Characterization of fresh and aged organic aerosol emissions from meat charbroiling
- 1Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences, ICE-HT, Patras, Greece
- 2Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Patras, Greece
- 3Department of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA
Abstract. Cooking emissions can be a significant source of fine particulate matter in urban areas. In this study the aerosol- and gas-phase emissions from meat charbroiling were characterized. Greek souvlakia with pork were cooked using a commercial charbroiler and a fraction of the emissions were introduced into a smog chamber where after a characterization phase they were exposed to UV illumination and oxidants. The particulate and gas phases were characterized by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) correspondingly. More than 99 % of the aerosol emitted was composed of organic compounds, while black carbon (BC) contributed 0.3 % and the inorganic species less than 0.5 % of the total aerosol mass. The initial O : C ratio was approximately 0.09 and increased up to 0.30 after a few hours of chemical aging (exposures of 1010 molecules cm−3 s for OH and 100 ppb h for ozone). The initial and aged AMS spectra differed considerably (θ = 27°). Ambient measurements were also conducted during Fat Thursday in Patras, Greece, when traditionally meat is charbroiled everywhere in the city. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) revealed that cooking organic aerosol (COA) reached up to 85 % of the total OA from 10:00 to 12:00 LST that day. The ambient COA factor in two major Greek cities had a mass spectrum during spring and summer similar to the aged meat charbroiling emissions. In contrast, the ambient COA factor during winter resembled strongly the fresh laboratory meat charbroiling emissions.