Articles | Volume 11, issue 18
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 9943–9959, 2011
© Author(s) 2011. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article 27 Sep 2011
Research article | 27 Sep 2011
Observations of the boundary layer, cloud, and aerosol variability in the southeast Pacific near-coastal marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx
X. Zheng et al.
Related subject area
Subject: Clouds and Precipitation | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Breakup of nocturnal low-level stratiform clouds during the southern West African monsoon seasonEffects of thermodynamics, dynamics and aerosols on cirrus clouds based on in situ observations and NCAR CAM6Towards parameterising atmospheric concentrations of ice-nucleating particles active at moderate supercoolingMeteorological and cloud conditions during the Arctic Ocean 2018 expeditionLong-term deposition and condensation ice-nucleating particle measurements from four stations across the globeShip-based measurements of ice nuclei concentrations over the Arctic, Atlantic, Pacific and Southern oceansProperties of Arctic liquid and mixed-phase clouds from shipborne Cloudnet observations during ACSE 2014The evolution of cloud and aerosol microphysics at the summit of Mt. Tai, ChinaIce-nucleating particle concentrations of the past: insights from a 600-year-old Greenland ice coreStatistical characteristics of raindrop size distribution over Western Ghats of India: wet versus dry spells of Indian Summer MonsoonContinuous secondary ice production initiated by updrafts through the melting layer in mountainous regionsVertical Dependence of Horizontal Variation of Cloud Microphysics: Observations from the ACE-ENA field campaign and implications for warm rain simulation in climate modelsCaptured Cirrus Ice Particles in High DefinitionIce-supersaturated air masses in the northern mid-latitudes from regular in situ observations by passenger aircraft: vertical distribution, seasonality and tropospheric fingerprintSupercooled drizzle development in response to semi-coherent vertical velocity fluctuations within an orographic-layer cloudStratocumulus cloud clearings: statistics from satellites, reanalysis models, and airborne measurementsSupercooled liquid water cloud observed, analysed, and modelled at the top of the planetary boundary layer above Dome C, AntarcticaOpen cells exhibit weaker entrainment of free-tropospheric biomass burning aerosol into the south-east Atlantic boundary layerSmall ice particles at slightly supercooled temperatures in tropical maritime convectionStatistical analysis of ice microphysical properties in tropical mesoscale convective systems derived from cloud radar and in situ microphysical observationsBiomass burning aerosol as a modulator of the droplet number in the southeast Atlantic regionConceptual model of diurnal cycle of low-level stratiform clouds over southern West AfricaThe structure of turbulence and mixed-phase cloud microphysics in a highly supercooled altocumulus cloudCharacterization of aerosol particles at Cabo Verde close to sea level and at the cloud level – Part 2: Ice-nucleating particles in air, cloud and seawaterA new look at the environmental conditions favorable to secondary ice productionSpatial and temporal variability in the ice-nucleating ability of alpine snowmelt and extension to frozen cloud fractionEvaluation of hygroscopic cloud seeding in liquid-water clouds: a feasibility studyThe impact of fluctuations and correlations in droplet growth by collision–coalescence revisited – Part 2: Observational evidence of gel formation in warm cloudsThe diurnal cycle of the smoky marine boundary layer observed during August in the remote southeast AtlanticCharacterization of aerosol properties at Cyprus, focusing on cloud condensation nuclei and ice-nucleating particlesSubsiding shells and the distribution of up- and downdraughts in warm cumulus clouds over landSensitivity of GPS tropospheric estimates to mesoscale convective systems in West AfricaThe sensitivity of oceanic precipitation to sea surface temperatureAerosol influences on low-level clouds in the West African monsoonSupercooled liquid fogs over the central Greenland Ice SheetDroplet inhomogeneity in shallow cumuli: the effects of in-cloud location and aerosol number concentrationOn the distinctiveness of observed oceanic raindrop distributionsIce-nucleating particles in a coastal tropical siteMixed-phase orographic cloud microphysics during StormVEx and IFRACSClassification of Arctic multilayer clouds using radiosonde and radar data in SvalbardExperimental study of the aerosol impact on fog microphysicsContrasting local and long-range-transported warm ice-nucleating particles during an atmospheric river in coastal California, USAA novel approach for characterizing the variability in mass–dimension relationships: results from MC3ENew type of evidence for secondary ice formation at around −15 °C in mixed-phase cloudsAnalyses of temperature and precipitation in the Indian Jammu and Kashmir region for the 1980–2016 period: implications for remote influence and extreme eventsMeteorological conditions during the ACLOUD/PASCAL field campaign near Svalbard in early summer 2017Arctic ice clouds over northern Sweden: microphysical properties studied with the Balloon-borne Ice Cloud particle Imager B-ICIIn situ measurements of cloud microphysical and aerosol properties during the break-up of stratocumulus cloud layers in cold air outbreaks over the North AtlanticMicrophysical characteristics of frozen droplet aggregates from deep convective cloudsAdditional global climate cooling by clouds due to ice crystal complexity
Maurin Zouzoua, Fabienne Lohou, Paul Assamoi, Marie Lothon, Véronique Yoboue, Cheikh Dione, Norbert Kalthoff, Bianca Adler, Karmen Babić, Xabier Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, and Solène Derrien
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2027–2051,Short summary
Based on a field experiment conducted in June and July 2016, we analyzed the daytime breakup of continental low-level stratiform clouds over southern West Africa in order to provide complementary guidance for model evaluation during the monsoon season. Those clouds exhibit weaker temperature and moisture jumps at the top compared to marine stratiform clouds. Their lifetime and the transition towards shallow convective clouds during daytime hours depend on their coupling with the surface.
Ryan Patnaude, Minghui Diao, Xiaohong Liu, and Suqian Chu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1835–1859,Short summary
A comprehensive, in situ observation dataset of cirrus clouds was developed based on seven field campaigns, ranging from 87° N–75° S. The observations were compared with a global climate model. Several key factors for cirrus cloud formation were examined, including thermodynamics, dynamics, aerosol indirect effects and geographical locations. Model biases include lower ice mass concentrations, smaller ice crystals and weaker aerosol indirect effects.
Claudia Mignani, Jörg Wieder, Michael A. Sprenger, Zamin A. Kanji, Jan Henneberger, Christine Alewell, and Franz Conen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 657–664,Short summary
Most precipitation above land starts with ice in clouds. It is promoted by extremely rare particles. Some ice-nucleating particles (INPs) cause cloud droplets to already freeze above −15°C, a temperature at which many clouds begin to snow. We found that the abundance of such INPs among other particles of similar size is highest in precipitating air masses and lowest when air carries desert dust. This brings us closer to understanding the interactions between land, clouds, and precipitation.
Jutta Vüllers, Peggy Achtert, Ian M. Brooks, Michael Tjernström, John Prytherch, Annika Burzik, and Ryan Neely III
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 289–314,Short summary
This paper provides interesting new results on the thermodynamic structure of the boundary layer, cloud conditions, and fog characteristics in the Arctic during the Arctic Ocean 2018 campaign. It provides information for interpreting further process studies on aerosol–cloud interactions and shows substantial differences in thermodynamic conditions and cloud characteristics based on comparison with previous campaigns. This certainly raises the question of whether it is just an exceptional year.
Jann Schrod, Erik S. Thomson, Daniel Weber, Jens Kossmann, Christopher Pöhlker, Jorge Saturno, Florian Ditas, Paulo Artaxo, Valérie Clouard, Jean-Marie Saurel, Martin Ebert, Joachim Curtius, and Heinz G. Bingemer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15983–16006,Short summary
Long-term ice-nucleating particle (INP) data are presented from four semi-pristine sites located in the Amazon, the Caribbean, Germany and the Arctic. Average INP concentrations did not differ by orders of magnitude between the sites. For all sites short-term variability dominated the time series, which lacked clear trends and seasonalities. Common drivers to explain the INP levels and their variations could not be identified, illustrating the complex nature of heterogeneous ice nucleation.
André Welti, E. Keith Bigg, Paul J. DeMott, Xianda Gong, Markus Hartmann, Mike Harvey, Silvia Henning, Paul Herenz, Thomas C. J. Hill, Blake Hornblow, Caroline Leck, Mareike Löffler, Christina S. McCluskey, Anne Marie Rauker, Julia Schmale, Christian Tatzelt, Manuela van Pinxteren, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15191–15206,Short summary
Ship-based measurements of maritime ice nuclei concentrations encompassing all oceans are compiled. From this overview it is found that maritime ice nuclei concentrations are typically 10–100 times lower than over continents, while concentrations are surprisingly similar in different oceanic regions. The analysis of the influence of ship emissions shows no effect on the data, making ship-based measurements an efficient strategy for the large-scale exploration of ice nuclei concentrations.
Peggy Achtert, Ewan J. O'Connor, Ian M. Brooks, Georgia Sotiropoulou, Matthew D. Shupe, Bernhard Pospichal, Barbara J. Brooks, and Michael Tjernström
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14983–15002,Short summary
We present observations of precipitating and non-precipitating Arctic liquid and mixed-phase clouds during a research cruise along the Russian shelf in summer and autumn of 2014. Active remote-sensing observations, radiosondes, and auxiliary measurements are combined in the synergistic Cloudnet retrieval. Cloud properties are analysed with respect to cloud-top temperature and boundary layer structure. About 8 % of all liquid clouds show a liquid water path below the infrared black body limit.
Jiarong Li, Chao Zhu, Hui Chen, Defeng Zhao, Likun Xue, Xinfeng Wang, Hongyong Li, Pengfei Liu, Junfeng Liu, Chenglong Zhang, Yujing Mu, Wenjin Zhang, Luming Zhang, Hartmut Herrmann, Kai Li, Min Liu, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13735–13751,Short summary
Based on a field study at Mt. Tai, China, the simultaneous variations of cloud microphysics, aerosol microphysics and their potential interactions during cloud life cycles were discussed. Results demonstrated that clouds on clean days were more susceptible to the concentrations of particle number, while clouds formed on polluted days might be more sensitive to meteorological parameters. Particles larger than 150 nm played important roles in forming cloud droplets with sizes of 5–10 μm.
Jann Schrod, Dominik Kleinhenz, Maria Hörhold, Tobias Erhardt, Sarah Richter, Frank Wilhelms, Hubertus Fischer, Martin Ebert, Birthe Twarloh, Damiano Della Lunga, Camilla M. Jensen, Joachim Curtius, and Heinz G. Bingemer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12459–12482,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentrations of the last 6 centuries are presented from an ice core in Greenland. The data are accompanied by physical and chemical aerosol data. INPs are correlated to the dust signal from the ice core and seem to follow the annual input of mineral dust. We find no clear trend in the INP concentration. However, modern-day concentrations are higher and more variable than the concentrations of the past. This might have significant atmospheric implications.
Uriya Veerendra Murali Krishna, Subrata Kumar Das, Ezhilarasi Govindaraj Sulochana, Bhowmik Utsav, Sachin Madhukar Deshpande, and Govindan Pandithurai
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACP
Annika Lauber, Jan Henneberger, Claudia Mignani, Fabiola Ramelli, Julie T. Pasquier, Jörg Wieder, Maxime Hervo, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
An accurate prediction of the ice crystal number concentration (ICNC) is important to determine the radiation budget, lifetime, and precipitation formation of clouds. Even though secondary ice processes can increase the ICNC by several orders of magnitude, they are poorly constrained and lack a well-founded quantification. During measurements on a mountain slope, a high ICNC of small ice crystals was observed just below 0 °C, attributed to a secondary ice process and parameterized in this study.
Zhibo Zhang, Qianqian Song, David Mechem, Vincent Larson, Jian Wang, Yangang Liu, Mikael Witte, Xiquan Dong, and Peng Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Tis study investigates the small-scale variations and covariations of cloud microphysical properties, namly, cloud liquid water content and cloud droplet number concentration, in marine boundary layer clouds based on in situ observation from the ACE-ENA campaign. We discuss the dependence of cloud variations on vertical location in cloud and the implications for warm rain simulations in the global climate models.
Nathan Magee, Katie Boaggio, Samantha Staskiewicz, Aaron Lynn, Xuanyi Zhao, Nicholas Tusay, Terance Schuh, Manisha Bandamede, Lucas Bancroft, David Connolly, Kevin Hurler, Bryan Miner, and Elissa Khoudary
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The cryo-electron microscopy images and analysis in this paper result from the first balloon-borne capture, preservation, and high-resolution imaging of ice particles from cirrus clouds. The images show cirrus particle complexity in unprecedented detail, revealing unexpected morphology, a mixture of surface roughness scales and patterns, embedded aerosols, and a large variety of habits within a single cloud. The results should inform ongoing efforts to refine modeling of cirrus radiative impact.
Andreas Petzold, Patrick Neis, Mihal Rütimann, Susanne Rohs, Florian Berkes, Herman G. J. Smit, Martina Krämer, Nicole Spelten, Peter Spichtinger, Philippe Nédélec, and Andreas Wahner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8157–8179,Short summary
The first analysis of 15 years of global-scale water vapour and relative humidity observations by passenger aircraft in the MOZAIC and IAGOS programmes resolves detailed features of water vapour and ice-supersaturated air in the mid-latitude tropopause. Key results provide in-depth insight into seasonal and regional variability and chemical signatures of ice-supersaturated air masses, including trend analyses, and show a close link to cirrus clouds and their highly important effects on climate.
Adam Majewski and Jeffrey R. French
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5035–5054,Short summary
The study reports formation of supercooled drizzle drops in response to repeating kilometer-wide updrafts and downdrafts within a mixed-phase, mountain-layer cloud containing very little ice despite cold cloud top temperatures (T ~ -30°C). The discrete, embedded hydrometeor growth layers and downwind transition to drizzle production at cloud top indicates the relative importance of kinematic mechanisms in determining the location of precipitation development in cloud.
Hossein Dadashazar, Ewan Crosbie, Mohammad S. Majdi, Milad Panahi, Mohammad A. Moghaddam, Ali Behrangi, Michael Brunke, Xubin Zeng, Haflidi H. Jonsson, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4637–4665,Short summary
Clearings in the marine-boundary-layer (MBL) cloud deck of the Pacific Ocean were studied. Remote sensing, reanalysis, and airborne data were used along with machine-learning modeling to characterize the spatiotemporal nature of clearings and factors governing their growth. The most significant implications of our results are linked to modeling of fog and MBL clouds, with implications for societal and environmental issues like climate, military operations, transportation, and coastal ecology.
Philippe Ricaud, Massimo Del Guasta, Eric Bazile, Niramson Azouz, Angelo Lupi, Pierre Durand, Jean-Luc Attié, Dana Veron, Vincent Guidard, and Paolo Grigioni
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4167–4191,Short summary
Thin (~ 100 m) supercooled liquid water (SLW, water staying in liquid phase below 0 °C) clouds have been detected, analysed, and modelled over the Dome C (Concordia, Antarctica) station during the austral summer 2018–2019 using observations and meteorological analyses. The SLW clouds were observed at the top of the planetary boundary layer and the SLW content was always strongly underestimated by the model indicating an incorrect simulation of the surface energy budget of the Antarctic Plateau.
Steven J. Abel, Paul A. Barrett, Paquita Zuidema, Jianhao Zhang, Matt Christensen, Fanny Peers, Jonathan W. Taylor, Ian Crawford, Keith N. Bower, and Michael Flynn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4059–4084,Short summary
In situ measurements of a free-tropospheric (FT) biomass burning aerosol plume in contact with the boundary layer inversion overriding a pocket of open cells (POC) and surrounding stratiform cloud are presented. The data highlight the contrasting thermodynamic, aerosol and cloud properties in the two cloud regimes and further demonstrate that the cloud regime plays a key role in regulating the flow of FT aerosols into the boundary layer, which has implications for the aerosol indirect effect.
Gary Lloyd, Thomas Choularton, Keith Bower, Jonathan Crosier, Martin Gallagher, Michael Flynn, James Dorsey, Dantong Liu, Jonathan W. Taylor, Oliver Schlenczek, Jacob Fugal, Stephan Borrmann, Richard Cotton, Paul Field, and Alan Blyth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3895–3904,Short summary
Measurements of liquid and ice cloud particles were made using an aircraft to penetrate fresh growing convective clouds in the tropical Atlantic. We found small ice particles at surprisingly high temperatures just below freezing. At colder temperatures secondary ice processes rapidly generated high concentrations of ice crystals.
Emmanuel Fontaine, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Delphine Leroy, Julien Delanoë, Alain Protat, Fabien Dezitter, John Walter Strapp, and Lyle Edward Lilie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3503–3553,Short summary
This study investigates properties of ice hydrometeors (shape, concentration, density, and size) in deep convective systems. The analysis focuses on similarities and differences over four locations in the tropical troposphere. It shows that measurements as a function of temperature and radar reflectivity factors tend to be similar in the four types of deep convective systems when concentrations of ice are larger than 0.1 g m-3.
Mary Kacarab, K. Lee Thornhill, Amie Dobracki, Steven G. Howell, Joseph R. O'Brien, Steffen Freitag, Michael R. Poellot, Robert Wood, Paquita Zuidema, Jens Redemann, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3029–3040,Short summary
We find that extensive biomass burning aerosol plumes from southern Africa can profoundly influence clouds in the southeastern Atlantic. Concurrent variations in vertical velocity, however, are found to magnify the relationship between boundary layer aerosol and the cloud droplet number. Neglecting these covariances may strongly bias the sign and magnitude of aerosol impacts on the cloud droplet number.
Fabienne Lohou, Norbert Kalthoff, Bianca Adler, Karmen Babić, Cheikh Dione, Marie Lothon, Xabier Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, and Maurin Zouzoua
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2263–2275,Short summary
A conceptual model of the low-level stratiform clouds (LLSCs), which develop almost every night in southern West Africa, is built with the dataset acquired during the DACCIWA (Dynamics Aerosol Chemistry Cloud Interactions in West Africa) ground-based field experiment. Several processes occur during the four phases composing this diurnal cycle: the cooling of the air until saturation (stable and jet phases), LLSC and low-level jet interactions (stratus phase), and LLSC breakup (convective phase).
Paul A. Barrett, Alan Blyth, Philip R. A. Brown, and Steven J. Abel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1921–1939,Short summary
Here we present new in situ observations from altocumulus clouds made with a research aircraft. By carefully measuring the cloud top height, we are able to study the turbulence and cloud properties in high vertical resolution, something not presented before. The clouds contain both ice particles and liquid drops, even though the temperature is −30 °C. These measurements will hopefully assist future developers of climate models to verify and assess the performance of simulations.
Xianda Gong, Heike Wex, Manuela van Pinxteren, Nadja Triesch, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Jasmin Lubitz, Christian Stolle, Tiera-Brandy Robinson, Thomas Müller, Hartmut Herrmann, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1451–1468,Short summary
In this study, we examined number concentrations of ice nucleating particles (INPs) at Cabo Verde in the oceanic sea surface microlayer and underlying seawater, in the air close to both sea level and cloud level, and in cloud water. The results show that most INPs are supermicron in size, that INP number concentrations in air fit well to those in cloud water and that sea spray aerosols at maximum contributed a small fraction of all INPs in the air at Cabo Verde.
Alexei Korolev, Ivan Heckman, Mengistu Wolde, Andrew S. Ackerman, Ann M. Fridlind, Luis A. Ladino, R. Paul Lawson, Jason Milbrandt, and Earle Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1391–1429,Short summary
This study attempts identification of mechanisms of secondary ice production (SIP) based on the observation of small faceted ice crystals. It was found that in both mesoscale convective systems and frontal clouds, SIP was observed right above the melting layer and extended to the higher altitudes with colder temperatures. A principal conclusion of this work is that the freezing drop shattering mechanism is plausibly accounting for the measured ice concentrations in the observed condition.
Killian P. Brennan, Robert O. David, and Nadine Borduas-Dedekind
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 163–180,Short summary
To contribute to our understanding of the liquid water-to-ice ratio in mixed-phase clouds, this study provides a spatial and temporal dataset of ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentrations in meltwater of 88 snow samples across 17 locations in the Swiss Alps. The impact of altitude, terrain, time since last snowfall and depth on freezing temperatures was also investigated. The measured INP concentrations provide an estimate of cloud glaciation temperatures important for cloud lifetime.
Fei Wang, Zhanqing Li, Qi Jiang, Gaili Wang, Shuo Jia, Jing Duan, and Yuquan Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14967–14977,Short summary
Though many laboratory, modeling, and field experimental studies on cloud seeding have been conducted for more than a half-century, assessing the effectiveness of cloud seeding is still very challenging due to the notorious difficulties in gaining convincing scientific evidences. The goals of this study are to evaluate any consequence of aircraft hygroscopic seeding and to develop a feasible method for analyzing the cloud seeding effect for stratocumulus clouds.
Lester Alfonso, Graciela B. Raga, and Darrel Baumgardner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14917–14932,Short summary
The aim of this paper is to find some observational evidence of gel formation in clouds, by analyzing the distribution of the largest droplet at an early stage of cloud formation, and to show that the mass of the gel (
lucky droplet) is a mixture of Gaussian and Gumbel distributions. The results obtained may help advance the understanding of precipitation formation and are a novel application of the theory of critical phenomena in cloud physics.
Jianhao Zhang and Paquita Zuidema
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14493–14516,Short summary
Boundary layer (BL) semi-direct effects in the remote SE Atlantic are investigated using LASIC field measurements and satellite retrievals. Low-cloud cover and cloud liquid water path decrease with increasing smoke loadings in the BL. Daily-mean surface-based mixed layer is warmer by 0.5 K, moisture accumulates near the surface throughout the night, and the BL deepens by 200 m, with LWPs and cloud top heights increasing, in the sunlit morning hours, as part of the smoke-altered BL diurnal cycle.
Xianda Gong, Heike Wex, Thomas Müller, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kristina Höhler, Konrad Kandler, Nan Ma, Barbara Dietel, Thea Schiebel, Ottmar Möhler, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10883–10900,Short summary
For the diverse aerosol on Cyprus, we found the following: new particle formation can be a source of cloud condensation nuclei. Particle hygroscopicity showed that particles ~<100 nm contained mostly organic material, while larger ones were more hygroscopic. Two separate methods obtained similar concentrations of ice-nucleating particles (INP), with mostly no evidence of a local origin. Different parameterizations overestimated INP concentration in this rather polluted region.
Christian Mallaun, Andreas Giez, Georg J. Mayr, and Mathias W. Rotach
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9769–9786,Short summary
This study presents airborne measurements in shallow convection over land to investigate the dynamic properties of clouds focusing on possible narrow downdraughts in the surrounding of the clouds. A characteristic narrow downdraught region (
subsiding shell) is found directly outside the cloud borders for the mean vertical wind distribution. The
subsiding shellresults from the distribution of the highly variable updraughts and downdraughts in the near vicinity of the cloud.
Samuel Nahmani, Olivier Bock, and Françoise Guichard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9541–9561,Short summary
A mesoscale convective system (MCS) is a cloud system that occurs in connection with an ensemble of thunderstorms and produces a contiguous precipitation area of the order of 100 km or more. Numerous questions related to MCSs remain poorly answered (e.g., their life cycle, and interactions between physical processes and atmospheric circulations). This work shows how a GPS technique can provide relevant and complementary information on MCSs passing over or in the vicinity of observation stations.
Jörg Burdanowitz, Stefan A. Buehler, Stephan Bakan, and Christian Klepp
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9241–9252,Short summary
Sensitivity of precipitation to sea surface temperature over the ocean determines how precipitation potentially changes in a warming climate. This relationship has hardly been studied over ocean due to a lack of long-term oceanic data. Our study shows how the precipitation sensitivity depends on resolution, what process limits oceanic precipitation and how the event duration depends on temperature. This provides valuable information for future climate observations, modeling and understanding.
Jonathan W. Taylor, Sophie L. Haslett, Keith Bower, Michael Flynn, Ian Crawford, James Dorsey, Tom Choularton, Paul J. Connolly, Valerian Hahn, Christiane Voigt, Daniel Sauer, Régis Dupuy, Joel Brito, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Thierry Bourriane, Cyrielle Denjean, Phil Rosenberg, Cyrille Flamant, James D. Lee, Adam R. Vaughan, Peter G. Hill, Barbara Brooks, Valéry Catoire, Peter Knippertz, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8503–8522,Short summary
Low-level clouds cover a wide area of southern West Africa (SWA) and play an important role in the region's climate, reflecting sunlight away from the surface. We performed aircraft measurements of aerosols and clouds over SWA during the 2016 summer monsoon and found pollution, and polluted clouds, across the whole region. Smoke from biomass burning in Central Africa is transported to West Africa, causing a polluted background which limits the effect of local pollution on cloud properties.
Christopher J. Cox, David C. Noone, Max Berkelhammer, Matthew D. Shupe, William D. Neff, Nathaniel B. Miller, Von P. Walden, and Konrad Steffen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7467–7485,Short summary
Fogs are frequently reported by observers on the Greenland Ice Sheet. Fogs play a role in the hydrological and energetic balances of the ice sheet surface, but as yet the properties of Greenland fogs are not well known. We observed fogs in all months from Summit Station for 2 years and report their properties. Annually, fogs impart a slight warming to the surface and a case study suggests that they are particularly influential by providing insulation during the coldest part of the day in summer.
Dillon S. Dodson and Jennifer D. Small Griswold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7297–7317,Short summary
This work looks at how the amount of aerosols contained in cloud affects the spatial orientation of the cloud droplets. Droplet orientation is important because it can lead to changes in the amount of time it takes precipitation to form. The results show that the aerosol amount does not have any effect on the droplet orientation. It is found however that the droplets are spaced closer together (there is increased droplet clustering) at cloud edge and top, as compared to center and bottom.
David Ian Duncan, Patrick Eriksson, Simon Pfreundschuh, Christian Klepp, and Daniel C. Jones
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6969–6984,Short summary
Raindrop size distributions have not been systematically studied over the oceans but are significant for remotely sensing, assimilating, and modeling rain. Here we investigate raindrop populations with new global in situ data, compare them against satellite estimates, and explore a new technique to classify the shapes of these distributions. The results indicate the inadequacy of a commonly assumed shape in some regions and the sizable impact of shape variability on satellite measurements.
Luis A. Ladino, Graciela B. Raga, Harry Alvarez-Ospina, Manuel A. Andino-Enríquez, Irma Rosas, Leticia Martínez, Eva Salinas, Javier Miranda, Zyanya Ramírez-Díaz, Bernardo Figueroa, Cedric Chou, Allan K. Bertram, Erika T. Quintana, Luis A. Maldonado, Agustín García-Reynoso, Meng Si, and Victoria E. Irish
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6147–6165,Short summary
This study presents results obtained during a field campaign conducted in the tropical village of Sisal located on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Air masses arriving in Sisal during the passage of cold fronts have surprisingly higher ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentrations than the campaign average. The high concentrations of INPs at T > −15 C and the supermicron size of the INPs suggest that biological particles may have been a significant contributor to the INP population in Sisal.
Douglas H. Lowenthal, A. Gannet Hallar, Robert O. David, Ian B. McCubbin, Randolph D. Borys, and Gerald G. Mace
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5387–5401,Short summary
Snow and liquid cloud particles were measured during the StormVEx and IFRACS programs at Storm Peak Lab to better understand snow formation in wintertime mountain clouds. We found significant interactions between the ice and liquid phases of the cloud. A relationship between large droplet and small ice crystal concentrations suggested snow formation by droplet freezing. Blowing snow can bias surface measurements, but its effect was ambiguous, calling for further work on this issue.
Maiken Vassel, Luisa Ickes, Marion Maturilli, and Corinna Hoose
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5111–5126,Short summary
Multilayer clouds are coexisting clouds at different heights. We evaluate measurements and find that Arctic multilayer clouds occur in 29 % of the investigated days at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. Multilayer clouds can interact by ice crystals falling from the upper cloud into the lower cloud. This is possible in 23 % of the investigated days, and in 9 % it is not possible. Weather models are still error-prone in the Arctic and we suggest that multilayer clouds should be included more in future work.
Marie Mazoyer, Frédéric Burnet, Cyrielle Denjean, Gregory C. Roberts, Martial Haeffelin, Jean-Charles Dupont, and Thierry Elias
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4323–4344,Short summary
In situ microphysical measurements collected during 23 fog events at SIRTA (south of Paris) are examined here. An original iterative method based on the κ-Köhler theory has been used to compute statistics of their activation properties. Useful information is provided to constrain and validate numerical simulations. The paper demonstrates that supersaturation encountered in these fogs is too low to observe a correlation between concentrations of aerosols > 200 nm and droplet concentrations.
Andrew C. Martin, Gavin Cornwell, Charlotte M. Beall, Forest Cannon, Sean Reilly, Bas Schaap, Dolan Lucero, Jessie Creamean, F. Martin Ralph, Hari T. Mix, and Kimberly Prather
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4193–4210,Short summary
Aerosols that promote ice formation in clouds were investigated during an atmospheric river that caused significant rain in northern California. We found that biological particles produced by local terrestrial ecosystems greatly enhanced cloud ice when meteorology allowed for their injection to the storm. The local terrestrial particles had greater impact on clouds than particles transported from across the Pacific Ocean, lending additional insight to which aerosols are important for cloud ice.
Joseph A. Finlon, Greg M. McFarquhar, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Robert M. Rauber, Hugh Morrison, Wei Wu, and Pengfei Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3621–3643,Short summary
A new approach describing the relationship between ice crystal mass (m) and dimension (D) is derived, characterizing it as a set of
equally realizableparameters based on the natural variability in cloud conditions observed by aircraft over the Great Plains. Results from this approach address shortcomings of microphysical parameterization schemes and remote sensing retrievals that employ a single m–D relation for a given ice species or environment.
Claudia Mignani, Jessie M. Creamean, Lukas Zimmermann, Christine Alewell, and Franz Conen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 877–886,Short summary
A snow crystal can be generated from an ice nucleating particle or from an ice splinter. In this study we made use of the fact that snow crystals with a particular shape (dendrites) grow within a narrow temperature range (−12 to −17 °C) and can be analysed individually for the presence of an ice nucleating particle. Our direct approach revealed that only one in eight crystals contained such a particle and was of primary origin. The other crystals must have grown from ice splinters.
Sumira Nazir Zaz, Shakil Ahmad Romshoo, Ramkumar Thokuluwa Krishnamoorthy, and Yesubabu Viswanadhapalli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15–37,Short summary
This paper is of first of its kind for the Jammu and Kashmir (western Himalayas) region, India. It shows the clear relation between the upper tropospheric Rossby wave activity (potential vorticity at the 350 K potential temperature and 200 mb level surface pressure) and the surface weather parameters (e.g., precipitation) over a period of 3 decades during 1980–2016. This indicates that the climatic weather pattern over the Kashmir region is influenced mostly by global climate change processes.
Erlend M. Knudsen, Bernd Heinold, Sandro Dahlke, Heiko Bozem, Susanne Crewell, Irina V. Gorodetskaya, Georg Heygster, Daniel Kunkel, Marion Maturilli, Mario Mech, Carolina Viceto, Annette Rinke, Holger Schmithüsen, André Ehrlich, Andreas Macke, Christof Lüpkes, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17995–18022,Short summary
The paper describes the synoptic development during the ACLOUD/PASCAL airborne and ship-based field campaign near Svalbard in spring 2017. This development is presented using near-surface and upperair meteorological observations, satellite, and model data. We first present time series of these data, from which we identify and characterize three key periods. Finally, we put our observations in historical and regional contexts and compare our findings to other Arctic field campaigns.
Veronika Wolf, Thomas Kuhn, Mathias Milz, Peter Voelger, Martina Krämer, and Christian Rolf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17371–17386,Short summary
Balloon-borne measurements of microphysical properties of Arctic ice clouds have been performed with an in situ particle imager and been analyzed for the first time with respect to how the ice particles have formed. Ice particle size, shape and number show large variations from cloud to cloud, which cannot be explained with local conditions only, and rather depend on conditions at cloud formation. Taking this into account when parametrizing ice cloud properties may improve retrievals and models.
Gary Lloyd, Thomas W. Choularton, Keith N. Bower, Martin W. Gallagher, Jonathan Crosier, Sebastian O'Shea, Steven J. Abel, Stuart Fox, Richard Cotton, and Ian A. Boutle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17191–17206,Short summary
The work deals with cold weather outbreaks at high latitudes that often bring severe weather such as heavy snow, lightning and high winds but are poorly forecast by weather models. Here we made measurements of these events and the clouds associated with them using a research aircraft. We found that the properties of these clouds were often very different to what the models predicted, and these results can potentially be used to bring significant improvement to the forecasting of these events.
Junshik Um, Greg M. McFarquhar, Jeffrey L. Stith, Chang Hoon Jung, Seoung Soo Lee, Ji Yi Lee, Younghwan Shin, Yun Gon Lee, Yiseok Isaac Yang, Seong Soo Yum, Byung-Gon Kim, Joo Wan Cha, and A-Reum Ko
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16915–16930,Short summary
During the 2012 Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry experiment upper anvils of two storms were sampled. The occurrence of well-defined pristine crystals was low in the anvils, while single frozen droplets and frozen droplet aggregates (FDAs) were the dominant habits. A new algorithm was developed to automatically identify the number, size, and relative position of element frozen droplets within FDAs. The morphological characteristics of FDAs were compared with those of black carbon aggregates.
Emma Järvinen, Olivier Jourdan, David Neubauer, Bin Yao, Chao Liu, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrike Lohmann, Manfred Wendisch, Greg M. McFarquhar, Thomas Leisner, and Martin Schnaiter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15767–15781,Short summary
Using light diffraction it is possible to detect microscopic features within ice particles that have not yet been fully characterized. Here, this technique was applied in airborne measurements, where it was found that majority of atmospheric ice particles have features that significantly change the way ice particles interact with solar light. The microscopic features make ice-containing clouds more reflective than previously thought, which could have consequences for predicting our climate.
Albrecht, B. A., Randall, D. A., and Nicholls, S.: Observations of Marine Stratocumulus Clouds During FIRE, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 69, 618–626, 1988.
Albrecht, B. A., Bretherton, C. S., Johnson, D., Scubert, W. H., and Frisch, A. S.: The Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment – ASTEX, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 76, 889–904, 1995a.
Albrecht, B. A., Jensen, M. P., and Syrett, W. J.: Marine boundary layer structure and fractional cloudiness, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 14209–14222, https://doi.org/10.1029/95JD00827, 1995b.
Allen, G., Coe, H., Clarke, A., Bretherton, C., Wood, R., Abel, S. J., Barrett, P., Brown, P., George, R., Freitag, S., McNaughton, C., Howell, S., Shank, L., Kapustin, V., Brekhovskikh, V., Kleinman, L., Lee, Y.-N., Springston, S., Toniazzo, T., Krejci, R., Fochesatto, J., Shaw, G., Krecl, P., Brooks, B., McMeeking, G., Bower, K. N., Williams, P. I., Crosier, J., Crawford, I., Connolly, P., Allan, J. D., Covert, D., Bandy, A. R., Russell, L. M., Trembath, J., Bart, M., McQuaid, J. B., Wang, J., and Chand, D.: South East Pacific atmospheric composition and variability sampled along 20° S during VOCALS-REx, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 5237–5262, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-5237-2011, 2011.
Bretherton, C. S., Uttal, T., Fairall, C. W., Yuter, S. E., Weller, R. A., Baumgardner, D., Comstock, K., Wood, R., and Raga, G. B.: The Epic 2001 Stratocumulus Study, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 85, 967–977, 2004.
Bretherton, C. S., Wood, R., George, R. C., Leon, D., Allen, G., and Zheng, X.: Southeast Pacific stratocumulus clouds, precipitation and boundary layer structure sampled along 20° S during VOCALS-REx, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 10639–10654, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-10639-2010, 2010.
Cronin, M. F., Bond, N., Fairall, C., Hare, J., McPhaden, M. J., and Weller, R. A.: Enhanced oceanic and atmospheric monitoring underway in eastern Pacific. Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 83, 210–211, 2002.
Dong, X., Minnis, P., Mace, G. G., Smith Jr., W. L., Poellot, M., Marchand, R. T., and Rapp, A. D.: Comparison of stratus cloud properties deduced from surface, GOES, and aircraft data during the March 2000 ARM Cloud IOP, J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 3256–3284, 2002.
Draxler, R. R. and Rolph, G. D.: HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) Model access via NOAA ARL READY Website (http://ready.arl.noaa.gov/HYSPLIT.php), NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, Silver Spring, MD, 2011.
Feingold, G., Remer, L. A., Ramaprasad, J., and Kaufman, Y.: Analysis of smoke impact on clouds in Brazilian biomass burning regions: An extension of Twomey's approach, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 22907–22922, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD000732, 2001.
Garreaud, R. D. and Muñoz, R.: The diurnal cycle in circulation and cloudiness over the subtropical southeast Pacific: A modeling study. J. Climate, 17, 1699–1710, 2004.
Garreaud, R. D. and Muñoz, R. C.: The Low-Level Jet off the West Coast of Subtropical South America: Structure and Variability, Mon. Weather Rev., 133, 2246–2261, 2005.
Garreaud, R. D., Rutllant, J., Quintana, J., Carrasco, J., and Minnis, P.: CIMAR-5: A snapshot of the lower troposphere over the subtropical southeast Pacific, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 92, 2193–2208, 2001.
George, R. C. and Wood, R.: Subseasonal variability of low cloud radiative properties over the southeast Pacific Ocean, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 4047–4063, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-4047-2010, 2010.
Gerber, H., Arends, B. G., and Ackerman, A. S.: A new microphysics sensor for aircraft use, Atmos. Res., 31, 235–252, 1994.
Gerber, H., Frick, G., Malinowski, S. P., Brenguier J.-L., and Burnet, F.: Holes and entrainment in stratocumulus, J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 443–459, 2005.
Ghate, V. P., Albrecht, B. A., Fairall, C. W., and Weller, R. A.: Climatology of surface meteorology, surface fluxes, cloud fraction and radiative forcing over south-east Pacific from buoy observations, J. Climate, 22, 5227–5540, 2009.
Jiang, Q., Wang, S., and O'Neill, L.: Some Insights into the Characteristics and Dynamics of the Chilean Low-Level Coastal Jet, Mon. Weather Rev., 138, 3185–3206, 2010.
Kistler, R., Kalnay, E., Collins, W., Saha, S., White, G., Woollen, J., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Kanamitsu, M., Kousky, V., van den Dool, H., Jenne, R., and Fiorino, M.: The NCEP-NCAR 50-Year Reanalysis: Monthly Means CD-ROM and Documentation, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 82, 247–267, 2001.
Klein, S. A. and Hartmann, D. L.: The Seasonal Cycle of Low Stratiform Clouds, J. Climate, 6, 1587–1606, 1993.
Kollias, P., Fairall, C. W., Zuidema, P., Tomlinson, J., and Wick, G. A.: Observations of marine stratocumulus in SE Pacific during the PACS 2003 cruise, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L22110, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GL020751, 2004.
Minnis, P., Sun-Mack, S., Chen, Y., Khaiyer, M. M., Yi, Y., Ayers, J. K., Brown, R. R., Dong, X., Gibson, S. C., Heck, P. W., Lin, B., Nordeen, M. L., Nguyen, L., Palikonda, R., Smith Jr., W. L., Spangenberg, D. A., Trepte, Q. Z., and Xi, B.: CERES Edition-2 cloud property retrievals using TRMM VIRS and Terra and Aqua MODIS data, Part II: Examples of average results and comparisons with other data. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 49, 11, https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2011.2144602, 2011a.
Minnis, P., Sun-Mack, S., Young, D. F., Heck, P. W., Garber, D. P., Chen, Y., Spangenberg, D. A., Arduini, R. F., Trepte, Q. Z., Smith Jr., W. L., Ayers, J. K., Gibson, S. C., Miller, W. F., Chakrapani, V., Takano, Y., Liou, K.-N., Xie, Y., and Yang, P.: CERES Edition-2 cloud property retrievals using TRMM VIRS and Terra and Aqua MODIS data, Part I: Algorithms. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 49, 11, https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2011.2144601, 2011b.
O'Dell, C. W., Wentz, F. J., and Bennartz, R.: Cloud Liquid Water Path from Satellite-Based Passive Microwave Observations: A New Climatology over the Global Oceans, J. Climate, 21, 1721–1739, 2008.
Painemal, D. and Zuidema, P.: Microphysical variability in southeast Pacific Stratocumulus clouds: synoptic conditions and radiative response, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 6255–6269, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-6255-2010, 2010.
Pruppacher, H. R. and Klett, J. D.: Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation, 954 pp., Kluwer Acad., Dordrecht, Netherlands, 1997.
Rahn, D. A. and Garreaud, R.: Marine boundary layer over the subtropical southeast Pacific during VOCALS-REx – Part 1: Mean structure and diurnal cycle, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 4491–4506, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-4491-2010, 2010a.
Rahn, D. A. and Garreaud, R.: Marine boundary layer over the subtropical southeast Pacific during VOCALS-REx – Part 2: Synoptic variability, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 4507–4519, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-4507-2010, 2010b.
Rozendaal, M. and Rossow, W.: Characterizing Some of the Inuences of the General Circulation on Subtropical Marine Boundary Layer Clouds, J. Atmos. Sci., 60, 711–728, 2003.
Sandu, I., Brenguier, J.-L., Geoffroy, O., Thouron, O., and Masson, V.: Aerosol Impacts on the Diurnal Cycle of Marine Stratocumulus, J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 2705–2718, 2008.
Serpetzoglou, E., Albrecht, B. A., Kollias, P., and Fairall, C. W.: Boundary Layer, Cloud, and Drizzle Variability in the Southeast Pacific Stratocumulus Regime, J. Climate, 21, 6191–6214, 2008.
Sharon, T. M., Albrecht, B. A., Jonsson, H. H., Minnis, P., Khaiyer, M. M., Van Reken, T. M., Seinfeld, J., and Flagan, R.: Aerosol and cloud microphysical characteristics of rifts and gradients in maritime stratocumulus clouds, J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 983–997, 2006.
Stevens, B. and Feingold, G.: Untangling aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation in a buffered system, Nature, 461, 607–613, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08281, 2009.
Stevens, B., Lenschow, D. H., Vali, G., Gerber, H., Bandy, A., Blomquist, B., Brenguier, J.-L., Bretherton, C. S., Burnet, F., Campos, T., Chai, S., Faloona, I., Friesen, D., Haimov, S., Laursen, Lilly, D. K., Loehrer, S., Malinowski, S. P., Morley, B., and Petters, M. D.: Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus-DYCOMS-II, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 84, 579–593, 2003.
Stevens, B., Moeng, C.-H., Ackerman, A. S., Bretherton, C. S., Chlond, A., De Roode, S., Edwards, J., Golaz, J.-C., Jiang, H., Khairoutdinov, M., Kirkpatrick, M. P., Lewellen, D. C., Lock, A., Müller, F., Stevens, D. E., Whelan, E., and Zhu, P.: Evaluation of large-eddy simulations via observations of nocturnal marine stratocumulus, Mon. Weather Rev., 133, 1443–1462, 2005.
Toniazzo, T., Abel, S. J., Wood, R., Mechoso, C. R., Allen, G., and Shaffrey, L. C.: Large-scale and synoptic meteorology in the south-east Pacific during the observations campaign VOCALS-REx in austral Spring 2008, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 4977–5009, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-4977-2011, 2011.
Wang, S., O'Neill, L. W., Jiang, Q., de Szoeke, S. P., Hong, X., Jin, H., Thompson, W. T., and Zheng, X.: A regional real-time forecast of marine boundary layers during VOCALS-REx, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 421–437, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-421-2011, 2011.
Wood, R. and Bretherton, C. S.: Boundary Layer Depth, Entrainment, and Decoupling in the Cloud-Capped Subtropical and Tropical Marine Boundary Layer, J. Climate, 17, 3576–3588, 2004.
Wood, R., Mechoso, C. R., Bretherton, C. S., Weller, R. A., Huebert, B., Straneo, F., Albrecht, B. A., Coe, H., Allen, G., Vaughan, G., Daum, P., Fairall, C., Chand, D., Gallardo Klenner, L., Garreaud, R., Grados, C., Covert, D. S., Bates, T. S., Krejci, R., Russell, L. M., de Szoeke, S., Brewer, A., Yuter, S. E., Springston, S. R., Chaigneau, A., Toniazzo, T., Minnis, P., Palikonda, R., Abel, S. J., Brown, W. O. J., Williams, S., Fochesatto, J., Brioude, J., and Bower, K. N.: The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx): goals, platforms, and field operations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 627–654, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-627-2011, 2011.
Wyant, M. C., Wood, R., Bretherton, C. S., Mechoso, C. R., Bacmeister, J., Balmaseda, M. A., Barrett, B., Codron, F., Earnshaw, P., Fast, J., Hannay, C., Kaiser, J. W., Kitagawa, H., Klein, S. A., Köhler, M., Manganello, J., Pan, H.-L., Sun, F., Wang, S., and Wang, Y.: The PreVOCA experiment: modeling the lower troposphere in the Southeast Pacific, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 4757–4774, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-4757-2010, 2010.
Zheng, X., Albrecht, B. A., Minnis, P., Ayers, K., and Jonson, H. H.: Observed aerosol and liquid water path relationships in marine stratocumulus, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L17803, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL044095, 2010.
Zuidema, P., Painemal, D., de Szoeke, S., and Fairall, C.: Stratocumulus cloud-top height estimates and their climatic implications, J. Climate, 22, 4652–4666, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009jcli2708.1, 2009.