Articles | Volume 19, issue 4
Research article
28 Feb 2019
Research article |  | 28 Feb 2019

Implication of tropical lower stratospheric cooling in recent trends in tropical circulation and deep convective activity

Kunihiko Kodera, Nawo Eguchi, Rei Ueyama, Yuhji Kuroda, Chiaki Kobayashi, Beatriz M. Funatsu, and Chantal Claud

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Cited articles

Abalos, M., Legras, B., Ploeger, F., and Randel, W. J.: Evaluating the advective Brewer-Dobson circulation in three reanalyses for the period 1979–2012, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 120, 7534–7554,, 2015. 
Adler, R. F., Huffman, G. J., Chang, A., Ferraro, R., Xie, P., Janowiak, J. E., Rudolf, B., Schneider, U., Curtis, S., Bolvin, D. T., Gruber, A., Susskind, J., Arkin, P. A., and Nelkin, E. J.: The Version 2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis (1979–present), J. Hydrometeorol., 4, 1147–1167, 2003. 
Allen, R. J., Norris, J. R., and Kovilakam, M.: Influence of anthropogenic aerosols and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation on tropical belt width, Nat. Geosci., 7, 270–274,, 2014. 
Aumann, H. H. and Ruzmaikin, A.: Frequency of deep convective clouds in the tropical zone from 10 years of AIRS data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10795–10806,, 2013. 
Amaya, D. J., Siler, N., Xie, S.-P., and Miller, A. J.: The interplay of internal and forced modes of Hadley Cell expansion: Lessons from the global warming hiatus, Clim. Dynam., 51, 305–319,, 2018. 
Short summary
The recent cooling of the equatorial eastern Pacific Ocean occurred in conjunction with enhanced cross-equatorial southerlies associated with a strengthening of the boreal summer Hadley circulation. A combination of land surface warming and reduced static stability in the tropical tropopause layer due to stratospheric cooling is suggested to have caused the increase in the deep ascending branch of the Hadley circulation and related recent decadal change in the tropical troposphere and ocean.
Final-revised paper