Articles | Volume 18, issue 7
06 Apr 2018
Research article | 06 Apr 2018
Reconstructing volcanic plume evolution integrating satellite and ground-based data: application to the 23 November 2013 Etna eruption
Matthieu Poret et al.
No articles found.
Ilaria Petracca, Davide De Santis, Matteo Picchiani, Stefano Corradini, Lorenzo Guerrieri, Fred Prata, Luca Merucci, Dario Stelitano, Fabio Del Frate, Giorgia Salvucci, and Giovanni Schiavon
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for AMTShort summary
The authors propose a near real-time procedure for the detection of volcanic cloud by means of satellite data and neural networks. The developed model shows good performances in terms of discrimination of ashy pixels in Sentinel-3/SLSTR images if compared with other approaches which are time consuming, case-specific and not automatic. The proposed algorithm could be significantly helpful for emergency management related to eruption events.
Andrea Bevilacqua, Alvaro Aravena, Willy Aspinall, Antonio Costa, Sue Mahony, Augusto Neri, Stephen Sparks, and Brittain Hill
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for NHESSShort summary
We evaluate, through first-order kinetic energy models, the minimum volume and mass of a pyroclastic density current generated at the Aso caldera that might affect any of three infrastructure sites related to the electricity grid of southern Japan. These target sites are all located 130–145 km from the caldera, but in well-separated directions. Our constraints of volume and mass are then compared with the main characteristics of the two largest Aso eruptions, with emphasis on Aso-4.
Leonardo Mingari, Arnau Folch, Andrew T. Prata, Federica Pardini, Giovanni Macedonio, and Antonio Costa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1773–1792,Short summary
We present a new implementation of an ensemble-based data assimilation method to improve forecasting of volcanic aerosols. This system can be efficiently integrated into operational workflows by exploiting high-performance computing resources. We found a dramatic improvement of forecast quality when satellite retrievals are continuously assimilated. Management of volcanic risk and reduction of aviation impacts can strongly benefit from this research.
Manuel Titos, Beatriz Martínez Montesinos, Sara Barsotti, Laura Sandri, Arnau Folch, Leonardo Mingari, Giovanni Macedonio, and Antonio Costa
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 139–163,Short summary
This work addresses a quantitative hazard assessment on the possible impact on air traffic of a future ash-forming eruption on the island of Jan Mayen. Through high-performance computing resources, we numerically simulate the transport of ash clouds and ash concentration at different flight levels over an area covering Iceland and the UK using the FALL3D model. This approach allows us to derive a set of probability maps explaining the extent and persisting concentration conditions of ash clouds.
Andrew T. Prata, Leonardo Mingari, Arnau Folch, Giovanni Macedonio, and Antonio Costa
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 409–436,Short summary
This paper presents FALL3D-8.0, the latest version release of an open-source code with a track record of 15+ years and a growing number of users in the volcanological and atmospheric communities. The code, originally conceived for atmospheric dispersal and deposition of tephra particles, has been extended to model other types of particles, aerosols and radionuclides. This paper details new model applications and validation of FALL3D-8.0 using satellite, ground-deposit load and radionuclide data.
Silvia Massaro, Roberto Sulpizio, Gianluca Norini, Gianluca Groppelli, Antonio Costa, Lucia Capra, Giacomo Lo Zupone, Michele Porfido, and Andrea Gabrieli
Solid Earth, 11, 2515–2533,Short summary
In this work we provide a 2D finite-element modelling of the stress field conditions around the Fuego de Colima volcano (Mexico) in order to test the response of the commercial Linear Static Analysis software to increasingly different geological constraints. Results suggest that an appropriate set of geological and geophysical data improves the mesh generation procedures and the degree of accuracy of numerical outputs, aimed at more reliable physics-based representations of the natural system.
Arnau Folch, Leonardo Mingari, Natalia Gutierrez, Mauricio Hanzich, Giovanni Macedonio, and Antonio Costa
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1431–1458,Short summary
This paper presents FALL3D-8.0, the latest version release of an open-source code with a track record of 15+ years and a growing number of users in the volcanological and atmospheric communities. The code, originally conceived for atmospheric dispersal and deposition of tephra particles, has been extended to model other types of particles, aerosols and radionuclides. This paper details the FALL3D-8.0 model physics and the numerical implementation of the code.
Silvia Massaro, Antonio Costa, Roberto Sulpizio, Diego Coppola, and Lucia Capra
Solid Earth, 10, 1429–1450,Short summary
The Fuego de Colima volcano (Mexico) shows a complex eruptive history, with periods of rapid and slow lava dome growth punctuated by explosive activity. Here we reconstructed the 1998–2018 average discharge rate by means of satellite thermal data and the literature. Using spectral and wavelet analysis, we found a multi-term cyclic behavior that is in good agreement with numerical modeling, accounting for a variable magmatic feeding system composed of a single or double magma chamber system.
Stefano Federico, Rosa Claudia Torcasio, Elenio Avolio, Olivier Caumont, Mario Montopoli, Luca Baldini, Gianfranco Vulpiani, and Stefano Dietrich
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1839–1864,Short summary
This study shows the possibility to improve the weather forecast at the very short range (0–3 h) using lightning and/or radar reflectivity observations. We consider two challenging events that occurred over Italy, named Serrano and Livorno, characterized by moderate and exceptional rainfall, respectively. The improvement given to the forecast by using the lightning and/or radar reflectivity observations is considerable. The best performance is obtained when using both data.
Sara Osman, Eduardo Rossi, Costanza Bonadonna, Corine Frischknecht, Daniele Andronico, Raffaello Cioni, and Simona Scollo
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 589–610,Short summary
The fallout of large clasts (> 5 cm) from the margins of eruptive plumes can damage local infrastructure and severely injure people close to the volcano. Even though this potential hazard has been observed at many volcanoes, it has often been overlooked. We present the first hazard and risk assessment of large-clast fallout from eruptive plumes and use Mt Etna (Italy) as a case study. The use of dedicated shelters in the case of an explosive event that occurs with no warning is also evaluated.
Arnau Folch, Jordi Barcons, Tomofumi Kozono, and Antonio Costa
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 861–879,Short summary
Atmospheric dispersal of a gas denser than air can threat the environment and surrounding communities. In complex terrains, microscale winds and local orographic features can have a strong influence on the gas cloud behavior, potentially leading to inaccurate model results if not captured by coarser-scale simulations. We introduce a methodology for microscale wind field characterization and validate it using, as a test case, the CO2 gas dispersal from 1986 Lake Nyos eruption.
Sergio Pugnaghi, Lorenzo Guerrieri, Stefano Corradini, and Luca Merucci
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3053–3062,
Pasquale Sellitto, Alcide di Sarra, Stefano Corradini, Marie Boichu, Hervé Herbin, Philippe Dubuisson, Geneviève Sèze, Daniela Meloni, Francesco Monteleone, Luca Merucci, Justin Rusalem, Giuseppe Salerno, Pierre Briole, and Bernard Legras
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6841–6861,Short summary
We combine plume dispersion and radiative transfer modelling, and satellite and surface remote sensing observations to study the regional influence of a relatively weak volcanic eruption from Mount Etna (25–27 October 2013) on the optical/micro-physical properties of Mediterranean aerosols. Our results indicate that even relatively weak volcanic eruptions may produce an observable effect on the aerosol properties at the regional scale, with a significant impact on the regional radiative balance.
A. Folch, A. Costa, and G. Macedonio
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 431–450,Short summary
We present FPLUME-1.0, a steady-state 1-D cross-section-averaged eruption column model based on the buoyant plume theory (BPT). The model accounts for plume bending by wind, entrainment of ambient moisture, effects of water phase changes, particle fallout and re-entrainment, a new parameterization for the air entrainment coefficients and a model for wet aggregation of ash particles in presence of liquid water or ice.
D. Andronico and P. Del Carlo
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 29–40,Short summary
The paper focuses on the potential health risks caused by the sub-10 micron fraction of volcanic ash (PM10) following explosive eruptions of Mt. Etna (Italy). We present the results of a study on the ash concentration in the air of urbanized areas after the 15 November 2011 lava fountain and the related tephra fallout, causing high levels of PM10 in the air. We conclude by hoping that due attention will be given to the impact of ash fallout on the Etnean territory in the future.
G. Vulpiani, L. Baldini, and N. Roberto
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4681–4698,Short summary
This work shows the effective monitoring of intense precipitation events in the Mediterranean area by an operational X-band dual-polarization radar operated in south Italy by the Department of Civil Protection. Two severe hail-bearing storms, causing high attenuation, have been described in terms of the polarimetric radar signatures and estimated rainfall fields. The comparative analysis of the radar observations enabled the triggering hail formation and precipitation process to be inferred.
R. Tonini, L. Sandri, A. Costa, and J. Selva
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 409–415,
A. Piscini, M. Picchiani, M. Chini, S. Corradini, L. Merucci, F. Del Frate, and S. Stramondo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4023–4047,
I. Maiello, R. Ferretti, S. Gentile, M. Montopoli, E. Picciotti, F. S. Marzano, and C. Faccani
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2919–2935,
S. Puca, F. Porcu, A. Rinollo, G. Vulpiani, P. Baguis, S. Balabanova, E. Campione, A. Ertürk, S. Gabellani, R. Iwanski, M. Jurašek, J. Kaňák, J. Kerényi, G. Koshinchanov, G. Kozinarova, P. Krahe, B. Lapeta, E. Lábó, L. Milani, L'. Okon, A. Öztopal, P. Pagliara, F. Pignone, C. Rachimow, N. Rebora, E. Roulin, I. Sönmez, A. Toniazzo, D. Biron, D. Casella, E. Cattani, S. Dietrich, F. Di Paola, S. Laviola, V. Levizzani, D. Melfi, A. Mugnai, G. Panegrossi, M. Petracca, P. Sanò, F. Zauli, P. Rosci, L. De Leonibus, E. Agosta, and F. Gattari
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 871–889,
M. Montopoli, G. Vulpiani, D. Cimini, E. Picciotti, and F. S. Marzano
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 537–552,
D. Cimini, F. Romano, E. Ricciardelli, F. Di Paola, M. Viggiano, F. S. Marzano, V. Colaiuda, E. Picciotti, G. Vulpiani, and V. Cuomo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3181–3196,
A. Rinollo, G. Vulpiani, S. Puca, P. Pagliara, J. Kaňák, E. Lábó, L'. Okon, E. Roulin, P. Baguis, E. Cattani, S. Laviola, and V. Levizzani
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 2695–2705,
N. Theys, R. Campion, L. Clarisse, H. Brenot, J. van Gent, B. Dils, S. Corradini, L. Merucci, P.-F. Coheur, M. Van Roozendael, D. Hurtmans, C. Clerbaux, S. Tait, and F. Ferrucci
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5945–5968,
S. Pugnaghi, L. Guerrieri, S. Corradini, L. Merucci, and B. Arvani
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1315–1327,
E. Picciotti, F. S. Marzano, E. N. Anagnostou, J. Kalogiros, Y. Fessas, A. Volpi, V. Cazac, R. Pace, G. Cinque, L. Bernardini, K. De Sanctis, S. Di Fabio, M. Montopoli, M. N. Anagnostou, A. Telleschi, E. Dimitriou, and J. Stella
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 1229–1241,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Remote Sensing | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Simultaneous retrievals of biomass burning aerosols and trace gases from the ultraviolet to near-infrared over northern Thailand during the 2019 pre-monsoon seasonA decadal assessment of the climatology of aerosol and cloud properties over South AfricaAerosol characterisation in the subtropical eastern North Atlantic region using long-term AERONET measurementsLong-range transport of Asian dust to the Arctic: identification of transport pathways, evolution of aerosol optical properties, and impact assessment on surface albedo changesCanadian and Alaskan wildfire smoke particle properties, their evolution, and controlling factors, from satellite observationsEvaluation of aerosol optical depths and clear-sky radiative fluxes of the CERES Edition 4.1 SYN1deg data productArctic spring and summertime aerosol optical depth baseline from long-term observations and model reanalyses – Part 1: Climatology and trendVertical structure of biomass burning aerosol transported over the southeast Atlantic OceanArctic spring and summertime aerosol optical depth baseline from long-term observations and model reanalyses – Part 2: Statistics of extreme AOD events, and implications for the impact of regional biomass burning processesAerosol atmospheric rivers: climatology, event characteristics, and detection algorithm sensitivitiesDust transport and advection measurement with spaceborne lidars ALADIN and CALIOP and model reanalysis dataRecord-breaking dust loading during two mega dust storm events over northern China in March 2021: aerosol optical and radiative properties and meteorological driversWintertime Saharan dust transport towards the Caribbean: an airborne lidar case study during EUREC4ASpatiotemporal continuous estimates of daily 1-km PM2.5 from 2000 to present under the Tracking Air Pollution in China (TAP) frameworkEvaluation of aerosol number concentrations from CALIPSO with ATom airborne in situ measurementsZonal variations in the vertical distribution of atmospheric aerosols over the Indian region and the consequent radiative effectsRobust evidence for reversal in the aerosol effective climate forcing trendGlobal maps of aerosol single scattering albedo using combined CERES-MODIS retrievalThe characterization of long-range transported North American biomass burning plumes: what can a multi-wavelength Mie–Raman-polarization-fluorescence lidar provide?Fluorescence lidar observations of wildfire smoke inside cirrus: a contribution to smoke–cirrus interaction researchA novel method of identifying and analysing oil smoke plumes based on MODIS and CALIPSO satellite dataPollen observations at four EARLINET stations during the ACTRIS-COVID-19 campaignIdentifying chemical aerosol signatures using optical suborbital observations: how much can optical properties tell us about aerosol composition?Quantification of the dust optical depth across spatiotemporal scales with the MIDAS global dataset (2003–2017)Circular Polarization in Atmospheric AerosolsAerosol radiative impact during the summer 2019 heatwave produced partly by an inter-continental Saharan dust outbreak – Part 2: Long-wave and net dust direct radiative effectComment on “Short-cut transport path for Asian dust directly to the Arctic: a case Study” by Huang et al. (2015) in Environ. Res. Lett.Statistical validation of Aeolus L2A particle backscatter coefficient retrievals over ACTRIS/EARLINET stations on the Iberian PeninsulaInferring iron-oxide species content in atmospheric mineral dust from DSCOVR EPIC observationsMesoscale spatio-temporal variability of airborne lidar-derived aerosol properties in the Barbados region during EUREC4ALong-term characterisation of the vertical structure of the Saharan Air Layer over the Canary Islands using lidar and radiosonde profiles: implications for radiative and cloud processes over the subtropical Atlantic OceanObserved slump of sea land breeze in Brisbane under the effect of aerosols from remote transport during 2019 Australian mega fire eventsMeasurement report: Vehicle-based multi-lidar observational study of the effect of meteorological elements on the three-dimensional distribution of particles in the western Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Greater Bay AreaMarine aerosol properties over the Southern Ocean in relation to the wintertime meteorological conditionsThe spatiotemporal relationship between PM2.5 and aerosol optical depth in China: influencing factors and implications for satellite PM2.5 estimations using MAIAC aerosol optical depthMeasurement report: Characterization of the vertical distribution of airborne Pinus pollen in the atmosphere with lidar-derived profiles – a modeling case study in the region of Barcelona, NE SpainInvestigation of near-global daytime boundary layer height using high-resolution radiosondes: first results and comparison with ERA5, MERRA-2, JRA-55, and NCEP-2 reanalysesEstimation of the vertical distribution of particle matter (PM2.5) concentration and its transport flux from lidar measurements based on machine learning algorithmsRelating geostationary satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) over East Asia to fine particulate matter (PM2.5): insights from the KORUS-AQ aircraft campaign and GEOS-Chem model simulationsThree-dimensional climatology, trends, and meteorological drivers of global and regional tropospheric type-dependent aerosols: insights from 13 years (2007–2019) of CALIOP observationsAerosol properties and aerosol–radiation interactions in clear-sky conditions over GermanyGlobal dust optical depth climatology derived from CALIOP and MODIS aerosol retrievals on decadal timescales: regional and interannual variabilityAerosol optical properties derived from POLDER-3/PARASOL (2005–2013) over the Western Mediterranean Sea – Part 2: Spatial distribution and temporal variabilityObservation and modeling of the historic “Godzilla” African dust intrusion into the Caribbean Basin and the southern US in June 2020Multi-dimensional satellite observations of aerosol properties and aerosol types over three major urban clusters in eastern ChinaGeometric estimation of volcanic eruption column height from GOES-R near-limb imagery – Part 1: MethodologyGeometric estimation of volcanic eruption column height from GOES-R near-limb imagery – Part 2: Case studiesSpatiotemporal changes in aerosol properties by hygroscopic growth and impacts on radiative forcing and heating rates during DISCOVER-AQ 2011Estimating radiative forcing efficiency of dust aerosol based on direct satellite observations: case studies over the Sahara and Taklimakan DesertSatellite-based estimation of the impacts of summertime wildfires on PM2.5 concentration in the United States
Ukkyo Jeong, Si-Chee Tsay, N. Christina Hsu, David M. Giles, John W. Cooper, Jaehwa Lee, Robert J. Swap, Brent N. Holben, James J. Butler, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Somporn Chantara, Hyunkee Hong, Donghee Kim, and Jhoon Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11957–11986,Short summary
Ultraviolet (UV) measurements from satellite and ground are important for deriving information on several atmospheric trace and aerosol characteristics. Simultaneous retrievals of aerosol and trace gases in this study suggest that water uptake by aerosols is one of the important phenomena affecting aerosol properties over northern Thailand, which is important for regional air quality and climate. Obtained aerosol properties covering the UV are also important for various satellite algorithms.
Abdulaziz Tunde Yakubu and Naven Chetty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11065–11087,Short summary
This study examined the source of atmospheric aerosols and their role in forming clouds and rainfall over South Africa. The research provided answers to the cause of low precipitation, mainly linked to drought and water shortages experienced over the region. Further insight into the cause of occasional flooding that occurs in other parts of the area is provided. Finally, the study described the relationship between aerosol–cloud precipitation based on observation over the region.
África Barreto, Rosa D. García, Carmen Guirado-Fuentes, Emilio Cuevas, A. Fernando Almansa, Celia Milford, Carlos Toledano, Francisco J. Expósito, Juan P. Díaz, and Sergio F. León-Luis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11105–11124,Short summary
A comprehensive characterization of atmospheric aerosols in the subtropical eastern North Atlantic has been carried out in this paper using long-term ground AERONET photometric observations over the period 2005–2020 from a unique network made up of four stations strategically located from sea level to 3555 m height on the island of Tenerife. This is a region that can be considered a key location to study the seasonal dependence of dust transport from the Sahel-Sahara.
Xiaoxi Zhao, Kan Huang, Joshua S. Fu, and Sabur F. Abdullaev
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10389–10407,Short summary
Long-range transport of Asian dust to the Arctic was considered an important source of Arctic air pollution. Different transport routes to the Arctic had divergent effects on the evolution of aerosol properties. Depositions of long-range-transported dust particles can reduce the Arctic surface albedo considerably. This study implied that the ubiquitous long-transport dust from China exerted considerable aerosol indirect effects on the Arctic and may have potential biogeochemical significance.
Katherine T. Junghenn Noyes, Ralph A. Kahn, James A. Limbacher, and Zhanqing Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10267–10290,Short summary
We compare retrievals of wildfire smoke particle size, shape, and light absorption from the MISR satellite instrument to modeling and other satellite data on land cover type, drought conditions, meteorology, and estimates of fire intensity (fire radiative power – FRP). We find statistically significant differences in the particle properties based on burning conditions and land cover type, and we interpret how changes in these properties point to specific aerosol aging mechanisms.
David W. Fillmore, David A. Rutan, Seiji Kato, Fred G. Rose, and Thomas E. Caldwell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10115–10137,Short summary
This paper presents an evaluation of the aerosol analysis incorporated into the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data products as well as the aerosols' impact on solar radiation reaching the surface. CERES is a NASA Earth observation mission with instruments flying on various polar-orbiting satellites. Its primary objective is the study of the radiative energy balance of the climate system as well as examination of the influence of clouds and aerosols on this balance.
Peng Xian, Jianglong Zhang, Norm T. O'Neill, Travis D. Toth, Blake Sorenson, Peter R. Colarco, Zak Kipling, Edward J. Hyer, James R. Campbell, Jeffrey S. Reid, and Keyvan Ranjbar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9915–9947,Short summary
The study provides baseline Arctic spring and summertime aerosol optical depth climatology, trend, and extreme event statistics from 2003 to 2019 using a combination of aerosol reanalyses, remote sensing, and ground observations. Biomass burning smoke has an overwhelming contribution to black carbon (an efficient climate forcer) compared to anthropogenic sources. Burning's large interannual variability and increasing summer trend have important implications for the Arctic climate.
Harshvardhan Harshvardhan, Richard Ferrare, Sharon Burton, Johnathan Hair, Chris Hostetler, David Harper, Anthony Cook, Marta Fenn, Amy Jo Scarino, Eduard Chemyakin, and Detlef Müller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9859–9876,Short summary
The evolution of aerosol in biomass burning smoke plumes that travel over marine clouds off the Atlantic coast of central Africa was studied using measurements made by a lidar deployed on a high-altitude aircraft. The main finding was that the physical properties of aerosol do not change appreciably once the plume has left land and travels over the ocean over a timescale of 1 to 2 d. Almost all particles in the plume are of radius less than 1 micrometer and spherical in shape.
Peng Xian, Jianglong Zhang, Norm T. O'Neill, Jeffrey S. Reid, Travis D. Toth, Blake Sorenson, Edward J. Hyer, James R. Campbell, and Keyvan Ranjbar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9949–9967,Short summary
The study provides a baseline Arctic spring and summertime aerosol optical depth climatology, trend, and extreme event statistics from 2003 to 2019 using a combination of aerosol reanalyses, remote sensing, and ground observations. Biomass burning smoke has an overwhelming contribution to black carbon (an efficient climate forcer) compared to anthropogenic sources. Burning's large interannual variability and increasing summer trend have important implications for the Arctic climate.
Sudip Chakraborty, Bin Guan, Duane E. Waliser, and Arlindo M. da Silva
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8175–8195,Short summary
This study explores extreme aerosol transport events by aerosol atmospheric rivers (AARs) and shows the characteristics of individual AARs such as length, width, length-to-width ratio, transport strength, and dominant transport direction, the seasonal variations, the relationship to the spatial distribution of surface emissions, the vertical profiles of wind, aerosol mixing ratio, and aerosol mass fluxes, and the major planetary-scale aerosol transport pathways.
Guangyao Dai, Kangwen Sun, Xiaoye Wang, Songhua Wu, Xiangying E, Qi Liu, and Bingyi Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7975–7993,Short summary
In this paper, a Sahara dust event is tracked with the spaceborne lidars ALADIN and CALIOP and the models ECMWF and HYSPLIT. The performance of ALADIN and CALIOP on tracking the dust event and on the observations of dust optical properties and wind fields during the dust transport is evaluated. The dust mass advection is defined, which is calculated with the combination of data from ALADIN and CALIOP coupled with the products from models to describe the dust transport quantitatively.
Ke Gui, Wenrui Yao, Huizheng Che, Linchang An, Yu Zheng, Lei Li, Hujia Zhao, Lei Zhang, Junting Zhong, Yaqiang Wang, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7905–7932,Short summary
This study investigates the aerosol optical and radiative properties and meteorological drivers during two mega SDS events over Northern China in March 2021. The MODIS-retrieved DOD data registered these two events as the most intense episode in the same period in history over the past 20 years. These two extreme SDS events were associated with both atmospheric circulation extremes and local meteorological anomalies that favor enhanced dust emissions in the Gobi Desert.
Manuel Gutleben, Silke Groß, Christian Heske, and Martin Wirth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7319–7330,Short summary
The main transportation route of Saharan mineral dust particles leads over the subtropical Atlantic Ocean and is subject to a seasonal variation. This study investigates the characteristics of wintertime transatlantic dust transport towards the Caribbean by means of airborne lidar measurements. It is found that dust particles are transported at low atmospheric altitudes (<3.5 km) embedded in a relatively moist mixture with two other particle types, namely marine and biomass-burning particles.
Qingyang Xiao, Guannan Geng, Shigan Liu, Jiajun Liu, Xia Meng, and Qiang Zhang
We provided complete coverage PM2.5 concentration at a 1-km resolution from 2000 to the present that carefully considered the significant changes in land-use characteristics in China. This high-resolution PM2.5 data sucessfully revealed the local scale PM2.5 variations. We noticed changes in PM2.5 spatial patterns in association with the clean air policies that the pollution hotspots have transferred from urban centers to rural regions with limited air quality monitoring.
Goutam Choudhury, Albert Ansmann, and Matthias Tesche
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7143–7161,Short summary
Lidars provide height-resolved type-specific aerosol properties and are key in studying vertically collocated aerosols and clouds. In this study, we compare the aerosol number concentrations derived from spaceborne lidar with the in situ flight measurements. Our results show a reasonable agreement between both datasets. Such an agreement has not been achieved yet. It shows the potential of spaceborne lidar in studying aerosol–cloud interactions, which is needed to improve our climate forecasts.
Nair K. Kala, Narayana Sarma Anand, Mohanan R. Manoj, Harshavardhana S. Pathak, Krishnaswamy K. Moorthy, and Sreedharan K. Satheesh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6067–6085,Short summary
We present the 3-D distribution of atmospheric aerosols and highlight its variation with respect to longitudes over the Indian mainland and the surrounding oceans using long-term satellite observations and realistic synthesised data. The atmospheric heating due to the 3-D distribution of aerosols is estimated using radiative transfer calculations. We believe that our findings will have strong implications for aerosol–radiation interactions in regional climate simulations.
Johannes Quaas, Hailing Jia, Chris Smith, Anna Lea Albright, Wenche Aas, Nicolas Bellouin, Olivier Boucher, Marie Doutriaux-Boucher, Piers M. Forster, Daniel Grosvenor, Stuart Jenkins, Zig Klimont, Norman G. Loeb, Xiaoyan Ma, Vaishali Naik, Fabien Paulot, Philip Stier, Martin Wild, Gunnar Myhre, and Michael Schulz
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Pollution particles cool climate and offset part of the global warming. But they are washed out by rain and thus their effect responds quickly to changes in emissions. We show multiple datasets to demonstrate that in many regions that are influenced by human emissoins, aerosol emissions and their concentrations declined, as did the effects on clouds. In consequence, the cooling impact on the Earth energy budget became smaller. This change in trend implies a relative warming.
Archana Devi and Sreedharan K. Satheesh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5365–5376,Short summary
Global maps of aerosol absorption were generated using a multi-satellite retrieval algorithm. The retrieved values were validated with available aircraft-based measurements and compared with other global datasets. Seasonal and spatial distributions of aerosol absorption over various regions are also presented. The global maps of single scattering albedo with improved accuracy provide important input to climate models for assessing the climatic impact of aerosols on regional and global scales.
Qiaoyun Hu, Philippe Goloub, Igor Veselovskii, and Thierry Podvin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5399–5414,Short summary
Our lidar observations show that the optical properties of wildfire smoke particles are highly varied after long-range transport. The variabilities are probably relevant to vegetation type, combustion condition and the aging process, which alter the smoke particle properties, as well as their impact on cloud processes and properties. The lidar fluorescence channel provides a good opportunity for smoke characterization and heterogenous ice crystal formation.
Igor Veselovskii, Qiaoyun Hu, Albert Ansmann, Philippe Goloub, Thierry Podvin, and Mikhail Korenskiy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5209–5221,Short summary
A remote sensing method based on fluorescence lidar measurements can detect and quantify the smoke content in the upper troposphere and inside cirrus clouds. Based on two case studies, we demonstrate that the fluorescence lidar technique provides the possibility to estimate the smoke surface area concentration within freshly formed cirrus layers. This value was used in a smoke ice nucleating particle parameterization scheme to predict ice crystal number concentrations in cirrus generation cells.
Alexandru Mereuţă, Nicolae Ajtai, Andrei T. Radovici, Nikolaos Papagiannopoulos, Lucia T. Deaconu, Camelia S. Botezan, Horaţiu I. Ştefănie, Doina Nicolae, and Alexandru Ozunu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5071–5098,Short summary
In this study we analysed oil smoke plumes from 30 major industrial events within a 12-year timeframe. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind that uses a synergetic approach based on satellite remote sensing techniques. Satellite data offer access to these events, which are mainly located in war-prone or hazardous areas. Our study highlights the need for improved aerosol models and algorithms for these types of aerosols with implications on air quality and climate change.
Xiaoxia Shang, Holger Baars, Iwona S. Stachlewska, Ina Mattis, and Mika Komppula
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3931–3944,Short summary
This study reports pollen observations at four lidar stations (Hohenpeißenberg, Germany; Kuopio, Finland; Leipzig, Germany; and Warsaw, Poland) during the intensive observation campaign organized in May 2020. A novel simple method for the characterization of the pure pollen is proposed, based on lidar measurements. It was applied to evaluate the pollen depolarization ratio and for the aerosol classifications.
Meloë S. F. Kacenelenbogen, Qian Tan, Sharon P. Burton, Otto P. Hasekamp, Karl D. Froyd, Yohei Shinozuka, Andreas J. Beyersdorf, Luke Ziemba, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Jack E. Dibb, Taylor Shingler, Armin Sorooshian, Reed W. Espinosa, Vanderlei Martins, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Joshua P. Schwarz, Matthew S. Johnson, Jens Redemann, and Gregory L. Schuster
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3713–3742,Short summary
The impact of aerosols on Earth's radiation budget and human health is important and strongly depends on their composition. One desire of our scientific community is to derive the composition of the aerosol from satellite sensors. However, satellites observe aerosol optical properties (and not aerosol composition) based on remote sensing instrumentation. This study assesses how much aerosol optical properties can tell us about aerosol composition.
Antonis Gkikas, Emmanouil Proestakis, Vassilis Amiridis, Stelios Kazadzis, Enza Di Tomaso, Eleni Marinou, Nikos Hatzianastassiou, Jasper F. Kok, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3553–3578,Short summary
We present a comprehensive climatological analysis of dust optical depth (DOD) relying on the MIDAS dataset. MIDAS provides columnar mid-visible (550 nm) DOD at fine spatial resolution (0.1° × 0.1°) over a 15-year period (2003–2017). In the current study, the analysis is performed at various spatial (from regional to global) and temporal (from months to years) scales. More specifically, focus is given to specific regions hosting the major dust sources as well as downwind areas of the planet.
Santiago Gassó and Kirk David Knobelspiesse
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
New satellite observing technology is sensitive to the polarization of reflected sunlight. Atmospheric aerosols interact with light and can create polarization. This means we can learn about aerosols from space. This manuscript considers circular polarization, a special category of polarization with distinctive features that could bring new insights. We review existing literature and make novel computations to consider this previously overlooked category of polarization.
Michaël Sicard, Carmen Córdoba-Jabonero, María-Ángeles López-Cayuela, Albert Ansmann, Adolfo Comerón, María-Paz Zorzano, Alejandro Rodríguez-Gómez, and Constantino Muñoz-Porcar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1921–1937,Short summary
This paper completes the companion paper of Córdoba-Jabonero et al. (2021). We estimate the total direct radiative effect produced by mineral dust particles during the June 2019 mega-heatwave at two sites in Spain and Germany. The results show that the dust particles in the atmosphere contribute to cooling the surface (less radiation reaches the surface) and that the heatwave (parametrized by high surface and air temperatures) contributes to reducing this cooling.
Keyvan Ranjbar, Norm T. O'Neill, and Yasmin Aboel-Fetouh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1757–1760,Short summary
We argue that the illustration employed by Huang et al. (2015) to demonstrate the transport of Asian dust to the high Arctic was, in fact, largely a cloud event and that the actual impact of Asian dust was measurable but much weaker than what they proposed and had occurred a day earlier (in agreement with the transport model they had employed to predict the transport path to the high Arctic).
Jesús Abril-Gago, Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado, Maria João Costa, Juan Antonio Bravo-Aranda, Michaël Sicard, Diego Bermejo-Pantaleón, Daniele Bortoli, María José Granados-Muñoz, Alejandro Rodríguez-Gómez, Constantino Muñoz-Porcar, Adolfo Comerón, Pablo Ortiz-Amezcua, Vanda Salgueiro, Marta María Jiménez-Martín, and Lucas Alados-Arboledas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1425–1451,Short summary
A validation of Aeolus reprocessed optical products is carried out via an intercomparison with ground-based measurements taken at several ACTRIS/EARLINET stations in western Europe. Case studies and a statistical analysis are presented. The stations are located in a hot spot between Africa and the rest of Europe, which guarantees a variety of aerosol types, from mineral dust layers to continental/anthropogenic aerosol, and allows us to test Aeolus performance under different scenarios.
Sujung Go, Alexei Lyapustin, Gregory L. Schuster, Myungje Choi, Paul Ginoux, Mian Chin, Olga Kalashnikova, Oleg Dubovik, Jhoon Kim, Arlindo da Silva, Brent Holben, and Jeffrey S. Reid
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1395–1423,Short summary
This paper presents a retrieval algorithm of iron-oxide species (hematite, goethite) content in the atmosphere from DSCOVR EPIC observations. Our results display variations within the published range of hematite and goethite over the main dust-source regions but show significant seasonal and spatial variability. This implies a single-viewing satellite instrument with UV–visible channels may provide essential information on shortwave dust direct radiative effects for climate modeling.
Patrick Chazette, Alexandre Baron, and Cyrille Flamant
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1271–1292,Short summary
Within the framework of the international EUREC4A project, horizontal lidar measurements were carried out over Barbados from the French research aircraft ATR-42. These measurements highlighted the strong heterogeneity of the aerosol field (mainly dust and biomass burning aerosols) and therefore of the associated optical properties. This heterogeneity varies according to meteorological conditions and could significantly modulate the climatic impact of aerosols trapped over the tropical Atlantic.
África Barreto, Emilio Cuevas, Rosa D. García, Judit Carrillo, Joseph M. Prospero, Luka Ilić, Sara Basart, Alberto J. Berjón, Carlos L. Marrero, Yballa Hernández, Juan José Bustos, Slobodan Ničković, and Margarita Yela
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 739–763,Short summary
In this study, we categorise the different patterns of dust transport over the subtropical North Atlantic and for the first time robustly describe the dust vertical distribution in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) over this region. Our results revealed the important role that both dust and water vapour play in the radiative balance in summer and winter and confirm the role of the SAL in the formation of mid-level clouds as a result of the activation of heterogeneous ice nucleation processes.
Lixing Shen, Chuanfeng Zhao, Xingchuan Yang, Yikun Yang, and Ping Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 419–439,Short summary
Using multi-year data, this study reveals the slump of sea land breeze (SLB) at Brisbane during mega fires and investigates the impact of fire-induced aerosols on SLB. Different aerosols have different impacts on sea wind (SW) and land wind (LW). Aerosols cause the decrease of SW, partially offset by the warming effect of black carbon (BC). The large-scale cooling effect of aerosols on sea surface temperature (SST) and the burst of BC contribute to the slump of LW.
Xinqi Xu, Jielan Xie, Yuman Li, Shengjie Miao, and Shaojia Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 139–153,Short summary
The effect of meteorological elements on the three-dimensional distribution structure of particles was studied by making vehicle-based multi-lidar observations in the western Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Greater Bay Area of China. Results showed that distribution of particles was closely related to horizontal wind speed and direction, vertical wind speed, and temperature. A model for meteorological elements affecting the vertical distribution of urban particles was offered in this study.
Manu Anna Thomas, Abhay Devasthale, and Michael Kahnert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 119–137,Short summary
The Southern Ocean (SO) covers a large area of our planet and its boundary layer is dominated by sea salt aerosols during winter. These aerosols have large implications for the regional climate through their direct and indirect effects. Using satellite and reanalysis data, we document if and how the aerosol properties over the SO are dependent on different local meteorological parameters. Such an observational assessment is necessary to improve the understanding of atmospheric aerosol processes.
Qingqing He, Mengya Wang, and Steve Hung Lam Yim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18375–18391,Short summary
We explore the spatiotemporal relationship between PM2.5 and AOD over China using a multi-scale analysis with MODIS MAIAC 1 km aerosol observations and ground measurements. The impact factors (vertical distribution, relative humidity and terrain) on the relationship are quantitatively studied. Our results provide significant information on PM2.5 and AOD, which is informative for mapping high-resolution PM2.5 and furthering the understanding of aerosol properties and the PM2.5 pollution status.
Michaël Sicard, Oriol Jorba, Jiang Ji Ho, Rebeca Izquierdo, Concepción De Linares, Marta Alarcón, Adolfo Comerón, and Jordina Belmonte
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17807–17832,Short summary
This paper investigates the mechanisms involved in the dispersion, structure, and mixing in the vertical column of atmospheric pollen, using observations of pollen concentration obtained at the ground and its stratification in the atmosphere measured by a lidar (laser radar), as well as an atmospheric transport model and a simplified pollen module developed especially for this study. The largest pollen concentration difference between the ground and the layers above is observed during nighttime.
Jianping Guo, Jian Zhang, Kun Yang, Hong Liao, Shaodong Zhang, Kaiming Huang, Yanmin Lv, Jia Shao, Tao Yu, Bing Tong, Jian Li, Tianning Su, Steve H. L. Yim, Ad Stoffelen, Panmao Zhai, and Xiaofeng Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17079–17097,Short summary
The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is the lowest part of the troposphere, and boundary layer height (BLH) is the depth of the PBL and is of critical importance to the dispersion of air pollution. The study presents the first near-global BLH climatology by using high-resolution (5-10 m) radiosonde measurements. The variations in BLH exhibit large spatial and temporal dependence, with a peak at 17:00 local solar time. The most promising reanalysis product is ERA-5 in terms of modeling BLH.
Yingying Ma, Yang Zhu, Boming Liu, Hui Li, Shikuan Jin, Yiqun Zhang, Ruonan Fan, and Wei Gong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17003–17016,Short summary
The vertical distribution of the aerosol extinction coefficient (EC) measured by lidar systems has been used to retrieve the profile of particle matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5). However, the traditional linear model cannot consider the influence of multiple meteorological variables sufficiently, which then causes low inversion accuracy. In this study, the machine learning algorithms which can input multiple features are used to solve this constraint.
Shixian Zhai, Daniel J. Jacob, Jared F. Brewer, Ke Li, Jonathan M. Moch, Jhoon Kim, Seoyoung Lee, Hyunkwang Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Su Keun Kuk, Rokjin J. Park, Jaein I. Jeong, Xuan Wang, Pengfei Liu, Gan Luo, Fangqun Yu, Jun Meng, Randall V. Martin, Katherine R. Travis, Johnathan W. Hair, Bruce E. Anderson, Jack E. Dibb, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Jung-Hun Woo, Younha Kim, Qiang Zhang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16775–16791,Short summary
Geostationary satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) has tremendous potential for monitoring surface fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Our study explored the physical relationship between AOD and PM2.5 by integrating data from surface networks, aircraft, and satellites with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. We quantitatively showed that accurate simulation of aerosol size distributions, boundary layer depths, relative humidity, coarse particles, and diurnal variations in PM2.5 are essential.
Ke Gui, Huizheng Che, Yu Zheng, Hujia Zhao, Wenrui Yao, Lei Li, Lei Zhang, Hong Wang, Yaqiang Wang, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15309–15336,Short summary
This study utilized the globally gridded aerosol extinction data from CALIOP during 2007–2019 to investigate the 3D climatology, trends, and meteorological drivers of tropospheric type-dependent aerosols. Results revealed that the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and the free troposphere contribute 62.08 % and 37.92 %, respectively, of the global tropospheric TAOD. Trends in CALIOP-derived aerosol loading, in particular those partitioned in the PBL, can be explained to a large extent by meteorology.
Jonas Witthuhn, Anja Hünerbein, Florian Filipitsch, Stefan Wacker, Stefanie Meilinger, and Hartwig Deneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14591–14630,Short summary
Knowledge of aerosol–radiation interactions is important for understanding the climate system and for the renewable energy sector. Here, two complementary approaches are used to assess the consistency of the underlying aerosol properties and the resulting radiative effect in clear-sky conditions over Germany in 2015. An approach based on clear-sky models and broadband irradiance observations is contrasted to the use of explicit radiative transfer simulations using CAMS reanalysis data.
Qianqian Song, Zhibo Zhang, Hongbin Yu, Paul Ginoux, and Jerry Shen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13369–13395,Short summary
We present a satellite-derived global dust climatological record over the last two decades, including the monthly mean visible dust optical depth (DAOD) and vertical distribution of dust extinction coefficient at a 2º × 5º spatial resolution derived from CALIOP and MODIS. In addition, the CALIOP climatological dataset also includes dust vertical extinction profiles. Based on these two datasets, we carried out a comprehensive comparative study of the spatial and temporal climatology of dust.
Isabelle Chiapello, Paola Formenti, Lydie Mbemba Kabuiku, Fabrice Ducos, Didier Tanré, and François Dulac
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12715–12737,Short summary
The Mediterranean atmosphere is impacted by a variety of particle pollution, which exerts a complex pressure on climate and air quality. We analyze the 2005–2013 POLDER-3 satellite advanced aerosol data set over the Western Mediterranean Sea. Aerosols' spatial distribution and temporal evolution suggests a large-scale improvement of air quality related to the fine aerosol component, most probably resulting from reduction of anthropogenic particle emissions in the surrounding European countries.
Hongbin Yu, Qian Tan, Lillian Zhou, Yaping Zhou, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Claire L. Ryder, Robert C. Levy, Yaswant Pradhan, Yingxi Shi, Qianqian Song, Zhibo Zhang, Peter R. Colarco, Dongchul Kim, Lorraine A. Remer, Tianle Yuan, Olga Mayol-Bracero, and Brent N. Holben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12359–12383,Short summary
This study characterizes a historic African dust intrusion into the Caribbean Basin in June 2020 using satellites and NASA GEOS. Dust emissions in West Africa were large albeit not extreme. However, a unique synoptic system accumulated the dust near the coast for about 4 d before it was ventilated. Although GEOS reproduced satellite-observed plume tracks well, it substantially underestimated dust emissions and did not lift up dust high enough for ensuing long-range transport.
Yuqin Liu, Tao Lin, Juan Hong, Yonghong Wang, Lamei Shi, Yiyi Huang, Xian Wu, Hao Zhou, Jiahua Zhang, and Gerrit de Leeuw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12331–12358,Short summary
The four-dimensional variation of aerosol properties over the BTH, YRD and PRD (east China) were investigated using satellite observations from 2007 to 2020. Distinct differences between the aerosol optical depth and vertical distribution of the occurrence of aerosol types over these regions depend on season, aerosol loading and meteorological conditions. Day–night differences between the vertical distribution of aerosol types suggest effects of boundary layer dynamics and aerosol transport.
Ákos Horváth, James L. Carr, Olga A. Girina, Dong L. Wu, Alexey A. Bril, Alexey A. Mazurov, Dmitry V. Melnikov, Gholam Ali Hoshyaripour, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12189–12206,Short summary
We give a detailed description of a new technique to estimate the height of volcanic eruption columns from near-limb geostationary imagery. Such oblique angle observations offer spectacular side views of eruption columns protruding from the Earth ellipsoid and thereby facilitate a height-by-angle estimation method. Due to its purely geometric nature, the new technique is unaffected by the limitations of traditional brightness-temperature-based height retrievals.
Ákos Horváth, Olga A. Girina, James L. Carr, Dong L. Wu, Alexey A. Bril, Alexey A. Mazurov, Dmitry V. Melnikov, Gholam Ali Hoshyaripour, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12207–12226,Short summary
We demonstrate the side view plume height estimation technique described in Part 1 on seven volcanic eruptions from 2019 and 2020, including the 2019 Raikoke eruption. We explore the strengths and limitations of the new technique in comparison to height estimation from brightness temperatures, stereo observations, and ground-based video footage.
Daniel Pérez-Ramírez, David N. Whiteman, Igor Veselovskii, Richard Ferrare, Gloria Titos, María José Granados-Muñoz, Guadalupe Sánchez-Hernández, and Francisco Navas-Guzmán
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12021–12048,Short summary
This paper shows how aerosol hygroscopicity enhances the vertical profile of aerosol backscattering and extinction. The study is possible thanks to the large set of remote sensing instruments and focuses on the the Baltimore–Washington DC metropolitan area during hot and humid summer days with very relevant anthropogenic emission aerosol sources. The results illustrate how the combination of aerosol emissions and meteorological conditions ultimately alters the aerosol radiative forcing.
Lin Tian, Lin Chen, Peng Zhang, and Lei Bi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11669–11687,Short summary
The result shows dust aerosols from the Taklimakan Desert have higher aerosol scattering during dust storm cases of this paper, and this caused higher negative direct radiative forcing efficiency (DRFEdust) than aerosols from the Sahara. The microphysical properties and particle shapes of dust aerosol significantly influence DRFEdust. The satellite-based equi-albedo method has a unique advantage in DRFEdust estimation: it could validate the results derived from the numerical model directly.
Zhixin Xue, Pawan Gupta, and Sundar Christopher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11243–11256,Short summary
Frequent and widespread wildfires in the northwestern United States and Canada have become the
new normalduring the Northern Hemisphere summer months, which degrades particulate matter air quality in the United States significantly. Using satellite data, we show that smoke aerosols caused significant pollution changes over half of the United States. We estimate that nearly 29 states have increased PM2.5 during the fire-active year when compared to fire-inactive years.
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This study aims at proposing a method to better assess the initial magma fragmentation produced during explosive volcanic eruptions. We worked on merging field, radar, and satellite data to estimate the total grain-size distribution, which is used within simulations to reconstruct the tephra loading and far-travelling airborne ash dispersal. This approach is applied to 23 November 2013, giving the very fine ash fraction related to volcanic hazards (e.g. air traffic safety).
This study aims at proposing a method to better assess the initial magma fragmentation produced...