observations for all 13 nadir ozone profile data products that are part of the Climate Research Data Package (CRDP) on atmospheric ozone of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative.
Alberto Berjón, Alberto Redondas, Meelis-Mait Sildoja, Saulius Nevas, Keith Wilson, Sergio F. León-Luis, Omar el Gawhary, and Ilias Fountoulakis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3323–3337,Short summary
The Brewer spectrophotometer has been used for decades as reference instrument to retrieve total ozone column (TOC) and for validation of satellite based measurements. This spectrophotometer has a thermal sensitivity already known, which is usually characterized using two different retrieval procedures. In this work, we report on a comparative study of the temperature coefficients retrieval procedures, obtaining differences less that 0.08 % in TOC when using any of the procedures.
Stephen Broccardo, Klaus-Peter Heue, David Walter, Christian Meyer, Alexander Kokhanovsky, Ronald van der A, Stuart Piketh, Kristy Langerman, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2797–2819,Short summary
Measurements of nitrogen dioxide, known to originate from industrial and automotive combustion sources, have been made from space for two decades. Successive generations of instrument bring improvements in ground-pixel resolution; however features in the atmosphere are known to be smaller than what the satellites can resolve. Measurements of urban and industrial areas using a high-resolution airborne instrument allow the impact of the satellite's relatively low resolution to be evaluated.
Isabelle De Smedt, Nicolas Theys, Huan Yu, Thomas Danckaert, Christophe Lerot, Steven Compernolle, Michel Van Roozendael, Andreas Richter, Andreas Hilboll, Enno Peters, Mattia Pedergnana, Diego Loyola, Steffen Beirle, Thomas Wagner, Henk Eskes, Jos van Geffen, Klaas Folkert Boersma, and Pepijn Veefkind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2395–2426,Short summary
This paper introduces the formaldehyde (HCHO) tropospheric vertical column retrieval algorithm implemented in the TROPOMI/Sentinel-5 Precursor operational processor, and comprehensively describes its various retrieval steps. Furthermore, algorithmic improvements developed in the framework of the EU FP7-project QA4ECV are described for future updates of the processor. Detailed error estimates are discussed in the light of Copernicus user requirements and needs for validation are highlighted.
Pieternel F. Levelt, Joanna Joiner, Johanna Tamminen, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Pawan K. Bhartia, Deborah C. Stein Zweers, Bryan N. Duncan, David G. Streets, Henk Eskes, Ronald van der A, Chris McLinden, Vitali Fioletov, Simon Carn, Jos de Laat, Matthew DeLand, Sergey Marchenko, Richard McPeters, Jerald Ziemke, Dejian Fu, Xiong Liu, Kenneth Pickering, Arnoud Apituley, Gonzalo González Abad, Antti Arola, Folkert Boersma, Christopher Chan Miller, Kelly Chance, Martin de Graaf, Janne Hakkarainen, Seppo Hassinen, Iolanda Ialongo, Quintus Kleipool, Nickolay Krotkov, Can Li, Lok Lamsal, Paul Newman, Caroline Nowlan, Raid Suleiman, Lieuwe Gijsbert Tilstra, Omar Torres, Huiqun Wang, and Krzysztof Wargan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5699–5745,Short summary
The aim of this paper is to highlight the many successes of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) spanning more than 13 years. Data from OMI have been used in a wide range of applications. Due to its unprecedented spatial resolution, in combination with daily global coverage, OMI plays a unique role in measuring trace gases important for the ozone layer, air quality, and climate change. OMI data continue to be used for new research and applications.
Theano Drosoglou, Maria Elissavet Koukouli, Natalia Kouremeti, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Irene Zyrichidou, Dimitris Balis, Ronald J. van der A, Jin Xu, and Ang Li
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2239–2255,Short summary
A diurnal pattern of tropospheric NO2 with two maxima around late morning and late afternoon is revealed, reflecting high anthropogenic emissions, and a minimum at noon, due to photochemical destruction of tropospheric NO2. GOME-2B shows the smallest underestimation despite its large pixel size. The distance between the measurement location and the satellite pixel center affects mostly GOME-2B data selection. The effect of clouds is more profound on the selection of OMI overpass data.
Maria Elissavet Koukouli, Nicolas Theys, Jieying Ding, Irene Zyrichidou, Bas Mijling, Dimitrios Balis, and Ronald Johannes van der A
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1817–1832,Short summary
Within the framework of the EU FP7 project MarcoPolo (Monitoring and Assessment of Regional air quality in China using space Observations), a new SO2 emission inventory over China was calculated using the CHIMERE CTM simulations, 10 years of OMI/Aura total SO2 columns and the bottom-up Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC v1.2).
Fei Liu, Ronald J. van der A, Henk Eskes, Jieying Ding, and Bas Mijling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4171–4186,Short summary
We used ground measurements from the recently developed air quality monitoring network in China to validate modeling surface NO2 concentrations from the regional chemical transport model (CTM). The CTM simulations driven by satellite-derived and bottom-up inventories show negative and positive differences against the ground measurements, respectively. Our study suggests an improvement of the distribution of emissions between urban and rural areas in the satellite-derived inventory.
Javier López-Solano, Alberto Redondas, Thomas Carlund, Juan J. Rodriguez-Franco, Henri Diémoz, Sergio F. León-Luis, Bentorey Hernández-Cruz, Carmen Guirado-Fuentes, Natalia Kouremeti, Julian Gröbner, Stelios Kazadzis, Virgilio Carreño, Alberto Berjón, Daniel Santana-Díaz, Manuel Rodríguez-Valido, Veerle De Bock, Juan R. Moreta, John Rimmer, Andrew R. D. Smedley, Lamine Boulkelia, Nis Jepsen, Paul Eriksen, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Vadim Shirotov, José M. Vilaplana, Keith M. Wilson, and Tomi Karppinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3885–3902,Short summary
The European Brewer Network (EUBREWNET, COST Action ES1207) is comprised of close to 50 instruments and currently provides near-real-time ozone and UV data. Aerosols also play key role in the Earth–atmosphere system and introduce a large uncertainty into our understanding of climate change. In this work we describe and validate a method to incorporate the measurement of aerosols in EUBREWNET. We find that this Brewer network can provide reliable aerosol data across Europe in the UV range.
Katerina Garane, Christophe Lerot, Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Tijl Verhoelst, Maria Elissavet Koukouli, Irene Zyrichidou, Dimitris S. Balis, Thomas Danckaert, Florence Goutail, Jose Granville, Daan Hubert, Arno Keppens, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Diego Loyola, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Michel Van Roozendael, and Claus Zehner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1385–1402,Short summary
The GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable (GTO-ECV) is a level-3 data record, which combines individual sensor products into one single cohesive record covering the 22-year period from 1995 to 2017, generated in the frame of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative Phase II. The exceptional quality of the level-3 GTO-ECV v3 TOC record temporal stability satisfies well the requirements for the total ozone measurement decadal stability of between 1 and 3 %.
Stelios Kazadzis, Dimitra Founda, Basil E. Psiloglou, Harry Kambezidis, Nickolaos Mihalopoulos, Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo, Charikleia Meleti, Panagiotis I. Raptis, Fragiskos Pierros, and Pierre Nabat
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2395–2411,Short summary
The National Observatory of Athens has been collecting solar radiation, sunshine duration, and cloud and visibility data/observations since the beginning of the 20th century. In this work we present surface solar radiation data since 1953 and reconstructed data since 1900. We have attempted to show and discuss the long-term changes in solar surface radiation over Athens, Greece, using these unique datasets.
Panagiotis G. Kosmopoulos, Stelios Kazadzis, Michael Taylor, Panagiotis I. Raptis, Iphigenia Keramitsoglou, Chris Kiranoudis, and Alkiviadis F. Bais
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 907–924,Short summary
Continuous monitoring of solar energy from space is critical for its efficient exploitation and distribution. For this reason we developed neural-network- and function-based real-time models, which are capable of producing massive radiation outputs in high spectral, spatial and temporal resolution. The models' performance against ground-based measurements revealed a dependence on input quality and resolution, and an overall accuracy under cloudless and high solar energy potential conditions.
Jacob C. A. van Peet, Ronald J. van der A, Hennie M. Kelder, and Pieternel F. Levelt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1685–1704,Short summary
Ozone profiles measured by two satellite instruments (GOME-2A and OMI) have been combined with a chemical transport model using data assimilation. The results give a better insight into the global spatial and temporal ozone distribution than either measurement or model results alone. Validation with independent measurements shows biases varying between -5 % and +10 % between the surface and 100 hPa, while between 100 and 10 hPa the biases vary between -3 % and +3 %.
Gerrit de Leeuw, Larisa Sogacheva, Edith Rodriguez, Konstantinos Kourtidis, Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Georgia Alexandri, Vassilis Amiridis, Emmanouil Proestakis, Eleni Marinou, Yong Xue, and Ronald van der A
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1573–1592,Short summary
The complementary use of two sensors, ATSR and MODIS, to provide aerosol information over two decades (1995–2015) is described. To this end, the AOD retrieved from both instruments had to be compared, showing that ATSR slightly underestimates and MODIS overestimates by a similar amount. Results show the increase of aerosols over the years, with an indication of the onset of a decrease in recent years. The AOD spatial distribution shows seasonal variations across China.
Emmanouil Proestakis, Vassilis Amiridis, Eleni Marinou, Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Stavros Solomos, Stelios Kazadzis, Julien Chimot, Huizheng Che, Georgia Alexandri, Ioannis Binietoglou, Vasiliki Daskalopoulou, Konstantinos A. Kourtidis, Gerrit de Leeuw, and Ronald J. van der A
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1337–1362,Short summary
We provide a 3-D climatology of desert dust aerosols over South and East Asia, based on 9 years of CALIPSO observations and an EARLINET methodology. The results provide the horizontal, vertical and seasonal distribution of dust aerosols over SE Asia along with the change in dust transport pathways. The dataset is unique for its potential applications, including evaluation and assimilation activities in atmospheric simulations and the estimation of the climatic impact of dust aerosols.
Geert Jan van Oldenborgh, Sjoukje Philip, Sarah Kew, Michiel van Weele, Peter Uhe, Friederike Otto, Roop Singh, Indrani Pai, Heidi Cullen, and Krishna AchutaRao
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 365–381,Short summary
On 19 May 2016 a temperature of 51.0 °C in Phalodi (northwest India) set a new Indian record. In 2015 a very lethal heat wave had occurred in the southeast. We find that in India the trend in extreme temperatures due to greenhouse gases is largely cancelled by increasing air pollution and irrigation. The health impacts of heat waves do increase due to higher humidity and air pollution. This implies that we expect heat waves to become much hotter as soon as air pollution is brought under control.
Ilias Fountoulakis, Alberto Redondas, Kaisa Lakkala, Alberto Berjon, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Lionel Doppler, Uwe Feister, Anu Heikkila, Tomi Karppinen, Juha M. Karhu, Tapani Koskela, Katerina Garane, Konstantinos Fragkos, and Volodya Savastiouk
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4491–4505,Short summary
Results of the temperature characterization of the global UV spectral measurements of eight different Brewer spectrophotometers operating in Greece, Finland, Germany and Spain are presented. Different temperature characterization methods are evaluated and an improved methodology for the correction of the measurements for the effects of temperature is presented.
Jieying Ding, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Ronald Johannes van der A, Bas Mijling, Jun-ichi Kurokawa, SeogYeon Cho, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Qiang Zhang, Fei Liu, and Pieternel Felicitas Levelt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10125–10141,Short summary
To evaluate the quality of the satellite-derived NOx emissions, we compare nine emission inventories of nitrogen oxides including four satellite-derived NOx inventories and bottom-up inventories for East Asia. The temporal and spatial distribution of NOx emissions over East Asia are evaluated. We analyse the differences in satellite-derived emissions from two different inversion methods. The paper ends with recommendations for future improvements of emission estimates.
Fei Liu, Steffen Beirle, Qiang Zhang, Ronald J. van der A, Bo Zheng, Dan Tong, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9261–9275,Short summary
We assess NOx emission trends over Chinese cities based on satellite NO2 observations using a method independent of chemical transport models. NOx emissions over 48 Chinese cities have decreased significantly since 2011. Cities with different dominant emission sources (i.e. power, industrial, and transportation sectors) showed variable emission decline timelines that corresponded to the schedules for emission control in different sectors.
Panagiotis G. Kosmopoulos, Stelios Kazadzis, Michael Taylor, Eleni Athanasopoulou, Orestis Speyer, Panagiotis I. Raptis, Eleni Marinou, Emmanouil Proestakis, Stavros Solomos, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, Vassilis Amiridis, Alkiviadis Bais, and Charalabos Kontoes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2435–2453,Short summary
We study the impact of dust on solar energy using remote sensing data in conjunction with synergistic modelling and forecasting techniques. Under high aerosol loads, we found great solar energy losses of the order of 80 and 50% for concentrated solar power and photovoltaic installations, respectively. The 1-day forecast presented an overall accuracy within 10% in direct comparison to the real conditions under high energy potential, optimising the efficient energy planning and policies.
Nikolaos Siomos, Dimitris S. Balis, Anastasia Poupkou, Natalia Liora, Spyridon Dimopoulos, Dimitris Melas, Eleni Giannakaki, Maria Filioglou, Sara Basart, and Anatoli Chaikovsky
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7003–7023,Short summary
This study presents an evaluation of an air quality model using aerosol measurements from radiometric and lidar data at Thessaloniki, Greece. The aerosol mass concentration profiles of CAMx are compared against the fine and coarse mode aerosol concentration profiles retrieved by the Lidar-Radiometer Inversion Code (LIRIC). The CAMx model and the LIRIC algorithm results were compared in terms of mean mass concentration profiles, center of mass and integrated mass concentration.
Eleni Marinou, Vassilis Amiridis, Ioannis Binietoglou, Athanasios Tsikerdekis, Stavros Solomos, Emannouil Proestakis, Dimitra Konsta, Nikolaos Papagiannopoulos, Alexandra Tsekeri, Georgia Vlastou, Prodromos Zanis, Dimitrios Balis, Ulla Wandinger, and Albert Ansmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5893–5919,Short summary
We provide a 3D multiyear analysis on the evolution of Saharan dust over Europe, using a dust product retrieved from the CALIPSO satellite and using EARLINET methods. The results reveal for the first time the 9-year 3D seasonal patterns of dust over its transport paths from the Sahara towards the Mediterranean. The dataset is unique with respect to its potential applications, including the evaluation of dust models and the estimation of ice nuclei concentration profiles from space.
Theano Drosoglou, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Irene Zyrichidou, Natalia Kouremeti, Anastasia Poupkou, Natalia Liora, Christos Giannaros, Maria Elissavet Koukouli, Dimitris Balis, and Dimitrios Melas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5829–5849,Short summary
We present ground-based tropospheric NO2 measurements performed within the area of Thessaloniki, Greece. The comparisons with OMI/Aura, GOME-2A and GOME-2B data sets have shown a significant underestimation of the NO2 levels over the urban area by the satellite sensors. This finding can be attributed to the strong NO2 gradients. By applying adjustment factors, calculated using an air quality model, on the OMI/Aura observations, the comparison over the urban site has improved significantly.
Yang Wang, Steffen Beirle, Johannes Lampel, Mariliza Koukouli, Isabelle De Smedt, Nicolas Theys, Ang Li, Dexia Wu, Pinhua Xie, Cheng Liu, Michel Van Roozendael, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Jean-François Müller, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5007–5033,Short summary
A long-term MAX-DOAS measurement from 2011 to 2014 was operated in Wuxi, part of the most industrialized area of the Yangtze River delta region of China. The tropospheric VCDs and vertical profiles of NO2, SO2 and HCHO derived from the MAX-DOAS are used to validate the products derived from OMI and GOME-2A/B by different scientific teams (daily- and bimonthly-averaged data). We investigate the effects of clouds, aerosols and a priori profile shapes on satellite retrievals of tropospheric VCDs.
Jieying Ding, Ronald Johannes van der A, Bas Mijling, and Pieternel Felicitas Levelt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 925–938,Short summary
We improve the DECSO algorithm for NOx emission estimates from satellite observations, especially over remote regions. The accuracy is about 20 percent for monthly NOx emissions with a spatial resolution of 0.25 degrees. We are able to distinguish ship emissions below the outflow of NO2 from the mainland of China.
Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, André Seyler, Andreas Richter, Folkard Wittrock, Tim Bösch, Michel Van Roozendael, François Hendrick, Theano Drosoglou, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Yugo Kanaya, Xiaoyi Zhao, Kimberly Strong, Johannes Lampel, Rainer Volkamer, Theodore Koenig, Ivan Ortega, Olga Puentedura, Mónica Navarro-Comas, Laura Gómez, Margarita Yela González, Ankie Piters, Julia Remmers, Yang Wang, Thomas Wagner, Shanshan Wang, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, David García-Nieto, Carlos A. Cuevas, Nuria Benavent, Richard Querel, Paul Johnston, Oleg Postylyakov, Alexander Borovski, Alexander Elokhov, Ilya Bruchkouski, Haoran Liu, Cheng Liu, Qianqian Hong, Claudia Rivera, Michel Grutter, Wolfgang Stremme, M. Fahim Khokhar, Junaid Khayyam, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 955–978,Short summary
This work is about harmonization of differential optical absorption spectroscopy retrieval codes, which is a remote sensing technique widely used to derive atmospheric trace gas amounts. The study is based on ground-based measurements performed during the Multi-Axis DOAS Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) in Mainz, Germany, in summer 2013. In total, 17 international groups working in the field of the DOAS technique participated in this study.
Ronald J. van der A, Bas Mijling, Jieying Ding, Maria Elissavet Koukouli, Fei Liu, Qing Li, Huiqin Mao, and Nicolas Theys
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1775–1789,Short summary
The SO2 concentrations and NOx emissions over China derived from satellite observations are compared with the national fossil fuel consumption and air quality regulations. It is shown that not only NO2 concentrations but also NOx emissions in all Chinese provinces decreased in the last 2 years. We conclude that without the air quality regulations the SO2 concentrations would be about 2.5 times higher and the NO2 concentrations would be at least 25 % higher than they are today in China.
Christos S. Zerefos, Kostas Eleftheratos, John Kapsomenakis, Stavros Solomos, Antje Inness, Dimitris Balis, Alberto Redondas, Henk Eskes, Marc Allaart, Vassilis Amiridis, Arne Dahlback, Veerle De Bock, Henri Diémoz, Ronny Engelmann, Paul Eriksen, Vitali Fioletov, Julian Gröbner, Anu Heikkilä, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Janusz Jarosławski, Weine Josefsson, Tomi Karppinen, Ulf Köhler, Charoula Meleti, Christos Repapis, John Rimmer, Vladimir Savinykh, Vadim Shirotov, Anna Maria Siani, Andrew R. D. Smedley, Martin Stanek, and René Stübi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 551–574,Short summary
The paper makes a convincing case that the Brewer network is capable of detecting enhanced SO2 columns, as observed, e.g., after volcanic eruptions. For this reason, large volcanic eruptions of the past decade have been used to detect and forecast SO2 plumes of volcanic origin using the Brewer and other ground-based networks, aided by satellite, trajectory analysis calculations and modelling.
Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Ben Poulter, Anna Peregon, Philippe Ciais, Josep G. Canadell, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Giuseppe Etiope, David Bastviken, Sander Houweling, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Simona Castaldi, Robert B. Jackson, Mihai Alexe, Vivek K. Arora, David J. Beerling, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Victor Brovkin, Lori Bruhwiler, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles Curry, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Fortunat Joos, Heon-Sook Kim, Thomas Kleinen, Paul Krummel, Jean-François Lamarque, Ray Langenfelds, Robin Locatelli, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Julia Marshall, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Vaishali Naik, Simon O'Doherty, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Prabir K. Patra, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Isabelle Pison, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, William J. Riley, Makoto Saito, Monia Santini, Ronny Schroeder, Isobel J. Simpson, Renato Spahni, Paul Steele, Atsushi Takizawa, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray Weiss, Christine Wiedinmyer, David J. Wilton, Andy Wiltshire, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Xiyan Xu, Yukio Yoshida, Bowen Zhang, Zhen Zhang, and Qiuan Zhu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 697–751,Short summary
An accurate assessment of the methane budget is important to understand the atmospheric methane concentrations and trends and to provide realistic pathways for climate change mitigation. The various and diffuse sources of methane as well and its oxidation by a very short lifetime radical challenge this assessment. We quantify the methane sources and sinks as well as their uncertainties based on both bottom-up and top-down approaches provided by a broad international scientific community.
Quentin Errera, Simone Ceccherini, Yves Christophe, Simon Chabrillat, Michaela I. Hegglin, Alyn Lambert, Richard Ménard, Piera Raspollini, Sergey Skachko, Michiel van Weele, and Kaley A. Walker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5895–5909,Short summary
When this study started, its goal was to provide a reanalysis of the stratospheric composition of methane and nitrous oxide, two important sources of hydrogen and nitrogen species in the stratosphere that influence the ozone abundance. However, the goal changed when several issues in the assimilated observations were discovered. Finally, this study illustrates how data assimilation methods can be used to add value to the observations as well as to diagnose their limitations.
Anne Boynard, Daniel Hurtmans, Mariliza E. Koukouli, Florence Goutail, Jérôme Bureau, Sarah Safieddine, Christophe Lerot, Juliette Hadji-Lazaro, Catherine Wespes, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Andrea Pazmino, Irene Zyrichidou, Dimitris Balis, Alain Barbe, Semen N. Mikhailenko, Diego Loyola, Pieter Valks, Michel Van Roozendael, Pierre-François Coheur, and Cathy Clerbaux
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4327–4353,Short summary
Seven years of O3 observations retrieved from IASI/MetOp satellite instruments are validated with independent data (UV satellite and ground-based data along with ozonesonde profiles). Overall IASI overestimates the total ozone columns (TOC) by 2–7 % depending on the latitude. The assessment of an updated version of the IASI O3 retrieval sofware shows a correction of ~ 4 % in the IASI TOC product, bringing the overall global bias with UV ground-based and satellite data to ~ 1–2 % on average.
Jani Huttunen, Harri Kokkola, Tero Mielonen, Mika Esa Juhani Mononen, Antti Lipponen, Juha Reunanen, Anders Vilhelm Lindfors, Santtu Mikkonen, Kari Erkki Juhani Lehtinen, Natalia Kouremeti, Alkiviadis Bais, Harri Niska, and Antti Arola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8181–8191,Short summary
For a good estimate of the current forcing by anthropogenic aerosols, knowledge in past is needed. One option to lengthen time series is to retrieve aerosol optical depth from solar radiation measurements. We have evaluated several methods for this task. Most of the methods produce aerosol optical depth estimates with a good accuracy. However, machine learning methods seem to be the most applicable not to produce any systematic biases, since they do not need constrain the aerosol properties.
Elina Giannakaki, Pieter G. van Zyl, Detlef Müller, Dimitris Balis, and Mika Komppula
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8109–8123,Short summary
Optical and microphysical properties of different aerosol types over South Africa measured with a multi-wavelength polarization Raman lidar are presented. Aerosol characterization of elevated layers was performed. This study could assist in bridging existing gaps relating to aerosol properties over South Africa.
Dimitris Balis, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Nikolaos Siomos, Spyridon Dimopoulos, Lucia Mona, Gelsomina Pappalardo, Franco Marenco, Lieven Clarisse, Lucy J. Ventress, Elisa Carboni, Roy G. Grainger, Ping Wang, Gijsbert Tilstra, Ronald van der A, Nicolas Theys, and Claus Zehner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5705–5720,Short summary
The ESA-funded SACS-2 and SMASH projects developed and improved dedicated satellite-derived ash plume and sulfur dioxide level assessments. These estimates were validated using ground-based and aircraft lidar measurements. The validation results are promising for most satellite products and are within the estimated uncertainties of each of the comparative data sets. The IASI data show a better consistency concerning the ash optical depth and ash layer height.
Maria Elissavet Koukouli, Marina Zara, Christophe Lerot, Konstantinos Fragkos, Dimitris Balis, Michel van Roozendael, Marcus Antonius Franciscus Allart, and Ronald Johannes van der A
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2055–2065,Short summary
The main aim of the paper is to demonstrate an approach for the post-processing of the Dobson spectrophotometers' total ozone columns (TOCs) in order to compensate for their known stratospheric effective temperature dependency and its resulting effect on the usage of the Dobson TOCs for satellite TOCs' validation.
Ilias Fountoulakis, Alberto Redondas, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Juan José Rodriguez-Franco, Konstantinos Fragkos, and Alexander Cede
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1799–1816,Short summary
The dead time (DT) is characteristic for each Brewer spectrophotometer and non-proper correction of the raw data for its effect may lead to important errors in UV, AOD and TOC measurements. Quantitative estimation of the DT-related uncertainties shown that a 2 ns error in the DT may lead to errors greater than 1 % in TOC. The operational algorithm for the DT calculation and correction is validated and the development of new methods for the estimation of DT is described.
Elisa Carboni, Roy G. Grainger, Tamsin A. Mather, David M. Pyle, Gareth E. Thomas, Richard Siddans, Andrew J. A. Smith, Anu Dudhia, Mariliza E. Koukouli, and Dimitrios Balis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4343–4367,Short summary
The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) can be used to study volcanic emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2), returning both SO2 amount and altitude data. The series of analyzed eruptions (2008 to 2012) show that the biggest emitter of volcanic SO2 was Nabro, followed by Kasatochi and Grimsvotn. Our observations also show a tendency for volcanic SO2 to reach the level of the tropopause. This tendency was independent of the maximum amount of SO2 and of the volcanic explosive index.
Ilias Fountoulakis, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Konstantinos Fragkos, Charickleia Meleti, Kleareti Tourpali, and Melina Maria Zempila
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2493–2505,Short summary
Short- and long-term variability of spectral UV irradiance at Thessaloniki, Greece, is discussed in association with changes in total ozone column, aerosols and cloudiness. The UV data set from two Brewer spectrophotometers is used for the analysis. For the entire period 1994–2014, positive, statistically significant increases of UV irradiance were found, mainly attributable to changes in aerosols. UV irradiance is mainly increased from 1994 to 2006 and remains relatively stable thereafter.
S. Hassinen, D. Balis, H. Bauer, M. Begoin, A. Delcloo, K. Eleftheratos, S. Gimeno Garcia, J. Granville, M. Grossi, N. Hao, P. Hedelt, F. Hendrick, M. Hess, K.-P. Heue, J. Hovila, H. Jønch-Sørensen, N. Kalakoski, A. Kauppi, S. Kiemle, L. Kins, M. E. Koukouli, J. Kujanpää, J.-C. Lambert, R. Lang, C. Lerot, D. Loyola, M. Pedergnana, G. Pinardi, F. Romahn, M. van Roozendael, R. Lutz, I. De Smedt, P. Stammes, W. Steinbrecht, J. Tamminen, N. Theys, L. G. Tilstra, O. N. E. Tuinder, P. Valks, C. Zerefos, W. Zimmer, and I. Zyrichidou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 383–407,Short summary
The three GOME-2 instruments will provide unique and long data sets for atmospheric research and applications. The complete time period will be 2007–2022, including the period of ozone depletion as well as the beginning of ozone layer recovery. The GOME-2 products (ozone, trace gases, aerosols and UV radiation) are important for ozone chemistry, air quality studies, climate modeling, policy monitoring and hazard warnings. The processing and dissemination is done by EUMETSAT O3M SAF project.
N. Bândă, M. Krol, M. van Weele, T. van Noije, P. Le Sager, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 195–214,Short summary
We quantify the processes responsible for methane growth rate variability in the period 1990 to 1995, a period with variations in climate and radiation due to the Pinatubo eruption. We find significant contributions from changes in the methane emission from wetlands, and in the methane removal by OH caused by stratospheric aerosols, by the decrease in temperature and water vapour, by stratospheric ozone depletion and by changes in emissions of CO and NMVOC.
G. Alexandri, A. K. Georgoulias, P. Zanis, E. Katragkou, A. Tsikerdekis, K. Kourtidis, and C. Meleti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13195–13216,Short summary
It is shown here that RegCM4 regional climate model adequately simulates surface solar radiation (SSR) over Europe but significantly over/underestimates several parameters that determine the transmission of solar radiation in the atmosphere. The agreement between RegCM4 and satellite-based SSR observations is actually a result of the conflicting effect of these parameters. We suggest that there should be a reassessment of the way these parameters are represented within this and other models.
M. Coldewey-Egbers, D. G. Loyola, M. Koukouli, D. Balis, J.-C. Lambert, T. Verhoelst, J. Granville, M. van Roozendael, C. Lerot, R. Spurr, S. M. Frith, and C. Zehner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3923–3940,
I. Binietoglou, S. Basart, L. Alados-Arboledas, V. Amiridis, A. Argyrouli, H. Baars, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, L. Belegante, J. A. Bravo-Aranda, P. Burlizzi, V. Carrasco, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comerón, G. D'Amico, M. Filioglou, M. J. Granados-Muñoz, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, L. Ilic, P. Kokkalis, A. Maurizi, L. Mona, F. Monti, C. Muñoz-Porcar, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, G. Pejanovic, S. N. Pereira, M. R. Perrone, A. Pietruczuk, M. Posyniak, F. Rocadenbosch, A. Rodríguez-Gómez, M. Sicard, N. Siomos, A. Szkop, E. Terradellas, A. Tsekeri, A. Vukovic, U. Wandinger, and J. Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3577–3600,
J. Ding, R. J. van der A, B. Mijling, P. F. Levelt, and N. Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9399–9412,Short summary
We derived the NOx emissions from the OMI satellite observations. We find a NOx emission reduction of at least 25% during the Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing in 2014. The emission estimate algorithm has detected an emission reduction of 10% during the Chinese Spring Festival. This paper also shows that the observed concentrations and the derived emissions from space have different patterns that provide complimentary information.
R. J. van der A, M. A. F. Allaart, and H. J. Eskes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3021–3035,Short summary
The ozone multi-sensor reanalysis (MSR2) is a multi-decadal ozone column analysis for the period 1970-2012 based on all available ozone column satellite datasets, surface Brewer-Dobson observations and a data assimilation technique with detailed error modelling. The latest total ozone retrievals of 15 different satellite instruments are used: BUV-Nimbus4, TOMS-Nimbus7, TOMS-EP, SBUV-7, -9, -11, -14, -16, -17, -18, -19, GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME-2.
V. Amiridis, E. Marinou, A. Tsekeri, U. Wandinger, A. Schwarz, E. Giannakaki, R. Mamouri, P. Kokkalis, I. Binietoglou, S. Solomos, T. Herekakis, S. Kazadzis, E. Gerasopoulos, E. Proestakis, M. Kottas, D. Balis, A. Papayannis, C. Kontoes, K. Kourtidis, N. Papagiannopoulos, L. Mona, G. Pappalardo, O. Le Rille, and A. Ansmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7127–7153,Short summary
LIVAS is a 3-D multi-wavelength global aerosol and cloud optical database optimized for future space-based lidar end-to-end simulations of realistic atmospheric scenarios as well as retrieval algorithm testing activities. The global database is based on CALIPSO observations at 532nm, while for the conversion at 355nm EARLINET data are utilized.
A. Keppens, J.-C. Lambert, J. Granville, G. Miles, R. Siddans, J. C. A. van Peet, R. J. van der A, D. Hubert, T. Verhoelst, A. Delcloo, S. Godin-Beekmann, R. Kivi, R. Stübi, and C. Zehner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2093–2120,Short summary
This work thoroughly discusses a methodology, as summarized in a flowchart, for the round-robin evaluation and geophysical validation of nadir ozone profile retrievals and applies the proposed best practice to a pair of optimal-estimation algorithms run on exactly the same level-1 radiance measurements. The quality assessment combines data set content studies, information content studies, and comparisons with ground-based reference measurements.
J. H. G. M. van Geffen, K. F. Boersma, M. Van Roozendael, F. Hendrick, E. Mahieu, I. De Smedt, M. Sneep, and J. P. Veefkind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1685–1699,Short summary
The paper describes improvements to the algorithm for the retrieval of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentration from measurements of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), launched on board NASA's EOS-Aura satellite in 2004. With these improvements - updates of the wavelength calibration and the reference spectra - the OMI results are consistent with independent NO2 measurements and the overall quality of the spectral fit is improved considerably.
K. Lefever, R. van der A, F. Baier, Y. Christophe, Q. Errera, H. Eskes, J. Flemming, A. Inness, L. Jones, J.-C. Lambert, B. Langerock, M. G. Schultz, O. Stein, A. Wagner, and S. Chabrillat
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2269–2293,Short summary
We validate and discuss the analyses of stratospheric ozone delivered in near-real time between 2009 and 2012 by four different data assimilation systems: IFS-MOZART, BASCOE, SACADA and TM3DAM. It is shown that the characteristics of the assimilation systems are much less important than those of the assimilated data sets. A correct representation of the vertical distribution of ozone requires satellite observations which are well resolved vertically and extend into the lowermost stratosphere.
P. Schneider, W. A. Lahoz, and R. van der A
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1205–1220,Short summary
We use a homogeneous 10-year record of satellite data to study recent trends in NO2 over the world's major urban agglomerations. The results indicate distinct spatial patterns in trends, with moderate but consistent reductions in NO2 throughout most developed countries and rapid increases of up to 15 % per year over many sites in Asia, Africa, and South America. We also show links between urban NO2 trends and economic as well as demographic factors, and how the latter drive regional differences.
A. T. J. de Laat, R. J. van der A, and M. van Weele
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 79–97,Short summary
Recent research suggests the Antarctic ozone hole has started to shrink due to decreasing ozone-depleting substances. Because it could be questioned how robust these results are, we provide an assessment of uncertainties in both the underlying ozone observational records and the detection-attribution method. Although Antarctic ozone concentrations are definitely increasing slowly, the formal identification of recovery is not yet justified, although this will likely become possible this decade.
M. Taylor, S. Kazadzis, A. Tsekeri, A. Gkikas, and V. Amiridis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3151–3175,
N. Hao, M. E. Koukouli, A. Inness, P. Valks, D. G. Loyola, W. Zimmer, D. S. Balis, I. Zyrichidou, M. Van Roozendael, C. Lerot, and R. J. D. Spurr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2937–2951,
J. S. Knibbe, R. J. van der A, and A. T. J. de Laat
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8461–8482,
S. Kazadzis, I. Veselovskii, V. Amiridis, J. Gröbner, A. Suvorina, S. Nyeki, E. Gerasopoulos, N. Kouremeti, M. Taylor, A. Tsekeri, and C. Wehrli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2013–2025,
P. N. Foster, I. C. Prentice, C. Morfopoulos, M. Siddall, and M. van Weele
Biogeosciences, 11, 3437–3451,
A. Kreuter, R. Buras, B. Mayer, A. Webb, R. Kift, A. Bais, N. Kouremeti, and M. Blumthaler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5989–6002,
B. Hassler, I. Petropavlovskikh, J. Staehelin, T. August, P. K. Bhartia, C. Clerbaux, D. Degenstein, M. De Mazière, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, G. Dufour, S. M. Frith, L. Froidevaux, S. Godin-Beekmann, J. Granville, N. R. P. Harris, K. Hoppel, D. Hubert, Y. Kasai, M. J. Kurylo, E. Kyrölä, J.-C. Lambert, P. F. Levelt, C. T. McElroy, R. D. McPeters, R. Munro, H. Nakajima, A. Parrish, P. Raspollini, E. E. Remsberg, K. H. Rosenlof, A. Rozanov, T. Sano, Y. Sasano, M. Shiotani, H. G. J. Smit, G. Stiller, J. Tamminen, D. W. Tarasick, J. Urban, R. J. van der A, J. P. Veefkind, C. Vigouroux, T. von Clarmann, C. von Savigny, K. A. Walker, M. Weber, J. Wild, and J. M. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1395–1427,
H. Brenot, N. Theys, L. Clarisse, J. van Geffen, J. van Gent, M. Van Roozendael, R. van der A, D. Hurtmans, P.-F. Coheur, C. Clerbaux, P. Valks, P. Hedelt, F. Prata, O. Rasson, K. Sievers, and C. Zehner
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 1099–1123,
J. C. A. van Peet, R. J. van der A, O. N. E. Tuinder, E. Wolfram, J. Salvador, P. F. Levelt, and H. M. Kelder
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 859–876,
M. Taylor, S. Kazadzis, and E. Gerasopoulos
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 839–858,
V. Amiridis, U. Wandinger, E. Marinou, E. Giannakaki, A. Tsekeri, S. Basart, S. Kazadzis, A. Gkikas, M. Taylor, J. Baldasano, and A. Ansmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12089–12106,
B. Mijling, R. J. van der A, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12003–12012,
T. Stavrakou, J.-F. Müller, K. F. Boersma, R. J. van der A, J. Kurokawa, T. Ohara, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9057–9082,
G. Pappalardo, L. Mona, G. D'Amico, U. Wandinger, M. Adam, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Boselli, J. A. Bravo-Aranda, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, J. Cuesta, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, M. Gausa, E. Giannakaki, H. Giehl, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, S. Groß, M. Haeffelin, A. Hiebsch, M. Iarlori, D. Lange, H. Linné, F. Madonna, I. Mattis, R.-E. Mamouri, M. A. P. McAuliffe, V. Mitev, F. Molero, F. Navas-Guzman, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, C. Pietras, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, J. Preißler, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, A. A. Ruth, J. Schmidt, F. Schnell, P. Seifert, I. Serikov, M. Sicard, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, M. Tesche, T. Trickl, X. Wang, F. Wagner, M. Wiegner, and K. M. Wilson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4429–4450,
A. V. Lindfors, N. Kouremeti, A. Arola, S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, and A. Laaksonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3733–3741,
N. Bândă, M. Krol, M. van Weele, T. van Noije, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2267–2281,
Related subject area
Subject: Radiation | Research Activity: Remote Sensing | Altitude Range: Mesosphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Analysis of 24 years of mesopause region OH rotational temperature observations at Davis, Antarctica – Part 1: long-term trendsOH level populations and accuracies of Einstein-A coefficients from hundreds of measured linesGlobal nighttime atomic oxygen abundances from GOMOS hydroxyl airglow measurements in the mesopause regionTechnical note: Bimodality in mesospheric OH rotational population distributions and implications for temperature measurementsHow long do satellites need to overlap? Evaluation of climate data stability from overlapping satellite recordsResolving the mesospheric nighttime 4.3 µm emission puzzle: comparison of the CO2(ν3) and OH(ν) emission modelsComparison of VLT/X-shooter OH and O2 rotational temperatures with consideration of TIMED/SABER emission and temperature profilesOH populations and temperatures from simultaneous spectroscopic observations of 25 bandsCO2(ν2)-O quenching rate coefficient derived from coincidental SABER/TIMED and Fort Collins lidar observations of the mesosphere and lower thermosphereRelativistic electron beams above thundercloudsExperimental simulation of satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thundercloudsStability of temperatures from TIMED/SABER v1.07 (2002–2009) and Aura/MLS v2.2 (2004–2009) compared with OH(6-2) temperatures observed at Davis Station, Antarctica
W. John R. French, Frank J. Mulligan, and Andrew R. Klekociuk
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6379–6394,Short summary
In this study, we analyse 24 years of atmospheric temperatures from the mesopause region (~87 km altitude) derived from ground-based spectrometer observations of hydroxyl airglow at Davis station, Antarctica (68° S, 78° E). These data are used to quantify the effect of the solar cycle and the long-term trend due to increasing greenhouse gas emissions on the atmosphere at this level. A record-low winter-average temperature is reported for 2018 and comparisons are made with satellite observations.
Stefan Noll, Holger Winkler, Oleg Goussev, and Bastian Proxauf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5269–5292,Short summary
Line emission from hydroxyl (OH) molecules at altitudes of about 90 km strongly contributes to the Earth's night-sky brightness and is therefore used as an important indicator of atmospheric chemistry and dynamics. However, interpreting the measurements can be ambiguous since necessary molecular parameters and the internal state of OH are not well known. Based on high-quality spectral data, we investigated these issues and found solutions for a better understanding of the OH line intensities.
Qiuyu Chen, Martin Kaufmann, Yajun Zhu, Jilin Liu, Ralf Koppmann, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13891–13910,Short summary
Atomic oxygen is one of the most important trace species in the mesopause region. A common technique to derive it from satellite measurements is to measure airglow emissions involved in the photochemistry of oxygen. In this work, hydroxyl nightglow measured by the GOMOS instrument on Envisat is used to derive a 10-year dataset of atomic oxygen in the middle and upper atmosphere. Annual and semiannual oscillations are observed in the data. The new data are consistent with various other datasets.
Konstantinos S. Kalogerakis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2629–2634,Short summary
Light emission from energetic hydroxyl radical, OH*, is a prominent feature in spectra of the night sky. It is routinely used to determine the temperature of the atmosphere near 90 km. This note shows that the common practice of using only a few emission features from low rotational excitation to determine rotational temperatures does not account for the bimodality of the OH population distributions and can lead to large systematic errors.
Elizabeth C. Weatherhead, Jerald Harder, Eduardo A. Araujo-Pradere, Greg Bodeker, Jason M. English, Lawrence E. Flynn, Stacey M. Frith, Jeffrey K. Lazo, Peter Pilewskie, Mark Weber, and Thomas N. Woods
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15069–15093,Short summary
Satellite overlap is often carried out as a check on the stability of the data collected. We looked at how length of overlap influences how much information can be derived from the overlap period. Several results surprised us: the confidence we could have in the matchup of two records was independent of the offset, and understanding of the relative drift between the two satellite data sets improved significantly with 2–3 years of overlap. Sudden jumps could easily be confused with drift.
Peter A. Panka, Alexander A. Kutepov, Konstantinos S. Kalogerakis, Diego Janches, James M. Russell, Ladislav Rezac, Artem G. Feofilov, Martin G. Mlynczak, and Erdal Yiğit
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9751–9760,Short summary
Recently, theoretical and laboratory studies have suggested an additional nighttime channel of transfer of vibrational energy of OH molecules to CO2 in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). We show that new mechanism brings modelled 4.3 μm emissions very close to the SABER/TIMED measurements. This renders new opportunities for the application of the CO2 4.3 μm observations in the study of the energetics and dynamics of the nighttime MLT.
Stefan Noll, Wolfgang Kausch, Stefan Kimeswenger, Stefanie Unterguggenberger, and Amy M. Jones
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5021–5042,Short summary
We compare temperatures derived from simultaneous observations of 25 OH and two O2 mesospheric airglow bands taken with the X-shooter spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope in Chile. Considering emission and temperature profile data from the radiometer SABER on the TIMED satellite, we find significant time-dependent non-thermal contributions to the OH-based temperatures, especially for bands originating from high vibrational levels. Many studies of the mesopause region are affected.
S. Noll, W. Kausch, S. Kimeswenger, S. Unterguggenberger, and A. M. Jones
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3647–3669,Short summary
We discuss a high-quality data set of simultaneous observations of 25 OH bands with an astronomical echelle spectrograph. These data allowed us to analyse band-dependent OH populations and temperatures. In particular, we could find different non-LTE contributions to OH rotational temperatures depending on band, line set, and observing time. This is critical for mesopause studies that use these temperatures as a proxy of the true temperatures.
A. G. Feofilov, A. A. Kutepov, C.-Y. She, A. K. Smith, W. D. Pesnell, and R. A. Goldberg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 9013–9023,
M. Füllekrug, R. Roussel-Dupré, E. M. D. Symbalisty, J. J. Colman, O. Chanrion, S. Soula, O. van der Velde, A. Odzimek, A. J. Bennett, V. P. Pasko, and T. Neubert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 7747–7754,
M. Füllekrug, C. Hanuise, and M. Parrot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 667–673,
W. J. R. French and F. J. Mulligan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 11439–11446,
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NILU irradiances at five UV channels were used to produce CIE, vitamin D, and DNA- damage daily doses via a neural network (NN) model. The NN was trained with collocated weighted Brewer spectra and uncertainty in the NILU-derived UV effective doses was 7.5 %. TEMIS UV products were found to be ~ 12.5 % higher than the NILU estimates. The results improve for cloud-free days with differences of 0.57 % for CIE, 1.22 % for vitamin D, and 1.18 % for DNA damage, with standard deviations of ~ 11–13 %.
NILU irradiances at five UV channels were used to produce CIE, vitamin D, and DNA- damage daily...