Articles | Volume 18, issue 6
Research article
26 Mar 2018
Research article |  | 26 Mar 2018

Recent increases in the atmospheric growth rate and emissions of HFC-23 (CHF3) and the link to HCFC-22 (CHClF2) production

Peter G. Simmonds, Matthew Rigby, Archie McCulloch, Martin K. Vollmer, Stephan Henne, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Alistair J. Manning, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, Dickon Young, Ray F. Weiss, Peter K. Salameh, Christina M. Harth, Stefan Reimann, Cathy M. Trudinger, L. Paul Steele, Ray H. J. Wang, Diane J. Ivy, Ronald G. Prinn, Blagoj Mitrevski, and David M. Etheridge

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Cited articles

Arnold, T., Mühle, J., Salameh, P. K., Harth, C. M., Ivy, D. J., and Weiss, R. F.: Automated measurement of nitrogen trifluoride in ambient air, Anal. Chem., 84, 4798–4804, 2012.
Bartos, S., Beu, L. S., Burton, C. S., Fraust, C. L., Illuzzi, F., Mocella, M. T., and Raoux, S.: IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Inventories, Vol. 3, Industrial Processes, Chap. 6, Electronics Industry, available at: (last access: 24 August 2017), 2006.
Brunner, D., Arnold, T., Henne, S., Manning, A., Thompson, R. L., Maione, M., O'Doherty, S., and Reimann, S.: Comparison of four inverse modelling systems applied to the estimation of HFC-125, HFC-134a, and SF6 emissions over Europe, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10651–10674,, 2017.
Burkholder, J. B., Sander, S. P., Abbatt, J., Barker, R., Huie, R. E., Kolb, C. E., Kurylo, M. J., Orkin, V. L., Wilmouth, D. M., and Wine, P. H.: Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in atmospheric studies, Evaluation No. 18, JPL Publication 15-10, Jet Propul. Lab., Pasadena, Calif, available at: (last access: 24 August 2017), 2015.
Short summary
Recent measurements of the potent greenhouse gas HFC-23, a by-product of HCFC-22 production, show a 28 % increase in the atmospheric mole fraction from 2009 to 2016. A minimum in the atmospheric abundance of HFC-23 in 2009 was attributed to abatement of HFC-23 emissions by incineration under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Our results indicate that the recent increase in HFC-23 emissions is driven by failure of mitigation under the CDM to keep pace with increased HCFC-22 production.
Final-revised paper