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This study revealed the driving role of nitrate in urban haze development in the North China Plain (NCP) during summertime. Several factors favoring the rapid nitrate formation were investigated in detail. The higher concentration and, in particular, the higher contribution of nitrate in PM1 suggest an urgent need to initiate ammonia emission control measures and further reduce NOx emissions over the NCP region.
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ACP | Articles | Volume 18, issue 8
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5293–5306, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-5293-2018

Special issue: Multiphase chemistry of secondary aerosol formation under...

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5293–5306, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-5293-2018

Research article 19 Apr 2018

Research article | 19 Apr 2018

Nitrate-driven urban haze pollution during summertime over the North China Plain

Haiyan Li et al.

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Alexander, B., Hastings, M. G., Allman, D. J., Dachs, J., Thornton, J. A., and Kunasek, S. A.: Quantifying atmospheric nitrate formation pathways based on a global model of the oxygen isotopic composition (δ17O) of atmospheric nitrate, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 5043–5056, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-5043-2009, 2009. 
Bougiatioti, A., Nikolaou, P., Stavroulas, I., Kouvarakis, G., Weber, R., Nenes, A., Kanakidou, M., and Mihalopoulos, N.: Particle water and pH in the eastern Mediterranean: source variability and implications for nutrient availability, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4579–4591, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-4579-2016, 2016. 
Brown, S. S., Ryerson, T. B., Wollny, A. G., Brock, C. A., Peltier, R., Sullivan, A. P., Weber, R. J., Dube, W. P., Trainer, M., Meagher, J. F., Fehsenfeld, F. C., and Ravishankara, A. R.: Variability in nocturnal nitrogen oxide processing and its role in regional air quality, Science, 311, 67–70, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1120120, 2006. 
Cheng, Y. F., Zheng, G. J., Wei, C., Mu, Q., Zheng, B., Wang, Z. B., Gao, M., Zhang, Q., He, K. B., Carmichael, G., Poschl, U., and Su, H.: Reactive nitrogen chemistry in aerosol water as a source of sulfate during haze events in China, Science Advances, 2, e1601530 https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1601530, 2016. 
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Short summary
This study revealed the driving role of nitrate in urban haze development in the North China Plain (NCP) during summertime. Several factors favoring the rapid nitrate formation were investigated in detail. The higher concentration and, in particular, the higher contribution of nitrate in PM1 suggest an urgent need to initiate ammonia emission control measures and further reduce NOx emissions over the NCP region.
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Final-revised paper
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