Articles | Volume 19, issue 8
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Insights into the morphology of multicomponent organic and inorganic aerosols from molecular dynamics simulations
Katerina S. Karadima
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Patras, 26504, Greece
Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (ICE–HT/FORTH), Patras, 26504, Greece
Vlasis G. Mavrantzas
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Patras, 26504, Greece
Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (ICE–HT/FORTH), Patras, 26504, Greece
Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zürich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
Spyros N. Pandis
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Patras, 26504, Greece
Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (ICE–HT/FORTH), Patras, 26504, Greece
Department of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
No articles found.
Stella E. I. Manavi and Spyros N. Pandis
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).Short summary
Organic vapors of intermediate volatility have often been neglected as sources of atmospheric organic aerosol. In this work we use a new approach for their simulation and quantify the contribution of these compounds emitted by transportation sources (gasoline and diesel vehicles) to particulate matter over Europe. The estimated secondary organic aerosol levels are on average 60 % higher than predicted by previous approaches. However, these estimates are probably lower limits.
Alexandros Milousis, Alexandra P. Tsimpidi, Holger Tost, Spyros N. Pandis, Athanasios Nenes, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, and Vlassis A. Karydis
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
This study aims to evaluate the newly developed ISORROPIA-lite aerosol thermodynamic module within the EMAC model and explore discrepancies in global atmospheric simulations of aerosol composition and acidity by utilizing different aerosol phase states. Even though local differences were found in regions where the RH ranged from 20 % to 60 %, on a global scale the results are similar. Therefore, ISORROPIA-lite can be a reliable and computationally effective replacement of ISORROPIA-II in EMAC.
Andreas Aktypis, Christos Kaltsonoudis, David Patoulias, Panayiotis Kalkavouras, Angeliki Matrali, Christina N. Vasilakopoulou, Evangelia Kostenidou, Kalliopi Florou, Nikos Kalivitis, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Stergios Vratolis, Maria I. Gini, Athanasios Kouras, Constantini Samara, Mihalis Lazaridis, Sofia-Eirini Chatoutsidou, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, and Spyros N. Pandis
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).Short summary
Extensive continuous particle number size distribution measurements took place during two summers (2020 and 2021) in 11 sites in Greece for the investigation of the frequency and the spatial extent of new particle formation. The frequency during summer varied from close to zero in southwestern Greece to more than 60 % in the northern, central, and eastern regions. The spatial variability can be explained by the proximity of the sites to coal-fired power plants and agricultural areas.
Amir Yazdani, Satoshi Takahama, John K. Kodros, Marco Paglione, Mauro Masiol, Stefania Squizzato, Kalliopi Florou, Christos Kaltsonoudis, Spiro D. Jorga, Spyros N. Pandis, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7461–7477,Short summary
Organic aerosols directly emitted from wood and pellet stove combustion are found to chemically transform (approximately 15 %–35 % by mass) under daytime aging conditions simulated in an environmental chamber. A new marker for lignin-like compounds is found to degrade at a different rate than previously identified biomass burning markers and can potentially provide indication of aging time in ambient samples.
Petro Uruci, Dontavious Sippial, Anthoula Drosatou, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3155–3172,Short summary
In this work we develop an algorithm for the synthesis of the measurements performed in atmospheric simulation chambers regarding the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Novel features of the algorithm are its ability to use measurements of SOA yields, thermodenuders, and isothermal dilution; its estimation of parameters that can be used directly in atmospheric chemical transport models; and finally its estimates of the uncertainty in SOA formation yields.
Christina N. Vasilakopoulou, Kalliopi Florou, Christos Kaltsonoudis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2837–2850,Short summary
The offline aerosol mass spectrometry technique is a useful tool for the source apportionment of organic aerosol in areas and periods during which an aerosol mass spectrometer is not available. In this work, an improved offline technique was developed and evaluated in an effort to capture most of the partially soluble and insoluble organic aerosol material, reducing the uncertainty of the corresponding source apportionment significantly.
Stylianos Kakavas, Spyros Pandis, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Water uptake from organic species in aerosol can affect the partitioning of semi-volatile inorganic compounds, but are not considered in global and chemical transport models. We address this with a version of the PM-CAMx model that considers such organic water effects and use it to carry out year-long aerosol simulations over the continental US. We show that such organic water impacts can have an important impact on dry PM1 levels when RH levels and PM1 concentrations are high.
Spiro D. Jorga, Kalliopi Florou, David Patoulias, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 85–97,Short summary
We take advantage of this unexpected low, new particle formation frequency in Greece and use a dual atmospheric simulation chamber system with starting point ambient air in an effort to gain insight about the chemical species that is limiting nucleation in this area. A potential nucleation precursor, ammonia, was added in one of the chambers while the other one was used as a reference. The addition of ammonia assisted new particle formation in almost 50 % of the experiments conducted.
Brian T. Dinkelacker, Pablo Garcia Rivera, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Peter J. Adams, and Spyros N. Pandis
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8899–8912,Short summary
The performance of a chemical transport model in reproducing PM2.5 concentrations and composition was evaluated at the finest scale using measurements from regulatory sites as well as a network of low-cost monitors. Total PM2.5 mass is reproduced well by the model during the winter when compared to regulatory measurements, but in the summer PM2.5 is underpredicted, mainly due to difficulties in reproducing regional secondary organic aerosol levels.
Christina Vasilakopoulou, Iasonas Stavroulas, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6419–6431,Short summary
Offline aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements can provide valuable information about ambient organic aerosols when online AMS measurements are not available. In this study, we examine whether and how the low time resolution (usually 24 h) of the offline technique affects source apportionment results. We concluded that use of the daily averages resulted in estimated average contributions that were within 8 % of the total OA compared with the high-resolution analysis.
Stella E. I. Manavi and Spyros N. Pandis
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 7731–7749,Short summary
The paper describes the first step towards the development of a simulation framework for the chemistry and secondary organic aerosol production of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs). These compounds can be a significant source of organic particulate matter. Our approach treats IVOCs as lumped compounds that retain their chemical characteristics. Estimated IVOC emissions from road transport were a factor of 8 higher than emissions used in previous applications.
Aristeidis Voliotis, Mao Du, Yu Wang, Yunqi Shao, Thomas J. Bannan, Michael Flynn, Spyros N. Pandis, Carl J. Percival, M. Rami Alfarra, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13677–13693,Short summary
The addition of a low-yield precursor to the reactive mixture of aVOC and bVOC can increase or decrease the SOA volatility that is system-dependent. Therefore, the SOA volatility of the mixtures cannot always be predicted based on the additivity. In complex mixtures the formation of lower-volatility products likely outweighs the formation of products with higher volatility. The unique products of each mixture contribute significantly to the signal, suggesting interactions can be important.
Brian T. Dinkelacker, Pablo Garcia Rivera, Ksakousti Skyllakou, Peter J. Adams, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
A number of factors have influenced the biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) levels in the southeastern US from 2001 to 2010. The increases in temperature have led to an increase of the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds by trees and a corresponding increase of the SOA. However, this increase has been balanced by the reductions in the anthropogenic emissions of organic gases and particulate matter as well as of the oxides of nitrogen keeping the biogenic SOA roughly constant.
Pablo Garcia Rivera, Brian T. Dinkelacker, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Peter J. Adams, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2011–2027,Short summary
The contribution of various pollution sources to the variability of fine PM in an urban area was examined using as an example the city of Pittsburgh. Biomass burning aerosol shows the largest variability during the winter with local maxima within the city and in the suburbs. During both periods the largest contributing source to the average PM2.5 is particles from outside the modeling domain. The average population-weighted PM2.5 concentration does not change significantly with resolution.
David Patoulias and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1689–1706,Short summary
Our simulations indicate that the recently identified production and subsequent condensation effect of extremely low-volatility organic compounds have a smaller-than-expected effect on the total concentration of atmospheric particles. On the other hand, the oxidation of intermediate-volatility organic compounds leads to decreases in the ultrafine-particle concentrations. These results improve our understanding of the links between secondary organic aerosol formation and ultrafine particles.
Miska Olin, David Patoulias, Heino Kuuluvainen, Jarkko V. Niemi, Topi Rönkkö, Spyros N. Pandis, Ilona Riipinen, and Miikka Dal Maso
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1131–1148,Short summary
An emission factor particle size distribution was determined from the measurements at an urban traffic site. It was used in updating a pre-existing emission inventory, and regional modeling was performed after the update. Emission inventories typically underestimate nanoparticle emissions due to challenges in determining them with high certainty. This update reveals that the simulated aerosol levels have previously been underestimated especially for urban areas and for sub-50 nm particles.
Ksakousti Skyllakou, Pablo Garcia Rivera, Brian Dinkelacker, Eleni Karnezi, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Carlos Hernandez, Peter J. Adams, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17115–17132,Short summary
Significant reductions in pollutant emissions took place in the US from 1990 to 2010. The reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions from electric-generating units have dominated the reductions in fine particle mass. The reductions in transportation emissions have led to a 30 % reduction of elemental concentrations and of organic particulate matter by a factor of 3. On the other hand, changes in biomass burning and biogenic secondary organic aerosol have been modest.
Spiro D. Jorga, Kalliopi Florou, Christos Kaltsonoudis, John K. Kodros, Christina Vasilakopoulou, Manuela Cirtog, Axel Fouqueau, Bénédicte Picquet-Varrault, Athanasios Nenes, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15337–15349,Short summary
We test the hypothesis that significant secondary organic aerosol production can take place even during winter nights through the oxidation of the emitted organic vapors by the nitrate radicals produced during the reaction of ozone and nitrogen oxides. Our experiments, using as a starting point the ambient air of an urban area with high biomass burning activity, demonstrate that, even with sunlight, there is 20 %–70 % additional organic aerosol formed in a few hours.
Aristeidis Voliotis, Yu Wang, Yunqi Shao, Mao Du, Thomas J. Bannan, Carl J. Percival, Spyros N. Pandis, M. Rami Alfarra, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14251–14273,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from mixtures of volatile precursors can be affected by the molecular interactions of the products. Composition and volatility measurements of SOA formed from mixtures of anthropogenic and biogenic precursors reveal processes that can increase or decrease the SOA volatility. The unique products of the mixture were more oxygenated and less volatile than those from either precursor. Analytical context is provided to explore the SOA volatility in mixtures.
Athanasios Nenes, Spyros N. Pandis, Maria Kanakidou, Armistead G. Russell, Shaojie Song, Petros Vasilakos, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6023–6033,Short summary
Ecosystems and air quality are affected by the dry deposition of inorganic reactive nitrogen (Nr, the sum of ammonium and nitrate). Its large variability is driven by the large difference in deposition velocity of N when in the gas or particle phase. Here we show that aerosol liquid water and acidity, by affecting gas–particle partitioning, modulate the dry deposition velocity of NH3, HNO3, and Nr worldwide. These effects explain the rapid accumulation of nitrate aerosol during haze events.
Georgia N. Theodoritsi, Giancarlo Ciarelli, and Spyros N. Pandis
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2041–2055,Short summary
Two schemes based on the volatility basis set were used for the simulation of biomass burning organic aerosol (bbOA) in the continental US. The first is the default scheme of the PMCAMx-SR model, and the second is a recently developed scheme based on laboratory experiments. The alternative bbOA scheme predicts much higher concentrations. The default scheme performed better during summer and fall, while the alternative scheme was a little better during spring.
Weiqi Xu, Chun Chen, Yanmei Qiu, Ying Li, Zhiqiang Zhang, Eleni Karnezi, Spyros N. Pandis, Conghui Xie, Zhijie Li, Jiaxing Sun, Nan Ma, Wanyun Xu, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Jiang Zhu, Douglas R. Worsnop, Nga Lee Ng, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5463–5476,Short summary
Here aerosol volatility and viscosity at a rural site (Gucheng) and an urban site (Beijing) in the North China Plain (NCP) were investigated in summer and winter. Our results showed that organic aerosol (OA) in winter in the NCP is more volatile than that in summer due to enhanced primary emissions from coal combustion and biomass burning. We also found that OA existed mainly as a solid in winter in Beijing but as semisolids in Beijing in summer and Gucheng in winter.
Stylianos Kakavas, David Patoulias, Maria Zakoura, Athanasios Nenes, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 799–811,Short summary
The dependence of aerosol acidity on particle size, location, and altitude over Europe during a summertime period is investigated. Differences of up to 1–4 pH units are predicted between sub- and supermicron particles in northern and southern Europe. Particles of all sizes become increasingly acidic with altitude (0.5–2.5 pH units decrease over 2.5 km). The size-dependent pH differences carry important implications for pH-sensitive processes in the aerosol.
Antonios Tasoglou, Evangelos Louvaris, Kalliopi Florou, Aikaterini Liangou, Eleni Karnezi, Christos Kaltsonoudis, Ningxin Wang, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11625–11637,Short summary
A month-long set of summertime measurements in a remote area in the Mediterranean is used to quantify aerosol absorption. The measured light absorption was two or more times higher than that of fresh black carbon. The absorption enhancement due to the coating of black carbon cores by other aerosol components could explain only part of this absorption enhancement. The rest was due to brown carbon, mostly in the form of extremely low volatility organic compounds.
Athanasios Nenes, Spyros N. Pandis, Rodney J. Weber, and Armistead Russell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3249–3258,Short summary
We show that aerosol acidity (pH) and liquid water content naturally emerge as previously ignored parameters that drive particulate matter formation in the atmosphere, and its sensitivity to emissions of ammonia and nitric acid. The simple framework presented is easily applied to ambient measurements or model output, and it provides the
chemical regimeof PM sensitivity to ammonia and nitric acid availability.
Weiqi Xu, Conghui Xie, Eleni Karnezi, Qi Zhang, Junfeng Wang, Spyros N. Pandis, Xinlei Ge, Jingwei Zhang, Junling An, Qingqing Wang, Jian Zhao, Wei Du, Yanmei Qiu, Wei Zhou, Yao He, Ying Li, Jie Li, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10205–10216,Short summary
We present the first aerosol volatility measurements in Beijing in summer using a thermodenuder coupled with aerosol mass spectrometers. Our results showed that organic aerosol (OA) comprised mainly semi-volatile organic compounds in summer, and the freshly oxidized secondary OA was the most volatile component. We also found quite different volatility distributions in black-carbon-containing primary and secondary OA, ambient OA, ambient secondary OA and the WRF-Chem model.
Christos Kaltsonoudis, Spiro D. Jorga, Evangelos Louvaris, Kalliopi Florou, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2733–2743,Short summary
A portable dual-smog-chamber system was developed using two identical pillow-shaped smog chambers surrounded by UV lamps. The system has been designed to use ambient air as the starting point of the experiments. It can be easily disassembled and transported, enabling the study of various atmospheric environments and it can be used with natural sunlight. The results of test experiments using ambient air are discussed as examples of applications of this system.
Georgia N. Theodoritsi and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5403–5415,Short summary
The chemical transport model PMCAMx was extended to investigate the effects of partitioning and photochemical aging of biomass burning emissions on organic aerosol (OA) concentrations and was applied in Europe. During the summer, the contribution of biomass burning to total OA levels over continental Europe was 16 % and during winter 47 %. Intermediate volatility organic compounds are predicted to be important precursors of secondary OA from biomass burning.
Anthoula D. Drosatou, Ksakousti Skyllakou, Georgia N. Theodoritsi, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 973–986,Short summary
The ability of positive matrix factorization (PMF) factor analysis to identify and quantify the organic aerosol (OA) sources accurately is tested in this modeling study. The estimated uncertainty of the contribution of fresh biomass burning is less than 30 % and of the other primary sources is less than 40 %, when these sources contribute more than 20 % to the OA. Τhe first oxygenated OA factor includes mainly highly aged OA, while the second oxygenated OA factor contains fresher secondary OA.
Ningxin Wang, Spiro D. Jorga, Jeffery R. Pierce, Neil M. Donahue, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6577–6588,Short summary
The interaction of particles with the chamber walls has been a significant source of uncertainty when analyzing results of secondary organic aerosol formation experiments performed in Teflon chambers. We evaluated the performance of several particle wall-loss correction methods for aging experiments of α-pinene ozonolysis products. Experimental procedures are proposed for the characterization of particle losses during different stages of these experiments.
David Patoulias, Christos Fountoukis, Ilona Riipinen, Ari Asmi, Markku Kulmala, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13639–13654,Short summary
PMCAMx-UF, a 3-D chemical transport model focusing on the simulation of ultrafine particles, has been extended with the addition of the volatility basis set (VBS) approach for the simulation of organic aerosol. The model was applied in Europe and its predictions were evaluated against field observations collected during the PEGASOS 2012 campaign. The condensation of organics led to an increase (50–120 %) in the larger particles but the total number concentration decreased by 10–30 %.
Alexandra P. Tsimpidi, Vlassis A. Karydis, Andrea Pozzer, Spyros N. Pandis, and Jos Lelieveld
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3369–3389,Short summary
A new module, ORACLE 2-D, that calculates the concentrations of surrogate organic species in two-dimensional space defined by volatility and oxygen-to-carbon ratio has been developed and evaluated. ORACLE 2-D uses a simple photochemical aging scheme that efficiently simulates the net effects of fragmentation and functionalization. ORACLE 2-D can be used to compute the ability of organic particles to act as cloud condensation nuclei and serves as a tool to quantify their climatic impact.
Eleni Karnezi, Benjamin N. Murphy, Laurent Poulain, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, Florian Rubach, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Thomas F. Mentel, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10759–10772,Short summary
Different parameterizations of the organic aerosol (OA) formation and evolution are evaluated using ground and airborne measurements collected in the 2012 PEGASOS field campaign in the Po Valley (Italy). Total OA concentration and O : C ratios were reproduced within experimental error by a number of schemes. Anthropogenic secondary OA (SOA) contributed 15–25 % of the total OA, 20–35 % of SOA from intermediate volatility compounds oxidation, and 15–45 % of biogenic SOA depending on the scheme.
Evangelia Kostenidou, Eleni Karnezi, James R. Hite Jr., Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Kate Cerully, Lu Xu, Nga L. Ng, Athanasios Nenes, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5799–5819,Short summary
The volatility distribution of organic aerosol (OA) and its sources during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) was estimated. The volatility distribution of all components covered a wide range including both semi-volatile and low-volatility components. The oxygen content of the factors can be combined with their estimated volatility and hygroscopicity to provide a better view of their physical properties.
Ningxin Wang, Evangelia Kostenidou, Neil M. Donahue, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3589–3601,Short summary
This study investigates aging in the α-pinene ozonolysis system with hydroxyl radicals (OH) through smog chamber experiments. After an equivalent of 2–4 days of typical atmospheric oxidation conditions, homogeneous OH oxidation of the α-pinene ozonolysis products resulted in a 20–40 % net increase in the organic aerosol concentration and an increase in aerosol O : C by up to 0.04. The relative humidity in the 5–50 % range had a minimum effect on aging.
Kerrigan P. Cain and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4865–4876,Short summary
Hygroscopicity, oxidation level, and volatility of organic pollutants are three crucial properties that determine their fate in the atmosphere. This study assesses the feasibility of a novel measurement and analysis technique to determine these properties of organic aerosol components at the same time and to establish their relationship.
Evangelos E. Louvaris, Eleni Karnezi, Evangelia Kostenidou, Christos Kaltsonoudis, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3909–3918,Short summary
A method for the determination of the organic aerosol volatility distribution combining thermodenuder and isothermal dilution measurements is developed. The approach was tested in experiments that were conducted in a smog chamber using organic aerosol produced during meat charbroiling. Addition of the dilution measurements to the thermodenuder data results in a lower uncertainty of the estimated vaporization enthalpy as well as the semivolatile content of the aerosol.
Alexandra P. Tsimpidi, Vlassis A. Karydis, Spyros N. Pandis, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7345–7364,Short summary
We analyzed the sensitivity of model-predicted global-scale OA to parameters and assumptions that control primary emissions, photochemical aging, and the scavenging efficiency of LVOCs, SVOCs, and IVOCs. The simulated OA concentrations were evaluated against a global dataset of AMS measurements. According to our analysis, a combination of increased IVOCs and decreased hygroscopicity of the freshly emitted IVOCs can help reduce discrepancies between simulated SOA and observed OOA concentrations.
Christos Kaltsonoudis, Evangelia Kostenidou, Evangelos Louvaris, Magda Psichoudaki, Epameinondas Tsiligiannis, Kalliopi Florou, Aikaterini Liangou, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7143–7155,Short summary
Cooking emissions can be a significant source of particulate matter in urban areas. In this study the aerosol- and gas-phase emissions from meat charbroiling were characterized. More than 99% of the aerosol emitted was composed of organic compounds. The fresh particles were similar to the cooking organic aerosol over Greek cities during the winter, while the reacted particles were similar to those found in the atmosphere during the summer.
Kalliopi Florou, Dimitrios K. Papanastasiou, Michael Pikridas, Christos Kaltsonoudis, Evangelos Louvaris, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, David Patoulias, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3145–3163,Short summary
The composition of fine particulate matter (PM) in two major Greek cities (Athens and Patras) was measured during two wintertime campaigns in 2012 and 2013. Residential wood burning has dramatically increased due to the Greek financial crisis, contributing around 50 % of the fine PM on average and more than 80 % during nighttime. Cooking is also an important source during both midday and evening, while transportation dominates only during the morning rush hour.
Christos Kaltsonoudis, Evangelia Kostenidou, Kalliopi Florou, Magda Psichoudaki, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14825–14842,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored in urban backgrounds sites, in Athens and Patras in Greece. In summer most of the measured VOCs were due to biogenic and traffic emissions. Winter measurements in Athens revealed that biomass burning used for residential heating was the dominant VOC source. The biomass burning VOC emission ratios and emission factors were estimated.
Antigoni Panagiotopoulou, Panagiotis Charalampidis, Christos Fountoukis, Christodoulos Pilinis, and Spyros N. Pandis
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 4257–4272,Short summary
The ability of chemical transport model PMCAMx to reproduce ground and satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements over Europe is evaluated. PMCAMx reproduces AOD values over Spain, the UK, central Europe, and Russia with a fractional bias of less than 15 % and a fractional error of less than 30 %. The model overestimates the AOD over northern Europe probably due to an overestimation of organic aerosol and sulfates, and underestimates over the Balkans due to an underestimation of sulfates.
Elham Baranizadeh, Benjamin N. Murphy, Jan Julin, Saeed Falahat, Carly L. Reddington, Antti Arola, Lars Ahlm, Santtu Mikkonen, Christos Fountoukis, David Patoulias, Andreas Minikin, Thomas Hamburger, Ari Laaksonen, Spyros N. Pandis, Hanna Vehkamäki, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, and Ilona Riipinen
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2741–2754,Short summary
The molecular mechanisms through which new ultrafine (< 100 nm) aerosol particles are formed in the atmosphere have puzzled the scientific community for decades. In the past few years, however, significant progress has been made in unraveling these processes through laboratory studies and computational efforts. In this work we have implemented these new developments to an air quality model and study the implications of anthropogenically driven particle formation for European air quality.
Alexandra P. Tsimpidi, Vlassis A. Karydis, Spyros N. Pandis, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8939–8962,Short summary
In this work we use a global chemistry climate model together with a comprehensive global AMS data set in order to provide valuable insights into the temporal and geographical variability of the contribution of the emitted particles and the chemically processed organic material from combustion sources to total OA. This study reveals the high importance of SOA from anthropogenic sources on global OA concentrations and identifies plausible sources of discrepancy between models and measurements.
Christos Fountoukis, Athanasios G. Megaritis, Ksakousti Skyllakou, Panagiotis E. Charalampidis, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Monica Crippa, André S. H. Prévôt, Friederike Fachinger, Alfred Wiedensohler, Christodoulos Pilinis, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3727–3741,Short summary
We use PMCAMx with high grid resolution over Paris to simulate carbonaceous aerosol during the summer and winter MEGAPOLI campaigns. PMCAMx reproduces BC observations well. Addition of cooking organic aerosol emissions of 80 mg per day per capita is needed to reproduce the corresponding observations. While the oxygenated organic aerosol predictions during the summer are encouraging a major wintertime source appears to be missing.
Andrea Paciga, Eleni Karnezi, Evangelia Kostenidou, Lea Hildebrandt, Magda Psichoudaki, Gabriella J. Engelhart, Byong-Hyoek Lee, Monica Crippa, André S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2013–2023,Short summary
We estimate the volatility distribution for the organic aerosol (OA) components during summer and winter field campaigns in Paris, France as part of the collaborative project MEGAPOLI. The OA factors (hydrocarbon like OA, cooking OA, marine OA, oxygenated OA) had a broad spectrum of volatilities with no direct link between the average volatility and average oxygen to carbon of the OA components.
G. I. Gkatzelis, D. K. Papanastasiou, K. Florou, C. Kaltsonoudis, E. Louvaris, and S. N. Pandis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 103–114,Short summary
A method for the measurement of the nonvolatile atmospheric particle size distribution is developed and tested. The tests include laboratory experiments with biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol as well as nucleation experiments with ambient air. The method is then further tested during an ambient campaign.
E. Kostenidou, K. Florou, C. Kaltsonoudis, M. Tsiflikiotou, S. Vratolis, K. Eleftheriadis, and S. N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11355–11371,Short summary
The concentration and chemical composition of fine particulate matter were measured during the summer of 2012 in two Greek cities, Patras and Athens. The composition of PM1 was surprisingly similar in both areas, demonstrating the importance of regional sources. Analysis of the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer data suggested that the contribution of the primary sources to organic aerosol was important (22% in Patras and 35% in Athens) but not dominant.
M. Pikridas, J. Sciare, F. Freutel, S. Crumeyrolle, S.-L. von der Weiden-Reinmüller, A. Borbon, A. Schwarzenboeck, M. Merkel, M. Crippa, E. Kostenidou, M. Psichoudaki, L. Hildebrandt, G. J. Engelhart, T. Petäjä, A. S. H. Prévôt, F. Drewnick, U. Baltensperger, A. Wiedensohler, M. Kulmala, M. Beekmann, and S. N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10219–10237,Short summary
Aerosol size distribution measurements from three ground sites, two mobile laboratories, and one airplane are combined to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of ultrafine particles in and around Paris during the summer and winter MEGAPOLI campaigns. The role of nucleation as a particle source and the influence of Paris emissions on their surroundings are examined.
M. Beekmann, A. S. H. Prévôt, F. Drewnick, J. Sciare, S. N. Pandis, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, M. Crippa, F. Freutel, L. Poulain, V. Ghersi, E. Rodriguez, S. Beirle, P. Zotter, S.-L. von der Weiden-Reinmüller, M. Bressi, C. Fountoukis, H. Petetin, S. Szidat, J. Schneider, A. Rosso, I. El Haddad, A. Megaritis, Q. J. Zhang, V. Michoud, J. G. Slowik, S. Moukhtar, P. Kolmonen, A. Stohl, S. Eckhardt, A. Borbon, V. Gros, N. Marchand, J. L. Jaffrezo, A. Schwarzenboeck, A. Colomb, A. Wiedensohler, S. Borrmann, M. Lawrence, A. Baklanov, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9577–9591,Short summary
A detailed characterization of air quality in the Paris (France) agglomeration, a megacity, during two summer and winter intensive campaigns and from additional 1-year observations, revealed that about 70% of the fine particulate matter (PM) at urban background is transported into the megacity from upwind regions. Unexpectedly, a major part of organic PM is of modern origin (woodburning and cooking activities, secondary formation from biogenic VOC).
S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8217–8299,Short summary
Particulate matter (PM) constitutes one of the most challenging problems both for air quality and climate change policies. This paper reviews the most recent scientific results on the issue and the policy needs that have driven much of the increase in monitoring and mechanistic research over the last 2 decades. The synthesis reveals many new processes and developments in the science underpinning climate-PM interactions and the effects of PM on human health and the environment.
L. Hildebrandt Ruiz, A. L. Paciga, K. M. Cerully, A. Nenes, N. M. Donahue, and S. N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8301–8313,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is transformed after its initial formation. We explored the effects of this chemical aging on the composition, mass yield, volatility, and hygroscopicity of SOA formed from the photo-oxidation of small aromatic volatile organic compounds. Higher exposure to the hydroxyl radical resulted in different SOA composition, average carbon oxidation state, and mass yield. The vapor pressure of SOA formed under different conditions varied by as much as a factor of 30.
D. Patoulias, C. Fountoukis, I. Riipinen, and S. N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6337–6350,Short summary
A new aerosol dynamics model (DMANx) describing the organic vapor condensation on nanoparticles based on the volatility basis set framework is used to simulate typical nucleation events in two contrasting environments in Hyytiälä (Finland) and Finokalia (Greece). The role of semivolatile, low, and extremely low volatility organics and the corresponding surface energies is investigated.
I. Riipinen, N. Rastak, and S. N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6305–6322,Short summary
Atmospheric organic aerosol is complex and thus a challenge to model. We introduce a theoretical framework (solubility distributions) to represent the solubility of multicomponent mixtures. Using the framework, we evaluate the commonly made assumptions about the cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity of organic mixtures. We find that material with water solubilities larger than 0.1-100 g/L can usually be treated as completely soluble, which simplifies the treatment of organic CCN.
A. Tasoglou and S. N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6035–6046,
A. P. Tsimpidi, V. A. Karydis, A. Pozzer, S. N. Pandis, and J. Lelieveld
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 3153–3172,Short summary
A computationally efficient module for the description of OA composition and evolution in the atmosphere has been developed. This module subdivides OA into several compounds based on their source of origin and volatility, allowing the quantification of POA vs. SOA as well as biogenic vs. anthropogenic contributions to OA concentrations. Such fundamental information can shed light on long-term changes in OA abundance, and hence project the effects of OA on future air quality and climate.
A. G. Megaritis, C. Fountoukis, P. E. Charalampidis, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, C. Pilinis, and S. N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10283–10298,
E. Karnezi, I. Riipinen, and S. N. Pandis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2953–2965,
C. Fountoukis, A. G. Megaritis, K. Skyllakou, P. E. Charalampidis, C. Pilinis, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, M. Crippa, F. Canonaco, C. Mohr, A. S. H. Prévôt, J. D. Allan, L. Poulain, T. Petäjä, P. Tiitta, S. Carbone, A. Kiendler-Scharr, E. Nemitz, C. O'Dowd, E. Swietlicki, and S. N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9061–9076,
M. Crippa, F. Canonaco, V. A. Lanz, M. Äijälä, J. D. Allan, S. Carbone, G. Capes, D. Ceburnis, M. Dall'Osto, D. A. Day, P. F. DeCarlo, M. Ehn, A. Eriksson, E. Freney, L. Hildebrandt Ruiz, R. Hillamo, J. L. Jimenez, H. Junninen, A. Kiendler-Scharr, A.-M. Kortelainen, M. Kulmala, A. Laaksonen, A. A. Mensah, C. Mohr, E. Nemitz, C. O'Dowd, J. Ovadnevaite, S. N. Pandis, T. Petäjä, L. Poulain, S. Saarikoski, K. Sellegri, E. Swietlicki, P. Tiitta, D. R. Worsnop, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6159–6176,
B. N. Murphy, N. M. Donahue, A. L. Robinson, and S. N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5825–5839,
A. Bougiatioti, I. Stavroulas, E. Kostenidou, P. Zarmpas, C. Theodosi, G. Kouvarakis, F. Canonaco, A. S. H. Prévôt, A. Nenes, S. N. Pandis, and N. Mihalopoulos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4793–4807,
K. Skyllakou, B. N. Murphy, A. G. Megaritis, C. Fountoukis, and S. N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2343–2352,
L. Ahlm, J. Julin, C. Fountoukis, S. N. Pandis, and I. Riipinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10271–10283,
E. Kostenidou, C. Kaltsonoudis, M. Tsiflikiotou, E. Louvaris, L. M. Russell, and S. N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8797–8811,
Q. J. Zhang, M. Beekmann, F. Drewnick, F. Freutel, J. Schneider, M. Crippa, A. S. H. Prevot, U. Baltensperger, L. Poulain, A. Wiedensohler, J. Sciare, V. Gros, A. Borbon, A. Colomb, V. Michoud, J.-F. Doussin, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, M. Haeffelin, J.-C. Dupont, G. Siour, H. Petetin, B. Bessagnet, S. N. Pandis, A. Hodzic, O. Sanchez, C. Honoré, and O. Perrussel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5767–5790,
E. Athanasopoulou, H. Vogel, B. Vogel, A. P. Tsimpidi, S. N. Pandis, C. Knote, and C. Fountoukis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 625–645,
V.-M. Kerminen, M. Paramonov, T. Anttila, I. Riipinen, C. Fountoukis, H. Korhonen, E. Asmi, L. Laakso, H. Lihavainen, E. Swietlicki, B. Svenningsson, A. Asmi, S. N. Pandis, M. Kulmala, and T. Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 12037–12059,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling and Data Analysis | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)The underappreciated role of transboundary pollution in future air quality and health improvements in ChinaThe export of African mineral dust across the Atlantic and its impact over the Amazon BasinAssimilation of POLDER observations to estimate aerosol emissionsEffect of radiation interaction and aerosol processes on ventilation and aerosol concentrations in a real urban neighbourhood in HelsinkiAtlantic Multidecadal Oscillation modulates the relationship between El Niño–Southern Oscillation and fire weather in AustraliaIdentifying climate model structural inconsistencies allows for tight constraint of aerosol radiative forcingImpacts of reducing scattering and absorbing aerosols on the temporal extent and intensity of South Asian summer monsoon and East Asian summer monsoonSuperimposed effects of typical local circulations driven by mountainous topography and aerosol–radiation interaction on heavy haze in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei central and southern plains in winterMulti-model ensemble projection of the global dust cycle by the end of 21st century using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 6 dataA thermodynamic framework for bulk–surface partitioning in finite-volume mixed organic–inorganic aerosol particles and cloud dropletsChange from aerosol-driven to cloud-feedback-driven trend in short-wave radiative flux over the North AtlanticA new process-based and scale-aware desert dust emission scheme for global climate models – Part I: Description and evaluation against inverse modeling emissionsBiomass-burning smoke properties and its interactions with marine stratocumulus clouds in WRF-CAM5 and southeastern Atlantic field campaignsTransported aerosols regulate the pre-monsoon rainfall over north-east India: a WRF-Chem modelling studyCollision-sticking rates of acid–base clusters in the gas phase determined from atomistic simulation and a novel analytical interacting hard-sphere modelParameterization of size of organic and secondary inorganic aerosol for efficient representation of global aerosol optical propertiesModel-based insights into aerosol perturbation on pristine continental convective precipitationThe impact of using assimilated Aeolus wind data on regional WRF-Chem dust simulationsOn the differences in the vertical distribution of modeled aerosol optical depth over the southeastern AtlanticA global evaluation of daily to seasonal aerosol and water vapor relationships using a combination of AERONET and NAAPS reanalysis dataLocal and remote climate impacts of future African aerosol emissionsThe dependence of aerosols' global and local precipitation impacts on the emitting regionAssessing the climate and air quality effects of future aerosol mitigation in India using a global climate model combined with statistical downscalingAggravated air pollution and health burden due to traffic congestion in urban ChinaLate summer transition from a free-tropospheric to boundary layer source of Aitken mode aerosol in the high ArcticSelf-lofting of wildfire smoke in the troposphere and stratosphere: simulations and space lidar observationsNumerical simulation and evaluation of global ultrafine particle concentrations at the Earth's surfaceRole of K-feldspar and quartz in global ice nucleation by mineral dust in mixed-phase cloudsProjected increases in wildfires may challenge regulatory curtailment of PM2.5 over the eastern US by 2050The Impact of Aerosols on the Stratiform Clouds over southern West Africa: A Large-Eddy Simulation StudyMeteorological export and deposition fluxes of black carbon on glaciers of the central Chilean AndesFuture changes in atmospheric rivers over East Asia under stratospheric aerosol interventionModeling the influence of chain length on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation via multiphase reactions of alkanesHow aerosol size matters in aerosol optical depth (AOD) assimilation and the optimization using the Ångström exponentMicrophysical, macrophysical, and radiative responses of subtropical marine clouds to aerosol injectionsHemispheric-wide climate response to regional COVID-19-related aerosol emission reductions: the prominent role of atmospheric circulation adjustmentsImpacts of an aerosol layer on a midlatitude continental system of cumulus clouds: how do these impacts depend on the vertical location of the aerosol layer?The role of temporal scales in extracting dominant meteorological drivers of major airborne pollutantsImpact of phase state and non-ideal mixing on equilibration timescales of secondary organic aerosol partitioningA global climatology of ice-nucleating particles under cirrus conditions derived from model simulations with MADE3 in EMACEnviro-HIRLAM model estimates of elevated black carbon pollution over Ukraine resulted from forest firesWhere does the dust deposited over the Sierra Nevada snow come from?Instant and delayed effects of March biomass burning aerosols over the Indochina PeninsulaAerosol–cloud interaction in the atmospheric chemistry model GRAPES_Meso5.1/CUACE and its impacts on mesoscale numerical weather prediction under haze pollution conditions in Jing–Jin–Ji in ChinaSurvival probabilities of atmospheric particles: comparison based on theory, cluster population simulations, and observations in BeijingThe simulation of mineral dust in the United Kingdom Earth System Model UKESM1Dust pollution in China affected by different spatial and temporal types of El NiñoAn improved representation of aerosol mixing state for air quality–weather interactionsCirculation-regulated impacts of aerosol pollution on urban heat island in BeijingSize-resolved dust direct radiative effect efficiency derived from satellite observations
Jun-Wei Xu, Jintai Lin, Dan Tong, and Lulu Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10075–10089,Short summary
This study highlights the necessity of a low-carbon pathway in foreign countries for China to achieve air quality goals and to protect public health. We find that adopting the low-carbon instead of the fossil-fuel-intensive pathway in foreign countries would prevent 63 000–270 000 transboundary PM2.5-associated mortalities in China in 2060. Our study provides direct evidence of the necessity of inter-regional cooperation for air quality improvement.
Xurong Wang, Qiaoqiao Wang, Maria Prass, Christopher Pöhlker, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Paulo Artaxo, Jianwei Gu, Ning Yang, Xiajie Yang, Jiangchuan Tao, Juan Hong, Nan Ma, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9993–10014,Short summary
In this work, with an optimized particle mass size distribution, we captured observed aerosol optical depth (AOD) and coarse aerosol concentrations over source and/or receptor regions well, demonstrating good performance in simulating export of African dust toward the Amazon Basin. In addition to factors controlling the transatlantic transport of African dust, the study investigated the impact of African dust over the Amazon Basin, including the nutrient inputs associated with dust deposition.
Athanasios Tsikerdekis, Otto P. Hasekamp, Nick A. J. Schutgens, and Qirui Zhong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9495–9524,Short summary
Aerosols are tiny particles of different substances (species) that can be emitted into the atmosphere by natural processes or by anthropogenic activities. However, the actual aerosol emission amount per species is highly uncertain. Thus in this work we correct the aerosol emissions used to drive a global aerosol–climate model using satellite observations through a process called data assimilation. These more accurate aerosol emissions can lead to a more accurate weather and climate prediction.
Jani Strömberg, Xiaoyu Li, Mona Kurppa, Heino Kuuluvainen, Liisa Pirjola, and Leena Järvi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9347–9364,Short summary
We conclude that with low wind speeds, solar radiation has a larger decreasing effect (53 %) on pollutant concentrations than aerosol processes (18 %). Additionally, our results showed that with solar radiation included, pollutant concentrations were closer to observations (−13 %) than with only aerosol processes (+98 %). This has implications when planning simulations under calm conditions such as in our case and when deciding whether or not simulations need to include these processes.
Guanyu Liu, Jing Li, and Tong Ying
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9217–9228,Short summary
Fires in Australia are positively correlated with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, the correlation between ENSO and the Australian Fire Weather Index (FWI) increases from 0.17 to 0.70 when the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) shifts from a negative to positive phase. This is explained by the teleconnection effect through which the warmer AMO generates Rossby wave trains and results in high pressures and a weather condition conducive to wildfires.
Leighton A. Regayre, Lucia Deaconu, Daniel P. Grosvenor, David M. H. Sexton, Christopher Symonds, Tom Langton, Duncan Watson-Paris, Jane P. Mulcahy, Kirsty J. Pringle, Mark Richardson, Jill S. Johnson, John W. Rostron, Hamish Gordon, Grenville Lister, Philip Stier, and Ken S. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8749–8768,Short summary
Aerosol forcing of Earth’s energy balance has persisted as a major cause of uncertainty in climate simulations over generations of climate model development. We show that structural deficiencies in a climate model are exposed by comprehensively exploring parametric uncertainty and that these deficiencies limit how much the model uncertainty can be reduced through observational constraint. This provides a future pathway towards building models with greater physical realism and lower uncertainty.
Chenwei Fang, Jim M. Haywood, Ju Liang, Ben T. Johnson, Ying Chen, and Bin Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8341–8368,Short summary
The responses of Asian summer monsoon duration and intensity to air pollution mitigation are identified given the net-zero future. We show that reducing scattering aerosols makes the rainy season longer and stronger across South Asia and East Asia but that absorbing aerosol reduction has the opposite effect. Our results hint at distinct monsoon responses to emission controls that target different aerosols.
Yue Peng, Hong Wang, Xiaoye Zhang, Zhaodong Liu, Wenjie Zhang, Siting Li, Chen Han, and Huizheng Che
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8325–8339,Short summary
This study demonstrates a strong link between local circulation, aerosol–radiation interaction (ARI), and haze pollution. Under the weak weather-scale systems, the typical local circulation driven by mountainous topography is the main cause of pollutant distribution in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, and the ARI mechanism amplifies this influence of local circulation on pollutants, making haze pollution aggravated by the superposition of both.
Yuan Zhao, Xu Yue, Yang Cao, Jun Zhu, Chenguang Tian, Hao Zhou, Yuwen Chen, Yihan Hu, Weijie Fu, and Xu Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7823–7838,Short summary
We project the future changes of dust emissions and loading using an ensemble of model outputs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 6 under four scenarios. We find increased dust emissions and loading in North Africa, due to increased drought and strengthened surface wind, and decreased dust loading over Asia, following enhanced precipitation. Such a spatial pattern remains similar, though the regional intensity varies among different scenarios.
Ryan Schmedding and Andreas Zuend
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7741–7765,Short summary
Aerosol particles below 100 nm in diameter have high surface-area-to-volume ratios. The enrichment of compounds in the surface of an aerosol particle may lead to depletion of that species in the interior bulk of the particle. We present a framework for modeling the equilibrium bulk–surface partitioning of mixed organic–inorganic particles, including cases of co-condensation of semivolatile organic compounds and species with extremely limited solubility in the bulk or surface of a particle.
Daniel P. Grosvenor and Kenneth S. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6743–6773,Short summary
We determine what causes long-term trends in short-wave (SW) radiative fluxes in two climate models. A positive trend occurs between 1850 and 1970 (increasing SW reflection) and a negative trend between 1970 and 2014; the pre-1970 positive trend is mainly driven by an increase in cloud droplet number concentrations due to increases in aerosol, and the 1970–2014 trend is driven by a decrease in cloud fraction, which we attribute to changes in clouds caused by greenhouse gas-induced warming.
Danny M. Leung, Jasper F. Kok, Longlei Li, Gregory S. Okin, Catherine Prigent, Martina Klose, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Laurent Menut, Natalie M. Mahowald, David M. Lawrence, and Marcelo Chamecki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6487–6523,Short summary
Desert dust modeling is important for understanding climate change, as dust regulates the atmosphere's greenhouse effect and radiation. This study formulates and proposes a more physical and realistic desert dust emission scheme for global and regional climate models. By considering more aeolian processes in our emission scheme, our simulations match better against dust observations than existing schemes. We believe this work is vital in improving dust representation in climate models.
Calvin Howes, Pablo E. Saide, Hugh Coe, Amie Nicole Dobracki, Steffen Freitag, Jim M. Haywood, Steven G. Howell, Siddhant Gupta, Janek Uin, Mary Kacarab, Chongai Kuang, L. Ruby Leung, Athanasios Nenes, Greg McFarquhar, Jens Redemann, Arther J. Sedlacek, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Jenny P. S. Wong, Robert Wood, Huihui Wu, Yang Zhang, Jianhao Zhang, and Paquita Zuidema
To better understand smoke properties and its interactions with clouds, we compare WRF-CAM5 with observations from ORACLES, CLARIFY, and LASIC field campaigns in the Southeastern Atlantic in August 2017. The model transports and mixes smoke well but is not fully capturing some important processes. These include smoke chemical and physical aging over 4–12 days, smoke removal by rain, new particle formation, aerosol activation into cloud droplets, and boundary layer turbulence.
Neeldip Barman and Sharad Gokhale
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6197–6215,Short summary
The study shows that during the pre-monsoon season transported aerosols, especially from the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), have a greater impact with respect to air pollution, radiative forcing and rainfall over north-east (NE) India than emissions from within NE India itself. Hence, controlling emissions in the IGP will be significantly more fruitful in reducing pollution as well as climatic impacts over this region.
Huan Yang, Ivo Neefjes, Valtteri Tikkanen, Jakub Kubečka, Theo Kurtén, Hanna Vehkamäki, and Bernhard Reischl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5993–6009,Short summary
We present a new analytical model for collision rates between molecules and clusters of arbitrary sizes, accounting for long-range interactions. The model is verified against atomistic simulations of typical acid–base clusters participating in atmospheric new particle formation (NPF). Compared to non-interacting models, accounting for long-range interactions leads to 2–3 times higher collision rates for small clusters, indicating the necessity of including such interactions in NPF modeling.
Haihui Zhu, Randall V. Martin, Betty Croft, Shixian Zhai, Chi Li, Liam Bindle, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Rachel Y.-W. Chang, Bruce E. Anderson, Luke D. Ziemba, Johnathan W. Hair, Richard A. Ferrare, Chris A. Hostetler, Inderjeet Singh, Deepangsu Chatterjee, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Jack E. Dibb, Joshua S. Schwarz, and Andrew Weinheimer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5023–5042,Short summary
Particle size of atmospheric aerosol is important for estimating its climate and health effects, but simulating atmospheric aerosol size is computationally demanding. This study derives a simple parameterization of the size of organic and secondary inorganic ambient aerosol that can be applied to atmospheric models. Applying this parameterization allows a better representation of the global spatial pattern of aerosol size, as verified by ground and airborne measurements.
Mengjiao Jiang, Yaoting Li, Weiji Hu, Yinshan Yang, Guy Brasseur, and Xi Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4545–4557,Short summary
Relatively clean background aerosol over the Tibetan Plateau makes the study of aerosol–cloud–precipitation interactions distinctive. A convection on 24 July 2014 in Naqu was selected using the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model, including the Thompson aerosol-aware microphysical scheme. Our study uses a compromise approach to the limited observations. We show that the transformation of cloud water to graupel and the development of convective clouds are favored in a polluted situation.
Pantelis Kiriakidis, Antonis Gkikas, Georgios Papangelis, Theodoros Christoudias, Jonilda Kushta, Emmanouil Proestakis, Anna Kampouri, Eleni Marinou, Eleni Drakaki, Angela Benedetti, Michael Rennie, Christian Retscher, Anne Grete Straume, Alexandru Dandocsi, Jean Sciare, and Vasilis Amiridis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4391–4417,Short summary
With the launch of the Aeolus satellite, higher-accuracy wind products became available. This research was carried out to validate the assimilated wind products by testing their effect on the WRF-Chem model predictive ability of dust processes. This was carried out for the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East region for two 2-month periods in autumn and spring 2020. The use of the assimilated products improved the dust forecasts of the autumn season (both quantitatively and qualitatively).
Ian Chang, Lan Gao, Connor J. Flynn, Yohei Shinozuka, Sarah J. Doherty, Michael S. Diamond, Karla M. Longo, Gonzalo A. Ferrada, Gregory R. Carmichael, Patricia Castellanos, Arlindo M. da Silva, Pablo E. Saide, Calvin Howes, Zhixin Xue, Marc Mallet, Ravi Govindaraju, Qiaoqiao Wang, Yafang Cheng, Yan Feng, Sharon P. Burton, Richard A. Ferrare, Samuel E. LeBlanc, Meloë S. Kacenelenbogen, Kristina Pistone, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Kerry G. Meyer, Ju-Mee Ryoo, Leonhard Pfister, Adeyemi A. Adebiyi, Robert Wood, Paquita Zuidema, Sundar A. Christopher, and Jens Redemann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4283–4309,Short summary
Abundant aerosols are present above low-level liquid clouds over the southeastern Atlantic during late austral spring. The model simulation differences in the proportion of aerosol residing in the planetary boundary layer and in the free troposphere can greatly affect the regional aerosol radiative effects. This study examines the aerosol loading and fractional aerosol loading in the free troposphere among various models and evaluates them against measurements from the NASA ORACLES campaign.
Juli I. Rubin, Jeffrey S. Reid, Peng Xian, Christopher M. Selman, and Thomas F. Eck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4059–4090,Short summary
This work aims to quantify the covariability between aerosol optical depth/extinction with water vapor (PW) globally, using NASA AERONET observations and NAAPS model data. Findings are important for data assimilation and radiative transfer. The study shows statistically significant and positive AOD–PW relationships are found across the globe, varying in strength with location and season and tied to large-scale aerosol events. Hygroscopic growth was also found to be an important factor.
Christopher D. Wells, Matthew Kasoar, Nicolas Bellouin, and Apostolos Voulgarakis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3575–3593,Short summary
The climate is altered by greenhouse gases and air pollutant particles, and such emissions are likely to change drastically in the future over Africa. Air pollutants do not travel far, so their climate effect depends on where they are emitted. This study uses a climate model to find the climate impacts of future African pollutant emissions being either high or low. The particles absorb and scatter sunlight, causing the ground nearby to be cooler, but elsewhere the increased heat causes warming.
Geeta G. Persad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3435–3452,Short summary
Human-induced aerosol pollution has major impacts on both local and global precipitation. This study demonstrates using a global climate model that both the strength and localization of aerosols' precipitation impacts are highly dependent on which region the aerosols are emitted from. The findings highlight that the geographic distribution of human-induced aerosol emissions must be accounted for when quantifying their influence on global precipitation.
Tuuli Miinalainen, Harri Kokkola, Antti Lipponen, Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen, Vijay Kumar Soni, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, and Thomas Kühn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3471–3491,Short summary
We simulated the effects of aerosol emission mitigation on both global and regional radiative forcing and city-level air quality with a global-scale climate model. We used a machine learning downscaling approach to bias-correct the PM2.5 values obtained from the global model for the Indian megacity New Delhi. Our results indicate that aerosol mitigation could result in both improved air quality and less radiative heating for India.
Peng Wang, Ruhan Zhang, Shida Sun, Meng Gao, Bo Zheng, Dan Zhang, Yanli Zhang, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Hongliang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2983–2996,Short summary
In China, the number of vehicles has jumped significantly in the last decade. This caused severe traffic congestion and aggravated air pollution. In this study, we developed a new temporal allocation approach to quantify the impacts of traffic congestion. We found that traffic congestion worsens air quality and the health burden across China, especially in the urban clusters. More effective and comprehensive vehicle emission control policies should be implemented to improve air quality in China.
Ruth Price, Andrea Baccarini, Julia Schmale, Paul Zieger, Ian M. Brooks, Paul Field, and Ken S. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2927–2961,Short summary
Arctic clouds can control how much energy is absorbed by the surface or reflected back to space. Using a computer model of the atmosphere we investigated the formation of atmospheric particles that allow cloud droplets to form. We found that particles formed aloft are transported to the lowest part of the Arctic atmosphere and that this is a key source of particles. Our results have implications for the way Arctic clouds will behave in the future as climate change continues to impact the region.
Kevin Ohneiser, Albert Ansmann, Jonas Witthuhn, Hartwig Deneke, Alexandra Chudnovsky, Gregor Walter, and Fabian Senf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2901–2925,Short summary
This study shows that smoke layers can reach the tropopause via the self-lofting effect within 3–7 d in the absence of pyrocumulonimbus convection if the aerosol optical thickness is larger than approximately 2 for a longer time period. When reaching the stratosphere, wildfire smoke can sensitively influence the stratospheric composition on a hemispheric scale and thus can affect the Earth’s climate and the ozone layer.
Matthias Kohl, Jos Lelieveld, Sourangsu Chowdhury, Sebastian Ehrhart, Disha Sharma, Yafang Cheng, Sachchida Nand Tripathi, Mathew Sebastian, Govindan Pandithurai, Hongli Wang, and Andrea Pozzer
Knowledge on atmospheric ultrafine particles (UFP) with a diameter smaller than 100 nm is crucial for public health and the hydrological cycle. We present a new global dataset of UFP concentrations at the Earth's surface derived with a comprehensive chemistry climate model, and evaluated with ground-based observations. The evaluation results are combined with high-resolution primary emissions to downscale UFP concentrations to an unprecedented horizontal resolution of 0.1° x 0.1°.
Marios Chatziparaschos, Nikos Daskalakis, Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Nikos Kalivitis, Athanasios Nenes, María Gonçalves Ageitos, Montserrat Costa-Surós, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Medea Zanoli, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and Maria Kanakidou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1785–1801,Short summary
Ice formation is enabled by ice-nucleating particles (INP) at higher temperatures than homogeneous formation and can profoundly affect the properties of clouds. Our global model results show that K-feldspar is the most important contributor to INP concentrations globally, affecting mid-level mixed-phase clouds. However, quartz can significantly contribute and dominates the lowest and the highest altitudes of dust-derived INP, affecting mainly low-level and high-level mixed-phase clouds.
Chandan Sarangi, Yun Qian, L. Ruby Leung, Yang Zhang, Yufei Zou, and Yuhang Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1769–1783,Short summary
We show that for air quality, the densely populated eastern US may see even larger impacts of wildfires due to long-distance smoke transport and associated positive climatic impacts, partially compensating the improvements from regulations on anthropogenic emissions. This study highlights the tension between natural and anthropogenic contributions and the non-local nature of air pollution that complicate regulatory strategies for improving future regional air quality for human health.
Lambert Delbeke, Chien Wang, Pierre Tulet, Cyrielle Denjean, Maurin Zouzoua, Nicolas Maury, and Adrien Deroubaix
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Low-Level Stratiform Clouds (LLSC) appear frequently over southern West Africa and during West African Monsoon local and remote aerosol sources (biomass burning aerosol from Central Africa) play a significant role in LLSC life cycle. Based on measurements of DACCIWA campaign, Large Eddy Simulations (LES) were driven using different aerosols scenarios showing indirect effect depends on microphysics and cloud-void spaces. Absorbing particles produced a strong semi-direct effect stabilizing clouds.
Rémy Lapere, Nicolás Huneeus, Sylvain Mailler, Laurent Menut, and Florian Couvidat
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1749–1768,Short summary
Glaciers in the Andes of central Chile are shrinking rapidly in response to global warming. This melting is accelerated by the deposition of opaque particles onto snow and ice. In this work, model simulations quantify typical deposition rates of soot on glaciers in summer and winter months and show that the contribution of emissions from Santiago is not as high as anticipated. Additionally, the combination of regional- and local-scale meteorology explains the seasonality in deposition.
Ju Liang and Jim Haywood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1687–1703,Short summary
The recent record-breaking flood events in China during the summer of 2021 highlight the importance of mitigating the risks from future changes in high-impact weather systems under global warming. Based on a state-of-the-art Earth system model, we demonstrate a pilot study on the responses of atmospheric rivers and extreme precipitation over East Asia to anthropogenically induced climate warming and an unconventional mitigation strategy – stratospheric aerosol injection.
Azad Madhu, Myoseon Jang, and David Deacon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1661–1675,Short summary
SOA formation is simulated using the UNIPAR model for series of linear alkanes. The inclusion of autoxidation reactions within the explicit gas mechanisms of C9–C12 was found to significantly improve predictions. Available product distributions were extrapolated with an incremental volatility coefficient (IVC) to predict SOA formation of alkanes without explicit mechanisms. These product distributions were used to simulate SOA formation from C13 and C15 and had good agreement with chamber data.
Jianbing Jin, Bas Henzing, and Arjo Segers
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1641–1660,Short summary
Aerosol models and satellite retrieval algorithms rely on different aerosol size assumptions. In practice, differences between simulations and observations do not always reflect the difference in aerosol amount. To avoid inconsistencies, we designed a hybrid assimilation approach. Different from a standard aerosol optical depth (AOD) assimilation that directly assimilates AODs, the hybrid one estimates aerosol size parameters by assimilating Ängström observations before assimilating the AODs.
Je-Yun Chun, Robert Wood, Peter Blossey, and Sarah J. Doherty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1345–1368,Short summary
We investigate the impact of injected aerosol on subtropical low marine clouds under a variety of meteorological conditions using high-resolution model simulations. This study illustrates processes perturbed by aerosol injections and their impact on cloud properties (e.g., cloud number concentration, thickness, and cover). We show that those responses are highly sensitive to background meteorological conditions, such as precipitation, and background cloud properties.
Nora L. S. Fahrenbach and Massimo A. Bollasina
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 877–894,Short summary
We studied the monthly-scale climate response to COVID-19 aerosol emission reductions during January–May 2020 using climate models. Our results show global temperature and rainfall anomalies driven by circulation changes. The climate patterns reverse polarity from JF to MAM due to a shift in the main SO2 reduction region from China to India. This real-life example of rapid climate adjustments to abrupt, regional aerosol emission reduction has large implications for future climate projections.
Seoung Soo Lee, Junshik Um, Won Jun Choi, Kyung-Ja Ha, Chang Hoon Jung, Jianping Guo, and Youtong Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 273–286,Short summary
This paper elaborates on process-level mechanisms regarding how the interception of radiation by aerosols interacts with the surface heat fluxes and atmospheric instability in warm cumulus clouds. This paper elucidates how these mechanisms vary with the location or altitude of an aerosol layer. This elucidation indicates that the location of aerosol layers should be taken into account for parameterizations of aerosol–cloud interactions.
Miaoqing Xu, Jing Yang, Manchun Li, Xiao Chen, Qiancheng lv, Qi Yao, Bingbo Gao, and Ziyue Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Although the temporal-scale effects on Meteorology-PM2.5 associations have been discussed, no quantitative evidence proved this before. Based on a rare 3 h-meteorology data, we revealed that the dominant meteorological factor for PM2.5 concentrations across China extracted at the 3 h and 24 h scale presented large variations. This research suggested that data sources of different temporal scales should be comprehensively considered for better attribution and prevention airborne pollution.
Meredith Schervish and Manabu Shiraiwa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 221–233,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) can exhibit complex non-ideal behavior and adopt an amorphous semisolid state. We simulate condensation of semi-volatile compounds into a phase-separated particle to investigate the effect of non-ideality and particle phase state on the equilibration timescale of SOA partitioning. Our results provide useful insights into the interpretation of experimental observations and the description and treatment of SOA in aerosol models.
Christof G. Beer, Johannes Hendricks, and Mattia Righi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15887–15907,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) have important influences on cirrus clouds and the climate system; however, their global atmospheric distribution in the cirrus regime is still very uncertain. We present a global climatology of INPs under cirrus conditions derived from model simulations, considering the mineral dust, soot, crystalline ammonium sulfate, and glassy organics INP types. The comparison of respective INP concentrations indicates the large importance of ammonium sulfate particles.
Mykhailo Savenets, Larysa Pysarenko, Svitlana Krakovska, Alexander Mahura, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15777–15791,Short summary
The paper explores the spatio-temporal variability of black carbon during a wildfire in August 2010, with a focus on Ukraine. As a research tool, the seamless Enviro-HIRLAM modelling system is used for investigating the atmospheric transport of aerosol particles emitted by wildfires from remote and local sources. The results of this study improve our understanding of the physical and chemical processes and the interactions of aerosols in the atmosphere.
Huilin Huang, Yun Qian, Ye Liu, Cenlin He, Jianyu Zheng, Zhibo Zhang, and Antonis Gkikas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15469–15488,Short summary
Using a clustering method developed in the field of artificial neural networks, we identify four typical dust transport patterns across the Sierra Nevada, associated with the mesoscale and regional-scale wind circulations. Our results highlight the connection between dust transport and dominant weather patterns, which can be used to understand dust transport in a changing climate.
Anbao Zhu, Haiming Xu, Jiechun Deng, Jing Ma, and Shaofeng Hua
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15425–15447,Short summary
This study demonstrates the instant and delayed effects of biomass burning (BB) aerosols on precipitation over the Indochina Peninsula (ICP). The convection suppression due to the BB aerosol-induced stabilized atmosphere dominates over the favorable water-vapor condition induced by large-scale circulation responses, leading to an overall reduced precipitation in March, while the delayed effect promotes precipitation from early April to mid April due to the anomalous atmospheric circulations.
Wenjie Zhang, Hong Wang, Xiaoye Zhang, Liping Huang, Yue Peng, Zhaodong Liu, Xiao Zhang, and Huizheng Che
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15207–15221,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interaction (ACI) is first implemented in the atmospheric chemistry system GRAPES_Meso5.1/CUACE. ACI can improve the simulated cloud, temperature, and precipitation under haze pollution conditions in Jing-Jin-Ji in China. This paper demonstrates the critical role of ACI in current numerical weather prediction over the severely polluted region.
Santeri Tuovinen, Runlong Cai, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jingkun Jiang, Chao Yan, Markku Kulmala, and Jenni Kontkanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15071–15091,Short summary
We compare observed survival probabilities of atmospheric particles from Beijing, China, with survival probabilities based on analytical formulae and model simulations. We find observed survival probabilities under polluted conditions at smaller sizes to be higher, while at larger sizes they are lower than or similar to theoretical survival probabilities. Uncertainties in condensation sink and growth rate are unlikely to explain higher-than-predicted survival probabilities at smaller sizes.
Stephanie Woodward, Alistair A. Sellar, Yongming Tang, Marc Stringer, Andrew Yool, Eddy Robertson, and Andy Wiltshire
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14503–14528,Short summary
We describe the dust scheme in the UKESM1 Earth system model and show generally good agreement with observations. Comparing with the closely related HadGEM3-GC3.1 model, we show that dust differences are not only due to inter-model differences but also to the dust size distribution. Under climate change, HadGEM3-GC3.1 dust hardly changes, but UKESM1 dust decreases because that model includes the vegetation response which, in our models, has a bigger impact on dust than climate change itself.
Yang Yang, Liangying Zeng, Hailong Wang, Pinya Wang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14489–14502,Short summary
Using an aerosol–climate model, dust pollution in China affected by different spatial and temporal types of El Niño are examined. Both eastern and central Pacific El Niño and short-duration El Niño increase winter dust concentrations over northern China, while long-duration El Niño decreases concentrations. Only long-duration El Niño events can significantly affect dust over China in the following spring. This study has profound implications for air pollution control and dust storm prediction.
Robin Stevens, Andrei Ryjkov, Mahtab Majdzadeh, and Ashu Dastoor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13527–13549,Short summary
Absorbing particles like black carbon can be coated with other matter. How much radiation these particles absorb depends on the coating thickness. The removal of these particles by clouds and rain depends on the coating composition. These effects are important for both climate and air quality. We implement a more detailed representation of these particles in an air quality model which accounts for both coating thickness and composition. We find a significant effect on particle concentrations.
Fan Wang, Gregory R. Carmichael, Jing Wang, Bin Chen, Bo Huang, Yuguo Li, Yuanjian Yang, and Meng Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13341–13353,Short summary
Unprecedented urbanization in China has led to serious urban heat island (UHI) issues, exerting intense heat stress on urban residents. We find diverse influences of aerosol pollution on urban heat island intensity (UHII) under different circulations. Our results also highlight the role of black carbon in aggravating UHI, especially during nighttime. It could thus be targeted for cooperative management of heat islands and aerosol pollution.
Qianqian Song, Zhibo Zhang, Hongbin Yu, Jasper F. Kok, Claudia Di Biagio, Samuel Albani, Jianyu Zheng, and Jiachen Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13115–13135,Short summary
This study developed a dataset that enables us to efficiently calculate dust direct radiative effect (DRE, i.e., cooling or warming our planet) for any given dust size distribution in addition to three sets of dust mineral components and two dust shapes. We demonstrate and validate the method of using this dataset to calculate dust DRE. Moreover, using this dataset we found that dust mineral composition is a more important factor in determining dust DRE than dust size and shape.
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We explore the morphologies of multicomponent nanoparticles through atomistic molecular dynamics simulations under atmospherically relevant conditions. Phase separation is predicted for almost all simulated nanoparticles either between organics and inorganics or between hydrophobic and hydrophilic constituents. Three main particle types were identified: organic islands at the surface, inorganic core-organic shell morphologies and complex structures with hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains.
We explore the morphologies of multicomponent nanoparticles through atomistic molecular dynamics...