Articles | Volume 18, issue 11
14 Jun 2018
Research article | 14 Jun 2018
Recent decrease trend of atmospheric mercury concentrations in East China: the influence of anthropogenic emissions
Yi Tang et al.
No articles found.
Lulu Cui, Di Wu, Shuxiao Wang, Qingcheng Xu, Ruolan Hu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11931–11944,Short summary
A 1-year campaign was conducted to characterize VOCs at a Beijing urban site during different episodes. VOCs from fuel evaporation and diesel exhaust, particularly toluene, xylenes, trans-2-butene, acrolein, methyl methacrylate, vinyl acetate, 1-butene, and 1-hexene, were the main contributors. VOCs from diesel exhaust as well as coal and biomass combustion were found to be the dominant contributors for SOAFP, particularly the VOC species toluene, 1-hexene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, and styrene.
Mengying Li, Shaocai Yu, Xue Chen, Zhen Li, Yibo Zhang, Zhe Song, Weiping Liu, Pengfei Li, Xiaoye Zhang, Meigen Zhang, Yele Sun, Zirui Liu, Caiping Sun, Jingkun Jiang, Shuxiao Wang, Benjamin N. Murphy, Kiran Alapaty, Rohit Mathur, Daniel Rosenfeld, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11845–11866,Short summary
This study constructed an emission inventory of condensable particulate matter (CPM) in China with a focus on organic aerosols (OAs), based on collected CPM emission information. The results show that OA emissions are enhanced twofold for the years 2014 and 2017 after the inclusion of CPM in the new inventory. Sensitivity cases demonstrated the significant contributions of CPM emissions from stationary combustion and mobile sources to primary, secondary, and total OA concentrations.
Changqin Yin, Jianming Xu, Wei Gao, Liang Pan, Yixuan Gu, Qingyan Fu, and Fan Yang
The PM2.5 at the top of 632 m high Shanghai Tower were found higher than surface from June to October as results of unexpected larger PM2.5 levels during early to middle afternoon at Shanghai Tower. We suppose the significant chemical production of secondary species existed in mid-upper planetary boundary layer. In addition, we found high nitrate concentration at the tower site for both daytime and nighttime winter, implying efficient gas-phase and heterogeneous formation.
Xiao He, Xuan Zheng, Shaojun Zhang, Xuan Wang, Ting Chen, Xiao Zhang, Guanghan Huang, Yihuan Cao, Liqiang He, Xubing Cao, Yuan Cheng, Shuxiao Wang, and Ye Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
With the use of two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC ToF-MS), we successfully give a comprehensive characterization of the particulate I/SVOCs emitted from heavy-duty diesel vehicles. I/SVOCs are speciated, identified, and quantified based on the patterns of the mass spectrum and the gas-particle partitioning are fully addressed.
Yi Cheng, Shaofei Kong, Liquan Yao, Huang Zheng, Jian Wu, Qin Yan, Shurui Zheng, Yao Hu, Zhenzhen Niu, Yingying Yan, Zhenxing Shen, Guofeng Shen, Dantong Liu, Shuxiao Wang, and Shihua Qi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ESSDShort summary
We present an emission inventory from 2000 to 2018 with a high spatial-temporal resolution for five missing sources that are related to people’s daily life. The emission factors of carbonaceous aerosol were tested in our laboratory, and activity data were obtained from the combination of multiple proxy data.
Jiandong Wang, Jia Xing, Shuxiao Wang, Rohit Mathur, Jiaping Wang, Yuqiang Zhang, Chao Liu, Jonathan Pleim, Dian Ding, Xing Chang, Jingkun Jiang, Peng Zhao, Shovan Kumar Sahu, Yuzhi Jin, David C. Wong, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5147–5156,Short summary
Aerosols reduce surface solar radiation and change the photolysis rate and planetary boundary layer stability. In this study, the online coupled meteorological and chemistry model was used to explore the detailed pathway of how aerosol direct effects affect secondary inorganic aerosol. The effects through the dynamics pathway act as an equally or even more important route compared with the photolysis pathway in affecting secondary aerosol concentration in both summer and winter.
Xiaomeng Wu, Daoyuan Yang, Ruoxi Wu, Jiajun Gu, Yifan Wen, Shaojun Zhang, Rui Wu, Renjie Wang, Honglei Xu, K. Max Zhang, Ye Wu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1939–1950,Short summary
Our work pioneered land-use machine learning methods for developing link-level emission inventories, utilizing hourly traffic profiles, including volume, speed, and fleet mix, obtained from the governmental intercity highway monitoring network in the "capital circles" of China. This research provides a platform to realize the near-real-time process of establishing high-resolution vehicle emission inventories for policy makers to engage in sophisticated traffic management.
Yuqiang Zhang, Drew Shindell, Karl Seltzer, Lu Shen, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Qiang Zhang, Bo Zheng, Jia Xing, Zhe Jiang, and Lei Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16051–16065,Short summary
In this study, we use a global chemical transport model to simulate the effects on global air quality and human health due to emission changes in China from 2010 to 2017. By performing sensitivity analysis, we found that the air pollution control policies not only decrease the air pollutant concentration but also bring significant co-benefits in air quality to downwind regions. The benefits for the improved air pollution are dominated by PM2.5.
Shuping Zhang, Golam Sarwar, Jia Xing, Biwu Chu, Chaoyang Xue, Arunachalam Sarav, Dian Ding, Haotian Zheng, Yujing Mu, Fengkui Duan, Tao Ma, and Hong He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15809–15826,Short summary
Six heterogeneous HONO chemistry updates in CMAQ significantly improve HONO concentration. HONO production is primarily controlled by the heterogeneous reactions on ground and aerosol surfaces during haze. Additional HONO chemistry updates increase OH and production of secondary aerosols: sulfate, nitrate, and SOA.
Lin Huang, Song Liu, Zeyuan Yang, Jia Xing, Jia Zhang, Jiang Bian, Siwei Li, Shovan Kumar Sahu, Shuxiao Wang, and Tie-Yan Liu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4641–4654,Short summary
Accurate estimation of emissions is a prerequisite for effectively controlling air pollution, but current methods lack either sufficient data or a representation of nonlinearity. Here, we proposed a novel deep learning method to model the dual relationship between emissions and pollutant concentrations. Emissions can be updated by back-propagating the gradient of the loss function measuring the deviation between simulations and observations, resulting in better model performance.
Tongqiang Liu, Qianshan He, Yonghang Chen, Jie Liu, Qiong Liu, Wei Gao, Guan Huang, Wenhao Shi, and Xiaohong Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5377–5391,Short summary
The variation in aerosol 355 nm lidar ratio and its influence factors were analyzed in Shanghai. About 90 % of the lidar ratio was distributed in 10 sr–80 sr, with an average of 41.0±22.5 sr, and the lidar ratio decreased with the increase in height. Due to aerosol radiative effects, the vertical slope of the lidar ratio presented a decreasing trend with increasing atmospheric turbidity. A large lidar ratio above 1 km was related to biomass burning aerosols and high relative humidity.
Sunling Gong, Hongli Liu, Bihui Zhang, Jianjun He, Hengde Zhang, Yaqiang Wang, Shuxiao Wang, Lei Zhang, and Jie Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2999–3013,Short summary
Surface concentrations of PM2.5 in China have had a declining trend since 2013 across the country. This research found that the control measures of emission reduction are the dominant factors in the PM2.5 declining trends in various regions. The contribution by the meteorology to the surface PM2.5 concentrations from 2013 to 2019 was not found to show a consistent trend, fluctuating positively or negatively by about 5% on the annual average and 10–20% for the fall–winter heavy-pollution seasons.
Runlong Cai, Chao Yan, Dongsen Yang, Rujing Yin, Yiqun Lu, Chenjuan Deng, Yueyun Fu, Jiaxin Ruan, Xiaoxiao Li, Jenni Kontkanen, Qiang Zhang, Juha Kangasluoma, Yan Ma, Jiming Hao, Douglas R. Worsnop, Federico Bianchi, Pauli Paasonen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, Lin Wang, Jun Zheng, Markku Kulmala, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2457–2468,Short summary
Based on long-term measurements, we discovered that the collision of H2SO4–amine clusters is the governing mechanism that initializes fast new particle formation in the polluted atmospheric environment of urban Beijing. The mechanism and the governing factors for H2SO4–amine nucleation in the polluted atmosphere are quantitatively investigated in this study.
Yang Yang, Yu Zhao, Lei Zhang, Jie Zhang, Xin Huang, Xuefen Zhao, Yan Zhang, Mengxiao Xi, and Yi Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1191–1209,Short summary
We conducted new NOx emission estimation based on the satellite-derived NO2 column constraint and found reduced emissions compared to previous estimates for a developed region in east China. The subsequent improvement in air quality modeling was demonstrated based on available ground observations. With multiple emission reduction cases for various pollutants, we explored the effective control approaches for ozone and inorganic aerosol pollution.
Yijing Chen, Qianli Ma, Weili Lin, Xiaobin Xu, Jie Yao, and Wei Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15969–15982,Short summary
CO is one of the major air pollutants. Our study showed that the long-term CO levels at a background station in one of the most developed areas of China decreased significantly and verified that this downward trend was attributed to the decrease in anthropogenic emissions, which indicated that the adopted pollution control policies were effective. Also, this decrease has an implication for the atmospheric chemistry considering the negative correlation between CO levels and OH radical's lifetime.
Yixuan Gu, Fengxia Yan, Jianming Xu, Yuanhao Qu, Wei Gao, Fangfang He, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14361–14375,Short summary
High levels and statistically insignificant changes of ozone are detected at a remote monitoring site on Sheshan Island in Shanghai, China, from 2012 to 2017; 6-year observations suggest regional transport exerted minimum influence on the offshore oceanic air in September and October. Both city plumes and oceanic air inflows could contribute to ozone enhancements in Shanghai, and the latter are found to lead to 20–30 % increases in urban ozone concentrations based on WRF-Chem simulations.
Jia Xing, Siwei Li, Yueqi Jiang, Shuxiao Wang, Dian Ding, Zhaoxin Dong, Yun Zhu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14347–14359,Short summary
Quantifying emission changes is a prerequisite for assessment of control effectiveness in improving air quality. However, traditional bottom-up methods usually take months to perform and limit timely assessments. A novel method was developed by using a response model that provides real-time estimation of emission changes based on air quality observations. It was successfully applied to quantify emission changes on the North China Plain due to the COVID-19 pandemic shutdown.
Lei Zhang, Peisheng Zhou, Shuzhen Cao, and Yu Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15587–15608,Short summary
One of the most important processes in the global mercury biogeochemical cycling is the deposition of atmospheric mercury to the land surfaces. In this paper, results of wet, dry, and forest Hg deposition from global observation networks, individual monitoring studies, and observation-based simulations are reviewed. Uncertainties in the observation and simulation of global speciated atmospheric Hg deposition to the land surfaces are systemically estimated.
Jia Xing, Dian Ding, Shuxiao Wang, Zhaoxin Dong, James T. Kelly, Carey Jang, Yun Zhu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13627–13646,Short summary
The study aims at addressing the challenge in efficient quantification of the nonlinear response of air pollution to precursor emission perturbations. The newly developed observable response indicators can be easily calculated by a combination of ambient concentrations of certain species. Their capability in representing the spatial and temporal variation in PM2.5 and O3 chemistry has also been well evaluated and applied in China.
Y. Yang, Y. Zhao, and L. Zhang
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-3-W9, 211–217,
Mingchen Ma, Yang Gao, Yuhang Wang, Shaoqing Zhang, L. Ruby Leung, Cheng Liu, Shuxiao Wang, Bin Zhao, Xing Chang, Hang Su, Tianqi Zhang, Lifang Sheng, Xiaohong Yao, and Huiwang Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12195–12207,Short summary
Ozone pollution has become severe in China, and extremely high ozone episodes occurred in summer 2017 over the North China Plain. While meteorology impacts are clear, we find that enhanced biogenic emissions, previously ignored by the community, driven by high vapor pressure deficit, land cover change and urban landscape contribute substantially to ozone formation. This study has significant implications for ozone pollution control with more frequent heat waves and urbanization growth in future.
Xiaoxiao Li, Shaojie Song, Wei Zhou, Jiming Hao, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12163–12174,Short summary
Aerosol liquid water is ubiquitous in ambient aerosol. Using long-term aerosol chemical composition to model the aerosol water in Beijing, we found that water absorbed by organics contributes a significant fraction to the total aerosol water. We emphasize the hygroscopicity of organics is highly variable and should be taken into consideration in modelling. A positive feedback loop between organic hygroscopicity and aerosol water was found as one of the driving factors of severe haze in Beijing.
Ling Qi and Shuxiao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11545–11557,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) contributes two-thirds of the climate impact of carbon dioxide, pushing methane into third place of the human contributors to global warming. This study shows that contributions from biomass burning (producing marginal lensing effect) have a strong spatial variation, from 20 % in Europe to 60 % in Africa. Thus, the inclusion of strong lensing-related absorption enhancement to all BC particles in previous estimates may lead to overestimating their positive radiative forcing.
Tuan V. Vu, Zongbo Shi, Jing Cheng, Qiang Zhang, Kebin He, Shuxiao Wang, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11303–11314,Short summary
A 5-year Clean Air Action Plan was implemented in 2013 to improve ambient air quality in Beijing. Here, we applied a novel machine-learning-based model to determine the real trend in air quality from 2013 to 2017 in Beijing to assess the efficacy of the plan. We showed that the action plan led to a major reduction in primary emissions and significant improvement in air quality. The marked decrease in PM2.5 and SO2 is largely attributable to a reduction in coal combustion.
Jianming Xu, Xuexi Tie, Wei Gao, Yanfen Lin, and Qingyan Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9017–9035,Short summary
The PM2.5 in China has decreased significantly in recent years as a result of the implementation of the Chinese Clean Air Action Plan in 2013, while the O3 pollution is getting worse, especially in megacities. The work aims to better understand the elevated O3 pollution in the megacity of Shanghai, China, and its response to emission changes, which is important for developing an effective emission control strategy in the future.
Qianshan He, Jianzhong Ma, Xiangdong Zheng, Xiaolu Yan, Holger Vömel, Frank G. Wienhold, Wei Gao, Dongwei Liu, Guangming Shi, and Tiantao Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8399–8406,Short summary
An enhanced aerosol layer in the upper troposphere--lower stratosphere was observed by a COBALD over the Tibetan Plateau, in the summer of 2014. The color index of the enhanced aerosol layer indicates the prevalence of dominant fine particles with a mode radius < 0.1 μm. Unlike the very small particles at low relative humidity (RHi < 40%), the relatively large particles in the aerosol layer were generally very hydrophilic as their size increased dramatically with relative humidity.
Xionghui Qiu, Qi Ying, Shuxiao Wang, Lei Duan, Jian Zhao, Jia Xing, Dian Ding, Yele Sun, Baoxian Liu, Aijun Shi, Xiao Yan, Qingcheng Xu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6737–6747,Short summary
Current chemical transport models cannot capture the diurnal and nocturnal variation in atmospheric nitrate, which may be relative to the missing atmospheric chlorine chemistry. In this work, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with improved chlorine heterogeneous chemistry is applied to simulate the impact of chlorine chemistry on summer nitrate concentrations in Beijing. The results of this work can improve our understanding of nitrate formation.
Junlan Feng, Yan Zhang, Shanshan Li, Jingbo Mao, Allison P. Patton, Yuyan Zhou, Weichun Ma, Cong Liu, Haidong Kan, Cheng Huang, Jingyu An, Li Li, Yin Shen, Qingyan Fu, Xinning Wang, Juan Liu, Shuxiao Wang, Dian Ding, Jie Cheng, Wangqi Ge, Hong Zhu, and Katherine Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6167–6183,Short summary
This study aims to estimate the emissions, air quality and population exposure impacts of shipping in 2015, prior to the implementation of the DECAs. It shows that ship emissions within 12 NM of the shore could account for over 55 % of the shipping impact on air pollution in the YRD in summer. Ships entering the Yangtze River and other inland waterways of Shanghai contribute 40–80 % of the ship-related air pollution and population exposure，which both have important implications regarding policy.
Zhenying Xu, Mingxu Liu, Minsi Zhang, Yu Song, Shuxiao Wang, Lin Zhang, Tingting Xu, Tiantian Wang, Caiqing Yan, Tian Zhou, Yele Sun, Yuepeng Pan, Min Hu, Mei Zheng, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5605–5613,
Haotian Zheng, Siyi Cai, Shuxiao Wang, Bin Zhao, Xing Chang, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3447–3462,Short summary
The heavy air pollution in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region is a global hot topic. We established a unit-based industrial emission inventory for the BTH region. The inventory significantly improved air quality modeling results; this improvement subsequently contributes to an accurate source apportionment of haze pollution and more precisely targeted decision making.
Shaojie Song, Meng Gao, Weiqi Xu, Yele Sun, Douglas R. Worsnop, John T. Jayne, Yuzhong Zhang, Lei Zhu, Mei Li, Zhen Zhou, Chunlei Cheng, Yibing Lv, Ying Wang, Wei Peng, Xiaobin Xu, Nan Lin, Yuxuan Wang, Shuxiao Wang, J. William Munger, Daniel J. Jacob, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1357–1371,Short summary
Chemistry responsible for sulfate production in northern China winter haze remains mysterious. We propose a potentially key pathway through the reaction of formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide that has not been accounted for in previous studies. The special atmospheric conditions favor the formation and existence of their complex, hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS).
Ge Zhang, Yang Gao, Wenju Cai, L. Ruby Leung, Shuxiao Wang, Bin Zhao, Minghuai Wang, Huayao Shan, Xiaohong Yao, and Huiwang Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 565–576,Short summary
Based on observed data, this study reveals a distinct seesaw feature of abnormally high and low PM2.5 concentrations in December 2015 and January 2016 over North China. The mechanism of the seesaw pattern was found to be linked to a super El Niño and the Arctic Oscillation (AO). During the mature phase of El Niño in December 2015, the weakened East Asian winter monsoon favors strong haze formation; however, the circulation pattern was reversed in the next month due to the phase change of the AO.
Mingxu Liu, Xin Huang, Yu Song, Tingting Xu, Shuxiao Wang, Zhijun Wu, Min Hu, Lin Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Yuepeng Pan, Xuejun Liu, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17933–17943,
Runlong Cai, Indra Chandra, Dongsen Yang, Lei Yao, Yueyun Fu, Xiaoxiao Li, Yiqun Lu, Lun Luo, Jiming Hao, Yan Ma, Lin Wang, Jun Zheng, Takafumi Seto, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16587–16599,Short summary
Significant influences of transport on measured aerosol size distributions are commonly observed. We propose a method for estimating the contributions of transport to nanoparticles during new particle formation events. This method was used to analyze new particle formation events in Southeast Tibet, Fukue Island, and urban Beijing. The changes in the contributions of transport have a good correlation with the changes in wind speed and direction, indicating the feasibility of the method.
Runlong Cai, Dongsen Yang, Lauri R. Ahonen, Linlin Shi, Frans Korhonen, Yan Ma, Jiming Hao, Tuukka Petäjä, Jun Zheng, Juha Kangasluoma, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4477–4491,Short summary
We tested the performance of four inversion methods to recover sub-3 nm aerosol size distributions using the particle size magnifier (PSM). The PSM is widely used in new particle formation study; however, the inversion methods used in previous studies may report false particle concentrations. Due to the results, we suggest using the expectation–maximization algorithm to address the PSM inversion problem. We also gave practical suggestions on PSM operation based on the inversion analysis.
Chandra Venkataraman, Michael Brauer, Kushal Tibrewal, Pankaj Sadavarte, Qiao Ma, Aaron Cohen, Sreelekha Chaliyakunnel, Joseph Frostad, Zbigniew Klimont, Randall V. Martin, Dylan B. Millet, Sajeev Philip, Katherine Walker, and Shuxiao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8017–8039,
Jia Xing, Dian Ding, Shuxiao Wang, Bin Zhao, Carey Jang, Wenjing Wu, Fenfen Zhang, Yun Zhu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7799–7814,Short summary
NOx is the common precursor for both PM2.5 and O3 pollution, while the effectiveness of NOx controls for reducing PM2.5 and O3 are largely influenced by the ambient levels of NH3 and VOCs. This study developed a new method to quantify the nonlinear effectiveness of emission controls for reducing PM2.5 and O3. The new method not only substantially reduces the computational burden but also provides a series of quantitative indicators to quantify the nonlinear control effectiveness.
Shaojie Song, Meng Gao, Weiqi Xu, Jingyuan Shao, Guoliang Shi, Shuxiao Wang, Yuxuan Wang, Yele Sun, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7423–7438,Short summary
Severe haze events occur frequently over northern China, especially in winter. Acidity plays a critical role in the formation of secondary PM2.5 and its toxicity. Using field measurements of gases and particles to critically evaluate two thermodynamic models routinely employed to determine particle acidity, we found that China's winter haze particles are generally within a moderately acidic range (pH 4–5) and not highly acidic (0) or neutral (7) as has been previously reported in the literature.
Xing Chang, Shuxiao Wang, Bin Zhao, Siyi Cai, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4843–4858,Short summary
The Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region in China has been suffering from a severe particulate matter pollution, and the inter-city transport of the pollutant plays an important role. The current research quantitatively assesses the transport process. We identify three transport pathways. The southwest–northwest one happens in both winter and summer. The transport is stronger at 300–1000 m, or 1–2 days before a pollution peak. The result may guide the joint emission control along the transport pathway.
Qian Yu, Yao Luo, Shuxiao Wang, Zhiqi Wang, Jiming Hao, and Lei Duan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 495–509,Short summary
This study provides high-quality direct observation data of a clean and a contaminated site in subtropical south China and quantifies the natural forest Hg emission. We find that clean and contaminated forests present a net GEM source with annual average values of 6.67 and 0.30 ng m-2 h-1, respectively; daily variations of GEM fluxes showed a source in the daytime with a peak at 13:00, and as a sink or balance at night; and higher atmospheric GEM concentration restricted the forest GEM emission.
Runlong Cai, Dongsen Yang, Yueyun Fu, Xing Wang, Xiaoxiao Li, Yan Ma, Jiming Hao, Jun Zheng, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12327–12340,Short summary
The governing factors for new particle formation (NPF) events in Beijing were analyzed. The roles of gaseous precursors and aerosol surface area were illustrated. It appears that the abundance of gaseous precursors in Beijing is high enough to have nucleation; however, it is aerosol surface area that determines the occurrence of NPF events in Beijing. Aerosol loading thresholds (in the form of aerosol surface area and PM2.5 concentration) for predicting NPF days in Beijing were suggested.
Bin Zhao, Wenjing Wu, Shuxiao Wang, Jia Xing, Xing Chang, Kuo-Nan Liou, Jonathan H. Jiang, Yu Gu, Carey Jang, Joshua S. Fu, Yun Zhu, Jiandong Wang, Yan Lin, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12031–12050,Short summary
Using over 1000 chemical transport model simulations in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, we find that the emissions of primary inorganic PM2.5 make the largest contribution to PM2.5 concentrations and thus should be prioritized in PM2.5 control strategies. Among the precursors, PM2.5 concentrations are primarily sensitive to the emissions of NH3, NMVOC+IVOC, and POA, and the sensitivities increase substantially for NH3 and NHx with the increase in emission reduction ratio.
Qingru Wu, Wei Gao, Shuxiao Wang, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10423–10433,Short summary
Iron and steel production (ISP) is one of the most significant atmospheric Hg emission sources in China. Atmospheric Hg emissions from ISP increased from 11.5 t in 2000 to 32.75 t in 2015 with a peak of 35.65 t in 2013. In the coming years, emissions from ISP are expected to decrease. Although sinter/pellet plants and blast furnaces were the largest two emission processes, emissions from roasting plants and coke ovens accounted for 22 %–34 % of ISP’s emissions.
Jia Xing, Jiandong Wang, Rohit Mathur, Shuxiao Wang, Golam Sarwar, Jonathan Pleim, Christian Hogrefe, Yuqiang Zhang, Jingkun Jiang, David C. Wong, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9869–9883,Short summary
The assessment of the impacts of aerosol direct effects (ADE) is important for understanding emission reduction strategies that seek co-benefits associated with reductions in both particulate matter and ozone. This study quantifies the ADE impacts on tropospheric ozone by using a two-way coupled meteorology and atmospheric chemistry model. Results suggest that reducing ADE may have the potential risk of increasing ozone in winter, but it will benefit the reduction of maxima ozone in summer.
Leiming Zhang, Seth Lyman, Huiting Mao, Che-Jen Lin, David A. Gay, Shuxiao Wang, Mae Sexauer Gustin, Xinbin Feng, and Frank Wania
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9133–9144,Short summary
Future research needs are proposed for improving the understanding of atmospheric mercury cycling. These include refinement of mercury emission estimations, quantification of dry deposition and air–surface exchange, improvement of the treatment of chemical mechanisms in chemical transport models, increase in the accuracy of oxidized mercury measurements, better interpretation of atmospheric mercury chemistry data, and harmonization of network operation.
Qiao Ma, Siyi Cai, Shuxiao Wang, Bin Zhao, Randall V. Martin, Michael Brauer, Aaron Cohen, Jingkun Jiang, Wei Zhou, Jiming Hao, Joseph Frostad, Mohammad H. Forouzanfar, and Richard T. Burnett
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4477–4491,Short summary
In order to quantitatively identify the contributions of coal combustion to airborne fine particles, we developed an emission inventory using up-to-date information and conducted simulations using an atmospheric model. Results show that coal combustion contributes 40 % of the airborne fine-particle concentration on national average in China. Among the subsectors of coal combustion, industrial coal burning is the dominant contributor, which should be prioritized when policies are applied.
Jianlin Hu, Peng Wang, Qi Ying, Hongliang Zhang, Jianjun Chen, Xinlei Ge, Xinghua Li, Jingkun Jiang, Shuxiao Wang, Jie Zhang, Yu Zhao, and Yingyi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 77–92,Short summary
An annual simulation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentrations in China with updated SOA formation pathways reveals that SOA can be a significant contributor to PM2.5 in major urban areas. Summer SOA is dominated by emissions from biogenic sources, while winter SOA is dominated by anthropogenic emissions such as alkanes and aromatic compounds. Reactive surface uptake of dicarbonyls throughout the year and isoprene epoxides in summer is the most important contributor.
Yang Hua, Shuxiao Wang, Jiandong Wang, Jingkun Jiang, Tianshu Zhang, Yu Song, Ling Kang, Wei Zhou, Runlong Cai, Di Wu, Siwei Fan, Tong Wang, Xiaoqing Tang, Qiang Wei, Feng Sun, and Zhimei Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15451–15460,Short summary
The characteristics of three PM2.5 pollution episodes were analyzed during the APEC Summit at a rural site outside of Beijing. It was found that meteorological conditions on the ground could not explain the pollution process, while vertical parameters helped improve the understanding of heavy pollution processes. Our research suggests that regional transport of air pollutants contributes significantly to severe secondary particle pollution, even when local emission is controlled effectively.
Biwu Chu, Xiao Zhang, Yongchun Liu, Hong He, Yele Sun, Jingkun Jiang, Junhua Li, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14219–14230,Short summary
The interactive effects between inorganic and organic species under highly complex pollution conditions remain uncertain and were studied in a smog chamber. This study indicated that the synergistic formation of secondary inorganic and organic aerosol might increase the secondary aerosol load in the atmosphere and contribute haze pollution in eastern China. These synergistic effects were related to the heterogeneous process on aerosol surface and need to be considered in air quality models.
Shaojun Zhang, Ye Wu, Ruikun Huang, Jiandong Wang, Han Yan, Yali Zheng, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9965–9981,Short summary
For highly populated cities in eastern Asian, traffic management has played an increasingly important role in mitigating local emissions from vehicles. Therefore, high-resolution vehicle emission inventory is an irreplaceable assessment tool. This study selected Macau, the most populated city in the world, to demonstrate a high-resolution simulation of vehicular pollution by coupling detailed local data collected and interdisciplinary models.
Bin Zhao, Kuo-Nan Liou, Yu Gu, Cenlin He, Wee-Liang Lee, Xing Chang, Qinbin Li, Shuxiao Wang, Hsien-Liang R. Tseng, Lai-Yung R. Leung, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5841–5852,Short summary
We examine the impact of buildings on surface solar fluxes in Beijing by accounting for their 3-D structures. We find that inclusion of buildings changes surface solar fluxes by within ±1 W m−2, ±1–10 W m−2, and up to ±100 W m−2 at grid resolutions of 4 km, 800 m, and 90 m, respectively. We can resolve pairs of positive-negative flux deviations on different sides of buildings at ≤ 800 m resolutions. We should treat building-effect on solar fluxes differently in models with different resolutions.
Lei Zhang, Shuxiao Wang, Qingru Wu, Fengyang Wang, Che-Jen Lin, Leiming Zhang, Mulin Hui, Mei Yang, Haitao Su, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2417–2433,
A. Stohl, B. Aamaas, M. Amann, L. H. Baker, N. Bellouin, T. K. Berntsen, O. Boucher, R. Cherian, W. Collins, N. Daskalakis, M. Dusinska, S. Eckhardt, J. S. Fuglestvedt, M. Harju, C. Heyes, Ø. Hodnebrog, J. Hao, U. Im, M. Kanakidou, Z. Klimont, K. Kupiainen, K. S. Law, M. T. Lund, R. Maas, C. R. MacIntosh, G. Myhre, S. Myriokefalitakis, D. Olivié, J. Quaas, B. Quennehen, J.-C. Raut, S. T. Rumbold, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Ø. Seland, K. P. Shine, R. B. Skeie, S. Wang, K. E. Yttri, and T. Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10529–10566,Short summary
This paper presents a summary of the findings of the ECLIPSE EU project. The project has investigated the climate and air quality impacts of short-lived climate pollutants (especially methane, ozone, aerosols) and has designed a global mitigation strategy that maximizes co-benefits between air quality and climate policy. Transient climate model simulations allowed quantifying the impacts on temperature (e.g., reduction in global warming by 0.22K for the decade 2041-2050) and precipitation.
H. Z. Tian, C. Y. Zhu, J. J. Gao, K. Cheng, J. M. Hao, K. Wang, S. B. Hua, Y. Wang, and J. R. Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10127–10147,Short summary
For the first time, with S-shaped curves, the best available representation of time-varying emission factors of 12 heavy metals (Hg, As, Se, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn) from primary anthropogenic sources of China are determined on account of economic transitions and pollution control technology improvement. The temporal and spatial variation characteristics of these heavy metals emissions during the period of 1949−2012 are calculated and evaluated with uncertainty analysis.
X. Fu, S. X. Wang, L. M. Ran, J. E. Pleim, E. Cooter, J. O. Bash, V. Benson, and J. M. Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6637–6649,Short summary
In this study, we estimate, for the first time, the NH3 emission from the agricultural fertilizer application in China online using the bi-directional CMAQ model coupled to an agro-ecosystem model. Compared with previous researches, this method considers more influencing factors, such as meteorological fields, soil and the fertilizer application, and provides improved NH3 emission with higher spatial and temporal resolution.
B. Zhao, S. X. Wang, J. Xing, K. Fu, J. S. Fu, C. Jang, Y. Zhu, X. Y. Dong, Y. Gao, W. J. Wu, J. D. Wang, and J. M. Hao
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 115–128,
S. X. Wang, B. Zhao, S. Y. Cai, Z. Klimont, C. P. Nielsen, T. Morikawa, J. H. Woo, Y. Kim, X. Fu, J. Y. Xu, J. M. Hao, and K. B. He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6571–6603,
Z. Cheng, S. Wang, X. Fu, J. G. Watson, J. Jiang, Q. Fu, C. Chen, B. Xu, J. Yu, J. C. Chow, and J. Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4573–4585,
X. Fu, S. X. Wang, Z. Cheng, J. Xing, B. Zhao, J. D. Wang, and J. M. Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1239–1254,
L. Zhang, S. X. Wang, L. Wang, and J. M. Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10505–10516,
B. Zhao, S. X. Wang, H. Liu, J. Y. Xu, K. Fu, Z. Klimont, J. M. Hao, K. B. He, J. Cofala, and M. Amann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9869–9897,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Reconciling the total carbon budget for boreal forest wildfire emissions using airborne observationsSummer variability of the atmospheric NO2 : NO ratio at Dome C on the East Antarctic PlateauMeasurement report: Ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) pollution in urban Beijing: characteristics, sources, and implications for pollution controlMass spectrometric measurements of ambient ions and estimation of gaseous sulfuric acid in the free troposphere and lowermost stratosphere during the CAFE-EU/BLUESKY campaignSpringtime nitrogen oxides and tropospheric ozone in Svalbard: results from the measurement station networkMeasurement report: Observations of long-lived volatile organic compounds from the 2019–2020 Australian wildfires during the COALA campaignComposition and reactivity of volatile organic compounds in the South Coast Air Basin and San Joaquin Valley of CaliforniaAnalysis of regional CO2 contributions at the high Alpine observatory Jungfraujoch by means of atmospheric transport simulations and δ13CVariations and sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban region: insights from measurements on a tall towerTropical peat fire emissions: 2019 field measurements in Sumatra and Borneo and synthesis with previous studiesSulfuric acid in the Amazon basin: measurements and evaluation of existing sulfuric acid proxiesSeasonal variation in oxygenated organic molecules in urban Beijing and their contribution to secondary organic aerosolOxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as significant but varied contributors to VOC emissions from vehiclesThe impacts of wildfires on ozone production and boundary layer dynamics in California's Central ValleyDistribution of hydrogen peroxide over Europe during the BLUESKY aircraft campaignEddy covariance measurements highlight sources of nitrogen oxide emissions missing from inventories for central LondonBudget of nitrous acid (HONO) at an urban site in the fall season of Guangzhou, ChinaLong-term trend of ozone pollution in China during 2014–2020: distinct seasonal and spatial characteristics and ozone sensitivityInvestigation of new particle formation mechanisms and aerosol processes at Marambio Station, Antarctic PeninsulaAtmospheric biogenic volatile organic compounds in the Alaskan Arctic tundra: constraints from measurements at Toolik Field StationMeasurement report: Variations in surface SO2 and NOx mixing ratios from 2004 to 2016 at a background site in the North China PlainFate of the nitrate radical at the summit of a semi-rural mountain site in Germany assessed with direct reactivity measurementsSpatiotemporal variations of the δ(O2 ∕ N2), CO2 and δ(APO) in the troposphere over the western North PacificOH and HO2 radical chemistry at a suburban site during the EXPLORE-YRD campaign in 2018Towards reconstructing the Arctic atmospheric methane history over the 20th century: measurement and modelling results for the North Greenland Ice Core Project firnAtmospheric gas-phase composition over the Indian OceanJoint occurrence of heatwaves and ozone pollution and increased health risks in Beijing, China: role of synoptic weather pattern and urbanizationUsing atmospheric trace gas vertical profiles to evaluate model fluxes: a case study of Arctic-CAP observations and GEOS simulations for the ABoVE domainAn evaluation of new particle formation events in Helsinki during a Baltic Sea cyanobacterial summer bloomOceanic emissions of dimethyl sulfide and methanethiol and their contribution to sulfur dioxide production in the marine atmosphereAn investigation into the chemistry of HONO in the marine boundary layer at Tudor Hill Marine Atmospheric Observatory in BermudaTropospheric ozone production and chemical regime analysis during the COVID-19 lockdown over EuropeOverview: On the transport and transformation of pollutants in the outflow of major population centres – observational data from the EMeRGe European intensive operational period in summer 2017Interannual variability of terpenoid emissions in an alpine cityObservations and modelling of glyoxal in the tropical Atlantic marine boundary layerTop-down and bottom-up estimates of anthropogenic methyl bromide emissions from eastern ChinaDirect measurements of ozone response to emissions perturbations in CaliforniaGround-based investigation of HOx and ozone chemistry in biomass burning plumes in rural IdahoInsights into the significant increase in ozone during COVID-19 in a typical urban city of ChinaQuantification and assessment of methane emissions from offshore oil and gas facilities on the Norwegian continental shelfFull latitudinal marine atmospheric measurements of iodine monoxideDirect observations indicate photodegradable oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) as larger contributors to radicals and ozone production in the atmosphereAssessing vehicle fuel efficiency using a dense network of CO2 observationsOdds and ends of atmospheric mercury in Europe and over the North Atlantic Ocean: temporal trends of 25 years of measurementsInterpretation of NO3–N2O5 observation via steady state in high-aerosol air mass: the impact of equilibrium coefficient in ambient conditionsGlobal emissions of perfluorocyclobutane (PFC-318, c-C4F8) resulting from the use of hydrochlorofluorocarbon-22 (HCFC-22) feedstock to produce polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and related fluorochemicalsAtmospheric measurements at Mt. Tai – Part I: HONO formation and its role in the oxidizing capacity of the upper boundary layerUrban inland wintertime N2O5 and ClNO2 influenced by snow-covered ground, air turbulence, and precipitationFirst observation of mercury species on an important water vapor channel in the southeastern Tibetan PlateauSwiss halocarbon emissions for 2019 to 2020 assessed from regional atmospheric observations
Katherine L. Hayden, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Michael J. Wheeler, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, Amy Leithead, Peter Brickell, Richard L. Mittermeier, Zachary Oldham, Cristian M. Mihele, Ralf M. Staebler, Samar G. Moussa, Andrea Darlington, Mengistu Wolde, Daniel Thompson, Jack Chen, Debora Griffin, Ellen Eckert, Jenna C. Ditto, Megan He, and Drew R. Gentner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12493–12523,Short summary
In this study, airborne measurements provided the most detailed characterization, to date, of boreal forest wildfire emissions. Measurements showed a large diversity of air pollutants expanding the volatility range typically reported. A large portion of organic species was unidentified, likely comprised of complex organic compounds. Aircraft-derived emissions improve wildfire chemical speciation and can support reliable model predictions of pollution from boreal forest wildfires.
Albane Barbero, Roberto Grilli, Markus M. Frey, Camille Blouzon, Detlev Helmig, Nicolas Caillon, and Joël Savarino
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12025–12054,Short summary
The high reactivity of the summer Antarctic boundary layer results in part from the emissions of nitrogen oxides produced during photo-denitrification of the snowpack, but its underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The results of this study suggest that more NO2 is produced from the snowpack early in the photolytic season, possibly due to stronger UV irradiance caused by a smaller solar zenith angle near the solstice.
Lulu Cui, Di Wu, Shuxiao Wang, Qingcheng Xu, Ruolan Hu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11931–11944,Short summary
A 1-year campaign was conducted to characterize VOCs at a Beijing urban site during different episodes. VOCs from fuel evaporation and diesel exhaust, particularly toluene, xylenes, trans-2-butene, acrolein, methyl methacrylate, vinyl acetate, 1-butene, and 1-hexene, were the main contributors. VOCs from diesel exhaust as well as coal and biomass combustion were found to be the dominant contributors for SOAFP, particularly the VOC species toluene, 1-hexene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, and styrene.
Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Martin Heinritzi, Manuel Granzin, Timo Keber, Andreas Kürten, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11781–11794,Short summary
We present measurements of ambient ions in the free troposphere and lower stratosphere over Europe in spring 2020. We observed nitrate and hydrogen sulfate, amongst others. From their ratio, the number concentrations of gaseous sulfuric acid were inferred. Nitrate increased towards the stratosphere, whilst sulfuric acid was slightly decreased there. The average values for sulfuric acid were 1.9 to 7.8 × 105 cm-3. Protonated pyridine was identified in an altitude range of 4.6 to 8.5 km.
Alena Dekhtyareva, Mark Hermanson, Anna Nikulina, Ove Hermansen, Tove Svendby, Kim Holmén, and Rune Grand Graversen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11631–11656,Short summary
Despite decades of industrial activity in Svalbard, there is no continuous air pollution monitoring in the region’s settlements except Ny-Ålesund. The NOx and O3 observations from the three-station network have been compared for the first time in this study. It has been shown how the large-scale weather regimes control the synoptic meteorological conditions and determine the atmospheric long-range transport pathways and efficiency of local air pollution dispersion.
Asher P. Mouat, Clare Paton-Walsh, Jack B. Simmons, Jhonathan Ramirez-Gamboa, David W. T. Griffith, and Jennifer Kaiser
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11033–11047,Short summary
We examine emissions of volatile organic compounds from 2020 wildfires in forested regions of Australia (AU). We find that biomass burning in temperate regions of the US and AU emit similar species in similar proportion, both in natural and lab settings. This suggests studies of wildfires in one region may be used to help improve air quality models in other parts of the world. We observe time series of ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Last, we look at which compounds contribute most to OH reactivity.
Shang Liu, Barbara Barletta, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Alan Fried, Jeff Peischl, Simone Meinardi, Matthew Coggon, Aaron Lamplugh, Jessica B. Gilman, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Carsten Warneke, Eric C. Apel, Alan J. Hills, Ilann Bourgeois, James Walega, Petter Weibring, Dirk Richter, Toshihiro Kuwayama, Michael FitzGibbon, and Donald Blake
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10937–10954,Short summary
California’s ozone persistently exceeds the air quality standards. We studied the spatial distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that produce ozone over the most polluted regions in California using aircraft measurements. We find that the oxygenated VOCs have the highest ozone formation potential. Spatially, biogenic VOCs are important during high ozone episodes in the South Coast Air Basin, while dairy emissions may be critical for ozone production in San Joaquin Valley.
Simone M. Pieber, Béla Tuzson, Stephan Henne, Ute Karstens, Christoph Gerbig, Frank-Thomas Koch, Dominik Brunner, Martin Steinbacher, and Lukas Emmenegger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10721–10749,Short summary
Understanding regional greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere is a prerequisite to mitigate climate change. In this study, we investigated the regional contributions of carbon dioxide (CO2) at the location of the high Alpine observatory Jungfraujoch (JFJ, Switzerland, 3580 m a.s.l.). To this purpose, we combined receptor-oriented atmospheric transport simulations for CO2 concentration in the period 2009–2017 with stable carbon isotope (δ13C–CO2) information.
Xiao-Bing Li, Bin Yuan, Sihang Wang, Chunlin Wang, Jing Lan, Zhijie Liu, Yongxin Song, Xianjun He, Yibo Huangfu, Chenglei Pei, Peng Cheng, Suxia Yang, Jipeng Qi, Caihong Wu, Shan Huang, Yingchang You, Ming Chang, Huadan Zheng, Wenda Yang, Xuemei Wang, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10567–10587,Short summary
High-time-resolution measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were made using an online mass spectrometer at a 600 m tall tower in urban region. Compositions, temporal variations, and sources of VOCs were quantitatively investigated in this study. We find that VOC measurements in urban regions aloft could better characterize source characteristics of anthropogenic emissions. Our results could provide important implications in making future strategies for control of VOCs.
Robert J. Yokelson, Bambang H. Saharjo, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Erianto I. Putra, Thilina Jayarathne, Acep Akbar, Israr Albar, Donald R. Blake, Laura L. B. Graham, Agus Kurniawan, Simone Meinardi, Diah Ningrum, Ati D. Nurhayati, Asmadi Saad, Niken Sakuntaladewi, Eko Setianto, Isobel J. Simpson, Elizabeth A. Stone, Sigit Sutikno, Andri Thomas, Kevin C. Ryan, and Mark A. Cochrane
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10173–10194,Short summary
Fire plus non-fire GHG emissions associated with draining peatlands are the largest per area of any land use change considered by the IPCC. To characterize average and variability for tropical peat fire emissions, highly mobile smoke sampling teams were deployed across four Indonesian provinces to explore an extended interannual, climatic, and spatial range. Large adjustments to IPCC-recommended emissions are suggested. Lab data bolster an extensive emissions database for tropical peat fires.
Deanna C. Myers, Saewung Kim, Steven Sjostedt, Alex B. Guenther, Roger Seco, Oscar Vega Bustillos, Julio Tota, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, and James N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10061–10076,Short summary
We present the first measurements of gas-phase sulfuric acid from the Amazon basin and evaluate the efficacy of existing sulfuric acid parameterizations in this understudied region. Sulfuric acid is produced during the daytime and nighttime, though current proxies underestimate nighttime production. These results illustrate the need for better parameterizations of sulfuric acid and its precursors that are informed by measurements across a broad range of locations.
Yishuo Guo, Chao Yan, Yuliang Liu, Xiaohui Qiao, Feixue Zheng, Ying Zhang, Ying Zhou, Chang Li, Xiaolong Fan, Zhuohui Lin, Zemin Feng, Yusheng Zhang, Penggang Zheng, Linhui Tian, Wei Nie, Zhe Wang, Dandan Huang, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Lei Yao, Lubna Dada, Federico Bianchi, Jingkun Jiang, Yongchun Liu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10077–10097,Short summary
Gaseous oxygenated organic molecules (OOMs) are able to form atmospheric aerosols, which will impact on human health and climate change. Here, we find that OOMs in urban Beijing are dominated by anthropogenic sources, i.e. aromatic (29 %–41 %) and aliphatic (26 %–41 %) OOMs. They are also the main contributors to the condensational growth of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Therefore, the restriction on anthropogenic VOCs is crucial for the reduction of SOAs and haze formation.
Sihang Wang, Bin Yuan, Caihong Wu, Chaomin Wang, Tiange Li, Xianjun He, Yibo Huangfu, Jipeng Qi, Xiao-Bing Li, Qing'e Sha, Manni Zhu, Shengrong Lou, Hongli Wang, Thomas Karl, Martin Graus, Zibing Yuan, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9703–9720,Short summary
Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from vehicles are measured using online mass spectrometers. Differences between gasoline and diesel vehicles are observed with higher emission factors of most oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and heavier aromatics from diesel vehicles. A higher aromatics / toluene ratio could provide good indicators to distinguish emissions from both vehicle types. We show that OVOCs account for significant contributions to VOC emissions from vehicles, especially diesel vehicles.
Keming Pan and Ian C. Faloona
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9681–9702,Short summary
This work represents a unique analysis of 10 existing air quality network sites and meteorological sites, two AmeriFlux sites, and a radio acoustic sounding system in the Central Valley of California during five consecutive fire seasons, June through September, from 2016 to 2020. We find that the ozone production rate increases by ~ 50 % during wildfire influenced periods. Wildfire smoke also decreases the heat flux by 30 % and results in 12 % lower mixed-layer height.
Zaneta T. Hamryszczak, Andrea Pozzer, Florian Obersteiner, Birger Bohn, Benedikt Steil, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9483–9497,Short summary
Hydrogen peroxide plays a pivotal role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. Together with organic hydroperoxides, it forms a reservoir for peroxy radicals, which are known to be the key contributors to the self-cleaning processes of the atmosphere. Hydroperoxides were measured over Europe during the BLUESKY campaign in May–June 2020. The paper gives an overview of the distribution of the species in the troposphere and investigates the impact of wet scavenging and deposition on the budget of H2O2.
Will S. Drysdale, Adam R. Vaughan, Freya A. Squires, Sam J. Cliff, Stefan Metzger, David Durden, Natchaya Pingintha-Durden, Carole Helfter, Eiko Nemitz, C. Sue B. Grimmond, Janet Barlow, Sean Beevers, Gregor Stewart, David Dajnak, Ruth M. Purvis, and James D. Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9413–9433,Short summary
Measurements of NOx emissions are important for a good understanding of air quality. While there are many direct measurements of NOx concentration, there are very few measurements of its emission. Measurements of emissions provide constraints on emissions inventories and air quality models. This article presents measurements of NOx emission from the BT Tower in central London in 2017 and compares them with inventories, finding that they underestimate by a factor of ∼1.48.
Yihang Yu, Peng Cheng, Huirong Li, Wenda Yang, Baobin Han, Wei Song, Weiwei Hu, Xinming Wang, Bin Yuan, Min Shao, Zhijiong Huang, Zhen Li, Junyu Zheng, Haichao Wang, and Xiaofang Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8951–8971,Short summary
We have investigated the budget of HONO at an urban site in Guangzhou. Budget and comprehensive uncertainty analysis suggest that at such locations as ours, HONO direct emissions and NO + OH can become comparable or even surpass other HONO sources that typically receive greater attention and interest, such as the NO2 heterogeneous source and the unknown daytime photolytic source. Our findings emphasize the need to reduce the uncertainties of both conventional and novel HONO sources and sinks.
Wenjie Wang, David D. Parrish, Siwen Wang, Fengxia Bao, Ruijing Ni, Xin Li, Suding Yang, Hongli Wang, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8935–8949,Short summary
Tropospheric ozone is an air pollutant that is detrimental to human health, vegetation and ecosystem productivity. A comprehensive characterisation of the spatial and temporal distribution of tropospheric ozone is critical to our understanding of these issues. Here we summarise this distribution over China from the available observational records to the extent possible. This study provides insights into efficient future ozone control strategies in China.
Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Lubna Dada, Eija Asmi, Janne Lampilahti, Tommy Chan, Jonathan E. Ferrara, Gustavo E. Copes, German Pérez-Fogwill, Luis Barreira, Minna Aurela, Douglas R. Worsnop, Tuija Jokinen, and Mikko Sipilä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8417–8437,Short summary
Understanding how aerosols form is crucial for correctly modeling the climate and improving future predictions. This work provides extensive analysis of aerosol particles and their precursors at Marambio Station, Antarctic Peninsula. We show that sulfuric acid, ammonia, and dimethylamine are key contributors to the frequent new particle formation events observed at the site. We discuss nucleation mechanisms and highlight the need for targeted measurement to fully understand these processes.
Vanessa Selimovic, Damien Ketcherside, Sreelekha Chaliyakunnel, Catie Wielgasz, Wade Permar, Hélène Angot, Dylan B. Millet, Alan Fried, Detlev Helmig, and Lu Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Arctic warming has led to an increase in plants that emit gases in response to stress, but how these gases affect regional chemistry is largely unknown due to lack of observational data. Here we present the most comprehensive gas phase measurements for this area to date and compare them to predictions from a global transport model. We report 78 gas phase species and investigate their importance to atmospheric chemistry in the area, with broader implications for similar plant types.
Xueli Liu, Liang Ran, Weili Lin, Xiaobin Xu, Zhiqiang Ma, Fan Dong, Di He, Liyan Zhou, Qingfeng Shi, and Yao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7071–7085,Short summary
Significant decreases in annual mean NOx from 2011 to 2016 and SO2 from 2008 to 2016 confirm the effectiveness of relevant control measures on the reduction in NOx and SO2 emissions in the North China Plain (NCP). NOx at SDZ had a weaker influence than SO2 on the emission reduction in Beijing and other areas in the NCP. An increase in the number of motor vehicles and weak traffic restrictions have caused vehicle emissions of NOx, which indicates that NOx emission control should be strengthened.
Patrick Dewald, Clara M. Nussbaumer, Jan Schuladen, Akima Ringsdorf, Achim Edtbauer, Horst Fischer, Jonathan Williams, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7051–7069,Short summary
We measured the gas-phase reactivity of the NO3 radical on the summit (825 m a.s.l.) of a semi-rural mountain in southwestern Germany in July 2021. The impact of VOC-induced NO3 losses (mostly monoterpenes) competing with a loss by reaction with NO and photolysis throughout the diel cycle was estimated. Besides chemistry, boundary layer dynamics and plant-physiological processes presumably have a great impact on our observations, which were compared to previous NO3 measurements at the same site.
Shigeyuki Ishidoya, Kazuhiro Tsuboi, Yosuke Niwa, Hidekazu Matsueda, Shohei Murayama, Kentaro Ishijima, and Kazuyuki Saito
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6953–6970,Short summary
The atmospheric O2 / N2 ratio and CO2 concentration over the western North Pacific are presented. We found significant modification of the seasonal APO cycle in the middle troposphere due to the interhemispheric mixing of air. APO driven by the net marine biological activities indicated annual sea–air O2 flux during El Niño. Terrestrial biospheric and oceanic CO2 uptakes during 2012–2019 were estimated to be 1.8 and 2.8 Pg C a−1, respectively.
Xuefei Ma, Zhaofeng Tan, Keding Lu, Xinping Yang, Xiaorui Chen, Haichao Wang, Shiyi Chen, Xin Fang, Shule Li, Xin Li, Jingwei Liu, Ying Liu, Shengrong Lou, Wanyi Qiu, Hongli Wang, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7005–7028,Short summary
This paper presents the first OH and HO2 radical observations made in the Yangtze River Delta in China, and strong oxidation capacity is discovered based on direct measurements. The impacts of new OH regeneration mechanisms, monoterpene oxidation, and HO2 uptake processes are examined and discussed. The sources and the factors to sustain such strong oxidation are the key to understanding the ozone pollution formed in this area.
Taku Umezawa, Satoshi Sugawara, Kenji Kawamura, Ikumi Oyabu, Stephen J. Andrews, Takuya Saito, Shuji Aoki, and Takakiyo Nakazawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6899–6917,Short summary
Greenhouse gas methane in the Arctic atmosphere has not been accurately reported for 1900–1980 from either direct observations or ice core reconstructions. By using trace gas data from firn (compacted snow layers above ice sheet), air samples at two Greenland sites, and a firn air transport model, this study suggests a likely range of the Arctic methane reconstruction for the 20th century. Atmospheric scenarios from two previous studies are also evaluated for consistency with the firn data sets.
Susann Tegtmeier, Christa Marandino, Yue Jia, Birgit Quack, and Anoop S. Mahajan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6625–6676,Short summary
In the atmosphere over the Indian Ocean, intense anthropogenic pollution from Southeast Asia mixes with pristine oceanic air. During the winter monsoon, high pollution levels are regularly observed over the entire northern Indian Ocean, while during the summer monsoon, clean air dominates. Here, we review current progress in detecting and understanding atmospheric gas-phase composition over the Indian Ocean and its impacts on the upper atmosphere, oceanic biogeochemistry, and marine ecosystems.
Lian Zong, Yuanjian Yang, Haiyun Xia, Meng Gao, Zhaobin Sun, Zuofang Zheng, Xianxiang Li, Guicai Ning, Yubin Li, and Simone Lolli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6523–6538,Short summary
Heatwaves (HWs) paired with higher ozone (O3) concentration at surface level pose a serious threat to human health. Taking Beijing as an example, three unfavorable synoptic weather patterns were identified to dominate the compound HW and O3 pollution events. Under the synergistic stress of HWs and O3 pollution, public mortality risk increased, and synoptic patterns and urbanization enhanced the compound risk of events in Beijing by 33.09 % and 18.95 %, respectively.
Colm Sweeney, Abhishek Chatterjee, Sonja Wolter, Kathryn McKain, Robert Bogue, Stephen Conley, Tim Newberger, Lei Hu, Lesley Ott, Benjamin Poulter, Luke Schiferl, Brad Weir, Zhen Zhang, and Charles E. Miller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6347–6364,Short summary
The Arctic Carbon Atmospheric Profiles (Arctic-CAP) project demonstrates the utility of aircraft profiles for independent evaluation of model-derived emissions and uptake of atmospheric CO2, CH4, and CO from land and ocean. Comparison with the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) modeling system suggests that fluxes of CO2 are very consistent with observations, while those of CH4 have some regional and seasonal biases, and that CO comparison is complicated by transport errors.
Roseline C. Thakur, Lubna Dada, Lisa J. Beck, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Tommy Chan, Marjan Marbouti, Xu-Cheng He, Carlton Xavier, Juha Sulo, Janne Lampilahti, Markus Lampimäki, Yee Jun Tham, Nina Sarnela, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Alf Norkko, Markku Kulmala, Mikko Sipilä, and Tuija Jokinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6365–6391,Short summary
Every year intense cyanobacterial and macroalgal blooms occur in the Baltic Sea and in the coastal areas surrounding Helsinki, yet no studies have addressed the impact of biogenic emissions from these blooms on gas vapor concentrations, which in turn could influence new particle formation. This is the first study of its kind to address the chemistry driving new particle formation (NPF) during a bloom period in this region, highlighting the role of biogenic sulfuric acid and iodic acid.
Gordon A. Novak, Delaney B. Kilgour, Christopher M. Jernigan, Michael P. Vermeuel, and Timothy H. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6309–6325,Short summary
We describe field measurements of the mixing ratio and oceanic emission flux of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and methanethiol (MeSH) from a coastal ocean site. DMS is known to impact aerosol formation and growth in the marine atmosphere, influencing cloud formation and climate. Measurements of MeSH, which is produced by the same oceanic source as DMS, are rare. We show that MeSH emissions are large and must be measured alongside DMS to understand marine sulfur chemistry and aerosol formation.
Yuting Zhu, Youfeng Wang, Xianliang Zhou, Yasin F. Elshorbany, Chunxiang Ye, Matthew Hayden, and Andrew J. Peters
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6327–6346,Short summary
The daytime chemistry of nitrous acid (HONO), which plays an important role in the oxidation capacity of the troposphere, is not well understood. In this work, we report new field measurement results of HONO and the relevant parameters in the marine boundary layer at Tudor Hill Marine Atmospheric Observatory in Bermuda. We evaluate the daytime HONO budgets in air masses under different types of interaction with the island and examine the strengths of different HONO formation and loss mechanisms.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, Andrea Pozzer, Ivan Tadic, Lenard Röder, Florian Obersteiner, Hartwig Harder, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6151–6165,Short summary
The European COVID-19 lockdowns have significantly reduced the emission of primary pollutants such as NOx, which impacts the tropospheric photochemical processes and the abundance of O3. In this study, we present how the lockdowns have affected tropospheric trace gases and ozone production based on in situ observations and modeling simulations. We additionally show that the chemical regime shifted from a transition point to a NOx limitation in the upper troposphere.
M. Dolores Andrés Hernández, Andreas Hilboll, Helmut Ziereis, Eric Förster, Ovid O. Krüger, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Francesca Barnaba, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Jörg Schmidt, Heidi Huntrieser, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Midhun George, Vladyslav Nenakhov, Theresa Harlass, Bruna A. Holanda, Jennifer Wolf, Lisa Eirenschmalz, Marc Krebsbach, Mira L. Pöhlker, Anna B. Kalisz Hedegaard, Linlu Mei, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Yangzhuoran Liu, Ralf Koppmann, Hans Schlager, Birger Bohn, Ulrich Schumann, Andreas Richter, Benjamin Schreiner, Daniel Sauer, Robert Baumann, Mariano Mertens, Patrick Jöckel, Markus Kilian, Greta Stratmann, Christopher Pöhlker, Monica Campanelli, Marco Pandolfi, Michael Sicard, José L. Gómez-Amo, Manuel Pujadas, Katja Bigge, Flora Kluge, Anja Schwarz, Nikos Daskalakis, David Walter, Andreas Zahn, Ulrich Pöschl, Harald Bönisch, Stephan Borrmann, Ulrich Platt, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5877–5924,Short summary
EMeRGe provides a unique set of in situ and remote sensing airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosol particles along selected flight routes in the lower troposphere over Europe. The interpretation uses also complementary collocated ground-based and satellite measurements. The collected data help to improve the current understanding of the complex spatial distribution of trace gases and aerosol particles resulting from mixing, transport, and transformation of pollution plumes over Europe.
Lisa Kaser, Arianna Peron, Martin Graus, Marcus Striednig, Georg Wohlfahrt, Stanislav Juráň, and Thomas Karl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5603–5618,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (e.g., terpenoids) play an essential role in atmospheric chemistry. Urban greening activities need to consider the ozone- and aerosol-forming potential of these compounds released from vegetation. NMVOC emissions in urban environments are complex, and the biogenic component remains poorly quantified. For summer conditions biogenic emissions dominate terpene emissions and heat waves can significantly modulate urban biogenic terpenoid emissions.
Hannah Walker, Daniel Stone, Trevor Ingham, Sina Hackenberg, Danny Cryer, Shalini Punjabi, Katie Read, James Lee, Lisa Whalley, Dominick V. Spracklen, Lucy J. Carpenter, Steve R. Arnold, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5535–5557,Short summary
Glyoxal is a ubiquitous reactive organic compound in the atmosphere, which may form organic aerosol and impact the atmosphere's oxidising capacity. There are limited measurements of glyoxal's abundance in the remote marine atmosphere. We made new measurements of glyoxal using a highly sensitive technique over two 4-week periods in the tropical Atlantic atmosphere. We show that daytime measurements are mostly consistent with our chemical understanding but a potential missing source at night.
Haklim Choi, Mi-Kyung Park, Paul J. Fraser, Hyeri Park, Sohyeon Geum, Jens Mühle, Jooil Kim, Ian Porter, Peter K. Salameh, Christina M. Harth, Bronwyn L. Dunse, Paul B. Krummel, Ray F. Weiss, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, and Sunyoung Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5157–5173,Short summary
We observed 12-year continuous CH3Br pollution signals at Gosan and estimated anthropogenic CH3Br emissions in eastern China. The analysis revealed a significant discrepancy between top-down estimates and the bottom-up emissions from the fumigation usage reported to the United Nations Environment Programme, likely due to unreported or inaccurately reported fumigation usage. This result provides information to monitor international compliance with the Montreal Protocol.
Shenglun Wu, Hyung Joo Lee, Andrea Anderson, Shang Liu, Toshihiro Kuwayama, John H. Seinfeld, and Michael J. Kleeman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4929–4949,Short summary
An ozone control experiment usually conducted in the laboratory was installed in a trailer and moved to the outdoor environment to directly confirm that we are controlling the right sources in order to lower ambient ozone concentrations. Adding small amounts of precursor oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds to ambient air showed that the highest ozone concentrations are best controlled by reducing concentrations of oxides of nitrogen. The results confirm satellite measurements.
Andrew J. Lindsay, Daniel C. Anderson, Rebecca A. Wernis, Yutong Liang, Allen H. Goldstein, Scott C. Herndon, Joseph R. Roscioli, Christoph Dyroff, Ed C. Fortner, Philip L. Croteau, Francesca Majluf, Jordan E. Krechmer, Tara I. Yacovitch, Walter B. Knighton, and Ezra C. Wood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4909–4928,Short summary
Wildfire smoke dramatically impacts air quality and often has elevated concentrations of ozone. We present measurements of ozone and its precursors at a rural site periodically impacted by wildfire smoke. Measurements of total peroxy radicals, key ozone precursors that have been studied little within wildfires, compare well with chemical box model predictions. Our results indicate no serious issues with using current chemistry mechanisms to model chemistry in aged wildfire plumes.
Kun Zhang, Zhiqiang Liu, Xiaojuan Zhang, Qing Li, Andrew Jensen, Wen Tan, Ling Huang, Yangjun Wang, Joost de Gouw, and Li Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4853–4866,Short summary
A significant increase in O3 concentrations was found during the lockdown period of COVID-19 in most areas of China. By field measurements coupled with machine learning, an observation-based model (OBM) and sensitivity analysis, we found the changes in the NOx / VOC ratio were a key reason for the significant rise in O3. To restrain O3 pollution, more efforts should be devoted to the control of anthropogenic OVOCs, alkenes and aromatics.
Amy Foulds, Grant Allen, Jacob T. Shaw, Prudence Bateson, Patrick A. Barker, Langwen Huang, Joseph R. Pitt, James D. Lee, Shona E. Wilde, Pamela Dominutti, Ruth M. Purvis, David Lowry, James L. France, Rebecca E. Fisher, Alina Fiehn, Magdalena Pühl, Stéphane J. B. Bauguitte, Stephen A. Conley, Mackenzie L. Smith, Tom Lachlan-Cope, Ignacio Pisso, and Stefan Schwietzke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4303–4322,Short summary
We measured CH4 emissions from 21 offshore oil and gas facilities in the Norwegian Sea in 2019. Measurements compared well with operator-reported emissions but were greatly underestimated when compared with a 2016 global fossil fuel inventory. This study demonstrates the need for up-to-date and accurate inventories for use in research and policy and the important benefits of best-practice reporting methods by operators. Airborne measurements are an effective tool to validate such inventories.
Hisahiro Takashima, Yugo Kanaya, Saki Kato, Martina M. Friedrich, Michel Van Roozendael, Fumikazu Taketani, Takuma Miyakawa, Yuichi Komazaki, Carlos A. Cuevas, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, and Takashi Sekiya
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4005–4018,Short summary
We have undertaken atmospheric iodine monoxide (IO) observations in the global marine boundary layer with a wide latitudinal coverage and sea surface temperature (SST) range. We conclude that atmospheric iodine is abundant over the Western Pacific warm pool, appearing as an iodine fountain, where ozone (O3) minima occur. Our study also found negative correlations between IO and O3 concentrations over IO maxima, which requires reconsideration of the initiation process of halogen activation.
Wenjie Wang, Bin Yuan, Yuwen Peng, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Suxia Yang, Caihong Wu, Jipeng Qi, Fengxia Bao, Yibo Huangfu, Chaomin Wang, Chenshuo Ye, Zelong Wang, Baolin Wang, Xinming Wang, Wei Song, Weiwei Hu, Peng Cheng, Manni Zhu, Junyu Zheng, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4117–4128,Short summary
From thorough measurements of numerous oxygenated volatile organic compounds, we show that their photodissociation can be important for radical production and ozone formation in the atmosphere. This effect was underestimated in previous studies, as measurements of them were lacking.
Helen L. Fitzmaurice, Alexander J. Turner, Jinsol Kim, Katherine Chan, Erin R. Delaria, Catherine Newman, Paul Wooldridge, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3891–3900,Short summary
On-road emissions are thought to vary widely from existing predictions, as the effects of the age of the vehicle fleet, the performance of emission control systems, and variations in speed are difficult to assess under ambient driving conditions. We present an observational approach to characterize on-road emissions and show that the method is consistent with other approaches to within ~ 3 %.
Danilo Custódio, Katrine Aspmo Pfaffhuber, T. Gerard Spain, Fidel F. Pankratov, Iana Strigunova, Koketso Molepo, Henrik Skov, Johannes Bieser, and Ralf Ebinghaus
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3827–3840,Short summary
As a poison in the air that we breathe and the food that we eat, mercury is a human health concern for society as a whole. In that regard, this work deals with monitoring and modelling mercury in the environment, improving wherewithal, identifying the strength of the different components at play, and interpreting information to support the efforts that seek to safeguard public health.
Xiaorui Chen, Haichao Wang, and Keding Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3525–3533,Short summary
We use a complete set of simulations to evaluate whether equilibrium and steady state are appropriate for a chemical system involving several reactive nitrogen-containing species (NO2, NO3, and N2O5) under various conditions. A previously neglected bias for the coefficient applied for interpreting their effects is disclosed, and the relevant ambient factors are examined. We therefore provide a good solution to an accurate representation of nighttime chemistry in high-aerosol areas.
Jens Mühle, Lambert J. M. Kuijpers, Kieran M. Stanley, Matthew Rigby, Luke M. Western, Jooil Kim, Sunyoung Park, Christina M. Harth, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, Simon O'Doherty, Peter K. Salameh, Roland Schmidt, Dickon Young, Ronald G. Prinn, Ray H. J. Wang, and Ray F. Weiss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3371–3378,Short summary
Emissions of the strong greenhouse gas perfluorocyclobutane (c-C4F8) into the atmosphere have been increasing sharply since the early 2000s. These c-C4F8 emissions are highly correlated with the amount of hydrochlorofluorocarbon-22 produced to synthesize polytetrafluoroethylene (known for its non-stick properties) and related chemicals. From this process, c-C4F8 by-product is vented to the atmosphere. Avoiding these unnecessary c-C4F8 emissions could reduce the climate impact of this industry.
Chaoyang Xue, Can Ye, Jörg Kleffmann, Chenglong Zhang, Valéry Catoire, Fengxia Bao, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Likun Xue, Jianmin Chen, Keding Lu, Yong Zhao, Hengde Liu, Zhaoxin Guo, and Yujing Mu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3149–3167,Short summary
Summertime measurements of nitrous acid (HONO) and related parameters were conducted at the foot and the summit of Mt. Tai (1534 m above sea level). We proposed a rapid vertical air mass exchange between the foot and the summit level, which enhances the role of HONO in the oxidizing capacity of the upper boundary layer. Kinetics for aerosol-derived HONO sources were constrained. HONO formation from different paths was quantified and discussed.
Kathryn D. Kulju, Stephen M. McNamara, Qianjie Chen, Hannah S. Kenagy, Jacinta Edebeli, Jose D. Fuentes, Steven B. Bertman, and Kerri A. Pratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2553–2568,Short summary
N2O5 uptake by chloride-containing surfaces produces ClNO2, which photolyzes, producing NO2 and highly reactive Cl radicals that impact air quality. In the inland urban atmosphere, ClNO2 was elevated during lower air turbulence and over snow-covered ground, from snowpack ClNO2 production. N2O5 and ClNO2 levels were lowest, on average, during rainfall and fog because of scavenging, with N2O5 scavenging by fog droplets likely contributing to observed increased particulate nitrate concentrations.
Huiming Lin, Yindong Tong, Chenghao Yu, Long Chen, Xiufeng Yin, Qianggong Zhang, Shichang Kang, Lun Luo, James Schauer, Benjamin de Foy, and Xuejun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2651–2668,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau is known as
The Third Poleand is generally considered to be a clean area owing to its high altitude. However, it may receive be impacted by air pollutants transported from the Indian subcontinent. Pollutants generally enter the Tibetan Plateau in several ways. Among them is the Yarlung Zangbu–Brahmaputra Grand Canyon. In this study, we identified the influence of the Indian summer monsoon on the origin, transport, and behavior of mercury in this area.
Dominique Rust, Ioannis Katharopoulos, Martin K. Vollmer, Stephan Henne, Simon O'Doherty, Daniel Say, Lukas Emmenegger, Renato Zenobi, and Stefan Reimann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2447–2466,Short summary
Artificial halocarbons contribute to ozone layer depletion and to global warming. We measured the atmospheric concentrations of halocarbons at the Beromünster tower, modelled the Swiss emissions, and compared the results to the internationally reported Swiss emissions inventory. For most of the halocarbons, we found good agreement, whereas one refrigerant might be overestimated in the inventory. In addition, we present first emission estimates of the newest types of halocarbons.
Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme and United Nations Environment Programme (AMAP/UNEP): Global Hg assessment 2013: sources, emissions, releases and environmental transport, AMAP/UNEP, Geneva, Switzerland, 2013.
Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme and United Nations Environment Programme (AMAP/UNEP): Global mercury assessment 2018 – draft technical background document, AMAP/UNEP, Geneva, Switzerland, 2018.
Chen, L., Zhang, W., Zhang, Y., Tong, Y., Liu, M., Wang, H., Xie, H., and Wang, X.: Historical and future trends in global source-receptor relationships of mercury, Sci. Total Environ., 610–611, 24–31, 2018.
Cole, A. S., Steffen, A., Pfaffhuber, K. A., Berg, T., Pilote, M., Poissant, L., Tordon, R., and Hung, H.: Ten-year trends of atmospheric mercury in the high Arctic compared to Canadian sub-Arctic and mid-latitude sites, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1535–1545, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-1535-2013, 2013.
Draxler, R. R.: Trajectory Optimization for Balloon Flight Planning, Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fl., 5, 13–23, 1996.
Draxler, R. R. and Hess, G. D.: An overview of the hysplit-4 modeling system for trajectories, Aust. Meteorol. Mag., 47, 295–308, 1998.
Fishman, J. and Seiler, W.: Correlative Nature of Ozone and Carbon Monoxide in the Troposphere: Implications for the Tropospheric Ozone Budget, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 3662–3670, 1983.
Fu, X. W., Feng, X. B, Zhu, W. Z., Wang, S. F., and Lu, J. L.: Total gaseous mercury concentrations in ambient air in the eastern slope of Mt. Gongga, South-Eastern fringe of the Tibetan plateau, China, Atmos. Environ., 42, 970–979, 2008a.
Fu, X. W., Feng, X. B., Zhu, W. Z., Zheng, W., Wang, S. F., and Lu, J. Y.: Total particulate and reactive gaseous mercury in ambient air on the eastern slope of the Mt. Gongga area, China, Appl. Geochem., 23, 408–418, 2008b.
Fu, X. W., Feng, X. B., Wang, S., Rothenberg, S., Shang, L., Li, Z., and Qiu, G.: Temporal and spatial distributions of total gaseous mercury concentrations in ambient air in a mountainous area in southwestern China: implications for industrial and domestic mercury emissions in remote areas in China, Sci. Total Environ., 407, 2306–2314, 2009.
Fu, X. W., Feng, X. B., Qiu, G. L., Shang, L. H., and Zhang, H.: Speciated atmospheric mercury and its potential source in Guiyang, China, Atmos. Environ., 45, 4205–4212, 2011.
Fu, X. W., Zhang, H., Yu, B., Wang, X., Lin, C.-J., and Feng, X. B.: Observations of atmospheric mercury in China: a critical review, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9455–9476, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-9455-2015, 2015.
Hong, Q., Xie, Z., Liu, C., Wang, F., Xie, P., Kang, H., Xu, J., Wang, J., Wu, F., He, P., Mou, F., Fan, S., Dong, Y., Zhan, H., Yu, X., Chi, X., and Liu, J.: Speciated atmospheric mercury on haze and non-haze days in an inland city in China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13807–13821, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-13807-2016, 2016.
Hui, M. L., Wu, Q. R., Wang, S. X., Liang, S., Zhang, L., Wang, F. Y., Lenzen, M., Wang, Y. F., Xu, L. X., Lin, Z. T., Yang, H., Lin, Y., Larssen, T., Xu, M., and Hao, J. M.: Mercury flows in China and global drivers, Environ. Sci. Technol., 51, 222–231, 2017.
Jaffe, D.: Relationship betwen surface and free tropospheric ozone in the western U.S., Environ. Sci. Technol., 45, 432–438, 2010.
Kim, K.-H., Yoon, H.-O., Brown, R. J. C., Jeon, E.-C., Sohn, J.-R., Jung, K., Park, C.-G., and Kim, I.-S.: Simultaneous monitoring of total gaseous mercury at four urban monitoring stations in Seoul, Korea, Atmos. Res., 132–133, 199–208, 2013.
Kim, K. H., Brown, R. J. C., Kwon, E., Kim, I. S., and Sohn, J. R.: Atmospheric mercury at an urban station in Korea across three decades, Atmos. Environ., 131, 124–132, 2016.
Landis, M. S., Stevens, R. K., Schaedlich, F., and Prestbo, E. M.: Development and characterization of an annular denuder methodology for the measurement of divalent inorganic reactive gaseous mercury in ambient air, Environ. Sci. Technol., 36, 3000–3009, 2002.
Li, S., Gao, W., Wang, S. X., Zhang, L., Li, Z. J., Wang, L., and Hao, J. M.: Characteristics of Speciated Atmospheric Mercury in Chongming Island, Shanghai, Environ. Sci., 37, 3290–3299, 2016.
Lin, C. J., Pongprueksa, P., Lindberg, S. E., Pehkonen, S. O., Byun, D., and Jang, C.: Scientific uncertainties in atmospheric mercury models I: Model science evaluation, Atmos. Environ., 40, 2911–2928, 2006.
Lindberg, S., Bullock, R., Ebinghaus, R., Engstrom, D., Feng, X. B., Fitzgerald, W., Pirrone, N., Prestbo, E., and Seigneur, C.: A synthesis of progress and uncertainties in attributing the sources of mercury in deposition, Ambio, 36, 19–33, 2007.
Luo, Y., Duan, L., Driscoll, C. T., Xu, G., Shao, M., Taylor, M., Wang, S. X, and Hao, J. M.: Foliage/atmosphere exchange of mercury in a subtropical coniferous forest in south China, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 121, 2006–2016, 2016.
Martin, L. G., Labuschagne, C., Brunke, E.-G., Weigelt, A., Ebinghaus, R., and Slemr, F.: Trend of atmospheric mercury concentrations at Cape Point for 1995–2004 and since 2007, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2393–2399, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-2393-2017, 2017.
Mason, R. P., Reinfelder, J. R., and Morel, F. M. M.: Bioaccumulation of mercury and methylmercury, Springer, Netherlands, 1995.
Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) and State Administration for Quality Supervision and Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ): Emission standard of air pollutants for boilers, MEP, Beijing, China, 2014.
Pacyna, J. M., Travnikov, O., De Simone, F., Hedgecock, I. M., Sundseth, K., Pacyna, E. G., Steenhuisen, F., Pirrone, N., Munthe, J., and Kindbom, K.: Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12495–12511, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-12495-2016, 2016.
Pirrone, N., Keeler, G. J., and Nriagu, J. O.: Regional differences in worldwide emissions of mercury to the atmosphere, Atmos. Environ., 30, 2981–2987, 1996.
Polissar, A. V., Hopke, P. K., Paatero, P., Kaufmann, Y. J., Hall, D. K., Bodhaine, B. A., Dutton, E. G., and Harris, J. M.: The aerosol at Barrow, Alaska: long-term trends and source locations, Atmos. Environ., 33, 2441–2458, 1999.
Schroeder, W. H. and Munthe, J.: Atmospheric mercury – An overview, Atmos. Environ., 32, 809–822, 1998.
Slemr, F., Brunke, E. G., Labuschagne, C., and Ebinghaus, R.: Total gaseous mercury concentrations at the Cape Point GAW station and their seasonality, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, 213–226, 2008.
Slemr, F., Angot, H., Dommergue, A., Magand, O., Barret, M., Weigelt, A., Ebinghaus, R., Brunke, E.-G., Pfaffhuber, K. A., Edwards, G., Howard, D., Powell, J., Keywood, M., and Wang, F.: Comparison of mercury concentrations measured at several sites in the Southern Hemisphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3125–3133, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-3125-2015, 2015.
Sprovieri, F., Pirrone, N., Ebinghaus, R., Kock, H., and Dommergue, A.: A review of worldwide atmospheric mercury measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 8245–8265, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-8245-2010, 2010.
Sprovieri, F., Pirrone, N., Bencardino, M., D'Amore, F., Carbone, F., Cinnirella, S., Mannarino, V., Landis, M., Ebinghaus, R., Weigelt, A., Brunke, E.-G., Labuschagne, C., Martin, L., Munthe, J., Wängberg, I., Artaxo, P., Morais, F., Barbosa, H. D. M. J., Brito, J., Cairns, W., Barbante, C., Diéguez, M. D. C., Garcia, P. E., Dommergue, A., Angot, H., Magand, O., Skov, H., Horvat, M., Kotnik, J., Read, K. A., Neves, L. M., Gawlik, B. M., Sena, F., Mashyanov, N., Obolkin, V., Wip, D., Feng, X. B., Zhang, H., Fu, X., Ramachandran, R., Cossa, D., Knoery, J., Marusczak, N., Nerentorp, M., and Norstrom, C.: Atmospheric mercury concentrations observed at ground-based monitoring sites globally distributed in the framework of the GMOS network, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11915–11935, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-11915-2016, 2016.
Sprovieri, F., Pirrone, N., Bencardino, M., D'Amore, F., Angot, H., Barbante, C., Brunke, E.-G., Arcega-Cabrera, F., Cairns, W., Comero, S., Diéguez, M. D. C., Dommergue, A., Ebinghaus, R., Feng, X. B., Fu, X., Garcia, P. E., Gawlik, B. M., Hageström, U., Hansson, K., Horvat, M., Kotnik, J., Labuschagne, C., Magand, O., Martin, L., Mashyanov, N., Mkololo, T., Munthe, J., Obolkin, V., Ramirez Islas, M., Sena, F., Somerset, V., Spandow, P., Vardè, M., Walters, C., Wängberg, I., Weigelt, A., Yang, X., and Zhang, H.: Five-year records of mercury wet deposition flux at GMOS sites in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2689–2708, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-2689-2017, 2017.
State Council of the People's Republic of China (SC): Action plan of national air pollution prevention and control, SC, Beijing, China, 2013.
Steffen, A., Scherz, T., Olson, M., Gay, D., and Blanchard, P.: A comparison of data quality control protocols for atmospheric mercury speciation measurements, J. Environ. Monit., 14, 752–765, 2012.
Streets, D. G., Devane, M. K., Lu, Z., Bond, T. C., Sunderland, E. M., and Jacob, D. J.: All-Time releases of mercury to the atmosphere from human activities, Environ. Sci. Technol., 45, 10485–10491, 2011.
Sung, J.-H., Roy, D., Oh, J.-S., Back, S.-K., Jang, H.-N., Kim, S.-H., Seo, Y.-C., Kim, J.-H., Lee, C. B., and Han, Y.-J.: Trans-boundary movement of mercury in the Northeast Asian region predicted by CAMQ-Hg from anthropogenic emissions distribution, Atmos. Res., 203, 197–206, 2018.
Wang, X., Lin, C.-J., Yuan, W., Sommar, J., Zhu, W., and Feng, X.: Emission-dominated gas exchange of elemental mercury vapor over natural surfaces in China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11125–11143, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-11125-2016, 2016.
Wang, Y. Q., Zhang, X. Y., and Draxler, R. R.: TrajStat: GIS-based software that uses various trajectory statistical analysis methods to identify potential sources from long-term air pollution measurement data, Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., New York, 938–939, 2009.
Weigelt, A., Ebinghaus, R., Manning, A. J., Derwent, R. G., Simmonds, P. G., Spain, T. G., Jennings, S. G., and Slemr, F.: Analysis and interpretation of 18 years of mercury observations since 1996 at Mace Head, Ireland, Atmos. Environ., 100, 85–93, 2015.
Wu, Q., Wang, S., Li, G., Liang, S., Lin, C. J., Wang, Y., Cai, S., Liu, K., and Hao, J.: Temporal trend and spatial distribution of speciated atmospheric mercury emissions in China during 1978–2014, Environ. Sci. Technol., 50, 13428–13435, 2016.
Xu, X. and Akhtar, U. S.: Identification of potential regional sources of atmospheric total gaseous mercury in Windsor, Ontario, Canada using hybrid receptor modeling, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 7073–7083, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-7073-2010, 2010.
Yu, Q., Luo, Y., Wang, S., Wang, Z., Hao, J., and Duan, L.: Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) fluxes over canopy of two typical subtropical forests in south China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 495–509, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-495-2018, 2018.
Zhang, G. Y., Zhou, L. M., Zheng, X. M., and Huang, W. D.: Temporal distribution and potential hazards of wet depostion mercury in Yangtze River Estuary, Urban Environmental & Urban Ecology, 1–4, 2010.
Zhang, H., Fu, X. W., Lin, C.-J., Wang, X., and Feng, X. B.: Observation and analysis of speciated atmospheric mercury in Shangri-La, Tibetan Plateau, China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 653–665, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-653-2015, 2015.
Zhang, H., Fu, X., Lin, C.-J., Shang, L., Zhang, Y., Feng, X., and Lin, C.: Monsoon-facilitated characteristics and transport of atmospheric mercury at a high-altitude background site in southwestern China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13131–13148, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-13131-2016, 2016.
Zhang, L., Wang, S. X., Wang, L., and Hao, J. M.: Atmospheric mercury concentration and chemical speciation at a rural site in Beijing, China: implications of mercury emission sources, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10505–10516, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-10505-2013, 2013.
Zhang, L., Wang, S. X., Wang, L., Wu, Y., Duan, L., Wu, Q. R., Wang, F. Y., Yang, M., Yang, H., Hao, J. M., and Liu, X.: Updated emission inventories for speciated atmospheric mercury from anthropogenic sources in China, Environ. Sci. Technol., 49, 3185–3194, 2015.
Zhang, L. M., Wright, L. P., and Blanchard, P.: A review of current knowledge concerning dry deposition of atmospheric mercury, Atmos. Environ., 43, 5853–5864, 2009.
Zhang, Y. X., Jacob, D. J., Horowitz, H. M., Chen, L., Amos, H. M., Krabbenhoft, D. P., Slemr, F., St Louis, V. L., and Sunderland, E. M.: Observed decrease in atmospheric mercury explained by global decline in anthropogenic emissions, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 113, 526–231, 2016.
Zhao, B., Wang, S. X., Liu, H., Xu, J. Y., Fu, K., Klimont, Z., Hao, J. M., He, K. B., Cofala, J., and Amann, M.: NOx emissions in China: historical trends and future perspectives, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9869–9897, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-9869-2013, 2013.
Zhu, J., Wang, T., Talbot, R., Mao, H., Hall, C. B., Yang, X., Fu, C., Zhuang, B., Li, S., Han, Y., and Huang, X.: Characteristics of atmospheric Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM) observed in urban Nanjing, China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 12103–12118, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-12103-2012, 2012.
In this study, 3-year measurements of atmospheric Hg were carried out at a rural site in East China. A significant downward trend was observed during the sampling period. This study used a new approach that considers both cluster frequency and the Hg concentration associated with each cluster, and we calculated that atmospheric Hg from the whole region of China has caused a 70 % decline of GEM concentration at the Chongming monitoring site due to strict air pollution control policies in China.
In this study, 3-year measurements of atmospheric Hg were carried out at a rural site in East...