Articles | Volume 16, issue 21
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Parameterization of oceanic whitecap fraction based on satellite observations
Monique F. M. A. Albert
TNO, P.O. Box 80015, 3508 TA Utrecht, the Netherlands
Magdalena D. Anguelova
Remote Sensing Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, USA
Astrid M. M. Manders
TNO, P.O. Box 80015, 3508 TA Utrecht, the Netherlands
TNO, P.O. Box 80015, 3508 TA Utrecht, the Netherlands
TNO, P.O. Box 80015, 3508 TA Utrecht, the Netherlands
Climate Research Unit, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland
Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
No articles found.
Pascal Wintjen, Frederik Schrader, Martijn Schaap, Burkhard Beudert, Richard Kranenburg, and Christian Brümmer
Biogeosciences, 19, 5287–5311,Short summary
For the first time, we compared four methods for estimating the annual dry deposition of total reactive nitrogen into a low-polluted forest ecosystem. In our analysis, we used 2.5 years of flux measurements, an in situ modeling approach, a large-scale chemical transport model (CTM), and canopy budget models. Annual nitrogen dry deposition budgets ranged between 4.3 and 6.7 kg N ha−1 a−1, depending on the applied method.
Hanqing Kang, Bin Zhu, Gerrit de Leeuw, Bu Yu, Ronald J. van der A, and Wen Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10623–10634,Short summary
This study quantified the contribution of each urban-induced meteorological effect (temperature, humidity, and circulation) to aerosol concentration. We found that the urban heat island (UHI) circulation dominates the UHI effects on aerosol. The UHI circulation transports aerosol and its precursor gases from the warmer lower boundary layer to the colder lower free troposphere and promotes the secondary formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol in the cold atmosphere.
Svetlana Tsyro, Wenche Aas, Augustin Colette, Camilla Andersson, Bertrand Bessagnet, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Florian Couvidat, Kees Cuvelier, Astrid Manders, Kathleen Mar, Mihaela Mircea, Noelia Otero, Maria-Teresa Pay, Valentin Raffort, Yelva Roustan, Mark R. Theobald, Marta G. Vivanco, Hilde Fagerli, Peter Wind, Gino Briganti, Andrea Cappelletti, Massimo D'Isidoro, and Mario Adani
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7207–7257,Short summary
Particulate matter (PM) air pollution causes adverse health effects. In Europe, the emissions caused by anthropogenic activities have been reduced in the last decades. To assess the efficiency of emission reductions in improving air quality, we have studied the evolution of PM pollution in Europe. Simulations with six air quality models and observational data indicate a decrease in PM concentrations by 10 % to 30 % across Europe from 2000 to 2010, which is mainly a result of emission reductions.
Christian Brümmer, Jeremy J. Rüffer, Jean-Pierre Delorme, Pascal Wintjen, Frederik Schrader, Burkhard Beudert, Martijn Schaap, and Christof Ammann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 743–761,Short summary
Field campaigns were carried out to investigate the biosphere–atmosphere exchange of selected reactive nitrogen compounds over different land surfaces using two different analytical devices for ammonia and total reactive nitrogen. The datasets improve our understanding of the temporal variability of surface–atmosphere exchange in different ecosystems, thereby providing validation opportunities for inferential models simulating the exchange of reactive nitrogen.
Boming Liu, Jianping Guo, Wei Gong, Yong Zhang, Lijuan Shi, Yingying Ma, Jian Li, Xiaoran Guo, Ad Stoffelen, Gerrit de Leeuw, and Xiaofeng Xu
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Publication in AMT not foreseenShort summary
Aeolus is the first satellite mission to directly observe wind profile information on a global scale. However, Aeolus wind products over China were thus far not evaluated by in-situ comparison. This work is the comparison of wind speed on a large scale between the Aeolus, ERA5 and RS , shedding important light on the data application of Aeolus wind products.
Pascal Wintjen, Frederik Schrader, Martijn Schaap, Burkhard Beudert, and Christian Brümmer
Biogeosciences, 19, 389–413,Short summary
Fluxes of total reactive nitrogen (∑Nr) over a low polluted forest were analyzed with regard to their temporal dynamics. Mostly deposition was observed with median fluxes ranging from −15 to −5 ng N m−2 s−1, corresponding to a range of deposition velocities from 0.2 to 0.5 cm s−1. While seasonally changing contributions of NH3 and NOx to the ∑Nr signal were found, we estimate an annual total N deposition (dry+wet) of 12.2 and 10.9 kg N ha−1 a−1 in the 2 years of observation.
Shelley van der Graaf, Enrico Dammers, Arjo Segers, Richard Kranenburg, Martijn Schaap, Mark W. Shephard, and Jan Willem Erisman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 951–972,Short summary
CrIS NH3 satellite observations are assimilated into the LOTOS-EUROS model using two different methods. In the first method the data are used to fit spatially varying NH3 emission time factors. In the second method a local ensemble transform Kalman filter is used. Compared to in situ observations, combining both methods led to the most significant improvements in the modeled concentrations and deposition, illustrating the usefulness of CrIS NH3 to improve the spatiotemporal distribution of NH3.
Yuqin Liu, Tao Lin, Juan Hong, Yonghong Wang, Lamei Shi, Yiyi Huang, Xian Wu, Hao Zhou, Jiahua Zhang, and Gerrit de Leeuw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12331–12358,Short summary
The four-dimensional variation of aerosol properties over the BTH, YRD and PRD (east China) were investigated using satellite observations from 2007 to 2020. Distinct differences between the aerosol optical depth and vertical distribution of the occurrence of aerosol types over these regions depend on season, aerosol loading and meteorological conditions. Day–night differences between the vertical distribution of aerosol types suggest effects of boundary layer dynamics and aerosol transport.
Cheng Fan, Zhengqiang Li, Ying Li, Jiantao Dong, Ronald van der A, and Gerrit de Leeuw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7723–7748,Short summary
Emission control policy in China has resulted in the decrease of nitrogen dioxide concentrations, which however leveled off and stabilized in recent years, as shown from satellite data. The effects of the further emission reduction during the COVID-19 lockdown in 2020 resulted in an initial improvement of air quality, which, however, was offset by chemical and meteorological effects. The study shows the regional dependence over east China, and results have a wider application than China only.
Nick Schutgens, Oleg Dubovik, Otto Hasekamp, Omar Torres, Hiren Jethva, Peter J. T. Leonard, Pavel Litvinov, Jens Redemann, Yohei Shinozuka, Gerrit de Leeuw, Stefan Kinne, Thomas Popp, Michael Schulz, and Philip Stier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6895–6917,Short summary
Absorptive aerosol has a potentially large impact on climate change. We evaluate and intercompare four global satellite datasets of absorptive aerosol optical depth (AAOD) and single-scattering albedo (SSA). We show that these datasets show reasonable correlations with the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) reference, although significant biases remain. In a follow-up paper we show that these observations nevertheless can be used for model evaluation.
Ioanna Skoulidou, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Astrid Manders, Arjo Segers, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Myrto Gratsea, Dimitris Balis, Alkiviadis Bais, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, Trisevgeni Stavrakou, Jos van Geffen, Henk Eskes, and Andreas Richter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5269–5288,Short summary
The performance of LOTOS-EUROS v2.2.001 regional chemical transport model NO2 simulations is investigated over Greece from June to December 2018. Comparison with in situ NO2 measurements shows a spatial correlation coefficient of 0.86, while the model underestimates the concentrations mostly during daytime (12 to 15:00 local time). Further, the simulated tropospheric NO2 columns are evaluated against ground-based MAX-DOAS NO2 measurements and S5P/TROPOMI observations for July and December 2018.
Jianping Guo, Boming Liu, Wei Gong, Lijuan Shi, Yong Zhang, Yingying Ma, Jian Zhang, Tianmeng Chen, Kaixu Bai, Ad Stoffelen, Gerrit de Leeuw, and Xiaofeng Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2945–2958,Short summary
Vertical wind profiles are crucial to a wide range of atmospheric disciplines. Aeolus is the first satellite mission to directly observe wind profile information on a global scale. However, Aeolus wind products over China have thus far not been evaluated by in situ comparison. This work is expected to let the public and science community better know the Aeolus wind products and to encourage use of these valuable data in future research and applications.
Boming Liu, Jianping Guo, Wei Gong, Yong Zhang, Lijuan Shi, Yingying Ma, Jian Li, Xiaoran Guo, Ad Stoffelen, Gerrit de Leeuw, and Xiaofeng Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Vertical wind profiles are crucial to a wide range of atmospheric disciplines. Aeolus is the first satellite mission to directly observe wind profile information on a global scale. However, Aeolus wind products over China were thus far not evaluated by in-situ comparison. This work is expected to let the public and science community better know the Aeolus wind products and to encourage use of these valuable data in future researches and applications.
Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Ioanna Skoulidou, Andreas Karavias, Isaak Parcharidis, Dimitris Balis, Astrid Manders, Arjo Segers, Henk Eskes, and Jos van Geffen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1759–1774,Short summary
In recent years, satellite observations have contributed to monitoring air quality. During the first COVID-19 lockdown, lower levels of nitrogen dioxide were observed over Greece by S5P/TROPOMI for March and April 2020 (than the preceding year) due to decreased transport emissions. Taking meteorology into account, using LOTOS-EUROS CTM simulations, the resulting decline due to the lockdown was estimated to range between 0 % and −37 % for the five largest Greek cities, with an average of ~ −10 %.
Xinrui Ge, Martijn Schaap, Richard Kranenburg, Arjo Segers, Gert Jan Reinds, Hans Kros, and Wim de Vries
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 16055–16087,Short summary
This article is about improving the modeling of agricultural ammonia emissions. By considering land use, meteorology and agricultural practices, ammonia emission totals officially reported by countries are distributed in space and time. We illustrated the first step for a better understanding of the variability of ammonia emission, with the possibility of being applied at a European scale, which is of great significance for ammonia budget research and future policy-making.
Emmanuele Russo, Silje Lund Sørland, Ingo Kirchner, Martijn Schaap, Christoph C. Raible, and Ulrich Cubasch
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5779–5797,Short summary
The parameter space of the COSMO-CLM RCM is investigated for the Central Asia CORDEX domain using a perturbed physics ensemble (PPE) with different parameter values. Results show that only a subset of model parameters presents relevant changes in model performance and these changes depend on the considered region and variable: objective calibration methods are highly necessary in this case. Additionally, the results suggest the need for calibrating an RCM when targeting different domains.
Ying Zhang, Zhengqiang Li, Yu Chen, Gerrit de Leeuw, Chi Zhang, Yisong Xie, and Kaitao Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12795–12811,Short summary
Observation of atmospheric aerosol components plays an important role in reducing uncertainty in climate assessment. In this study, an improved remote sensing method which can better distinguish scattering components is developed, and the aerosol components in the atmospheric column over China are retrieved based on the Sun–sky radiometer Observation NETwork (SONET). The component distribution shows there could be a sea salt component in northwest China from a paleomarine source in desert land.
Nick Schutgens, Andrew M. Sayer, Andreas Heckel, Christina Hsu, Hiren Jethva, Gerrit de Leeuw, Peter J. T. Leonard, Robert C. Levy, Antti Lipponen, Alexei Lyapustin, Peter North, Thomas Popp, Caroline Poulsen, Virginia Sawyer, Larisa Sogacheva, Gareth Thomas, Omar Torres, Yujie Wang, Stefan Kinne, Michael Schulz, and Philip Stier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12431–12457,Short summary
We intercompare 14 different datasets of satellite observations of aerosol. Such measurements are challenging but also provide the best opportunity to globally observe an atmospheric component strongly related to air pollution and climate change. Our study shows that most datasets perform similarly well on a global scale but that locally errors can be quite different. We develop a technique to estimate satellite errors everywhere, even in the absence of surface reference data.
Shelley C. van der Graaf, Richard Kranenburg, Arjo J. Segers, Martijn Schaap, and Jan Willem Erisman
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2451–2474,Short summary
Chemical transport models (CTMs) are important tools to determine the fate of reactive nitrogen (Nr) emissions. The parameterization of the surface–atmosphere exchange in CTMs is often only linked to fixed, land-use-dependent values. In this paper, we present an approach to derive more realistic, dynamic leaf area index (LAI) and roughness length (z0) input maps using multiple satellite products. We evaluate the effect on Nr concentration and deposition fields modelled in the LOTOS-EUROS CTM.
Margit Aun, Kaisa Lakkala, Ricardo Sanchez, Eija Asmi, Fernando Nollas, Outi Meinander, Larisa Sogacheva, Veerle De Bock, Antti Arola, Gerrit de Leeuw, Veijo Aaltonen, David Bolsée, Klara Cizkova, Alexander Mangold, Ladislav Metelka, Erko Jakobson, Tove Svendby, Didier Gillotay, and Bert Van Opstal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6037–6054,Short summary
In 2017, new measurements of UV radiation started in Marambio, Antarctica, by the Finnish Meteorological Institute in collaboration with the Argentinian Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. The paper presents the results of UV irradiance measurements from March 2017 to March 2019, and it compares them with those from 2000–2008 and also with UV measurements at other Antarctic stations. In 2017/2018, below average UV radiation levels were recorded due to favourable ozone and cloud conditions.
Kaisa Lakkala, Margit Aun, Ricardo Sanchez, Germar Bernhard, Eija Asmi, Outi Meinander, Fernando Nollas, Gregor Hülsen, Tomi Karppinen, Veijo Aaltonen, Antti Arola, and Gerrit de Leeuw
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 947–960,Short summary
A GUV multi-filter radiometer was set up at Marambio, 64° S, 56° W, Antarctica, in 2017. The instrument continuously measures ultraviolet (UV) radiation, visible (VIS) radiation and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The measurements are designed for providing high-quality long-term time series that can be used to assess the impact of global climate change in the Antarctic region. The data from the last 5 d are plotted and updated daily.
Matthieu Pommier, Hilde Fagerli, Michael Schulz, Alvaro Valdebenito, Richard Kranenburg, and Martijn Schaap
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1787–1807,Short summary
The EMEP and LOTOS-EUROS models comprise the operational source contribution prediction system for the European cities within the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). This study presents a first evaluation of this system, with hourly resolution, by focusing on one PM10 episode in December 2016, dominated by the influence of domestic emissions. It shows that the system provides valuable information on the composition and contributions of different countries to PM10.
Larisa Sogacheva, Thomas Popp, Andrew M. Sayer, Oleg Dubovik, Michael J. Garay, Andreas Heckel, N. Christina Hsu, Hiren Jethva, Ralph A. Kahn, Pekka Kolmonen, Miriam Kosmale, Gerrit de Leeuw, Robert C. Levy, Pavel Litvinov, Alexei Lyapustin, Peter North, Omar Torres, and Antti Arola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2031–2056,Short summary
The typical lifetime of a single satellite platform is on the order of 5–15 years; thus, for climate studies the usage of multiple satellite sensors should be considered. Here we introduce and evaluate a monthly AOD merged product and AOD global and regional time series for the period 1995–2017 created from 12 individual satellite AOD products, which provide a long-term perspective on AOD changes over different regions of the globe.
Giulia Saponaro, Moa K. Sporre, David Neubauer, Harri Kokkola, Pekka Kolmonen, Larisa Sogacheva, Antti Arola, Gerrit de Leeuw, Inger H. H. Karset, Ari Laaksonen, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1607–1626,Short summary
The understanding of cloud processes is based on the quality of the representation of cloud properties. We compared cloud parameters from three models with satellite observations. We report on the performance of each data source, highlighting strengths and deficiencies, which should be considered when deriving the effect of aerosols on cloud properties.
Emmanuele Russo, Ingo Kirchner, Stephan Pfahl, Martijn Schaap, and Ulrich Cubasch
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 5229–5249,Short summary
This is an investigation of COSMO-CLM 5.0 sensitivity for the CORDEX Central Asia domain, with the main goal of evaluating general model performances for the area, proposing a model optimal configuration to be used in projection studies. Results show that the model seems to be particularly sensitive to those parameterizations that deal with soil and surface features and that could positively affect the repartition of incoming radiation.
Giancarlo Ciarelli, Mark R. Theobald, Marta G. Vivanco, Matthias Beekmann, Wenche Aas, Camilla Andersson, Robert Bergström, Astrid Manders-Groot, Florian Couvidat, Mihaela Mircea, Svetlana Tsyro, Hilde Fagerli, Kathleen Mar, Valentin Raffort, Yelva Roustan, Maria-Teresa Pay, Martijn Schaap, Richard Kranenburg, Mario Adani, Gino Briganti, Andrea Cappelletti, Massimo D'Isidoro, Cornelis Cuvelier, Arineh Cholakian, Bertrand Bessagnet, Peter Wind, and Augustin Colette
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 4923–4954,Short summary
The novel multi-model EURODELTA-Trends exercise provided 21 years of continuous PM components and their gas-phase precursor concentrations over Europe from the year 1990. The models’ capabilities to reproduce PM components and gas-phase PM precursor trends over the 1990–2010 period is the key focus of this study. The models were able to reproduce the observed trends relatively well, indicating a possible shift in the thermodynamic equilibrium between gas and particle phases.
Miguel Escudero, Arjo Segers, Richard Kranenburg, Xavier Querol, Andrés Alastuey, Rafael Borge, David de la Paz, Gotzon Gangoiti, and Martijn Schaap
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14211–14232,Short summary
In this work we optimise LOTOS-EUROS CTM for simulating tropospheric O3 during summer in the Madrid metropolitan area, one of the largest conurbations in the Mediterranean. Comparing the outputs from five set-ups with different combinations of spatial resolution, meteorological data and vertical structure, we conclude that the model benefits from fine horizontal resolution and highly resolved vertical structure. Running optimized configuration run, we interpret O3 variability during July 2016.
Renske Timmermans, Arjo Segers, Lyana Curier, Rachid Abida, Jean-Luc Attié, Laaziz El Amraoui, Henk Eskes, Johan de Haan, Jukka Kujanpää, William Lahoz, Albert Oude Nijhuis, Samuel Quesada-Ruiz, Philippe Ricaud, Pepijn Veefkind, and Martijn Schaap
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12811–12833,Short summary
We present an evaluation of the added value of the Sentinel-4 and Sentinel-5P missions for air quality analyses of NO2. For this, synthetic observations for both missions are generated and combined with a chemistry transport model. While hourly Sentinel-4 NO2 observations over Europe benefit modelled NO2 analyses throughout the entire day, daily Sentinel-5P NO2 observations with global coverage show an impact up to 3–6 h after overpass. This supports the need for a combination of missions.
Enrico Dammers, Chris A. McLinden, Debora Griffin, Mark W. Shephard, Shelley Van Der Graaf, Erik Lutsch, Martijn Schaap, Yonatan Gainairu-Matz, Vitali Fioletov, Martin Van Damme, Simon Whitburn, Lieven Clarisse, Karen Cady-Pereira, Cathy Clerbaux, Pierre Francois Coheur, and Jan Willem Erisman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12261–12293,Short summary
Ammonia is an essential molecule in the environment, but at its current levels it is unsustainable. However, the emissions are highly uncertain. We explore the use of satellites to estimate the ammonia lifetime and emissions around point sources to help improve the budget. The same method applied to different satellite instruments shows consistent results. Comparison to the emission inventories shows that those are underestimating emissions of point sources by on average a factor of 2.5.
Yahui Che, Jie Guang, Gerrit de Leeuw, Yong Xue, Ling Sun, and Huizheng Che
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4091–4112,Short summary
The use of AOD data retrieved from ATSR-2, AATSR and AVHRR to produce a very long time series is investigated. The study is made over a small area in northern China with a large variation of AOD values. Sun photometer data from AERONET and CARSNET and radiance-derived AOD are used as reference. The results show that all data sets compare well. However, AVHRR underestimates high AOD (mainly occurring in summer) but performs better than (A)ATSR in winter.
Michael Boy, Erik S. Thomson, Juan-C. Acosta Navarro, Olafur Arnalds, Ekaterina Batchvarova, Jaana Bäck, Frank Berninger, Merete Bilde, Zoé Brasseur, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Dimitri Castarède, Maryam Dalirian, Gerrit de Leeuw, Monika Dragosics, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Jonathan Duplissy, Annica M. L. Ekman, Keyan Fang, Jean-Charles Gallet, Marianne Glasius, Sven-Erik Gryning, Henrik Grythe, Hans-Christen Hansson, Margareta Hansson, Elisabeth Isaksson, Trond Iversen, Ingibjorg Jonsdottir, Ville Kasurinen, Alf Kirkevåg, Atte Korhola, Radovan Krejci, Jon Egill Kristjansson, Hanna K. Lappalainen, Antti Lauri, Matti Leppäranta, Heikki Lihavainen, Risto Makkonen, Andreas Massling, Outi Meinander, E. Douglas Nilsson, Haraldur Olafsson, Jan B. C. Pettersson, Nønne L. Prisle, Ilona Riipinen, Pontus Roldin, Meri Ruppel, Matthew Salter, Maria Sand, Øyvind Seland, Heikki Seppä, Henrik Skov, Joana Soares, Andreas Stohl, Johan Ström, Jonas Svensson, Erik Swietlicki, Ksenia Tabakova, Throstur Thorsteinsson, Aki Virkkula, Gesa A. Weyhenmeyer, Yusheng Wu, Paul Zieger, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2015–2061,Short summary
The Nordic Centre of Excellence CRAICC (Cryosphere–Atmosphere Interactions in a Changing Arctic Climate), funded by NordForsk in the years 2011–2016, is the largest joint Nordic research and innovation initiative to date and aimed to strengthen research and innovation regarding climate change issues in the Nordic region. The paper presents an overview of the main scientific topics investigated and provides a state-of-the-art comprehensive summary of what has been achieved in CRAICC.
Mark R. Theobald, Marta G. Vivanco, Wenche Aas, Camilla Andersson, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Florian Couvidat, Kees Cuvelier, Astrid Manders, Mihaela Mircea, Maria-Teresa Pay, Svetlana Tsyro, Mario Adani, Robert Bergström, Bertrand Bessagnet, Gino Briganti, Andrea Cappelletti, Massimo D'Isidoro, Hilde Fagerli, Kathleen Mar, Noelia Otero, Valentin Raffort, Yelva Roustan, Martijn Schaap, Peter Wind, and Augustin Colette
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 379–405,Short summary
Model estimates of the mean European wet deposition of nitrogen and sulfur for 1990 to 2010 were within 40 % of the observed values. As a result of systematic biases, the models were better at estimating relative trends for the periods 1990–2000 and 2000–2010 than the absolute trends. Although the predominantly decreasing trends were mostly due to emission reductions, they were partially offset by other factors (e.g. changes in precipitation) during the first period, but not the second.
Gabriele Curci, Ummugulsum Alyuz, Rocio Barò, Roberto Bianconi, Johannes Bieser, Jesper H. Christensen, Augustin Colette, Aidan Farrow, Xavier Francis, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, Ulas Im, Peng Liu, Astrid Manders, Laura Palacios-Peña, Marje Prank, Luca Pozzoli, Ranjeet Sokhi, Efisio Solazzo, Paolo Tuccella, Alper Unal, Marta G. Vivanco, Christian Hogrefe, and Stefano Galmarini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 181–204,Short summary
Atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols are able to absorb solar radiation and they continue to contribute some of the largest uncertainties in projected climate change. One important detail is how the chemical species are arranged inside each particle, i.e. the knowledge of their mixing state. We use an ensemble of regional model simulations to test different mixing state assumptions and found that a combination of internal and external mixing may better reproduce sunphotometer observations.
Yuqin Liu, Jiahua Zhang, Putian Zhou, Tao Lin, Juan Hong, Lamei Shi, Fengmei Yao, Jun Wu, Huadong Guo, and Gerrit de Leeuw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 18187–18202,
Larisa Sogacheva, Edith Rodriguez, Pekka Kolmonen, Timo H. Virtanen, Giulia Saponaro, Gerrit de Leeuw, Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Georgia Alexandri, Konstantinos Kourtidis, and Ronald J. van der A
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16631–16652,Short summary
Understanding long-term trends in aerosol optical density (AOD) is essential for evaluating health and climate effects and the effectiveness of pollution control policies. A method to construct a combined AOD long time series (1995-2017) using ATSR and MODIS spaceborne instruments is introduced. The effect of changes in the emission regulation policy in China is seen in a gradual AOD decrease after 2011. The effect is more visible in highly populated and industrialized areas in southeast China.
Kaisa Lakkala, Alberto Redondas, Outi Meinander, Laura Thölix, Britta Hamari, Antonio Fernando Almansa, Virgilio Carreno, Rosa Delia García, Carlos Torres, Guillermo Deferrari, Hector Ochoa, Germar Bernhard, Ricardo Sanchez, and Gerrit de Leeuw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16019–16031,Short summary
Solar UV irradiances were measured at Ushuaia (54° S) and Marambio (64° S) during 2000–2013. The measurements were part of the Antarctic NILU-UV network, which was maintained as a cooperation between Spain, Argentina and Finland. The time series of the network were analysed for the first time in this study. At both stations maximum UV indices and daily doses were measured when spring-time ozone loss episodes occurred. The maximum UV index was 13 and 12 in Ushuaia and Marambio, respectively.
Rocío Baró, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, Martin Stengel, Dominik Brunner, Gabriele Curci, Renate Forkel, Lucy Neal, Laura Palacios-Peña, Nicholas Savage, Martijn Schaap, Paolo Tuccella, Hugo Denier van der Gon, and Stefano Galmarini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15183–15199,Short summary
Particles in the atmosphere, such as pollution, desert dust, and volcanic ash, have an impact on meteorology. They interact with incoming radiation resulting in a cooling effect of the atmosphere. Today, the use of meteorology and chemistry models help us to understand these processes, but there are a lot of uncertainties. The goal of this work is to evaluate how these interactions are represented in the models by comparing them to satellite data to see how close they are to reality.
Shelley C. van der Graaf, Enrico Dammers, Martijn Schaap, and Jan Willem Erisman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13173–13196,Short summary
A combination of NH3 satellite observations from IASI and the LOTOS-EUROS model is used to derive NH3 surface concentrations and dry deposition fluxes over Europe. The results were evaluated using surface measurements (EMEP, LML, MAN) and a sensitivity study. This is a first step in further integration of surface measurements, satellite observations and an atmospheric transport model to derive accurate NH3 surface concentrations and dry deposition fluxes on a large scale.
Noelia Otero, Jana Sillmann, Kathleen A. Mar, Henning W. Rust, Sverre Solberg, Camilla Andersson, Magnuz Engardt, Robert Bergström, Bertrand Bessagnet, Augustin Colette, Florian Couvidat, Cournelius Cuvelier, Svetlana Tsyro, Hilde Fagerli, Martijn Schaap, Astrid Manders, Mihaela Mircea, Gino Briganti, Andrea Cappelletti, Mario Adani, Massimo D'Isidoro, María-Teresa Pay, Mark Theobald, Marta G. Vivanco, Peter Wind, Narendra Ojha, Valentin Raffort, and Tim Butler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12269–12288,Short summary
This paper evaluates the capability of air-quality models to capture the observed relationship between surface ozone concentrations and meteorology over Europe. The air-quality models tended to overestimate the influence of maximum temperature and surface solar radiation. None of the air-quality models captured the strength of the observed relationship between ozone and relative humidity appropriately, underestimating the effect of relative humidity, a key factor in the ozone removal processes.
Larisa Sogacheva, Gerrit de Leeuw, Edith Rodriguez, Pekka Kolmonen, Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Georgia Alexandri, Konstantinos Kourtidis, Emmanouil Proestakis, Eleni Marinou, Vassilis Amiridis, Yong Xue, and Ronald J. van der A
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11389–11407,Short summary
Using AATSR ADV (1995–2011) and MODIS C6.1 (2000–2017) annual and seasonal aerosol optical depth (AOD) aggregates, we obtained information regarding the occurrence of aerosols and their spatial and temporal variation over China. We specifically focused on regional differences in annual and seasonal AOD behavior for selected regions. AOD dataset comparisons, validation results and AOD tendencies during the overlapping period (2000–2011) are discussed.
Marta G. Vivanco, Mark R. Theobald, Héctor García-Gómez, Juan Luis Garrido, Marje Prank, Wenche Aas, Mario Adani, Ummugulsum Alyuz, Camilla Andersson, Roberto Bellasio, Bertrand Bessagnet, Roberto Bianconi, Johannes Bieser, Jørgen Brandt, Gino Briganti, Andrea Cappelletti, Gabriele Curci, Jesper H. Christensen, Augustin Colette, Florian Couvidat, Cornelis Cuvelier, Massimo D'Isidoro, Johannes Flemming, Andrea Fraser, Camilla Geels, Kaj M. Hansen, Christian Hogrefe, Ulas Im, Oriol Jorba, Nutthida Kitwiroon, Astrid Manders, Mihaela Mircea, Noelia Otero, Maria-Teresa Pay, Luca Pozzoli, Efisio Solazzo, Svetlana Tsyro, Alper Unal, Peter Wind, and Stefano Galmarini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10199–10218,Short summary
European wet and dry atmospheric deposition of N and S estimated by 14 air quality models was found to vary substantially. An ensemble of models meeting acceptability criteria was used to estimate the exceedances of the critical loads for N in habitats within the Natura 2000 network, as well as their lower and upper limits. Scenarios with 20 % emission reductions in different regions of the world showed that European emissions are responsible for most of the N and S deposition in Europe.
Stefano Galmarini, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Efisio Solazzo, Ummugulsum Alyuz, Alessandra Balzarini, Roberto Bellasio, Anna M. K. Benedictow, Roberto Bianconi, Johannes Bieser, Joergen Brandt, Jesper H. Christensen, Augustin Colette, Gabriele Curci, Yanko Davila, Xinyi Dong, Johannes Flemming, Xavier Francis, Andrea Fraser, Joshua Fu, Daven K. Henze, Christian Hogrefe, Ulas Im, Marta Garcia Vivanco, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, Jan Eiof Jonson, Nutthida Kitwiroon, Astrid Manders, Rohit Mathur, Laura Palacios-Peña, Guido Pirovano, Luca Pozzoli, Marie Prank, Martin Schultz, Rajeet S. Sokhi, Kengo Sudo, Paolo Tuccella, Toshihiko Takemura, Takashi Sekiya, and Alper Unal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8727–8744,Short summary
An ensemble of model results relating to ozone concentrations in Europe in 2010 has been produced and studied. The novelty consists in the fact that the ensemble is made of results of models working at two different scales (regional and global), therefore contributing in detail two different parts of the atmospheric spectrum. The ensemble defined as a hybrid has been studied in detail and shown to bring additional value to the assessment of air quality.
Timo H. Virtanen, Pekka Kolmonen, Larisa Sogacheva, Edith Rodríguez, Giulia Saponaro, and Gerrit de Leeuw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 925–938,Short summary
We study the collocation mismatch uncertainty related to validating coarse-resolution satellite-based aerosol data against point-like ground based measurements. We use the spatial variability in the satellite data to estimate the upper limit for the uncertainty and study the effect of sampling parameters in the validation. We find that accounting for the collocation mismatch uncertainty increases the fraction of consistent data in the validation.
Gerrit de Leeuw, Larisa Sogacheva, Edith Rodriguez, Konstantinos Kourtidis, Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Georgia Alexandri, Vassilis Amiridis, Emmanouil Proestakis, Eleni Marinou, Yong Xue, and Ronald van der A
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1573–1592,Short summary
The complementary use of two sensors, ATSR and MODIS, to provide aerosol information over two decades (1995–2015) is described. To this end, the AOD retrieved from both instruments had to be compared, showing that ATSR slightly underestimates and MODIS overestimates by a similar amount. Results show the increase of aerosols over the years, with an indication of the onset of a decrease in recent years. The AOD spatial distribution shows seasonal variations across China.
Emmanouil Proestakis, Vassilis Amiridis, Eleni Marinou, Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Stavros Solomos, Stelios Kazadzis, Julien Chimot, Huizheng Che, Georgia Alexandri, Ioannis Binietoglou, Vasiliki Daskalopoulou, Konstantinos A. Kourtidis, Gerrit de Leeuw, and Ronald J. van der A
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1337–1362,Short summary
We provide a 3-D climatology of desert dust aerosols over South and East Asia, based on 9 years of CALIPSO observations and an EARLINET methodology. The results provide the horizontal, vertical and seasonal distribution of dust aerosols over SE Asia along with the change in dust transport pathways. The dataset is unique for its potential applications, including evaluation and assimilation activities in atmospheric simulations and the estimation of the climatic impact of dust aerosols.
Martijn Schaap, Sabine Banzhaf, Thomas Scheuschner, Markus Geupel, Carlijn Hendriks, Richard Kranenburg, Hans-Dieter Nagel, Arjo J. Segers, Angela von Schlutow, Roy Wichink Kruit, and Peter J. H. Builtjes
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
Deposition of nitrogen and sulfur from the atmosphere on ecosystems causes a loss of biodiversity. We used a combination of atmospheric modelling and deposition observations to estimate the deposition to ecosystems across Germany. We estimate that 70 % of the ecosystems in Germany receive too much nitrogen from deposition. The results are used to determine whether economic activities causing nitrogen emissions are allowed in sensitive areas.
Astrid M. M. Manders, Peter J. H. Builtjes, Lyana Curier, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Carlijn Hendriks, Sander Jonkers, Richard Kranenburg, Jeroen J. P. Kuenen, Arjo J. Segers, Renske M. A. Timmermans, Antoon J. H. Visschedijk, Roy J. Wichink Kruit, W. Addo J. van Pul, Ferd J. Sauter, Eric van der Swaluw, Daan P. J. Swart, John Douros, Henk Eskes, Erik van Meijgaard, Bert van Ulft, Peter van Velthoven, Sabine Banzhaf, Andrea C. Mues, Rainer Stern, Guangliang Fu, Sha Lu, Arnold Heemink, Nils van Velzen, and Martijn Schaap
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4145–4173,Short summary
The regional-scale air quality model LOTOS–EUROS has been developed by a consortium of Dutch institutes. Recently, version 2.0 of the model was released as an open-source version. Next to a technical description and model evaluation for 2012, this paper presents the model developments in context of the history of air quality modelling and provides an outlook for future directions. Key and innovative applications of LOTOS–EUROS are also highlighted.
Augustin Colette, Camilla Andersson, Astrid Manders, Kathleen Mar, Mihaela Mircea, Maria-Teresa Pay, Valentin Raffort, Svetlana Tsyro, Cornelius Cuvelier, Mario Adani, Bertrand Bessagnet, Robert Bergström, Gino Briganti, Tim Butler, Andrea Cappelletti, Florian Couvidat, Massimo D'Isidoro, Thierno Doumbia, Hilde Fagerli, Claire Granier, Chris Heyes, Zig Klimont, Narendra Ojha, Noelia Otero, Martijn Schaap, Katarina Sindelarova, Annemiek I. Stegehuis, Yelva Roustan, Robert Vautard, Erik van Meijgaard, Marta Garcia Vivanco, and Peter Wind
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3255–3276,Short summary
The EURODELTA-Trends numerical experiment has been designed to assess the capability of chemistry-transport models to capture the evolution of surface air quality over the 1990–2010 period in Europe. It also includes sensitivity experiments in order to analyse the relative contribution of (i) emission changes, (ii) meteorological variability, and (iii) boundary conditions to air quality trends. The article is a detailed presentation of the experiment design and participating models.
Enrico Dammers, Mark W. Shephard, Mathias Palm, Karen Cady-Pereira, Shannon Capps, Erik Lutsch, Kim Strong, James W. Hannigan, Ivan Ortega, Geoffrey C. Toon, Wolfgang Stremme, Michel Grutter, Nicholas Jones, Dan Smale, Jacob Siemons, Kevin Hrpcek, Denis Tremblay, Martijn Schaap, Justus Notholt, and Jan Willem Erisman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2645–2667,Short summary
Presented here is the validation of the CrIS fast physical retrieval (CFPR) NH3 column and profile measurements using ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) observations. The overall FTIR and CrIS total columns have a positive correlation of r = 0.77 (N = 218) with very little bias (a slope of 1.02). Furthermore, we find that CrIS and FTIR profile comparison differences are mostly within the range of the estimated retrieval uncertainties, with differences in the range of ~ 20 to 40 %.
Christopher J. Merchant, Frank Paul, Thomas Popp, Michael Ablain, Sophie Bontemps, Pierre Defourny, Rainer Hollmann, Thomas Lavergne, Alexandra Laeng, Gerrit de Leeuw, Jonathan Mittaz, Caroline Poulsen, Adam C. Povey, Max Reuter, Shubha Sathyendranath, Stein Sandven, Viktoria F. Sofieva, and Wolfgang Wagner
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 511–527,Short summary
Climate data records (CDRs) contain data describing Earth's climate and should address uncertainty in the data to communicate what is known about climate variability or change and what range of doubt exists. This paper discusses good practice for including uncertainty information in CDRs for the essential climate variables (ECVs) derived from satellite data. Recommendations emerge from the shared experience of diverse ECV projects within the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative.
Yuqin Liu, Gerrit de Leeuw, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jiahua Zhang, Putian Zhou, Wei Nie, Ximeng Qi, Juan Hong, Yonghong Wang, Aijun Ding, Huadong Guo, Olaf Krüger, Markku Kulmala, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5623–5641,Short summary
The aerosol effects on warm cloud parameters over the Yangtze River Delta are systematically examined using multi-sensor retrievals. This study shows that the COT–CDR and CWP–CDR relationships are not unique, but are affected by atmospheric aerosol loading. CDR and cloud fraction show different behaviours for low and high AOD. Aerosol–cloud interaction (ACI) is stronger for clouds mixed with smoke aerosol than for clouds mixed with dust. Meteorological conditions play an important role in ACI.
Giulia Saponaro, Pekka Kolmonen, Larisa Sogacheva, Edith Rodriguez, Timo Virtanen, and Gerrit de Leeuw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3133–3143,Short summary
The effect of aerosol upon cloud properties is studied over the Baltic Sea region, which presents a distinct contrast of aerosol loading between the clean Fennoscandia and the polluted area of central–eastern Europe. Statistically significant positive values are found over the Baltic Sea and Fennoscandia, while negative values are found over central–eastern Europe, contradicting the theory of aerosol indirect effect on clouds.
Efisio Solazzo, Roberto Bianconi, Christian Hogrefe, Gabriele Curci, Paolo Tuccella, Ummugulsum Alyuz, Alessandra Balzarini, Rocío Baró, Roberto Bellasio, Johannes Bieser, Jørgen Brandt, Jesper H. Christensen, Augistin Colette, Xavier Francis, Andrea Fraser, Marta Garcia Vivanco, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, Ulas Im, Astrid Manders, Uarporn Nopmongcol, Nutthida Kitwiroon, Guido Pirovano, Luca Pozzoli, Marje Prank, Ranjeet S. Sokhi, Alper Unal, Greg Yarwood, and Stefano Galmarini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3001–3054,Short summary
As part of the third phase of AQMEII, this study uses timescale analysis to apportion error to the responsible processes, detect causes of model error, and identify the processes and scales that require dedicated investigations. The analysis tackles model performance gauging through measurement-to-model comparison, error decomposition, and time series analysis of model biases for ozone, CO, SO2, NO, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, wind speed, and temperature over Europe and North America.
Larisa Sogacheva, Pekka Kolmonen, Timo H. Virtanen, Edith Rodriguez, Giulia Saponaro, and Gerrit de Leeuw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 491–505,Short summary
Clouds reflect solar light much more strongly than aerosol particles. Therefore, the retrieval of aerosol optical depth is usually only attempted over cloud-free areas. A very strict cloud detection scheme has to be applied to remove all cloudy pixels. However, often not all clouds are detected. To remove possibly cloud-contaminated pixels, a cloud post-processing algorithm has been designed, which effectively solves the problem and results in smoother AOD maps and improved validation results.
Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Ulas Im, Efisio Solazzo, Roberto Bianconi, Alba Badia, Alessandra Balzarini, Rocío Baró, Roberto Bellasio, Dominik Brunner, Charles Chemel, Gabriele Curci, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Johannes Flemming, Renate Forkel, Lea Giordano, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, Marcus Hirtl, Oriol Jorba, Astrid Manders-Groot, Lucy Neal, Juan L. Pérez, Guidio Pirovano, Roberto San Jose, Nicholas Savage, Wolfram Schroder, Ranjeet S. Sokhi, Dimiter Syrakov, Paolo Tuccella, Johannes Werhahn, Ralf Wolke, Christian Hogrefe, and Stefano Galmarini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15629–15652,Short summary
Four ensemble methods are applied to two annual AQMEII datasets and their performance is compared for O3, NO2 and PM10. The goal of the study is to quantify to what extent we can extract predictable signals from an ensemble with superior skill at each station over the single models and the ensemble mean. The promotion of the right amount of accuracy and diversity within the ensemble results in an average additional skill of up to 31 % compared to using the full ensemble in an unconditional way.
Anu Heikkilä, Jakke Sakari Mäkelä, Kaisa Lakkala, Outi Meinander, Jussi Kaurola, Tapani Koskela, Juha Matti Karhu, Tomi Karppinen, Esko Kyrö, and Gerrit de Leeuw
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 531–540,Short summary
Lamp measurements used for the UV irradiance calibration of two Brewer spectrophotometers operated for 20 years in Jokioinen and Sodankylä, Finland, were examined. Temporal development of the responsivity after fixing the irradiance measurements into a specific scale was studied. Both long-term gradual decrease and abrupt changes in responsiveness were detected. Frequent-enough measurements of working standard lamps were found necessary to detect the short-term variations in responsiveness.
Hanna K. Lappalainen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Theo Kurten, Aleksander Baklanov, Anatoly Shvidenko, Jaana Bäck, Timo Vihma, Pavel Alekseychik, Meinrat O. Andreae, Stephen R. Arnold, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Boris Belan, Leonid Bobylev, Sergey Chalov, Yafang Cheng, Natalia Chubarova, Gerrit de Leeuw, Aijun Ding, Sergey Dobrolyubov, Sergei Dubtsov, Egor Dyukarev, Nikolai Elansky, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Igor Esau, Nikolay Filatov, Mikhail Flint, Congbin Fu, Olga Glezer, Aleksander Gliko, Martin Heimann, Albert A. M. Holtslag, Urmas Hõrrak, Juha Janhunen, Sirkku Juhola, Leena Järvi, Heikki Järvinen, Anna Kanukhina, Pavel Konstantinov, Vladimir Kotlyakov, Antti-Jussi Kieloaho, Alexander S. Komarov, Joni Kujansuu, Ilmo Kukkonen, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Ari Laaksonen, Tuomas Laurila, Heikki Lihavainen, Alexander Lisitzin, Alexsander Mahura, Alexander Makshtas, Evgeny Mareev, Stephany Mazon, Dmitry Matishov, Vladimir Melnikov, Eugene Mikhailov, Dmitri Moisseev, Robert Nigmatulin, Steffen M. Noe, Anne Ojala, Mari Pihlatie, Olga Popovicheva, Jukka Pumpanen, Tatjana Regerand, Irina Repina, Aleksei Shcherbinin, Vladimir Shevchenko, Mikko Sipilä, Andrey Skorokhod, Dominick V. Spracklen, Hang Su, Dmitry A. Subetto, Junying Sun, Arkady Y. Terzhevik, Yuri Timofeyev, Yuliya Troitskaya, Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen, Viacheslav I. Kharuk, Nina Zaytseva, Jiahua Zhang, Yrjö Viisanen, Timo Vesala, Pertti Hari, Hans Christen Hansson, Gennady G. Matvienko, Nikolai S. Kasimov, Huadong Guo, Valery Bondur, Sergej Zilitinkevich, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14421–14461,Short summary
After kick off in 2012, the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) program has expanded fast and today the multi-disciplinary research community covers ca. 80 institutes and a network of ca. 500 scientists from Europe, Russia, and China. Here we introduce scientific topics relevant in this context. This is one of the first multi-disciplinary overviews crossing scientific boundaries, from atmospheric sciences to socio-economics and social sciences.
Laura Riuttanen, Marja Bister, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Viju O. John, Anu-Maija Sundström, Miikka Dal Maso, Jouni Räisänen, Victoria A. Sinclair, Risto Makkonen, Filippo Xausa, Gerrit de Leeuw, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14331–14342,Short summary
Here we show observational evidence that aerosols increase upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) via changes in the microphysics of deep convection. Using remote sensing data over the ocean east of China in summer, we show that increased aerosol loads are associated with an UTH increase of 2.2 ± 1.5 in units of relative humidity. We show that humidification of aerosols or other meteorological covariation is very unlikely to be the cause for this result indicating relevance for the global climate.
Bertrand Bessagnet, Guido Pirovano, Mihaela Mircea, Cornelius Cuvelier, Armin Aulinger, Giuseppe Calori, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Astrid Manders, Rainer Stern, Svetlana Tsyro, Marta García Vivanco, Philippe Thunis, Maria-Teresa Pay, Augustin Colette, Florian Couvidat, Frédérik Meleux, Laurence Rouïl, Anthony Ung, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, José María Baldasano, Johannes Bieser, Gino Briganti, Andrea Cappelletti, Massimo D'Isidoro, Sandro Finardi, Richard Kranenburg, Camillo Silibello, Claudio Carnevale, Wenche Aas, Jean-Charles Dupont, Hilde Fagerli, Lucia Gonzalez, Laurent Menut, André S. H. Prévôt, Pete Roberts, and Les White
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12667–12701,Short summary
The EURODELTA III exercise allows a very comprehensive intercomparison and evaluation of air quality models' performance. On average, the models provide a rather good picture of the particulate matter (PM) concentrations over Europe even if the highest concentrations are underestimated. The meteorology is responsible for model discrepancies, while the lack of emissions, particularly in winter, is mentioned as the main reason for the underestimations of PM.
Enrico Dammers, Mathias Palm, Martin Van Damme, Corinne Vigouroux, Dan Smale, Stephanie Conway, Geoffrey C. Toon, Nicholas Jones, Eric Nussbaumer, Thorsten Warneke, Christof Petri, Lieven Clarisse, Cathy Clerbaux, Christian Hermans, Erik Lutsch, Kim Strong, James W. Hannigan, Hideaki Nakajima, Isamu Morino, Beatriz Herrera, Wolfgang Stremme, Michel Grutter, Martijn Schaap, Roy J. Wichink Kruit, Justus Notholt, Pierre-F. Coheur, and Jan Willem Erisman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10351–10368,Short summary
Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) measured by the IASI satellite instrument is compared to observations from ground-based FTIR instruments. The seasonal cycles of NH3 in both datasets are consistent for most sites. Correlations are found to be high at sites with considerable NH3 levels, whereas correlations are lower at sites with low NH3 levels close to the detection limit of the IASI instrument. The study's results further indicate that the IASI-NH3 product performs better than earlier estimates.
U. Frieß, H. Klein Baltink, S. Beirle, K. Clémer, F. Hendrick, B. Henzing, H. Irie, G. de Leeuw, A. Li, M. M. Moerman, M. van Roozendael, R. Shaiganfar, T. Wagner, Y. Wang, P. Xie, S. Yilmaz, and P. Zieger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3205–3222,Short summary
This article describes the first direct comparison of aerosol extinction profiles from Multi-Axis DOAS measurements of the oxygen collision complex using five different retrieval algorithms. A comparison of the retrieved profiles with co-located aerosol measurements shows good agreement with respect to profile shape and aerosol optical thickness. This study shows that MAX-DOAS is a simple, versatile and cost-effective method for the measurement of aerosol properties in the lower troposphere.
Tero Mielonen, Anca Hienola, Thomas Kühn, Joonas Merikanto, Antti Lipponen, Tommi Bergman, Hannele Korhonen, Pekka Kolmonen, Larisa Sogacheva, Darren Ghent, Antti Arola, Gerrit de Leeuw, and Harri Kokkola
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We studied the temperature dependence of AOD and its radiative effects over the southeastern US. We used spaceborne observations of AOD, LST and tropospheric NO2 with simulations of ECHAM-HAMMOZ. The level of AOD in this region is governed by anthropogenic emissions but the temperature dependency is most likely caused by BVOC emissions. According to the observations and simulations, the regional clear-sky DRE for biogenic aerosols is −0.43 ± 0.88 W/m2/K and −0.86 ± 0.06 W/m2/K, respectively.
Jakke Sakari Mäkelä, Kaisa Lakkala, Tapani Koskela, Tomi Karppinen, Juha Matti Karhu, Vladimir Savastiouk, Hanne Suokanerva, Jussi Kaurola, Antti Arola, Anders Vilhelm Lindfors, Outi Meinander, Gerrit de Leeuw, and Anu Heikkilä
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 193–203,Short summary
We describe the steps that are used at the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) to process spectral ultraviolet (UV) radiation measurements made with its three Brewer spectrophotometers, located in Sodankylä (67° N) and Jokioinen (61° N). Multiple corrections are made to the data in near-real time and quality control is also performed automatically. Several data products are produced, including the near-real-time UV index and various daily dosages, and submitted to databases.
J. Kukkonen, M. Karl, M. P. Keuken, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, B. R. Denby, V. Singh, J. Douros, A. Manders, Z. Samaras, N. Moussiopoulos, S. Jonkers, M. Aarnio, A. Karppinen, L. Kangas, S. Lützenkirchen, T. Petäjä, I. Vouitsis, and R. S. Sokhi
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 451–478,Short summary
For analyzing the health effects of particulate matter, it is necessary to consider not only the mass of particles, but also their sizes and composition. A simple measure for the former is the number concentration of particles. We present particle number concentrations in five major European cities, namely Helsinki, Oslo, London, Rotterdam, and Athens, in 2008, based mainly on modelling. The concentrations of PN were mostly influenced by the emissions from local vehicular traffic.
J. I. Peltoniemi, M. Gritsevich, T. Hakala, P. Dagsson-Waldhauserová, Ó. Arnalds, K. Anttila, H.-R. Hannula, N. Kivekäs, H. Lihavainen, O. Meinander, J. Svensson, A. Virkkula, and G. de Leeuw
The Cryosphere, 9, 2323–2337,Short summary
Light-absorbing impurities change the reflectance of snow in different ways. Some particles are heated by the Sun and they sink out of sight. During the process, snow may look darker than pure snow when observed by nadir, but at larger view zenith angles the snow may look as white as clean snow. Thus an observer on the ground may overestimate the albedo, while a satellite underestimates the albedo. Climate studies need to examine how the contaminants behave in snow, not only their total amounts.
E. Dammers, C. Vigouroux, M. Palm, E. Mahieu, T. Warneke, D. Smale, B. Langerock, B. Franco, M. Van Damme, M. Schaap, J. Notholt, and J. W. Erisman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12789–12803,Short summary
We present a new retrieval method for ammonia (NH3) concentrations and total columns from ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) observations. Observations from Bremen, Lauder, Réunion and Jungfraujoch are used to show the capabilities of the new retrieval. The developed retrieval provides a new way of obtaining time-resolved measurements and will be useful for understanding the dynamics of ammonia concentrations in the atmosphere and for satellite and model validation.
K. Atlaskina, F. Berninger, and G. de Leeuw
The Cryosphere, 9, 1879–1893,Short summary
Snow cover explained most of the spring surface albedo changes in the Northern Hemisphere in the years 2000−2012. However, there are vast areas where albedo changed up to ±0.2 under full snow-covered conditions. We found that if in these areas, the mean monthly air temperature exceeds a value between -15°C and -10°C, depending on the region, albedo decreases with an increase of the temperature. The complexity of processes involved in surface albedo changes is discussed.
V. Marécal, V.-H. Peuch, C. Andersson, S. Andersson, J. Arteta, M. Beekmann, A. Benedictow, R. Bergström, B. Bessagnet, A. Cansado, F. Chéroux, A. Colette, A. Coman, R. L. Curier, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, A. Drouin, H. Elbern, E. Emili, R. J. Engelen, H. J. Eskes, G. Foret, E. Friese, M. Gauss, C. Giannaros, J. Guth, M. Joly, E. Jaumouillé, B. Josse, N. Kadygrov, J. W. Kaiser, K. Krajsek, J. Kuenen, U. Kumar, N. Liora, E. Lopez, L. Malherbe, I. Martinez, D. Melas, F. Meleux, L. Menut, P. Moinat, T. Morales, J. Parmentier, A. Piacentini, M. Plu, A. Poupkou, S. Queguiner, L. Robertson, L. Rouïl, M. Schaap, A. Segers, M. Sofiev, L. Tarasson, M. Thomas, R. Timmermans, Á. Valdebenito, P. van Velthoven, R. van Versendaal, J. Vira, and A. Ung
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2777–2813,Short summary
This paper describes the air quality forecasting system over Europe put in place in the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate projects. It provides daily and 4-day forecasts and analyses for the previous day for major gas and particulate pollutants and their main precursors. These products are based on a multi-model approach using seven state-of-the-art models developed in Europe. An evaluation of the performance of the system is discussed in the paper.
E. Rodríguez, P. Kolmonen, T. H. Virtanen, L. Sogacheva, A.-M. Sundström, and G. de Leeuw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3075–3085,
S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8217–8299,Short summary
Particulate matter (PM) constitutes one of the most challenging problems both for air quality and climate change policies. This paper reviews the most recent scientific results on the issue and the policy needs that have driven much of the increase in monitoring and mechanistic research over the last 2 decades. The synthesis reveals many new processes and developments in the science underpinning climate-PM interactions and the effects of PM on human health and the environment.
P. Zieger, P. P. Aalto, V. Aaltonen, M. Äijälä, J. Backman, J. Hong, M. Komppula, R. Krejci, M. Laborde, J. Lampilahti, G. de Leeuw, A. Pfüller, B. Rosati, M. Tesche, P. Tunved, R. Väänänen, and T. Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7247–7267,Short summary
The effect of water uptake (hygroscopicity) on aerosol light scattering properties is generally lower for boreal aerosol due to the dominance of organic substances. A columnar optical closure study using ground-based and airborne measurements of aerosol optical, chemical and microphysical properties was conducted and the implications and limitations are discussed.
A.-M. Sundström, A. Nikandrova, K. Atlaskina, T. Nieminen, V. Vakkari, L. Laakso, J. P. Beukes, A. Arola, P. G. van Zyl, M. Josipovic, A. D. Venter, K. Jaars, J. J. Pienaar, S. Piketh, A. Wiedensohler, E. K. Chiloane, G. de Leeuw, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4983–4996,
S. Banzhaf, M. Schaap, R. Kranenburg, A. M. M. Manders, A. J. Segers, A. J. H. Visschedijk, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, J. J. P. Kuenen, E. van Meijgaard, L. H. van Ulft, J. Cofala, and P. J. H. Builtjes
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1047–1070,
J. Svensson, A. Virkkula, O. Meinander, N. Kivekäs, H.-R. Hannula, O. Järvinen, J. I. Peltoniemi, M. Gritsevich, A. Heikkilä, A. Kontu, A.-P. Hyvärinen, K. Neitola, D. Brus, P. Dagsson-Waldhauserova, K. Anttila, T. Hakala, H. Kaartinen, M. Vehkamäki, G. de Leeuw, and H. Lihavainen
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Soot's (including black carbon and organics) negative effect on a natural snow pack is experimentally addressed in this paper through a series of experiments. Soot concentrations in the snow in the range of 200-200 000 ppb verify the negative effects on the albedo, the physical snow characteristics, as well as increasing the melt rate of the snow pack. Our experimental data generally agrees when compared with the Snow, Ice and Aerosol Radiation model.
L. Sogacheva, P. Kolmonen, T. H. Virtanen, E. Rodriguez, A.-M. Sundström, and G. de Leeuw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 891–906,
T. Vlemmix, H. J. Eskes, A. J. M. Piters, M. Schaap, F. J. Sauter, H. Kelder, and P. F. Levelt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1313–1330,Short summary
Ground-based remote sensing measurements of nitrogen dioxide are compared to the Lotos-Euros air quality (AQ) model. Measurements were taken in the Netherlands with a UV-Vis spectrometer which observes scattered sunlight under different elevation viewing angles. On average, a surprisingly good agreement is found. Perhaps most striking is the agreement between model and observations as a function of wind direction. This demonstrates the quality of the AQ model and underlying emission inventory.
A.-M. Sundström, A. Arola, P. Kolmonen, Y. Xue, G. de Leeuw, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 505–518,Short summary
In this work, a satellite-based approach to derive the aerosol direct shortwave (SW) radiative effect (ADRE) is studied. The method is based on using coincident satellite observations of SW fluxes and aerosol optical depths (AODs). The key findings of this study are that using normalized values of observed fluxes improves the estimates of ADRE and aerosol-free TOA fluxes as compared to a model. The method was applied over eastern China where the satellite-based mean ADRE of -5Wm-2 was obtained.
A.-I. Partanen, E. M. Dunne, T. Bergman, A. Laakso, H. Kokkola, J. Ovadnevaite, L. Sogacheva, D. Baisnée, J. Sciare, A. Manders, C. O'Dowd, G. de Leeuw, and H. Korhonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11731–11752,Short summary
New parameterizations for the sea spray aerosol source flux and its organic fraction were incorporated into a global aerosol-climate model. The emissions of sea salt were considerably less than previous estimates. This study demonstrates that sea spray aerosol may actually decrease the number of cloud droplets, which has a warming effect on climate. Overall, sea spray aerosol was predicted to have a global cooling effect due to the scattering of solar radiation from sea spray aerosol particles.
I. B. Savelyev, M. D. Anguelova, G. M. Frick, D. J. Dowgiallo, P. A. Hwang, P. F. Caffrey, and J. P. Bobak
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11611–11631,
L. L. Mei, Y. Xue, A. A. Kokhanovsky, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, G. de Leeuw, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2411–2420,
T. H. Virtanen, P. Kolmonen, E. Rodríguez, L. Sogacheva, A.-M. Sundström, and G. de Leeuw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2437–2456,
O. Meinander, A. Kontu, A. Virkkula, A. Arola, L. Backman, P. Dagsson-Waldhauserová, O. Järvinen, T. Manninen, J. Svensson, G. de Leeuw, and M. Leppäranta
The Cryosphere, 8, 991–995,
A. Virkkula, J. Levula, T. Pohja, P. P. Aalto, P. Keronen, S. Schobesberger, C. B. Clements, L. Pirjola, A.-J. Kieloaho, L. Kulmala, H. Aaltonen, J. Patokoski, J. Pumpanen, J. Rinne, T. Ruuskanen, M. Pihlatie, H. E. Manninen, V. Aaltonen, H. Junninen, T. Petäjä, J. Backman, M. Dal Maso, T. Nieminen, T. Olsson, T. Grönholm, J. Aalto, T. H. Virtanen, M. Kajos, V.-M. Kerminen, D. M. Schultz, J. Kukkonen, M. Sofiev, G. De Leeuw, J. Bäck, P. Hari, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4473–4502,
D. C. S. Beddows, M. Dall'Osto, R. M. Harrison, M. Kulmala, A. Asmi, A. Wiedensohler, P. Laj, A.M. Fjaeraa, K. Sellegri, W. Birmili, N. Bukowiecki, E. Weingartner, U. Baltensperger, V. Zdimal, N. Zikova, J.-P. Putaud, A. Marinoni, P. Tunved, H.-C. Hansson, M. Fiebig, N. Kivekäs, E. Swietlicki, H. Lihavainen, E. Asmi, V. Ulevicius, P. P. Aalto, N. Mihalopoulos, N. Kalivitis, I. Kalapov, G. Kiss, G. de Leeuw, B. Henzing, C. O'Dowd, S. G. Jennings, H. Flentje, F. Meinhardt, L. Ries, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, and A. J. H. Visschedijk
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4327–4348,
M. Tjernström, C. Leck, C. E. Birch, J. W. Bottenheim, B. J. Brooks, I. M. Brooks, L. Bäcklin, R. Y.-W. Chang, G. de Leeuw, L. Di Liberto, S. de la Rosa, E. Granath, M. Graus, A. Hansel, J. Heintzenberg, A. Held, A. Hind, P. Johnston, J. Knulst, M. Martin, P. A. Matrai, T. Mauritsen, M. Müller, S. J. Norris, M. V. Orellana, D. A. Orsini, J. Paatero, P. O. G. Persson, Q. Gao, C. Rauschenberg, Z. Ristovski, J. Sedlar, M. D. Shupe, B. Sierau, A. Sirevaag, S. Sjogren, O. Stetzer, E. Swietlicki, M. Szczodrak, P. Vaattovaara, N. Wahlberg, M. Westberg, and C. R. Wheeler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2823–2869,
J. Ovadnevaite, A. Manders, G. de Leeuw, D. Ceburnis, C. Monahan, A.-I. Partanen, H. Korhonen, and C. D. O'Dowd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1837–1852,
A. Mues, J. Kuenen, C. Hendriks, A. Manders, A. Segers, Y. Scholz, C. Hueglin, P. Builtjes, and M. Schaap
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 939–955,
A. Baklanov, K. Schlünzen, P. Suppan, J. Baldasano, D. Brunner, S. Aksoyoglu, G. Carmichael, J. Douros, J. Flemming, R. Forkel, S. Galmarini, M. Gauss, G. Grell, M. Hirtl, S. Joffre, O. Jorba, E. Kaas, M. Kaasik, G. Kallos, X. Kong, U. Korsholm, A. Kurganskiy, J. Kushta, U. Lohmann, A. Mahura, A. Manders-Groot, A. Maurizi, N. Moussiopoulos, S. T. Rao, N. Savage, C. Seigneur, R. S. Sokhi, E. Solazzo, S. Solomos, B. Sørensen, G. Tsegas, E. Vignati, B. Vogel, and Y. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 317–398,
S. Banzhaf, M. Schaap, R. J. Wichink Kruit, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, R. Stern, and P. J. H. Builtjes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11675–11693,
G. Saponaro, P. Kolmonen, J. Karhunen, J. Tamminen, and G. de Leeuw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2301–2309,
T. Holzer-Popp, G. de Leeuw, J. Griesfeller, D. Martynenko, L. Klüser, S. Bevan, W. Davies, F. Ducos, J. L. Deuzé, R. G. Graigner, A. Heckel, W. von Hoyningen-Hüne, P. Kolmonen, P. Litvinov, P. North, C. A. Poulsen, D. Ramon, R. Siddans, L. Sogacheva, D. Tanre, G. E. Thomas, M. Vountas, J. Descloitres, J. Griesfeller, S. Kinne, M. Schulz, and S. Pinnock
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1919–1957,
R. Kranenburg, A. J. Segers, C. Hendriks, and M. Schaap
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 721–733,
P. Kolmonen, A.-M. Sundström, L. Sogacheva, E. Rodriguez, T. Virtanen, and G. de Leeuw
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
S. J. Norris, I. M. Brooks, B. I. Moat, M. J. Yelland, G. de Leeuw, R. W. Pascal, and B. Brooks
Ocean Sci., 9, 133–145,
L. Riuttanen, M. Dal Maso, G. de Leeuw, I. Riipinen, L. Sogacheva, V. Vakkari, L. Laakso, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)The dependence of aerosols' global and local precipitation impacts on the emitting regionAssessing the climate and air quality effects of future aerosol mitigation in India using a global climate model combined with statistical downscalingAggravated air pollution and health burden due to traffic congestion in urban ChinaLate summer transition from a free-tropospheric to boundary layer source of Aitken mode aerosol in the high ArcticSelf-lofting of wildfire smoke in the troposphere and stratosphere: simulations and space lidar observationsRole of K-feldspar and quartz in global ice nucleation by mineral dust in mixed-phase cloudsProjected increases in wildfires may challenge regulatory curtailment of PM2.5 over the eastern US by 2050Meteorological export and deposition fluxes of black carbon on glaciers of the central Chilean AndesFuture changes in atmospheric rivers over East Asia under stratospheric aerosol interventionModeling the influence of chain length on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation via multiphase reactions of alkanesHow aerosol size matters in aerosol optical depth (AOD) assimilation and the optimization using the Ångström exponentMicrophysical, macrophysical, and radiative responses of subtropical marine clouds to aerosol injectionsHemispheric-wide climate response to regional COVID-19-related aerosol emission reductions: the prominent role of atmospheric circulation adjustmentsImpacts of an aerosol layer on a midlatitude continental system of cumulus clouds: how do these impacts depend on the vertical location of the aerosol layer?Impact of phase state and non-ideal mixing on equilibration timescales of secondary organic aerosol partitioningA global climatology of ice-nucleating particles under cirrus conditions derived from model simulations with MADE3 in EMACEnviro-HIRLAM model estimates of elevated black carbon pollution over Ukraine resulted from forest firesWhere does the dust deposited over the Sierra Nevada snow come from?Instant and delayed effects of March biomass burning aerosols over the Indochina PeninsulaAerosol–cloud interaction in the atmospheric chemistry model GRAPES_Meso5.1/CUACE and its impacts on mesoscale numerical weather prediction under haze pollution conditions in Jing–Jin–Ji in ChinaSurvival probabilities of atmospheric particles: comparison based on theory, cluster population simulations, and observations in BeijingModel-based insights into aerosol perturbation on pristine continental convective precipitationThe impact of assimilating Aeolus wind data on regional Aeolian dust model simulations using WRF-ChemThe simulation of mineral dust in the United Kingdom Earth System Model UKESM1Dust pollution in China affected by different spatial and temporal types of El NiñoAn improved representation of aerosol mixing state for air quality–weather interactionsCirculation-regulated impacts of aerosol pollution on urban heat island in BeijingSize-resolved dust direct radiative effect efficiency derived from satellite observationsA Global Evaluation of Daily to Seasonal Aerosol and Water Vapor Relationships Using a Combination of AERONET and NAAPS Reanalysis DataModeling coarse and giant desert dust particlesLocal and remote climate impacts of future African aerosol emissionsFire–climate interactions through the aerosol radiative effect in a global chemistry–climate–vegetation modelContributions of meteorology and anthropogenic emissions to the trends in winter PM2.5 in eastern China 2013–2018Impacts of condensable particulate matter on atmospheric organic aerosols and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in ChinaMapping the dependence of black carbon radiative forcing on emission region and seasonRegional PM2.5 pollution confined by atmospheric internal boundaries in the North China Plain: boundary layer structures and numerical simulationToward targeted observations of the meteorological initial state for improving the PM2.5 forecast of a heavy haze event that occurred in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei regionBelow-cloud scavenging of aerosol by rain: a review of numerical modelling approaches and sensitivity simulations with mineral dust in the Met Office's Unified ModelOn the differences in the vertical distribution of modeled aerosol optical depth over the southeast AtlanticPredicting gridded winter PM2.5 concentration in the east of ChinaSatellite-based evaluation of AeroCom model bias in biomass burning regionsImpacts of marine organic emissions on low-level stratiform clouds – a large eddy simulator studyAviation contrail climate effects in the North Atlantic from 2016 to 2021Source attribution of cloud condensation nuclei and their impact on stratocumulus clouds and radiation in the south-eastern AtlanticSimulating wildfire emissions and plume rise using geostationary satellite fire radiative power measurements: a case study of the 2019 Williams Flats fireAtomistic and coarse-grained simulations reveal increased ice nucleation activity on silver iodide surfaces in slit and wedge geometriesSecondary aerosol formation in marine Arctic environments: a model measurement comparison at Ny-ÅlesundEffective radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols in E3SM version 1: historical changes, causality, decomposition, and parameterization sensitivitiesExamination of aerosol impacts on convective clouds and precipitation in two metropolitan areas in East Asia; how varying depths of convective clouds between the areas diversify those aerosol effects?Influence of emission size distribution and nucleation on number concentrations over Greater Paris
Geeta G. Persad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3435–3452,Short summary
Human-induced aerosol pollution has major impacts on both local and global precipitation. This study demonstrates using a global climate model that both the strength and localization of aerosols' precipitation impacts are highly dependent on which region the aerosols are emitted from. The findings highlight that the geographic distribution of human-induced aerosol emissions must be accounted for when quantifying their influence on global precipitation.
Tuuli Miinalainen, Harri Kokkola, Antti Lipponen, Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen, Vijay Kumar Soni, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, and Thomas Kühn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3471–3491,Short summary
We simulated the effects of aerosol emission mitigation on both global and regional radiative forcing and city-level air quality with a global-scale climate model. We used a machine learning downscaling approach to bias-correct the PM2.5 values obtained from the global model for the Indian megacity New Delhi. Our results indicate that aerosol mitigation could result in both improved air quality and less radiative heating for India.
Peng Wang, Ruhan Zhang, Shida Sun, Meng Gao, Bo Zheng, Dan Zhang, Yanli Zhang, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Hongliang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2983–2996,Short summary
In China, the number of vehicles has jumped significantly in the last decade. This caused severe traffic congestion and aggravated air pollution. In this study, we developed a new temporal allocation approach to quantify the impacts of traffic congestion. We found that traffic congestion worsens air quality and the health burden across China, especially in the urban clusters. More effective and comprehensive vehicle emission control policies should be implemented to improve air quality in China.
Ruth Price, Andrea Baccarini, Julia Schmale, Paul Zieger, Ian M. Brooks, Paul Field, and Ken S. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2927–2961,Short summary
Arctic clouds can control how much energy is absorbed by the surface or reflected back to space. Using a computer model of the atmosphere we investigated the formation of atmospheric particles that allow cloud droplets to form. We found that particles formed aloft are transported to the lowest part of the Arctic atmosphere and that this is a key source of particles. Our results have implications for the way Arctic clouds will behave in the future as climate change continues to impact the region.
Kevin Ohneiser, Albert Ansmann, Jonas Witthuhn, Hartwig Deneke, Alexandra Chudnovsky, Gregor Walter, and Fabian Senf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2901–2925,Short summary
This study shows that smoke layers can reach the tropopause via the self-lofting effect within 3–7 d in the absence of pyrocumulonimbus convection if the aerosol optical thickness is larger than approximately 2 for a longer time period. When reaching the stratosphere, wildfire smoke can sensitively influence the stratospheric composition on a hemispheric scale and thus can affect the Earth’s climate and the ozone layer.
Marios Chatziparaschos, Nikos Daskalakis, Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Nikos Kalivitis, Athanasios Nenes, María Gonçalves Ageitos, Montserrat Costa-Surós, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Medea Zanoli, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and Maria Kanakidou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1785–1801,Short summary
Ice formation is enabled by ice-nucleating particles (INP) at higher temperatures than homogeneous formation and can profoundly affect the properties of clouds. Our global model results show that K-feldspar is the most important contributor to INP concentrations globally, affecting mid-level mixed-phase clouds. However, quartz can significantly contribute and dominates the lowest and the highest altitudes of dust-derived INP, affecting mainly low-level and high-level mixed-phase clouds.
Chandan Sarangi, Yun Qian, L. Ruby Leung, Yang Zhang, Yufei Zou, and Yuhang Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1769–1783,Short summary
We show that for air quality, the densely populated eastern US may see even larger impacts of wildfires due to long-distance smoke transport and associated positive climatic impacts, partially compensating the improvements from regulations on anthropogenic emissions. This study highlights the tension between natural and anthropogenic contributions and the non-local nature of air pollution that complicate regulatory strategies for improving future regional air quality for human health.
Rémy Lapere, Nicolás Huneeus, Sylvain Mailler, Laurent Menut, and Florian Couvidat
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1749–1768,Short summary
Glaciers in the Andes of central Chile are shrinking rapidly in response to global warming. This melting is accelerated by the deposition of opaque particles onto snow and ice. In this work, model simulations quantify typical deposition rates of soot on glaciers in summer and winter months and show that the contribution of emissions from Santiago is not as high as anticipated. Additionally, the combination of regional- and local-scale meteorology explains the seasonality in deposition.
Ju Liang and Jim Haywood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1687–1703,Short summary
The recent record-breaking flood events in China during the summer of 2021 highlight the importance of mitigating the risks from future changes in high-impact weather systems under global warming. Based on a state-of-the-art Earth system model, we demonstrate a pilot study on the responses of atmospheric rivers and extreme precipitation over East Asia to anthropogenically induced climate warming and an unconventional mitigation strategy – stratospheric aerosol injection.
Azad Madhu, Myoseon Jang, and David Deacon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1661–1675,Short summary
SOA formation is simulated using the UNIPAR model for series of linear alkanes. The inclusion of autoxidation reactions within the explicit gas mechanisms of C9–C12 was found to significantly improve predictions. Available product distributions were extrapolated with an incremental volatility coefficient (IVC) to predict SOA formation of alkanes without explicit mechanisms. These product distributions were used to simulate SOA formation from C13 and C15 and had good agreement with chamber data.
Jianbing Jin, Bas Henzing, and Arjo Segers
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1641–1660,Short summary
Aerosol models and satellite retrieval algorithms rely on different aerosol size assumptions. In practice, differences between simulations and observations do not always reflect the difference in aerosol amount. To avoid inconsistencies, we designed a hybrid assimilation approach. Different from a standard aerosol optical depth (AOD) assimilation that directly assimilates AODs, the hybrid one estimates aerosol size parameters by assimilating Ängström observations before assimilating the AODs.
Je-Yun Chun, Robert Wood, Peter Blossey, and Sarah J. Doherty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1345–1368,Short summary
We investigate the impact of injected aerosol on subtropical low marine clouds under a variety of meteorological conditions using high-resolution model simulations. This study illustrates processes perturbed by aerosol injections and their impact on cloud properties (e.g., cloud number concentration, thickness, and cover). We show that those responses are highly sensitive to background meteorological conditions, such as precipitation, and background cloud properties.
Nora L. S. Fahrenbach and Massimo A. Bollasina
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 877–894,Short summary
We studied the monthly-scale climate response to COVID-19 aerosol emission reductions during January–May 2020 using climate models. Our results show global temperature and rainfall anomalies driven by circulation changes. The climate patterns reverse polarity from JF to MAM due to a shift in the main SO2 reduction region from China to India. This real-life example of rapid climate adjustments to abrupt, regional aerosol emission reduction has large implications for future climate projections.
Seoung Soo Lee, Junshik Um, Won Jun Choi, Kyung-Ja Ha, Chang Hoon Jung, Jianping Guo, and Youtong Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 273–286,Short summary
This paper elaborates on process-level mechanisms regarding how the interception of radiation by aerosols interacts with the surface heat fluxes and atmospheric instability in warm cumulus clouds. This paper elucidates how these mechanisms vary with the location or altitude of an aerosol layer. This elucidation indicates that the location of aerosol layers should be taken into account for parameterizations of aerosol–cloud interactions.
Meredith Schervish and Manabu Shiraiwa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 221–233,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) can exhibit complex non-ideal behavior and adopt an amorphous semisolid state. We simulate condensation of semi-volatile compounds into a phase-separated particle to investigate the effect of non-ideality and particle phase state on the equilibration timescale of SOA partitioning. Our results provide useful insights into the interpretation of experimental observations and the description and treatment of SOA in aerosol models.
Christof G. Beer, Johannes Hendricks, and Mattia Righi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15887–15907,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) have important influences on cirrus clouds and the climate system; however, their global atmospheric distribution in the cirrus regime is still very uncertain. We present a global climatology of INPs under cirrus conditions derived from model simulations, considering the mineral dust, soot, crystalline ammonium sulfate, and glassy organics INP types. The comparison of respective INP concentrations indicates the large importance of ammonium sulfate particles.
Mykhailo Savenets, Larysa Pysarenko, Svitlana Krakovska, Alexander Mahura, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15777–15791,Short summary
The paper explores the spatio-temporal variability of black carbon during a wildfire in August 2010, with a focus on Ukraine. As a research tool, the seamless Enviro-HIRLAM modelling system is used for investigating the atmospheric transport of aerosol particles emitted by wildfires from remote and local sources. The results of this study improve our understanding of the physical and chemical processes and the interactions of aerosols in the atmosphere.
Huilin Huang, Yun Qian, Ye Liu, Cenlin He, Jianyu Zheng, Zhibo Zhang, and Antonis Gkikas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15469–15488,Short summary
Using a clustering method developed in the field of artificial neural networks, we identify four typical dust transport patterns across the Sierra Nevada, associated with the mesoscale and regional-scale wind circulations. Our results highlight the connection between dust transport and dominant weather patterns, which can be used to understand dust transport in a changing climate.
Anbao Zhu, Haiming Xu, Jiechun Deng, Jing Ma, and Shaofeng Hua
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15425–15447,Short summary
This study demonstrates the instant and delayed effects of biomass burning (BB) aerosols on precipitation over the Indochina Peninsula (ICP). The convection suppression due to the BB aerosol-induced stabilized atmosphere dominates over the favorable water-vapor condition induced by large-scale circulation responses, leading to an overall reduced precipitation in March, while the delayed effect promotes precipitation from early April to mid April due to the anomalous atmospheric circulations.
Wenjie Zhang, Hong Wang, Xiaoye Zhang, Liping Huang, Yue Peng, Zhaodong Liu, Xiao Zhang, and Huizheng Che
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15207–15221,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interaction (ACI) is first implemented in the atmospheric chemistry system GRAPES_Meso5.1/CUACE. ACI can improve the simulated cloud, temperature, and precipitation under haze pollution conditions in Jing-Jin-Ji in China. This paper demonstrates the critical role of ACI in current numerical weather prediction over the severely polluted region.
Santeri Tuovinen, Runlong Cai, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jingkun Jiang, Chao Yan, Markku Kulmala, and Jenni Kontkanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15071–15091,Short summary
We compare observed survival probabilities of atmospheric particles from Beijing, China, with survival probabilities based on analytical formulae and model simulations. We find observed survival probabilities under polluted conditions at smaller sizes to be higher, while at larger sizes they are lower than or similar to theoretical survival probabilities. Uncertainties in condensation sink and growth rate are unlikely to explain higher-than-predicted survival probabilities at smaller sizes.
Mengjiao Jiang, Yaoting Li, Weiji Hu, Yinshan Yang, and Guy Brasseur
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Relatively clean background aerosol over the Tibet Plateau makes the study on the aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions distinctive. A convection on 24 July 2014 in Naqu was selected using WRF model including the Thompson aerosol-aware microphysical scheme. Our study has adopted a compromise approach to use the limited observations. The result shows that the transformation of cloud water to graupel and the development of convective clouds are favored under polluted situations.
Pantelis Kiriakidis, Antonis Gkikas, George Papangelis, Theodoros Christoudias, Jonilda Kushta, Emmanouil Proestakis, Anna Kampouri, Eleni Marinou, Eleni Drakaki, Angela Benedetti, Michael Rennie, Christian Retscher, Anne Grete Straume, Alexandru Dandocsi, Jean Sciare, and Vasilis Amiridis
With the launch of the Aeolus satellite higher accuracy wind products became available. The research was carried out to validate the assimilated wind products by testing their effect on the WRF-Chem model predictive ability of dust processes. This was carried out for the East Mediterranean and Middle East region for two, two-month long periods in autumn and spring 2020. The use of the assimilated products improved the dust forecasts both quantitatively and qualitatively for the autumn season.
Stephanie Woodward, Alistair A. Sellar, Yongming Tang, Marc Stringer, Andrew Yool, Eddy Robertson, and Andy Wiltshire
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14503–14528,Short summary
We describe the dust scheme in the UKESM1 Earth system model and show generally good agreement with observations. Comparing with the closely related HadGEM3-GC3.1 model, we show that dust differences are not only due to inter-model differences but also to the dust size distribution. Under climate change, HadGEM3-GC3.1 dust hardly changes, but UKESM1 dust decreases because that model includes the vegetation response which, in our models, has a bigger impact on dust than climate change itself.
Yang Yang, Liangying Zeng, Hailong Wang, Pinya Wang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14489–14502,Short summary
Using an aerosol–climate model, dust pollution in China affected by different spatial and temporal types of El Niño are examined. Both eastern and central Pacific El Niño and short-duration El Niño increase winter dust concentrations over northern China, while long-duration El Niño decreases concentrations. Only long-duration El Niño events can significantly affect dust over China in the following spring. This study has profound implications for air pollution control and dust storm prediction.
Robin Stevens, Andrei Ryjkov, Mahtab Majdzadeh, and Ashu Dastoor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13527–13549,Short summary
Absorbing particles like black carbon can be coated with other matter. How much radiation these particles absorb depends on the coating thickness. The removal of these particles by clouds and rain depends on the coating composition. These effects are important for both climate and air quality. We implement a more detailed representation of these particles in an air quality model which accounts for both coating thickness and composition. We find a significant effect on particle concentrations.
Fan Wang, Gregory R. Carmichael, Jing Wang, Bin Chen, Bo Huang, Yuguo Li, Yuanjian Yang, and Meng Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13341–13353,Short summary
Unprecedented urbanization in China has led to serious urban heat island (UHI) issues, exerting intense heat stress on urban residents. We find diverse influences of aerosol pollution on urban heat island intensity (UHII) under different circulations. Our results also highlight the role of black carbon in aggravating UHI, especially during nighttime. It could thus be targeted for cooperative management of heat islands and aerosol pollution.
Qianqian Song, Zhibo Zhang, Hongbin Yu, Jasper F. Kok, Claudia Di Biagio, Samuel Albani, Jianyu Zheng, and Jiachen Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13115–13135,Short summary
This study developed a dataset that enables us to efficiently calculate dust direct radiative effect (DRE, i.e., cooling or warming our planet) for any given dust size distribution in addition to three sets of dust mineral components and two dust shapes. We demonstrate and validate the method of using this dataset to calculate dust DRE. Moreover, using this dataset we found that dust mineral composition is a more important factor in determining dust DRE than dust size and shape.
Juli I. Rubin, Jeffrey S. Reid, Peng Xian, Christopher M. Selman, and Thomas F. Eck
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This work aims to quantify the covariability between aerosol optical depth/extinction with water vapor (PW) globally, using NASA AERONET observations and NAAPS model data. Findings are important for data assimilation and radiative transfer. The study shows statistically significant and positive AOD/PW relationships are found across the globe, varying in strength with location and season and tied to large scale aerosol events. Hygroscopic growth was also found to be an important factor.
Eleni Drakaki, Vassilis Amiridis, Alexandra Tsekeri, Antonis Gkikas, Emmanouil Proestakis, Sotirios Mallios, Stavros Solomos, Christos Spyrou, Eleni Marinou, Claire L. Ryder, Demetri Bouris, and Petros Katsafados
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12727–12748,Short summary
State-of-the-art atmospheric dust models have limitations in accounting for a realistic dust size distribution (emission, transport). We modify the parameterization of the mineral dust cycle by including particles with diameter >20 μm, as indicated by observations over deserts. Moreover, we investigate the effects of reduced settling velocities of dust particles. Model results are evaluated using airborne and spaceborne dust measurements above Cabo Verde.
Christopher D. Wells, Matthew Kasoar, Nicolas Bellouin, and Apostolos Voulgarakis
The climate is altered by greenhouse gases and air pollutant particles, and such emissions are likely to change drastically in the future over Africa. Air pollutants do not travel far, so their climate effect depends on where they are emitted. This study uses a climate model to find the climate impacts of future African pollutant emissions being either high or low. The particles absorb and scatter sunlight, causing the ground nearby to be cooler, but elsewhere the increased heat causes warming.
Chenguang Tian, Xu Yue, Jun Zhu, Hong Liao, Yang Yang, Yadong Lei, Xinyi Zhou, Hao Zhou, Yimian Ma, and Yang Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12353–12366,Short summary
We quantify the impacts of fire aerosols on climate through direct, indirect, and albedo effects. In atmosphere-only simulations, we find global fire aerosols cause surface cooling and rainfall inhibition over many land regions. These fast atmospheric perturbations further lead to a reduction in regional leaf area index and lightning activities. By considering the feedback of fire aerosols on humidity, lightning, and leaf area index, we predict a slight reduction in fire emissions.
Yanxing Wu, Run Liu, Yanzi Li, Junjie Dong, Zhijiong Huang, Junyu Zheng, and Shaw Chen Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11945–11955,Short summary
Multiple linear regression (MLR) analyses often interpret the correlation coefficient (r2) as the contribution of an independent variable to the dependent variable. Since a good correlation does not imply a causal relationship, we propose that r2 should be interpreted as the maximum possible contribution. Moreover, MLR results are sensitive to the length of time analyzed; long-term analysis gives a more accurate assessment because of its additional constraints.
Mengying Li, Shaocai Yu, Xue Chen, Zhen Li, Yibo Zhang, Zhe Song, Weiping Liu, Pengfei Li, Xiaoye Zhang, Meigen Zhang, Yele Sun, Zirui Liu, Caiping Sun, Jingkun Jiang, Shuxiao Wang, Benjamin N. Murphy, Kiran Alapaty, Rohit Mathur, Daniel Rosenfeld, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11845–11866,Short summary
This study constructed an emission inventory of condensable particulate matter (CPM) in China with a focus on organic aerosols (OAs), based on collected CPM emission information. The results show that OA emissions are enhanced twofold for the years 2014 and 2017 after the inclusion of CPM in the new inventory. Sensitivity cases demonstrated the significant contributions of CPM emissions from stationary combustion and mobile sources to primary, secondary, and total OA concentrations.
Petri Räisänen, Joonas Merikanto, Risto Makkonen, Mikko Savolahti, Alf Kirkevåg, Maria Sand, Øyvind Seland, and Antti-Ilari Partanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11579–11602,Short summary
A climate model is used to evaluate how the radiative forcing (RF) associated with black carbon (BC) emissions depends on the latitude, longitude, and seasonality of emissions. It is found that both the direct RF (BC absorption of solar radiation in air) and snow RF (BC absorption in snow/ice) depend strongly on the emission region and season. The results suggest that, for a given mass of BC emitted, climatic impacts are likely to be largest for high-latitude emissions due to the large snow RF.
Xipeng Jin, Xuhui Cai, Mingyuan Yu, Yu Song, Xuesong Wang, Hongsheng Zhang, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11409–11427,Short summary
Meteorological discontinuities in the vertical direction define the lowest atmosphere as the boundary layer, while in the horizontal direction it identifies the contrast zone as the internal boundary. Both of them determine the polluted air mass dimension over the North China Plain. This study reveals the boundary layer structures under three categories of internal boundaries, modified by thermal, dynamical, and blending effects. It provides a new insight to understand regional pollution.
Lichao Yang, Wansuo Duan, Zifa Wang, and Wenyi Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11429–11453,Short summary
The initial meteorological state has a great impact on PM2.5 forecasts. Assimilating additional observations is an effective way to improve the accuracy of the initial meteorological state. Here we used an advanced optimization approach to identify where we should preferentially place the meteorological observations associated with PM2.5 forecasts in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region of China. We provide evidence that the target observation strategy is effective for improving PM2.5 forecasts.
Anthony C. Jones, Adrian Hill, John Hemmings, Pascal Lemaitre, Arnaud Quérel, Claire L. Ryder, and Stephanie Woodward
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11381–11407,Short summary
As raindrops fall to the ground, they capture aerosol (i.e. below-cloud scavenging or BCS). Many different BCS schemes are available to climate models, and it is unclear what the impact of selecting one scheme over another is. Here, various BCS models are outlined and then applied to mineral dust in climate model simulations. We find that dust concentrations are highly sensitive to the BCS scheme, with dust atmospheric lifetimes ranging from 5 to 44 d.
Ian Chang, Lan Gao, Connor J. Flynn, Yohei Shinozuka, Sarah J. Doherty, Michael S. Diamond, Karla M. Longo, Gonzalo A. Ferrada, Gregory R. Carmichael, Patricia Castellanos, Arlindo M. da Silva, Pablo E. Saide, Calvin Howes, Zhixin Xue, Marc Mallet, Ravi Govindaraju, Qiaoqiao Wang, Yafang Cheng, Yan Feng, Sharon P. Burton, Richard A. Ferrare, Samuel E. LeBlanc, Meloë S. Kacenelenbogen, Kristina Pistone, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Kerry G. Meyer, Ju-Mee Ryoo, Leonhard Pfister, Adeyemi A. Adebiyi, Robert Wood, Paquita Zuidema, Sundar A. Christopher, and Jens Redemann
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Abundant aerosols are present above low-level liquid clouds over the southeast Atlantic during austral winter and spring. The model simulation differences in the proportion of aerosol residing in the planetary boundary layer and in the free troposphere can greatly affect the regional aerosol radiative effects. This study examines aerosol optical depths and planetary boundary layer depths among various models and evaluates them against measurements from the NASA ORACLES field campaign.
Zhicong Yin, Mingkeng Duan, Yuyan Li, Tianbao Xu, and Huijun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11173–11185,Short summary
The PM2.5 concentration has been greatly reduced in recent years in China and has entered a crucial stage that required fine seasonal prediction. However, there is still no study aimed at predicting gridded PM2.5 concentration. A model for seasonal prediction of gridded winter PM2.5 concentration in the east of China was developed by analyzing the contributions of emissions and climate variability, which could provide scientific support for air pollution control at the regional and city levels.
Qirui Zhong, Nick Schutgens, Guido van der Werf, Twan van Noije, Kostas Tsigaridis, Susanne E. Bauer, Tero Mielonen, Alf Kirkevåg, Øyvind Seland, Harri Kokkola, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, David Neubauer, Zak Kipling, Hitoshi Matsui, Paul Ginoux, Toshihiko Takemura, Philippe Le Sager, Samuel Rémy, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Kai Zhang, Jialei Zhu, Svetlana G. Tsyro, Gabriele Curci, Anna Protonotariou, Ben Johnson, Joyce E. Penner, Nicolas Bellouin, Ragnhild B. Skeie, and Gunnar Myhre
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11009–11032,Short summary
Aerosol optical depth (AOD) errors for biomass burning aerosol (BBA) are evaluated in 18 global models against satellite datasets. Notwithstanding biases in satellite products, they allow model evaluations. We observe large and diverse model biases due to errors in BBA. Further interpretations of AOD diversities suggest large biases exist in key processes for BBA which require better constraining. These results can contribute to further model improvement and development.
Marje Prank, Juha Tonttila, Jaakko Ahola, Harri Kokkola, Thomas Kühn, Sami Romakkaniemi, and Tomi Raatikainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10971–10992,Short summary
Aerosols and clouds persist as the dominant sources of uncertainty in climate projections. In this modelling study, we investigate the role of marine aerosols in influencing the lifetime of low-level clouds. Our high resolution simulations show that sea spray can both extend and shorten the lifetime of the cloud layer depending on the model setup. The impact of the primary marine organics is relatively limited while secondary aerosol from monoterpenes can have larger impact.
Roger Teoh, Ulrich Schumann, Edward Gryspeerdt, Marc Shapiro, Jarlath Molloy, George Koudis, Christiane Voigt, and Marc E. J. Stettler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10919–10935,Short summary
Aircraft condensation trails (contrails) contribute to over half of the climate forcing attributable to aviation. This study uses historical air traffic and weather data to simulate contrails in the North Atlantic over 5 years, from 2016 to 2021. We found large intra- and inter-year variability in contrail radiative forcing and observed a 66 % reduction due to COVID-19. Most warming contrails predominantly result from night-time flights in winter.
Haochi Che, Philip Stier, Duncan Watson-Parris, Hamish Gordon, and Lucia Deaconu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10789–10807,Short summary
Extensive stratocumulus clouds over the south-eastern Atlantic (SEA) can lead to a cooling effect on the climate. A key pathway by which aerosols affect cloud properties is by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Here, we investigated the source attribution of CCN in the SEA as well as the cloud responses. Our results show that aerosol nucleation contributes most to CCN in the marine boundary layer. In terms of emissions, anthropogenic sources contribute most to the CCN and cloud droplets.
Aditya Kumar, R. Bradley Pierce, Ravan Ahmadov, Gabriel Pereira, Saulo Freitas, Georg Grell, Chris Schmidt, Allen Lenzen, Joshua P. Schwarz, Anne E. Perring, Joseph M. Katich, John Hair, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, and Hongyu Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10195–10219,Short summary
We use the WRF-Chem model with new implementations of GOES-16 wildfire emissions and plume rise based on fire radiative power (FRP) to interpret aerosol observations during the 2019 NASA–NOAA FIREX-AQ field campaign and perform model evaluations. The model shows significant improvements in simulating the variety of aerosol loading environments sampled during FIREX-AQ. Our results also highlight the importance of accurate wildfire diurnal cycle and aerosol chemical mechanisms in models.
Golnaz Roudsari, Olli H. Pakarinen, Bernhard Reischl, and Hanna Vehkamäki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10099–10114,Short summary
We use atomistic simulations to study heterogeneous ice nucleation on silver iodide surfaces in slit and wedge geometries at low supercooling which serve as a model of irregularities on real atmospheric aerosol particle surfaces. The revealed microscopic ice nucleation mechanisms in confined geometries strongly support the experimental evidence for the importance of surface features such as cracks or pits functioning as active sites for ice nucleation in the atmosphere.
Carlton Xavier, Metin Baykara, Robin Wollesen de Jonge, Barbara Altstädter, Petri Clusius, Ville Vakkari, Roseline Thakur, Lisa Beck, Silvia Becagli, Mirko Severi, Rita Traversi, Radovan Krejci, Peter Tunved, Mauro Mazzola, Birgit Wehner, Mikko Sipilä, Markku Kulmala, Michael Boy, and Pontus Roldin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10023–10043,Short summary
The focus of this work is to study and improve our understanding of processes involved in the formation and growth of new particles in a remote Arctic marine environment. We run the 1D model ADCHEM along air mass trajectories arriving at Ny-Ålesund in May 2018. The model finds that ion-mediated H2SO4–NH3 nucleation can explain the observed new particle formation at Ny-Ålesund. The growth of particles is driven via H2SO4 condensation and formation of methane sulfonic acid in the aqueous phase.
Kai Zhang, Wentao Zhang, Hui Wan, Philip J. Rasch, Steven J. Ghan, Richard C. Easter, Xiangjun Shi, Yong Wang, Hailong Wang, Po-Lun Ma, Shixuan Zhang, Jian Sun, Susannah M. Burrows, Manish Shrivastava, Balwinder Singh, Yun Qian, Xiaohong Liu, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Qi Tang, Xue Zheng, Shaocheng Xie, Wuyin Lin, Yan Feng, Minghuai Wang, Jin-Ho Yoon, and L. Ruby Leung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9129–9160,Short summary
Here we analyze the effective aerosol forcing simulated by E3SM version 1 using both century-long free-running and short nudged simulations. The aerosol forcing in E3SMv1 is relatively large compared to other models, mainly due to the large indirect aerosol effect. Aerosol-induced changes in liquid and ice cloud properties in E3SMv1 have a strong correlation. The aerosol forcing estimates in E3SMv1 are sensitive to the parameterization changes in both liquid and ice cloud processes.
Seoung Soo Lee, Jinho Choi, Goun Kim, Kyung-Ja Ha, Kyong-Hwan Seo, Chang Hoon Jung, Junshik Um, Youtong Zheng, Jianping Guo, Sang-Keun Song, Yun Gon Lee, and Nobuyuki Utsumi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9059–9081,Short summary
This study investigates how aerosols affect clouds and precipitation and how the aerosol effects vary with varying types of clouds that are characterized by cloud depth in two metropolitan areas in East Asia. As cloud depth increases, the enhancement of precipitation amount transitions to no changes in precipitation amount with increasing aerosol concentrations. This indicates that cloud depth needs to be considered for a comprehensive understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions.
Karine Sartelet, Youngseob Kim, Florian Couvidat, Maik Merkel, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean Sciare, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8579–8596,Short summary
A methodology is defined to estimate number emissions from an inventory providing mass emissions. Number concentrations are simulated over Greater Paris using different nucleation parameterisations (binary, ternary involving sulfuric acid and ammonia, and heteromolecular involving sulfuric acid and extremely low-volatility organics, ELVOCs). The comparisons show that ternary nucleation may not be a dominant process for new particle formation in cities, but they stress the role of ELVOCs.
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Sea spray source functions (SSSFs) predict production of sea salt aerosol, important for climate. Sea spray originates from bubble bursting within whitecaps, mainly formed by wind speed (U). Using satellite-based whitecap fraction (W) data analyzed on global and regional scale and explicitly accounting for sea surface temperature (T) we derive a new W(U, T) parameterization. We use it to evaluate influence of secondary factors on a SSSF via W.
Sea spray source functions (SSSFs) predict production of sea salt aerosol, important for...