Articles | Volume 9, issue 19
07 Oct 2009
07 Oct 2009
Global carbon tetrachloride distributions obtained from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)
N. D. C. Allen et al.
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Remote Sensing | Altitude Range: Stratosphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Total column ozone in New Zealand and in the UK in the 1950sObservational evidence of EPP–NOx interaction with chlorine curbing Antarctic ozone lossStudy of the dependence of long-term stratospheric ozone trends on local solar timeTechnical note: LIMS observations of lower stratospheric ozone in the southern polar springtime of 1978Chlorine partitioning near the polar vortex edge observed with ground-based FTIR and satellites at Syowa Station, Antarctica, in 2007 and 2011Is the recovery of stratospheric O3 speeding up in the Southern Hemisphere? An evaluation from the first IASI decadal record (2008–2017)Nitrification of the lowermost stratosphere during the exceptionally cold Arctic winter 2015–2016Improved FTIR retrieval strategy for HCFC-22 (CHClF2), comparisons with in situ and satellite datasets with the support of models, and determination of its long-term trend above JungfraujochA study on harmonizing total ozone assimilation with multiple sensorsUnusual chlorine partitioning in the 2015/16 Arctic winter lowermost stratosphere: observations and simulationsDynamically controlled ozone decline in the tropical mid-stratosphere observed by SCIAMACHYStratospheric ozone loss in the Arctic winters between 2005 and 2013 derived with ACE-FTS measurementsSpace–time variability in UTLS chemical distribution in the Asian summer monsoon viewed by limb and nadir satellite sensorsUsing satellite measurements of N2O to remove dynamical variability from HCl measurementsMiddle atmospheric ozone, nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen trioxide in 2002–2011: SD-WACCM simulations compared to GOMOS observationsThe Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC): history, status and perspectivesSpatio-temporal variations of nitric acid total columns from 9 years of IASI measurements – a driver studyDiurnal variation in middle-atmospheric ozone observed by ground-based microwave radiometry at Ny-Ålesund over 1 yearTotal ozone trends from 1979 to 2016 derived from five merged observational datasets – the emergence into ozone recoveryThe impact of nonuniform sampling on stratospheric ozone trends derived from occultation instrumentsDiurnal variations of BrONO2 observed by MIPAS-B at midlatitudes and in the ArcticMerged SAGE II, Ozone_cci and OMPS ozone profile dataset and evaluation of ozone trends in the stratosphereReconciling differences in stratospheric ozone compositesAn update on ozone profile trends for the period 2000 to 2016Effect of volcanic aerosol on stratospheric NO2 and N2O5 from 2002–2014 as measured by Odin-OSIRIS and Envisat-MIPASResponse of trace gases to the disrupted 2015–2016 quasi-biennial oscillationExtending methane profiles from aircraft into the stratosphere for satellite total column validation using the ECMWF C-IFS and TOMCAT/SLIMCAT 3-D modelAn Atlantic streamer in stratospheric ozone observations and SD-WACCM simulation dataTwo mechanisms of stratospheric ozone loss in the Northern Hemisphere, studied using data assimilation of Odin/SMR atmospheric observationsProbing the subtropical lowermost stratosphere and the tropical upper troposphere and tropopause layer for inorganic bromineCase studies of the impact of orbital sampling on stratospheric trend detection and derivation of tropical vertical velocities: solar occultation vs. limb emission soundingSatellite observations of stratospheric hydrogen fluoride and comparisons with SLIMCAT calculationsThe representation of solar cycle signals in stratospheric ozone – Part 1: A comparison of recently updated satellite observationsA comparative analysis of UV nadir-backscatter and infrared limb-emission ozone data assimilationObservations of PAN and its confinement in the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone in high spatial resolutionPersistence of upper stratospheric wintertime tracer variability into the Arctic spring and summerGlobal HCFC-22 measurements with MIPAS: retrieval, validation, global distribution and its evolution over 2005–2012Sensitivity of polar stratospheric cloud formation to changes in water vapour and temperatureGlobal OZone Chemistry And Related trace gas Data records for the Stratosphere (GOZCARDS): methodology and sample results with a focus on HCl, H2O, and O3Variability in Antarctic ozone loss in the last decade (2004–2013): high-resolution simulations compared to Aura MLS observationsA Match-based approach to the estimation of polar stratospheric ozone loss using Aura Microwave Limb Sounder observationsPartitioning and budget of inorganic and organic chlorine species observed by MIPAS-B and TELIS in the Arctic in March 2011Sulfur dioxide (SO2) from MIPAS in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere 2002–2012Unusual stratospheric ozone anomalies observed in 22 years of measurements from Lauder, New ZealandPolar processing in a split vortex: Arctic ozone loss in early winter 2012/2013The decrease in mid-stratospheric tropical ozone since 1991Energetic particle induced intra-seasonal variability of ozone inside the Antarctic polar vortex observed in satellite dataIntercomparison of vertically resolved merged satellite ozone data sets: interannual variability and long-term trendsTrends of ozone total columns and vertical distribution from FTIR observations at eight NDACC stations around the globeStratospheric and mesospheric HO2 observations from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder
Stefan Brönnimann and Sylvia Nichol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14333–14346,Short summary
Historical column ozone data from New Zealand and the UK from the 1950s are digitised and re-evaluated. They allow studying the ozone layer prior to the era of ozone depletion. Day-to-day changes are addressed, which reflect the flow near the tropopause and hence may serve as a diagnostic for atmospheric circulation in a time and region of sparse radiosondes. A long-term comparison shows the amount of ozone depletion at southern mid-latitudes and indicates how far we are from full recovery.
Emily M. Gordon, Annika Seppälä, Bernd Funke, Johanna Tamminen, and Kaley A. Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Energetic Particle Precipitation (EPP) is the rain of solar energetic particles into the Earth's atmosphere. EPP is known to deplete O3 in the polar mesosphere-upper stratosphere via formation of NOx. NOx also causes chlorine deactivation in the lower stratosphere thus has been proposed to potentially result in reduced ozone depletion in the spring. We provide the first evidence to show that NOx formed by EPP is able to remove active chlorine, resulting in enhanced total ozone column.
Eliane Maillard Barras, Alexander Haefele, Liliane Nguyen, Fiona Tummon, William T. Ball, Eugene V. Rozanov, Rolf Rüfenacht, Klemens Hocke, Leonie Bernet, Niklaus Kämpfer, Gerald Nedoluha, and Ian Boyd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8453–8471,Short summary
To determine the part of the variability of the long-term ozone profile trends coming from measurement timing, we estimate microwave radiometer trends for each hour of the day with a multiple linear regression model. The variation in the trend with local solar time is not significant at the 95 % confidence level either in the stratosphere or in the low mesosphere. We conclude that systematic sampling differences between instruments cannot explain significant differences in trend estimates.
Ellis Remsberg, V. Lynn Harvey, Arlin Krueger, Larry Gordley, John C. Gille, and James M. Russell III
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3663–3668,Short summary
The Nimbus 7 limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere (LIMS) instrument operated from October 25, 1978, through May 28, 1979. This note focuses on the lower stratosphere of the southern hemisphere, subpolar regions in relation to the position of the polar vortex. Both LIMS ozone and nitric acid show reductions within the edge of the polar vortex at 46 hPa near 60° S from late October through mid-November 1978, indicating that there was a chemical loss of Antarctic ozone some weeks earlier.
Hideaki Nakajima, Isao Murata, Yoshihiro Nagahama, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Kosuke Saeki, Takeshi Kinase, Masanori Takeda, Yoshihiro Tomikawa, Eric Dupuy, and Nicholas B. Jones
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1043–1074,Short summary
This paper presents temporal evolution of stratospheric chlorine and minor species related to Antarctic ozone depletion, based on FTIR measurements at Syowa Station, and satellite measurements by MLS and MIPAS in 2007 and 2011. After chlorine reservoir species were processed on PSCs and active ClO was formed, different chlorine deactivation pathways into reservoir species were identified, depending on the relative location of Syowa Station to the polar vortex boundary.
Catherine Wespes, Daniel Hurtmans, Simon Chabrillat, Gaétane Ronsmans, Cathy Clerbaux, and Pierre-François Coheur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14031–14056,Short summary
This paper highlights the global fingerprint of recent changes in O3 in both the middle–upper and lower stratosphere from the first 10 years of the IASI/Metop-A satellite measurements. The results present the first detection of a significant O3 recovery at middle–high latitudes in winter–spring in the stratosphere as well as in the total column from one single dataset. They also show a speeding up in the recovery at high southern latitudes contrasting with a decline at northern mid-latitudes.
Marleen Braun, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Wolfgang Woiwode, Sören Johansson, Michael Höpfner, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Hermann Oelhaf, Peter Preusse, Jörn Ungermann, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Helmut Ziereis, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13681–13699,Short summary
We analyse nitrification of the LMS in the Arctic winter 2015–2016 based on GLORIA measurements. Vertical cross sections of HNO3 for several flights show complex fine–scale structures and enhanced values down to 9 km. The extent of overall nitrification is quantified based on HNO3–O3 correlations and reaches between 5 ppbv and 7 ppbv at potential temperature levels between 350 and 380 K. Further, we compare our result with the atmospheric model CLaMS.
Maxime Prignon, Simon Chabrillat, Daniele Minganti, Simon O'Doherty, Christian Servais, Gabriele Stiller, Geoffrey C. Toon, Martin K. Vollmer, and Emmanuel Mahieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12309–12324,Short summary
Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are the first, but temporary, substitution products for the strong ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). In this work, we present and validate an improved method to retrieve the most abundant HCFC in the atmosphere, allowing its evolution to be monitored independently in the troposphere and stratosphere. These kinds of contributions are fundamental for scrutinizing the fulfilment of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.
Yves J. Rochon, Michael Sitwell, and Young-Min Cho
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9431–9451,Short summary
This paper describes adaptable methodologies and results of bias correction applied for the assimilation of total column ozone data from different satellite instruments. The results demonstrate the capability of ensuring short-term forecast biases of total column ozone to be typically within 1 % of a reference for latitudinal ranges where measurements are available. The bias estimation and correction software can be utilized for measurements of other constituents.
Sören Johansson, Michelle L. Santee, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Michael Höpfner, Marleen Braun, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Oliver Kirner, Erik Kretschmer, Hermann Oelhaf, Johannes Orphal, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Ines Tritscher, Jörn Ungermann, Kaley A. Walker, and Wolfgang Woiwode
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8311–8338,Short summary
We present a study based on GLORIA aircraft and MLS/ACE-FTS/CALIOP satellite measurements during the Arctic winter 2015/16, which demonstrate (for the Arctic) unusual chlorine deactivation into HCl instead of ClONO2 due to low ozone abundances in the lowermost stratosphere, with a focus at 380 K potential temperature. The atmospheric models CLaMS and EMAC are evaluated, and measured ClONO2 is linked with transport and in situ deactivation in the lowermost stratosphere.
Evgenia Galytska, Alexey Rozanov, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip. S. Dhomse, Mark Weber, Carlo Arosio, Wuhu Feng, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 767–783,Short summary
In this study we analysed ozone changes in the tropical mid-stratosphere as observed by the SCIAMACHY instrument during 2004–2012. We used simulations from TOMCAT model with different chemical and dynamical forcings to reveal primary causes of ozone changes. We also considered measured NO2 and modelled NOx, NOx, and N2O data. With modelled AoA data we identified seasonal changes in the upwelling speed and explained how those changes affect N2O chemistry which leads to observed ozone changes.
Debora Griffin, Kaley A. Walker, Ingo Wohltmann, Sandip S. Dhomse, Markus Rex, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Gloria L. Manney, Jane Liu, and David Tarasick
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 577–601,Short summary
Ozone in the stratosphere is important to protect the Earth from UV radiation. Using measurements taken by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment satellite between 2005 and 2013, we examine different methods to calculate the ozone loss in the high Arctic and establish the altitude at which most of the ozone is destroyed. Our results show that the different methods agree within the uncertainties. Recommendations are made on which methods are most appropriate to use.
Jiali Luo, Laura L. Pan, Shawn B. Honomichl, John W. Bergman, William J. Randel, Gene Francis, Cathy Clerbaux, Maya George, Xiong Liu, and Wenshou Tian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12511–12530,Short summary
We analyze upper tropospheric CO and O3 using satellite data from limb-viewing (MLS) and nadir-viewing (IASI and OMI) sensors, together with dynamical variables, to examine how the two types of data complement each other in representing the chemical variability associated with the day-to-day dynamical variability in the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone. The results provide new observational evidence of eddy shedding in upper tropospheric CO distribution.
Richard S. Stolarski, Anne R. Douglass, and Susan E. Strahan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5691–5697,Short summary
Detecting trends in short data sets of stratospheric molecules is difficult because of variability due to dynamical fluctuations. We suggest that one way around this difficulty is using the measurements of one molecule to remove dynamical variability from the measurements of another molecule. We illustrate this using Aura MLS measurements of N2O to help us sort out issues in the determination of trends in HCl. This shows that HCl is decreasing throughout the middle stratosphere as expected.
Erkki Kyrölä, Monika E. Andersson, Pekka T. Verronen, Marko Laine, Simo Tukiainen, and Daniel R. Marsh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5001–5019,Short summary
In this work we compare three key constituents of the middle atmosphere (ozone, NO2, and NO3) from the GOMOS satellite instrument with the WACCM model. We find that in the stratosphere (below 50 km) ozone differences are very small, but in the mesosphere large deviations are found. GOMOS and WACCM NO2 agree reasonably well except in the polar areas. These differences can be connected to the solar particle storms. For NO3, WACCM results agree with GOMOS with a very high correlation.
Martine De Mazière, Anne M. Thompson, Michael J. Kurylo, Jeannette D. Wild, Germar Bernhard, Thomas Blumenstock, Geir O. Braathen, James W. Hannigan, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Thierry Leblanc, Thomas J. McGee, Gerald Nedoluha, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Gunther Seckmeyer, Paul C. Simon, Wolfgang Steinbrecht, and Susan E. Strahan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4935–4964,Short summary
This paper serves as an introduction to the special issue "Twenty-five years of operations of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC)". It describes the origins of the network, its actual status, and some perspectives for its future evolution in the context of atmospheric sciences.
Gaétane Ronsmans, Catherine Wespes, Daniel Hurtmans, Cathy Clerbaux, and Pierre-François Coheur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4403–4423,Short summary
The paper aims at understanding the variability of nitric acid (HNO3) in the stratosphere; 9-year time series of IASI measurements are analysed and, for the first time for HNO3, fitted with regression models in order to identify the factors at play. It was found that the annual variability is the main driver and that the polar stratospheric clouds influence greatly HNO3 variability at polar latitudes. The results show the potential of such analyses to better understand the polar processes.
Franziska Schranz, Susana Fernandez, Niklaus Kämpfer, and Mathias Palm
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4113–4130,Short summary
We present 1 year of ozone measurements form two ground-based microwave radiometers located at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. The ozone measurements cover an altitude range of 25–70 km altitude and have a high time resolution of 1–2 h. With these datasets and model data a comprehensive analysis of the ozone diurnal cycle in the Arctic is performed for the different insolation conditions throughout the year. In the stratosphere we find a diurnal cycle which persists over the whole polar day.
Mark Weber, Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Vitali E. Fioletov, Stacey M. Frith, Jeannette D. Wild, John P. Burrows, Craig S. Long, and Diego Loyola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2097–2117,Short summary
This paper commemorates the 30-year anniversary of the initial signing of the Montreal Protocol (MP) on substances that deplete the ozone layer. The MP is so far successful in reducing ozone-depleting substances, and total ozone decline was successfully stopped by the late 1990s. Total ozone levels have been mostly stable since then. In some regions, barely significant upward trends are observed that suggest an emergence into the expected ozone recovery phase.
Robert P. Damadeo, Joseph M. Zawodny, Ellis E. Remsberg, and Kaley A. Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 535–554,Short summary
An ozone trend analysis that compensates for sampling biases is applied to sparsely sampled occultation data sets. International assessments have noted deficiencies in past trend analyses and this work addresses those sources of uncertainty. The nonuniform sampling patterns in data sets and drifts between data sets can affect derived recovery trends by up to 2 % decade−1. The limitations inherent to all techniques are also described and a potential path forward towards resolution is presented.
Gerald Wetzel, Hermann Oelhaf, Michael Höpfner, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Andreas Ebersoldt, Thomas Gulde, Sebastian Kazarski, Oliver Kirner, Anne Kleinert, Guido Maucher, Hans Nordmeyer, Johannes Orphal, Roland Ruhnke, and Björn-Martin Sinnhuber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14631–14643,Short summary
We report the first stratospheric measurements of the diurnal variation in the inorganic bromine (Bry) reservoir species BrONO2 around sunrise and sunset. The main goal of these observations was to check the current understanding of stratospheric bromine chemistry and to estimate the amount of lower-stratospheric Bry. The calculated temporal variation in BrONO2 largely reproduces the balloon-borne observations. The amount of Bry was estimated to be about 21–25 pptv in the lower stratosphere.
Viktoria F. Sofieva, Erkki Kyrölä, Marko Laine, Johanna Tamminen, Doug Degenstein, Adam Bourassa, Chris Roth, Daniel Zawada, Mark Weber, Alexei Rozanov, Nabiz Rahpoe, Gabriele Stiller, Alexandra Laeng, Thomas von Clarmann, Kaley A. Walker, Patrick Sheese, Daan Hubert, Michel van Roozendael, Claus Zehner, Robert Damadeo, Joseph Zawodny, Natalya Kramarova, and Pawan K. Bhartia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12533–12552,Short summary
We present a merged dataset of ozone profiles from several satellite instruments: SAGE II, GOMOS, SCIAMACHY, MIPAS, OSIRIS, ACE-FTS and OMPS. For merging, we used the latest versions of the original ozone datasets. The merged SAGE–CCI–OMPS dataset is used for evaluating ozone trends in the stratosphere through multiple linear regression. Negative ozone trends in the upper stratosphere are observed before 1997 and positive trends are found after 1997.
William T. Ball, Justin Alsing, Daniel J. Mortlock, Eugene V. Rozanov, Fiona Tummon, and Joanna D. Haigh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12269–12302,Short summary
Several ozone composites show different decadal trends, even in composites built with the same data. We remove artefacts affecting trend analysis with a new method (BASIC) and construct an ozone composite, with uncertainties. We find a significant ozone recovery since 1998 in the midlatitude upper stratosphere, with no hemispheric difference. We recommend using a similar approach to construct a composite based on the original instrument data to improve stratospheric ozone trend estimates.
Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Lucien Froidevaux, Ryan Fuller, Ray Wang, John Anderson, Chris Roth, Adam Bourassa, Doug Degenstein, Robert Damadeo, Joe Zawodny, Stacey Frith, Richard McPeters, Pawan Bhartia, Jeannette Wild, Craig Long, Sean Davis, Karen Rosenlof, Viktoria Sofieva, Kaley Walker, Nabiz Rahpoe, Alexei Rozanov, Mark Weber, Alexandra Laeng, Thomas von Clarmann, Gabriele Stiller, Natalya Kramarova, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Thierry Leblanc, Richard Querel, Daan Swart, Ian Boyd, Klemens Hocke, Niklaus Kämpfer, Eliane Maillard Barras, Lorena Moreira, Gerald Nedoluha, Corinne Vigouroux, Thomas Blumenstock, Matthias Schneider, Omaira García, Nicholas Jones, Emmanuel Mahieu, Dan Smale, Michael Kotkamp, John Robinson, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Neil Harris, Birgit Hassler, Daan Hubert, and Fiona Tummon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10675–10690,Short summary
Thanks to the 1987 Montreal Protocol and its amendments, ozone-depleting chlorine (and bromine) in the stratosphere has declined slowly since the late 1990s. Improved and extended long-term ozone profile observations from satellites and ground-based stations confirm that ozone is responding as expected and has increased by about 2 % per decade since 2000 in the upper stratosphere, around 40 km altitude. At lower altitudes, however, ozone has not changed significantly since 2000.
Cristen Adams, Adam E. Bourassa, Chris A. McLinden, Chris E. Sioris, Thomas von Clarmann, Bernd Funke, Landon A. Rieger, and Douglas A. Degenstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8063–8080,Short summary
We measured the relationship between volcanic aerosol and trace gases in the stratosphere using the OSIRIS and MIPAS satellite instruments between 2002 and 2014. We found that levels of stratospheric NO2 and N2O5 both decreased significantly in the presence of volcanic aerosol. These decreases were consistent with the modeling results.
Olga V. Tweedy, Natalya A. Kramarova, Susan E. Strahan, Paul A. Newman, Lawrence Coy, William J. Randel, Mijeong Park, Darryn W. Waugh, and Stacey M. Frith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6813–6823,Short summary
In this study we examined the impact of unprecedented disruption in the wind pattern (the quasi-biennial oscillation, or QBO) in the tropical stratosphere (16–48 km above the ground) on chemicals very important to the stratospheric climate such as ozone (O3). During the 2016 boreal summer, total O3 is lower in the extratropics than during previous QBO cycles due to lifting forced from the disruption. This decrease in O3 led to the increase in surface UV index by 8.5 % compared to the 36 yr mean.
Shreeya Verma, Julia Marshall, Mark Parrington, Anna Agustí-Panareda, Sebastien Massart, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Christopher Wilson, and Christoph Gerbig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6663–6678,Short summary
Aircraft profiles are a useful reference for validation of satellite-based column-averaged dry air mole fraction data. However, these are available only up to about 9–13 km altitude and therefore need to be extended synthetically into the stratosphere using other sources. In this study, we analyse three different data sources that are available for extension of CH4 profiles by comparing the error introduced by each into the total column and provide recommendations regarding the best approach.
Klemens Hocke, Franziska Schranz, Eliane Maillard Barras, Lorena Moreira, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3445–3452,Short summary
Observation and simulation show an Atlantic ozone streamer along the edge region of the polar vortex in the northern middle stratosphere during winter. The Atlantic streamer has wind speeds of about 100 m/s and turns equatorward at a vortex erosion region. We compare the fields of stratospheric ozone and water vapour from ground- and space-based microwave radiometry and SD-WACCM simulations for a better understanding of non-linear transport processes in the middle atmosphere.
Kazutoshi Sagi, Kristell Pérot, Donal Murtagh, and Yvan Orsolini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1791–1803,Short summary
We assess and quantify the ozone loss driven by NOx, triggered by stratospheric warmings and the halogens-induced ozone loss, using data assimilation results over a decade. To illustrate the difference between halogen-induced loss and NOx-induced loss, we compared a relatively cold and stable winter (2010/2011) with a composite calculation of four winters (2003/2004, 2005/2006, 2008/2009 and 2012/2013) which were all affected by a major mid-winter sudden stratospheric warming event.
Bodo Werner, Jochen Stutz, Max Spolaor, Lisa Scalone, Rasmus Raecke, James Festa, Santo Fedele Colosimo, Ross Cheung, Catalina Tsai, Ryan Hossaini, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Giorgio S. Taverna, Wuhu Feng, James W. Elkins, David W. Fahey, Ru-Shan Gao, Erik J. Hintsa, Troy D. Thornberry, Free Lee Moore, Maria A. Navarro, Elliot Atlas, Bruce C. Daube, Jasna Pittman, Steve Wofsy, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1161–1186,Short summary
The paper reports on inorganic and organic bromine measured in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) over the eastern Pacific in early 2013. Bryinorg is found to increase from a mean of 2.63 ± 1.04 ppt for θ in the range of 350–360 K to 5.11 ± 1.57 ppt for θ=390 ± 400 K, whereas in the subtropical lower stratosphere, it reaches 7.66 ± 2.95 ppt for θ in the range of 390–400 K. Within the TTL, total bromine is found to range from 20.3 ppt to 22.3 ppt.
Luis F. Millán, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Michelle L. Santee, Jessica L. Neu, Gloria L. Manney, and Ryan A. Fuller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11521–11534,Short summary
This paper describes the impact of orbital sampling applied to stratospheric temperature and trace gas fields. Model fields are sampled using real sampling patterns from different satellites. We find that coarse nonuniform sampling patterns may introduce non-negligible errors into the inferred magnitude of temperature and trace gas trends and necessitate considerably longer records for their definitive detection.
Jeremy J. Harrison, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Christopher D. Boone, Sandip S. Dhomse, Peter F. Bernath, Lucien Froidevaux, John Anderson, and James Russell III
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10501–10519,Short summary
HF, the dominant stratospheric fluorine reservoir, results from the atmospheric degradation of anthropogenic species such as CFCs, HCFCs, and HFCs. All are strong greenhouse gases, and CFCs and HCFCs deplete stratospheric ozone. We report the comparison of HF global distributions and trends measured by the ACE-FTS and HALOE satellite instruments with the output of SLIMCAT, a chemical transport model. The global HF trends reveal a slowing down in the rate of increase of HF since the 1990s.
Amanda C. Maycock, Katja Matthes, Susann Tegtmeier, Rémi Thiéblemont, and Lon Hood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10021–10043,Short summary
The impact of changes in incoming solar radiation on stratospheric ozone has important impacts on the atmosphere. Understanding this ozone response is crucial for constraining how solar activity affects climate. This study analyses the solar ozone response (SOR) in satellite datasets and shows that there are substantial differences in the magnitude and spatial structure across different records. In particular, the SOR in the new SAGE v7.0 mixing ratio data is smaller than in the previous v6.2.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8539–8557,Short summary
We present an assessment of ultraviolet nadir-backscatter and infrared limb-emission ozone data assimilation. Understanding the differences in the impact produced by the assimilation of limb and nadir ozone data is relevant to many applications, including climate reanalysis and air quality. The results show the potential and limitations of each dataset and support the need for a more balanced long-term availability of both types of sensors than currently envisaged.
Jörn Ungermann, Mandfred Ern, Martin Kaufmann, Rolf Müller, Reinhold Spang, Felix Ploeger, Bärbel Vogel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8389–8403,Short summary
This paper presents an analysis of temperature and the trace gases PAN and O3 in the Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) region. The positive PAN anomaly consisting of polluted air is confined vertically within the main ASM anticyclone, whereas a recently shed eddy exhibits enhanced PAN VMRs for 1 to 2 km above the thermal tropopause. This implies that eddy shedding provides a very rapid horizontal transport pathway of Asian pollution into the extratropical lowermost stratosphere.
David E. Siskind, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Fabrizio Sassi, Pingping Rong, Scott M. Bailey, Mark E. Hervig, and Cora E. Randall
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7957–7967,Short summary
The strong descent of wintertime mesospheric air into the stratosphere has been of great recent interest. Here, we show that because mesospheric air is depleted in methane, it implies that chlorine will be found more in its active form, chlorine monoxide. This is a new way for mesosphere/stratosphere coupling to affect ozone. Second, these effects seem to persist longer than previously thought. Studies of the summer upper stratosphere should consider the conditions from the previous winter.
M. Chirkov, G. P. Stiller, A. Laeng, S. Kellmann, T. von Clarmann, C. D. Boone, J. W. Elkins, A. Engel, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, C. M. Harth, M. Kiefer, F. Kolonjari, P. B. Krummel, A. Linden, C. R. Lunder, B. R. Miller, S. A. Montzka, J. Mühle, S. O'Doherty, J. Orphal, R. G. Prinn, G. Toon, M. K. Vollmer, K. A. Walker, R. F. Weiss, A. Wiegele, and D. Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3345–3368,Short summary
HCFC-22 global distributions from MIPAS measurements for 2005 to 2012 are presented. Tropospheric trends are in good agreement with ground-based observations. A layer of enhanced HCFC-22 in the upper tropospheric tropics and northern subtropics is identified to come from Asian sources uplifted in the Asian monsoon. Stratospheric distributions provide show seasonal, semi-annual, and QBO-related variations. Hemispheric asymmetries of trends hint towards a change in the stratospheric circulation.
F. Khosrawi, J. Urban, S. Lossow, G. Stiller, K. Weigel, P. Braesicke, M. C. Pitts, A. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, and D. Murtagh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 101–121,Short summary
Our sensitivity studies based on air parcel trajectories confirm that Polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation is quite sensitive to water vapour and temperature changes. Considering water vapour time series from satellite measurements we do not find a consistent, significant trend in water vapour in the lower stratosphere during the past 15 years (2000–2014). Thus, the severe dentrification observed in 2010/2011 cannot be directly related to increases in stratospheric water vapour.
L. Froidevaux, J. Anderson, H.-J. Wang, R. A. Fuller, M. J. Schwartz, M. L. Santee, N. J. Livesey, H. C. Pumphrey, P. F. Bernath, J. M. Russell III, and M. P. McCormick
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10471–10507,
J. Kuttippurath, S. Godin-Beekmann, F. Lefèvre, M. L. Santee, L. Froidevaux, and A. Hauchecorne
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10385–10397,Short summary
Our study finds large interannual variability in Antarctic ozone loss in the recent decade, with a number of winters showing shallow ozone holes but also with the year of the largest ozone hole in the last decades. These smaller ozone holes or ozone losses are mainly related to the year-to-year changes in dynamical processes rather than the variations in anthropogenic ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), as the change in ODS levels during the study period was very small.
N. J. Livesey, M. L. Santee, and G. L. Manney
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9945–9963,Short summary
Employing the well-established "Match" technique, we quantify polar stratospheric ozone loss during multiple Arctic and Antarctic winters, based on observations from the spaceborne Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument. The dense MLS spatial coverage enables many more matches than is possible for balloon-based observations. Applying the same technique to MLS observations of the long-lived N2O molecule gives an measure of the impact of transport errors on our ozone loss estimates.
G. Wetzel, H. Oelhaf, M. Birk, A. de Lange, A. Engel, F. Friedl-Vallon, O. Kirner, A. Kleinert, G. Maucher, H. Nordmeyer, J. Orphal, R. Ruhnke, B.-M. Sinnhuber, and P. Vogt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8065–8076,
M. Höpfner, C. D. Boone, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, A. Günther, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, S. Lossow, H. C. Pumphrey, W. G. Read, A. Roiger, G. Stiller, H. Schlager, T. von Clarmann, and K. Wissmüller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7017–7037,
G. E. Nedoluha, I. S. Boyd, A. Parrish, R. M. Gomez, D. R. Allen, L. Froidevaux, B. J. Connor, and R. R. Querel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6817–6826,Short summary
This paper highlights 2 unusual mid-stratospheric O3 anomalies in our 22-year ground-based data set. One of these is a large month long increase in June 2001 which we are able to associate with very unusually low equatorial air which persists over Lauder for much of June. The other O3 anomaly persists for ~4 years; using MLS data, we show that this is associated with unusually high N2O during this period. During this period there is also a low O3 and N2O anomaly in the tropics.
G. L. Manney, Z. D. Lawrence, M. L. Santee, N. J. Livesey, A. Lambert, and M. C. Pitts
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5381–5403,Short summary
Sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) cause a rapid rise in lower stratospheric temperatures, terminating conditions favorable to chemical ozone loss. We show that although temperatures rose precipitously during the vortex split SSW in early Jan 2013, because the offspring vortices each remained isolated and in regions that received sunlight, chemical ozone loss continued for over 1 month after the SSW. Dec/Jan Arctic ozone loss was larger than any previously observed during that period.
G. E. Nedoluha, D. E. Siskind, A. Lambert, and C. Boone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4215–4224,Short summary
While global stratospheric O3 has begun to recover, there are localized regions where O3 has decreased since 1991. O3 in the mid-stratosphere is very sensitive to nitrogen chemistry, with increased NOy resulting in decreased O3. We show how the observed O3 changes in the tropical mid-stratosphere can be caused by long-term variations in dynamics. These variations result in a decrease in N2O, an increase in NOy, and a resulting decrease in O3.
T. Fytterer, M. G. Mlynczak, H. Nieder, K. Pérot, M. Sinnhuber, G. Stiller, and J. Urban
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3327–3338,Short summary
Energetic particles from the sun produce NOx (=N+NO+NO2) in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere. The NOx can be transported downward in the stratosphere during polar winter where NOx eventually depletes O3. This entire chain is the so-called energetic particle precipitation (EPP) indirect effect. Here we show downward propagating negative stratospheric O3 anomalies during Antarctic polar winter. The O3 anomalies are caused by geomagnetic activity and show strong hints of the EPP indirect effect.
F. Tummon, B. Hassler, N. R. P. Harris, J. Staehelin, W. Steinbrecht, J. Anderson, G. E. Bodeker, A. Bourassa, S. M. Davis, D. Degenstein, S. M. Frith, L. Froidevaux, E. Kyrölä, M. Laine, C. Long, A. A. Penckwitt, C. E. Sioris, K. H. Rosenlof, C. Roth, H.-J. Wang, and J. Wild
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3021–3043,Short summary
Understanding ozone trends in the vertical is vital in terms of assessing the success of the Montreal Protocol. This paper compares and analyses the long-term trends in stratospheric ozone from seven new merged satellite data sets. The data sets largely agree well with each other, particularly for the negative trends seen in the early period 1984-1997. For the 1998-2011 period there is less agreement, but a clear shift from negative to mostly positive trends.
C. Vigouroux, T. Blumenstock, M. Coffey, Q. Errera, O. García, N. B. Jones, J. W. Hannigan, F. Hase, B. Liley, E. Mahieu, J. Mellqvist, J. Notholt, M. Palm, G. Persson, M. Schneider, C. Servais, D. Smale, L. Thölix, and M. De Mazière
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2915–2933,
L. Millán, S. Wang, N. Livesey, D. Kinnison, H. Sagawa, and Y. Kasai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2889–2902,
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