Articles | Volume 16, issue 8
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Assessing the impact of anthropogenic pollution on isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol formation in PM2.5 collected from the Birmingham, Alabama, ground site during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study
Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini
Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
now at: Earth Observatory of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
now at: Michigan Society of Fellows, Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
Eric S. Edgerton
Atmospheric Research & Analysis, Inc., Cary, NC, USA
Atmospheric Research & Analysis, Inc., Cary, NC, USA
Stephanie L. Shaw
Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, USA
Earth and Atmospheric Science, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA
Earth and Atmospheric Science, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA
Rodney J. Weber
Earth and Atmospheric Science, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA
Miranda E. Neff
Department of Chemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
Elizabeth A. Stone
Department of Chemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
John H. Offenberg
Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
Jason D. Surratt
No articles found.
Molly Frauenheim, Jason D. Surratt, Zhenfa Zhang, and Avram Gold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7859–7866,Short summary
We report synthesis of the isoprene-derived photochemical oxidation products trans- and cis-β-epoxydiols in high overall yields from inexpensive, readily available starting compounds. Protection/deprotection steps or time-consuming purification is not required, and the reactions can be scaled up to gram quantities. The procedures provide accessibility of these important compounds to atmospheric chemistry laboratories with only basic capabilities in organic synthesis.
Karl Espen Yttri, Are Bäcklund, Franz Conen, Sabine Eckhardt, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Markus Fiebig, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Avram Gold, Hans Gundersen, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Stephen Matthew Platt, David Simpson, Jason D. Surratt, Sönke Szidat, Martin Rauber, Kjetil Tørseth, Martin Album Ytre-Eide, Zhenfa Zhang, and Wenche Aas
We discuss carbonaceous aerosol (CA) observed at the high Arctic Zeppelin Observatory (2017 to 2020). We find that organic aerosol is a significant fraction of the Arctic aerosol, though less than sea salt aerosol and mineral dust, as well as non-sea-salt sulfate, originating mainly from anthropogenic sources in winter and from natural sources in summer, emphasizing the importance of wildfires for biogenic secondary organic aerosol and primary biological aerosol particles observed in the Arctic.
John T. Walker, Xi Chen, Zhiyong Wu, Donna Schwede, Ryan Daly, Aleksandra Djurkovic, A. Christopher Oishi, Eric Edgerton, Jesse Bash, Jennifer Knoepp, Melissa Puchalski, John Iiames, and Chelcy F. Miniat
Biogeosciences, 20, 971–995,Short summary
Better estimates of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition are needed to accurately assess ecosystem risk and impacts from deposition of nutrients and acidity. Using measurements and modeling, we estimate total N deposition of 6.7 kg N ha−1 yr−1 at a forest site in the southern Appalachian Mountains, a region sensitive to atmospheric deposition. Reductions in deposition of reduced forms of N (ammonia and ammonium) will be needed to meet the lowest estimates of N critical loads for the region.
Daniel J. Bryant, Beth S. Nelson, Stefan J. Swift, Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Will S. Drysdale, Adam R. Vaughan, Mike J. Newland, James R. Hopkins, James M. Cash, Ben Langford, Eiko Nemitz, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Tuhin Mandal, Bhola R. Gurjar, Shivani, Ranu Gadi, James D. Lee, Andrew R. Rickard, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 61–83,Short summary
This paper investigates the sources of isoprene and monoterpene compounds and their particulate-phase oxidation products in Delhi, India. This was done to improve our understanding of the sources, concentrations, and fate of volatile emissions in megacities. By studying the chemical composition of offline filter samples, we report that a significant share of the oxidised organic aerosol in Delhi is from isoprene and monoterpenes. This has implications for human health and policy development.
Robert J. Yokelson, Bambang H. Saharjo, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Erianto I. Putra, Thilina Jayarathne, Acep Akbar, Israr Albar, Donald R. Blake, Laura L. B. Graham, Agus Kurniawan, Simone Meinardi, Diah Ningrum, Ati D. Nurhayati, Asmadi Saad, Niken Sakuntaladewi, Eko Setianto, Isobel J. Simpson, Elizabeth A. Stone, Sigit Sutikno, Andri Thomas, Kevin C. Ryan, and Mark A. Cochrane
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10173–10194,Short summary
Fire plus non-fire GHG emissions associated with draining peatlands are the largest per area of any land use change considered by the IPCC. To characterize average and variability for tropical peat fire emissions, highly mobile smoke sampling teams were deployed across four Indonesian provinces to explore an extended interannual, climatic, and spatial range. Large adjustments to IPCC-recommended emissions are suggested. Lab data bolster an extensive emissions database for tropical peat fires.
Linghan Zeng, Jack Dibb, Eric Scheuer, Joseph M. Katich, Joshua P. Schwarz, Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, Tom Ryerson, Carsten Warneke, Anne E. Perring, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, John B. Nowak, Richard H. Moore, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Demetrios Pagonis, Hongyu Guo, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jose L. Jimenez, Lu Xu, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8009–8036,Short summary
Wildfires emit aerosol particles containing brown carbon material that affects visibility and global climate and is toxic. Brown carbon is poorly characterized due to measurement limitations, and its evolution in the atmosphere is not well known. We report on aircraft measurements of brown carbon from large wildfires in the western United States. We compare two methods for measuring brown carbon and study the evolution of brown carbon in the smoke as it moved away from the burning regions.
Charles A. Brock, Karl D. Froyd, Maximilian Dollner, Christina J. Williamson, Gregory Schill, Daniel M. Murphy, Nicholas J. Wagner, Agnieszka Kupc, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Jason C. Schroder, Douglas A. Day, Derek J. Price, Bernadett Weinzierl, Joshua P. Schwarz, Joseph M. Katich, Siyuan Wang, Linghan Zeng, Rodney Weber, Jack Dibb, Eric Scheuer, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, ThaoPaul Bui, Jonathan M. Dean-Day, Chelsea R. Thompson, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Ilann Bourgeois, Bruce C. Daube, Róisín Commane, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15023–15063,Short summary
The Atmospheric Tomography Mission was an airborne study that mapped the chemical composition of the remote atmosphere. From this, we developed a comprehensive description of aerosol properties that provides a unique, global-scale dataset against which models can be compared. The data show the polluted nature of the remote atmosphere in the Northern Hemisphere and quantify the contributions of sea salt, dust, soot, biomass burning particles, and pollution particles to the haziness of the sky.
Linghan Zeng, Amy P. Sullivan, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Jack Dibb, Eric Scheuer, Teresa L. Campos, Joseph M. Katich, Ezra Levin, Michael A. Robinson, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6357–6378,Short summary
Three online systems for measuring water-soluble brown carbon are compared. A mist chamber and two different particle-into-liquid samplers were deployed on separate research aircraft targeting wildfires and followed a similar detection method using a long-path liquid waveguide with a spectrometer to measure the light absorption from 300 to 700 nm. Detection limits, signal hysteresis and other sampling issues are compared, and further improvements of these liquid-based systems are provided.
Yang Wang, Guangjie Zheng, Michael P. Jensen, Daniel A. Knopf, Alexander Laskin, Alyssa A. Matthews, David Mechem, Fan Mei, Ryan Moffet, Arthur J. Sedlacek, John E. Shilling, Stephen Springston, Amy Sullivan, Jason Tomlinson, Daniel Veghte, Rodney Weber, Robert Wood, Maria A. Zawadowicz, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11079–11098,Short summary
This paper reports the vertical profiles of trace gas and aerosol properties over the eastern North Atlantic, a region of persistent but diverse subtropical marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds. We examined the key processes that drive the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) population and how it varies with season and synoptic conditions. This study helps improve the model representation of the aerosol processes in the remote MBL, reducing the simulated aerosol indirect effects.
Yuhan Yang, Dong Gao, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4707–4719,Short summary
Iron and copper are commonly found in ambient aerosols and have been linked to adverse health effects. We describe a relatively simple benchtop instrument that can be used to quantify these metals in aqueous solutions and verify the method by comparison with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The approach is based on forming light-absorbing metal–ligand complexes that can be measured with high sensitivity utilizing a long-path liquid waveguide capillary cell.
Alexandra J. Boris, Satoshi Takahama, Andrew T. Weakley, Bruno M. Debus, Stephanie L. Shaw, Eric S. Edgerton, Taekyu Joo, Nga L. Ng, and Ann M. Dillner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4355–4374,Short summary
Infrared spectrometry can be applied in routine monitoring of atmospheric particles to give comprehensive characterization of the organic material by bond rather than species. Using this technique, the concentrations of particle organic material were found to decrease 2011–2016 in the southeastern US, driven by a decline in highly aged material, concurrent with declining anthropogenic emissions. However, an increase was observed in the fraction of more moderately aged organic matter.
Karl Espen Yttri, Francesco Canonaco, Sabine Eckhardt, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Markus Fiebig, Hans Gundersen, Anne-Gunn Hjellbrekke, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Stephen Matthew Platt, André S. H. Prévôt, David Simpson, Sverre Solberg, Jason Surratt, Kjetil Tørseth, Hilde Uggerud, Marit Vadset, Xin Wan, and Wenche Aas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7149–7170,Short summary
Carbonaceous aerosol sources and trends were studied at the Birkenes Observatory. A large decrease in elemental carbon (EC; 2001–2018) and a smaller decline in levoglucosan (2008–2018) suggest that organic carbon (OC)/EC from traffic/industry is decreasing, whereas the abatement of OC/EC from biomass burning has been less successful. Positive matrix factorization apportioned 72 % of EC to fossil fuel sources and 53 % (PM2.5) and 78 % (PM10–2.5) of OC to biogenic sources.
Athanasios Nenes, Spyros N. Pandis, Maria Kanakidou, Armistead G. Russell, Shaojie Song, Petros Vasilakos, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6023–6033,Short summary
Ecosystems and air quality are affected by the dry deposition of inorganic reactive nitrogen (Nr, the sum of ammonium and nitrate). Its large variability is driven by the large difference in deposition velocity of N when in the gas or particle phase. Here we show that aerosol liquid water and acidity, by affecting gas–particle partitioning, modulate the dry deposition velocity of NH3, HNO3, and Nr worldwide. These effects explain the rapid accumulation of nitrate aerosol during haze events.
Mike J. Newland, Daniel J. Bryant, Rachel E. Dunmore, Thomas J. Bannan, W. Joe F. Acton, Ben Langford, James R. Hopkins, Freya A. Squires, William Dixon, William S. Drysdale, Peter D. Ivatt, Mathew J. Evans, Peter M. Edwards, Lisa K. Whalley, Dwayne E. Heard, Eloise J. Slater, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, Archit Mehra, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, C. Nicholas Hewitt, James D. Lee, Tianqu Cui, Jason D. Surratt, Xinming Wang, Alastair C. Lewis, Andrew R. Rickard, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1613–1625,Short summary
We report the formation of secondary pollutants in the urban megacity of Beijing that are typically associated with remote regions such as rainforests. This is caused by extremely low levels of nitric oxide (NO), typically expected to be high in urban areas, observed in the afternoon. This work has significant implications for how we understand atmospheric chemistry in the urban environment and thus for how to implement effective policies to improve urban air quality.
Yiqi Zheng, Joel A. Thornton, Nga Lee Ng, Hansen Cao, Daven K. Henze, Erin E. McDuffie, Weiwei Hu, Jose L. Jimenez, Eloise A. Marais, Eric Edgerton, and Jingqiu Mao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13091–13107,Short summary
This study aims to address a challenge in biosphere–atmosphere interactions: to what extent can biogenic organic aerosol (OA) be modified through human activities? From three surface network observations, we show OA is weakly dependent on sulfate and aerosol acidity in the summer southeast US, on both long-term trends and monthly variability. The results are in strong contrast to a global model, GEOS-Chem, suggesting the need to revisit the representation of aqueous-phase secondary OA formation.
Damon M. Smith, Tianqu Cui, Marc N. Fiddler, Rudra P. Pokhrel, Jason D. Surratt, and Solomon Bililign
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10169–10191,Short summary
Biomass fuels used for domestic purposes in east Africa produce a significant atmospheric burden of aerosols and volatile organic compounds. The chemical properties and composition of these aerosols have not been investigated in the laboratory. In this work methanol extracts from filter samples of aerosol collected from an indoor smog chamber were analyzed to determine the chemical composition and identify the light absorption properties of organic aerosol constituents.
Ifayoyinsola Ibikunle, Andreas Beyersdorf, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Chelsea Corr, John D. Crounse, Jack Dibb, Glenn Diskin, Greg Huey, Jose-Luis Jimenez, Michelle J. Kim, Benjamin A. Nault, Eric Scheuer, Alex Teng, Paul O. Wennberg, Bruce Anderson, James Crawford, Rodney Weber, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Publication in ACP not foreseenShort summary
Analysis of observations over South Korea during the NASA/NIER KORUS-AQ field campaign show that aerosol is fairly acidic (mean pH 2.43 ± 0.68). Aerosol formation is always sensitive to HNO3 levels, especially in highly polluted regions, while it is only exclusively sensitive to NH3 in some rural/remote regions. Nitrate levels accumulate because dry deposition velocity is low. HNO3 reductions achieved by NOx controls can be the most effective PM reduction strategy for all conditions observed.
Yunle Chen, Masayuki Takeuchi, Theodora Nah, Lu Xu, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Harald Stark, Karsten Baumann, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, L. Gregory Huey, Rodney J. Weber, and Nga L. Ng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8421–8440,Short summary
Two online mass spectrometry instruments, an aerosol mass spectrometer and a chemical ionization mass spectrometer equipped with a filter inlet for gases and aerosols, were deployed at Yorkville, GA, for a comprehensive characterization of organic aerosol. We observed notable secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene and monoterpenes via different pathways during both day and night, and a series of highly oxidized acid-like compounds was found to be closely related to aged SOA.
Ryan Schmedding, Quazi Z. Rasool, Yue Zhang, Havala O. T. Pye, Haofei Zhang, Yuzhi Chen, Jason D. Surratt, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Joel A. Thornton, Allen H. Goldstein, and William Vizuete
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8201–8225,Short summary
Accurate model prediction of aerosol concentrations is a known challenge. It is assumed in many modeling systems that aerosols are in a homogeneously mixed phase state. It has been observed that aerosols do phase separate and can form a highly viscous organic shell with an aqueous core impacting the formation processes of aerosols. This work is a model implementation to determine an aerosol's phase state using glass transition temperature and aerosol composition.
Daniel J. Bryant, William J. Dixon, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Kelly L. Pereira, Marvin Shaw, Freya A. Squires, Thomas J. Bannan, Archit Mehra, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Lisa K. Whalley, Dwayne E. Heard, Eloise J. Slater, Bin Ouyang, Tianqu Cui, Jason D. Surratt, Di Liu, Zongbo Shi, Roy Harrison, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Alastair C. Lewis, James D. Lee, Andrew R. Rickard, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7531–7552,Short summary
Using the chemical composition of offline filter samples, we report that a large share of oxidized organic aerosol in Beijing during summer is due to isoprene secondary organic aerosol (iSOA). iSOA organosulfates showed a strong correlation with the product of ozone and particulate sulfate. This highlights the role of both photochemistry and the availability of particulate sulfate in heterogeneous reactions and further demonstrates that iSOA formation is controlled by anthropogenic emissions.
Paul A. Solomon, Dena Vallano, Melissa Lunden, Brian LaFranchi, Charles L. Blanchard, and Stephanie L. Shaw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3277–3301,Short summary
Analyzing street-level air pollutants (2016–2017), this assessment indicates that mobile measurement is precise and accurate (5 % to 25 % bias) relative to regulatory sites, with higher spatial resolution. Collocated sensor measurements in California showed differences less than 20 %, suggesting that greater differences represent spatial variability. Mobile data confirm regulatory-site spatial representation and that pollutant levels can also be 6 to 8 times higher just blocks apart.
Dong Gao, Krystal J. Godri Pollitt, James A. Mulholland, Armistead G. Russell, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5197–5210,Short summary
This study provides a direct intercomparison between two assays for quantifying oxidative potential (OP) of ambient particles: the synthetic respiratory-tract-lining fluid (RTLF) assay and the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. The results suggest that the DTT assay and the ascorbic acid depletion in RTLF are associated with organic species, transition metal ions, and antagonistic interactions between species. The glutathione depletion in RTLF is strongly dependent on water-soluble copper.
Havala O. T. Pye, Athanasios Nenes, Becky Alexander, Andrew P. Ault, Mary C. Barth, Simon L. Clegg, Jeffrey L. Collett Jr., Kathleen M. Fahey, Christopher J. Hennigan, Hartmut Herrmann, Maria Kanakidou, James T. Kelly, I-Ting Ku, V. Faye McNeill, Nicole Riemer, Thomas Schaefer, Guoliang Shi, Andreas Tilgner, John T. Walker, Tao Wang, Rodney Weber, Jia Xing, Rahul A. Zaveri, and Andreas Zuend
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4809–4888,Short summary
Acid rain is recognized for its impacts on human health and ecosystems, and programs to mitigate these effects have had implications for atmospheric acidity. Historical measurements indicate that cloud and fog droplet acidity has changed in recent decades in response to controls on emissions from human activity, while the limited trend data for suspended particles indicate acidity may be relatively constant. This review synthesizes knowledge on the acidity of atmospheric particles and clouds.
Charlotte Bürki, Matteo Reggente, Ann M. Dillner, Jenny L. Hand, Stephanie L. Shaw, and Satoshi Takahama
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1517–1538,Short summary
Infrared spectroscopy is a chemically informative method for particulate matter characterization. However, recent work has demonstrated that predictions depend heavily on the choice of calibration model parameters. We propose a means for managing parameter uncertainties by combining available data from laboratory standards, molecular databases, and collocated ambient measurements to provide useful characterization of atmospheric organic matter on a large scale.
Athanasios Nenes, Spyros N. Pandis, Rodney J. Weber, and Armistead Russell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3249–3258,Short summary
We show that aerosol acidity (pH) and liquid water content naturally emerge as previously ignored parameters that drive particulate matter formation in the atmosphere, and its sensitivity to emissions of ammonia and nitric acid. The simple framework presented is easily applied to ambient measurements or model output, and it provides the
chemical regimeof PM sensitivity to ammonia and nitric acid availability.
Md. Robiul Islam, Thilina Jayarathne, Isobel J. Simpson, Benjamin Werden, John Maben, Ashley Gilbert, Puppala S. Praveen, Sagar Adhikari, Arnico K. Panday, Maheswar Rupakheti, Donald R. Blake, Robert J. Yokelson, Peter F. DeCarlo, William C. Keene, and Elizabeth A. Stone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2927–2951,Short summary
The Kathmandu Valley experiences high levels of air pollution. In this study, atmospheric gases and particulate matter were characterized by online and off-line measurements, with an emphasis on understanding their sources. The major sources of particulate matter and trace gases were identified as garbage burning, biomass burning, and vehicles. The majority of secondary organic aerosol was attributed to anthropogenic precursors, while a minority was attributed to biogenic gases.
Aoxing Zhang, Yuhang Wang, Yuzhong Zhang, Rodney J. Weber, Yongjia Song, Ziming Ke, and Yufei Zou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1901–1920,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) are light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols. We developed a module to simulate the emissions, atmospheric processing and direct radiative effect of BrC in the Community Earth System Model (CESM). We found that globally BrC is a significant absorber and is more centered in the tropical free troposphere compared to BC. The contribution of BrC heating to the Hadley circulation and latitudinal expansion of the tropics is comparable to BC heating.
Michael A. Battaglia Jr., Rodney J. Weber, Athanasios Nenes, and Christopher J. Hennigan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14607–14620,Short summary
The effects of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) on aerosol pH were characterized for aqueous-phase particles containing a mixture of inorganics and organics. The ISORROPIA-II and E-AIM models were used in conjunction with AIOMFAC to quantify the effect of organics on aerosol pH through (1) changes to the aerosol liquid water content and (2) changes to the hydrogen ion activity coefficient. The study included both organic acids and nonacids, at RH levels ranging from 70 to 90 %.
Alexandra J. Boris, Satoshi Takahama, Andrew T. Weakley, Bruno M. Debus, Carley D. Fredrickson, Martin Esparza-Sanchez, Charlotte Burki, Matteo Reggente, Stephanie L. Shaw, Eric S. Edgerton, and Ann M. Dillner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5391–5415,Short summary
Organic species are abundant in atmospheric particle-phase (aerosol) pollution and originate from a variety of biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Infrared spectrometry of filter-based atmospheric particle samples can afford a direct measurement of the particulate organic matter concentration and a characterization of its composition. This work discusses recent method improvements and compositions measured in samples from the SouthEastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) network.
Emma L. D'Ambro, Siegfried Schobesberger, Cassandra J. Gaston, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Ben H. Lee, Jiumeng Liu, Alla Zelenyuk, David Bell, Christopher D. Cappa, Taylor Helgestad, Ziyue Li, Alex Guenther, Jian Wang, Matthew Wise, Ryan Caylor, Jason D. Surratt, Theran Riedel, Noora Hyttinen, Vili-Taneli Salo, Galib Hasan, Theo Kurtén, John E. Shilling, and Joel A. Thornton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11253–11265,Short summary
Isoprene is the most abundantly emitted reactive organic gas globally, and thus it is important to understand its fate and role in aerosol formation and growth. A major product of its oxidation is an epoxydiol, IEPOX, which can be efficiently taken up by acidic aerosol to generate substantial amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We present chamber experiments exploring the properties of IEPOX SOA and reconcile discrepancies between field, laboratory, and model studies of this process.
Laura Kiely, Dominick V. Spracklen, Christine Wiedinmyer, Luke Conibear, Carly L. Reddington, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Douglas Lowe, Stephen R. Arnold, Christoph Knote, Md Firoz Khan, Mohd Talib Latif, Mikinori Kuwata, Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, and Lailan Syaufina
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11105–11121,Short summary
In 2015, a large fire episode occurred in Indonesia, reducing air quality. Fires occurred predominantly on peatland, where large uncertainties are associated with emissions. Current fire emissions datasets underestimate peat fire emissions. We created new fire emissions data, with data specific to Indonesian peat fires. Using these emissions in simulations of particulate matter and aerosol optical depth shows an improvement over simulations using current data, when compared with observations.
Min Zhong, Eri Saikawa, Alexander Avramov, Chen Chen, Boya Sun, Wenlu Ye, William C. Keene, Robert J. Yokelson, Thilina Jayarathne, Elizabeth A. Stone, Maheswar Rupakheti, and Arnico K. Panday
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8209–8228,Short summary
Air pollution is one of the most pressing environmental issues in the Kathmandu Valley, the capital city of Nepal. We estimated emissions from two of the major source types in the valley (vehicles and brick kilns) and found that they have significant impacts on air quality surrounding the valley. Our results highlight the importance of improving local emissions estimates for air quality modeling.
Jenny P. S. Wong, Maria Tsagkaraki, Irini Tsiodra, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Kalliopi Violaki, Maria Kanakidou, Jean Sciare, Athanasios Nenes, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7319–7334,Short summary
Biomass burning is a major source of light-absorbing organic species in atmospheric aerosols, and it can play an important role in climate and atmospheric chemistry. Through a combination of laboratory experiments and field observations, this work demonstrated that the light absorption properties of aged biomass burning organic aerosols are dominated by high-molecular-weight compounds. In addition, we found that total hydrated sugars may be a robust tracer for aged biomass burning aerosols.
Hansol D. Lee, Chathuri P. Kaluarachchi, Elias S. Hasenecz, Jonic Z. Zhu, Eduard Popa, Elizabeth A. Stone, and Alexei V. Tivanski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2033–2042,Short summary
Dry and wet aerosol deposition modes are commonly used to collect particles on a solid substrate for experiments. We demonstrate, using single-particle microscopy and bulk methods, how the substrate-deposited particles with two components can yield the same core–shell morphology but different shell thicknesses depending on the deposition method. Thus we strongly advise future works to use wet deposition when possible to obtain accurate assessment of the single-particle organic volume fraction.
Rachel E. O'Brien, Kelsey J. Ridley, Manjula R. Canagaratna, John T. Jayne, Philip L. Croteau, Douglas R. Worsnop, Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Jason D. Surratt, Christopher L. Follett, Daniel J. Repeta, and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1659–1671,Short summary
Analysis of the elemental composition of organic mixtures can provide insights into the sources and aging of environmental samples. Here we describe a method that allows characterization of this type of material using micrograms of material by a combination of a small-volume ultrasonic nebulizer and an aerosol mass spectrometer. This technique enables rapid analysis of complex organic mixtures using approximately an order of magnitude less sample than standard analyses.
Anusha Priyadarshani Silva Hettiyadura, Ibrahim M. Al-Naiema, Dagen D. Hughes, Ting Fang, and Elizabeth A. Stone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3191–3206,Short summary
This study examines anthropogenic influences on secondary organic aerosol at an urban site in Atlanta, Georgia. Organosulfates accounted for 16.5 % of PM2.5 organic carbon and were mostly derived from isoprene. In contrast to a rural forested site, Atlanta's isoprene-derived organosulfate concentrations were 2–6 times higher and accounted for twice as much organic carbon. Insights are provided as to which organosulfates should be measured in future studies and targeted for standard development.
Hoi Ki Lam, Kai Chung Kwong, Hon Yin Poon, James F. Davies, Zhenfa Zhang, Avram Gold, Jason D. Surratt, and Man Nin Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2433–2440,Short summary
Organosulfates are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. We find that chemical transformation of IEPOX-derived organosulfates, one of the most abundant organosulfates, can generate inorganic sulfate through heterogeneous OH oxidation. The findings of this work provide new reaction pathways for recycling of inorganic and organic sulfur and may suggest that organosulfates could be reservoirs of inorganic sulfates in the atmosphere.
Shino Toma, Steve Bertman, Christopher Groff, Fulizi Xiong, Paul B. Shepson, Paul Romer, Kaitlin Duffey, Paul Wooldridge, Ronald Cohen, Karsten Baumann, Eric Edgerton, Abigail R. Koss, Joost de Gouw, Allen Goldstein, Weiwei Hu, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1867–1880,Short summary
Acyl peroxy nitrates (APN) were measured near the ground in Alabama using GC in summer 2013 to study biosphere–atmosphere interactions. APN were lower than measured in the SE USA over the past 2 decades. Historical data showed APN in 2013 was limited by NOx and production was dominated by biogenic precursors more than in the past. Isoprene-derived MPAN correlated with isoprene hydroxynitrates as NOx-dependent products. MPAN varied with aerosol growth, but not with N-containing particles.
Hongyu Guo, Athanasios Nenes, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17307–17323,Short summary
Overprediction of fine-particle ammonium-sulfate molar ratios (R) by thermodynamic models is suggested as evidence for organic aerosol limiting the condensation of ammonia onto particles, with significant impacts on aerosol chemistry. We find that the effects of small amounts of salt and dust, combined with measurement artifacts, explain the discrepancy in R. These results are highly insensitive to mixing state. This means that aerosol predictions are much more robust than thought before.
Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Matthieu Riva, Michael Williams, Takuma Miyakawa, Jing Chen, Masayuki Itoh, Jason D. Surratt, and Mikinori Kuwata
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16481–16498,Short summary
Wildfire emits a large number of haze particles. During transport in the atmosphere, the organic aerosol in the haze particles can undergo atmospheric processes and become highly oxidized. We show that the haze particles transported from wildfires in Indonesia are dominated by oxygenated organic aerosols. This study highlights the impact of atmospheric processes on the transboundary haze particles.
Ibrahim M. Al-Naiema, Anusha P. S. Hettiyadura, Henry W. Wallace, Nancy P. Sanchez, Carter J. Madler, Basak Karakurt Cevik, Alexander A. T. Bui, Josh Kettler, Robert J. Griffin, and Elizabeth A. Stone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15601–15622,Short summary
By integrating newly developed tracers for anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol in source apportionment for the first time, we estimate that this source contributes 28 % of fine particle organic carbon in the Houston Ship Channel. Our approach can be used to evaluate anthropogenic, biogenic, and biomass burning contributions to secondary organic aerosols elsewhere in the world. Because anthropogenic emissions are potentially controllable, they provide an opportunity to improve air quality.
J. Douglas Goetz, Michael R. Giordano, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Ted J. Christian, Rashmi Maharjan, Sagar Adhikari, Prakash V. Bhave, Puppala S. Praveen, Arnico K. Panday, Thilina Jayarathne, Elizabeth A. Stone, Robert J. Yokelson, and Peter F. DeCarlo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14653–14679,Short summary
Size distributions and emission factors of submicron aerosol were quantified using online techniques for a variety of common but under-sampled combustion sources in South Asia: wood and dung cooking fires, groundwater pumps, brick kilns, trash burning, and open burning of crop residues. Optical properties (brown carbon light absorption and the absorption Ångström exponent, AAE) of the emissions were also investigated. Contextual comparisons to the literature and other NAMaSTE results were made.
Theodora Nah, Yi Ji, David J. Tanner, Hongyu Guo, Amy P. Sullivan, Nga Lee Ng, Rodney J. Weber, and L. Gregory Huey
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5087–5104,Short summary
The sources and atmospheric chemistry of gas-phase organic acids are currently poorly understood, due in part to the limited range of measurement techniques available. We evaluated the use of SF6− as a sensitive and selective chemical ionization reagent ion for real-time measurements of gas-phase organic acids at a rural site in Yorkville, Georgia. We found that ambient concentrations of organic acids ranged from a few ppt to several ppb, and are dependent on ambient temperature.
Petros Vasilakos, Armistead Russell, Rodney Weber, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12765–12775,Short summary
In this work, we investigated the role of emission reductions on aerosol acidity and particulate nitrate. We found that models exhibit positive biases in pH predictions, attributed to very high levels of crustal elements (Mg, Ca, K) in model simulations, which in turn led to an increasing aerosol pH trend over the past decade and allowed nitrate to become an important component of aerosol, which is inconsistent with the measurements, highlighting the importance of accurate pH prediction.
Hongyu Guo, Rene Otjes, Patrick Schlag, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Athanasios Nenes, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12241–12256,Short summary
Reduction in ammonia has been proposed as a way to lower fine particle mass and improve air quality, but gas-phase ammonia is linked to agricultural productivity. We assess the feasibility of ammonia control at a variety of locations through an aerosol thermodynamic analysis. We show that aerosol response to ammonia control is highly nonlinear and only becomes effective when ambient particle pH drops below approximately 3. Particle pH is a relevant aerosol air quality parameter.
Theodora Nah, Hongyu Guo, Amy P. Sullivan, Yunle Chen, David J. Tanner, Athanasios Nenes, Armistead Russell, Nga Lee Ng, L. Gregory Huey, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11471–11491,Short summary
We present measurements from a field study conducted in an agriculturally intensive region in the southeastern US during the fall of 2016 to investigate how NH3 affects particle acidity and SOA formation via gas–particle partitioning of semi-volatile organic acids. For this study, higher NH3 concentrations relative to what has been measured in the region in previous studies had minor effects on PM1 organic acids and their influence on the overall organic aerosol and PM1 mass concentrations.
Jing Chen, Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Takuma Miyakawa, Yuichi Komazaki, and Mikinori Kuwata
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7781–7798,Short summary
We present water uptake properties of haze particles originating from Indonesian peatland fires and further link the water uptake to particle chemical characteristics. Organic-rich wildfire haze particles are highly hygroscopic, governed by sulfate and promoted by secondary organic aerosol formation. Water-soluble organic fraction plays a minor role in determining particle hygroscopicity. This deepens our understanding, and reported results can be further applied into climate models.
Xi Chen, Mingjie Xie, Michael D. Hays, Eric Edgerton, Donna Schwede, and John T. Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6829–6846,
Paul S. Romer, Kaitlin C. Duffey, Paul J. Wooldridge, Eric Edgerton, Karsten Baumann, Philip A. Feiner, David O. Miller, William H. Brune, Abigail R. Koss, Joost A. de Gouw, Pawel K. Misztal, Allen H. Goldstein, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2601–2614,Short summary
Observations of increased ozone on hotter days are widely reported, but the mechanisms driving this relationship remain uncertain. We use measurements from the rural southeastern United States to study how temperature affects ozone production. We find that changing NOx emissions, most likely from soil microbes, can be a major driver of increased ozone with temperature in the continental background. These findings suggest that ozone will increase with temperature under a wide range of conditions.
Thilina Jayarathne, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Ashley A. Gilbert, Kaitlyn Daugherty, Mark A. Cochrane, Kevin C. Ryan, Erianto I. Putra, Bambang H. Saharjo, Ati D. Nurhayati, Israr Albar, Robert J. Yokelson, and Elizabeth A. Stone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2585–2600,Short summary
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions from Indonesian peat burning were measured in situ. Fuel-based emission factors from 6.0–29.6 gPM kg-1. Detailed chemical analysis revealed high levels of organic carbon that was primarily water insoluble, little to no detectable elemental carbon, and alkane contributions to organic carbon in the range of 6 %. These data were used to estimate that 3.2–11 Tg of PM2.5 were emitted by the 2015 peat burning episodes in Indonesia.
Thilina Jayarathne, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Prakash V. Bhave, Puppala S. Praveen, Chathurika M. Rathnayake, Md. Robiul Islam, Arnico K. Panday, Sagar Adhikari, Rashmi Maharjan, J. Douglas Goetz, Peter F. DeCarlo, Eri Saikawa, Robert J. Yokelson, and Elizabeth A. Stone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2259–2286,Short summary
Emissions of fine particulate matter and its constituents were quantified for a variety of under-sampled combustion sources in South Asia: wood and dung cooking fires, generators, groundwater pumps, brick kilns, trash burning, and open burning of biomasses. Garbage burning and three-stone cooking fires were among the highest emitters, while servicing of motor vehicles significantly reduced PM. These data may be used in source apportionment and to update regional and global emission inventories.
Xuan Wang, Colette L. Heald, Jiumeng Liu, Rodney J. Weber, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jose L. Jimenez, Joshua P. Schwarz, and Anne E. Perring
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 635–653,Short summary
Brown carbon (BrC) contributes significantly to uncertainty in estimating the global direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosols. We develop a global model simulation of BrC and test it against BrC absorption measurements from two aircraft campaigns in the continental United States. We suggest that BrC DRE has been overestimated previously due to the lack of observational constraints from direct measurements and omission of the effects of photochemical whitening.
Ryan D. Cook, Ying-Hsuan Lin, Zhuoyu Peng, Eric Boone, Rosalie K. Chu, James E. Dukett, Matthew J. Gunsch, Wuliang Zhang, Nikola Tolic, Alexander Laskin, and Kerri A. Pratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15167–15180,Short summary
Reactions occur within water in both atmospheric particles and cloud droplets, yet little is known about the organic compounds in cloud water. In this work, cloud water samples were collected at Whiteface Mountain, New York, and analyzed using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry to investigate the molecular composition of the dissolved organic compounds. The results focus on changes in cloud water composition with air mass origin – influences of forest, urban, and wildfire emissions.
Jing Chen, Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Masayuki Itoh, Wen-Chien Lee, Takuma Miyakawa, Yuichi Komazaki, Liu Dong Qing Yang, and Mikinori Kuwata
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11591–11604,Short summary
We report size-dependent water uptake by fresh Indonesian peat burning particles and discuss relationship between water uptake and chemical characteristics. Fresh peat burning particles are almost non-hygroscopic, as determined by both the water-soluble organic fraction and the difference in κ of slightly and highly water-soluble fractions. This work experimentally validates the reference for κ of OA-dominated particles, thus contributing to more accurate estimation of aerosol climate impacts.
Dong Gao, Ting Fang, Vishal Verma, Linghan Zeng, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2821–2835,Short summary
This work compares three methods to determine the optimal approach for quantifying the total oxidative potential (OP) of fine particles collected with filters using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. An automated system has been developed to facilitate the total OP measurements for use in generation of large data sets needed for epidemiology studies. The results from this study show that the water-insoluble components contribute to PM2.5 OP and the related DTT-active species are largely secondary.
Suzane S. de Sá, Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Matthew K. Newburn, Weiwei Hu, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Lindsay D. Yee, Ryan Thalman, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Paulo Artaxo, Allen H. Goldstein, Antonio O. Manzi, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Fan Mei, John E. Shilling, Stephen R. Springston, Jian Wang, Jason D. Surratt, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Jose L. Jimenez, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6611–6629,
Hongyu Guo, Jiumeng Liu, Karl D. Froyd, James M. Roberts, Patrick R. Veres, Patrick L. Hayes, Jose L. Jimenez, Athanasios Nenes, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5703–5719,Short summary
Fine particle pH is linked to many environmental impacts by affecting particle concentration and composition. Predicted Pasadena, CA (CalNex campaign), PM1 pH is 1.9 and PM2.5 pH 2.7, the latter higher due to sea salts. The model predicted gas–particle partitionings of HNO3–NO3−, NH3–NH4+, and HCl–Cl− are in good agreement, verifying the model predictions. A summary of contrasting locations in the US and eastern Mediterranean shows fine particles are generally highly acidic, with pH below 3.
Rudra P. Pokhrel, Eric R. Beamesderfer, Nick L. Wagner, Justin M. Langridge, Daniel A. Lack, Thilina Jayarathne, Elizabeth A. Stone, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Robert J. Yokelson, and Shane M. Murphy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5063–5078,Short summary
This study investigates enhancement of black carbon (BC) absorption in biomass burning emissions due to absorbing and non-absorbing coatings. The fraction of absorption due to BC, brown carbon (BrC), and lensing is estimated using different approaches. The similarities and differences between the results from these approaches are discussed. Absorption by BrC is shown to have good correlation with the elemental to organic carbon ratio (EC / OC) and AAE.
Chathurika M. Rathnayake, Nervana Metwali, Thilina Jayarathne, Josh Kettler, Yuefan Huang, Peter S. Thorne, Patrick T. O'Shaughnessy, and Elizabeth A. Stone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2459–2475,Short summary
Exposures to bioaerosols depend on their type, particle size, and concentration. While typically found in coarse particles (2.5–10 microns), pollens, fungal spores, and bacterial endotoxins decrease to less than 2.5 microns and simultaneously increase in concentration during rain events. These observations contrast the assumption that rain washes bioaerosols from the air and reduces allergen levels. Instead, population exposures to bioaerosols are expected to be enhanced during rain events.
Ibrahim M. Al-Naiema and Elizabeth A. Stone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2053–2065,Short summary
Molecular tracers have proven useful in estimating contributions of primary and biogenic secondary sources to atmospheric particulate matter but have lagged behind for anthropogenic secondary sources. This study takes a field-based approach to evaluate the detectability, specificity, and gas–particle partitioning of prospective anthropogenic SOA tracers. We conclude that a subset of species are likely useful tracers and are recommended for use in future source apportionment studies.
Jiaoyan Huang, Matthieu B. Miller, Eric Edgerton, and Mae Sexauer Gustin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1689–1698,Short summary
The highest mercury (Hg) wet deposition in USA occurs along the Gulf of Mexico. Gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM) is a major contributor due to high water solubility and reactivity. Concentration and dry deposition of GOM were determined for OLF, Florida. Results indicated at least 5 GOM compounds in this area including HgBr2, HgO, and Hg–nitrogen and –sulfur forms. GOM chemistry indicates reactions with local mobile source pollutants and long-range transport from outside of the USA.
Anusha P. S. Hettiyadura, Thilina Jayarathne, Karsten Baumann, Allen H. Goldstein, Joost A. de Gouw, Abigail Koss, Frank N. Keutsch, Kate Skog, and Elizabeth A. Stone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1343–1359,Short summary
Organosulfates are components of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed in the presence of sulfate. Herein, their abundance, identity, and potential to form as sampling artifacts were studied in Centreville, AL, USA. The 10 most abundant signals accounted for 58–78 % of the total, with at least 20–200 other species accounting for the remainder. These major species were largely associated with biogenic gases, like isoprene and monoterpenes, and are proposed targets for future standard development.
Wing Y. Tuet, Yunle Chen, Lu Xu, Shierly Fok, Dong Gao, Rodney J. Weber, and Nga L. Ng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 839–853,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) comprise a significant fraction of particulate matter (PM) and may have health implications. The water-soluble oxidative potentials of various SOA systems were determined using dithiothreitol consumption. Results from this study demonstrate that precursor identity was more influential than reaction condition in determining SOA oxidative potential and highlight a need to consider SOA contributions from anthropogenic hydrocarbons to PM-induced health effects.
Havala O. T. Pye, Benjamin N. Murphy, Lu Xu, Nga L. Ng, Annmarie G. Carlton, Hongyu Guo, Rodney Weber, Petros Vasilakos, K. Wyat Appel, Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Jason D. Surratt, Athanasios Nenes, Weiwei Hu, Jose L. Jimenez, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Pawel K. Misztal, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 343–369,Short summary
We use a chemical transport model to examine how organic compounds in the atmosphere interact with water present in particles. Organic compounds themselves lead to water uptake, and organic compounds interact with water associated with inorganic compounds in the rural southeast atmosphere. Including interactions of organic compounds with water requires a treatment of nonideality to more accurately represent aerosol observations during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) 2013.
Emma L. D'Ambro, Ben H. Lee, Jiumeng Liu, John E. Shilling, Cassandra J. Gaston, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Siegfried Schobesberger, Rahul A. Zaveri, Claudia Mohr, Anna Lutz, Zhenfa Zhang, Avram Gold, Jason D. Surratt, Jean C. Rivera-Rios, Frank N. Keutsch, and Joel A. Thornton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 159–174,Short summary
We studied the formation and properties of secondary organic aerosol produced from isoprene. We find that a significant fraction (~50 %) of the mass is composed of low-volatility, highly oxidized compounds such as C5H12O6. A significant fraction of the remainder appears to be in the form of oligomeric material. Adding NOx maintained or decreased SOA yields while increasing the fraction of low-volatility material, possibly due to oligomers.
Marie Ila Gosselin, Chathurika M. Rathnayake, Ian Crawford, Christopher Pöhlker, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Beatrice Schmer, Viviane R. Després, Guenter Engling, Martin Gallagher, Elizabeth Stone, Ulrich Pöschl, and J. Alex Huffman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15165–15184,Short summary
We present an analysis of bioaerosol measurements using two real-time fluorescence instruments in combination with molecular tracer techniques for quantifying airborne fungal spores in a semi-arid forest. Both techniques provide fungal spore concentrations of the order of 104 m−3 and up to 30 % of particle mass. Rainy periods exhibited higher concentrations and stronger correlations between fluorescent bioparticle and molecular tracer measurements. Fungal culture results are also presented.
Neha Sareen, Annmarie G. Carlton, Jason D. Surratt, Avram Gold, Ben Lee, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Claudia Mohr, Joel A. Thornton, Zhenfa Zhang, Yong B. Lim, and Barbara J. Turpin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14409–14420,
Maiko Arashiro, Ying-Hsuan Lin, Kenneth G. Sexton, Zhenfa Zhang, Ilona Jaspers, Rebecca C. Fry, William G. Vizuete, Avram Gold, and Jason D. Surratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14079–14090,Short summary
Atmospheric oxidation of isoprene in the presence of acidic sulfate aerosol yields substantial SOA. Potential adverse health effects resulting from exposure to this aerosol type are largely unknown. Measurements of gene expression of known inflammatory biomarkers interleukin 8 (IL-8) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in exposed human lung cells at the air–liquid interface showed that a dose of 0.067 μg cm−2 of isoprene SOA leads to statistically significant increases in IL-8 and COX-2 mRNA levels.
Amelia F. Longo, David J. Vine, Laura E. King, Michelle Oakes, Rodney J. Weber, Lewis Gregory Huey, Armistead G. Russell, and Ellery D. Ingall
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13389–13398,Short summary
New synchrotron-based techniques were applied to characterize the oxidation state and composition of sulfur in ambient aerosol and emission sources. Individual particles were found to contain surprisingly high levels of elemental sulfur, a form of sulfur found in only one of the emission sources analyzed. We also show metal sulfates as a key component of urban aerosols. These metal sulfate phases are highly soluble and are indicative of acidic processes transforming metals in the environment.
Chelsea E. Stockwell, Thilina Jayarathne, Mark A. Cochrane, Kevin C. Ryan, Erianto I. Putra, Bambang H. Saharjo, Ati D. Nurhayati, Israr Albar, Donald R. Blake, Isobel J. Simpson, Elizabeth A. Stone, and Robert J. Yokelson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11711–11732,Short summary
We present the first or rare field measurements of emission factors for Indonesian peat fires made in Borneo during the 2015 El Niño. The data include up to 90 gases, aerosol mass, and aerosol optical properties at two wavelengths (405 and 870 nm). Brown carbon dominates aerosol absorption, revisions to previous values for greenhouse gas emissions are supported and air toxics are assessed.
Weiwei Hu, Brett B. Palm, Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jordan E. Krechmer, Zhe Peng, Suzane S. de Sá, Scot T. Martin, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Karsten Baumann, Lina Hacker, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Abigail R. Koss, Joost A. de Gouw, Allen H. Goldstein, Roger Seco, Steven J. Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex B. Guenther, Saewung Kim, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, William H. Brune, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11563–11580,Short summary
IEPOX-SOA is biogenically derived secondary organic aerosol under anthropogenic influence, which has been shown to comprise a substantial fraction of OA globally. We investigated the lifetime of ambient IEPOX-SOA in the SE US and Amazonia, with an oxidation flow reactor and thermodenuder coupled with MS-based instrumentation. The low volatility and long lifetime of IEPOX-SOA against OH radicals' oxidation (> 2 weeks) was observed, which can help to constrain OA impact on air quality and climate.
Chelsea E. Stockwell, Ted J. Christian, J. Douglas Goetz, Thilina Jayarathne, Prakash V. Bhave, Puppala S. Praveen, Sagar Adhikari, Rashmi Maharjan, Peter F. DeCarlo, Elizabeth A. Stone, Eri Saikawa, Donald R. Blake, Isobel J. Simpson, Robert J. Yokelson, and Arnico K. Panday
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11043–11081,Short summary
We present the first, or rare, field measurements in South Asia of emission factors for up to 80 gases (pollutants, greenhouse gases, and precursors) and black carbon and aerosol optical properties at 405 and 870 nm for many previously under-sampled sources that are important in developing countries such as cooking with dung and wood, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, motorcycles, generators and pumps, etc. Brown carbon contributes significantly to total aerosol absorption.
Matthieu Riva, Thais Da Silva Barbosa, Ying-Hsuan Lin, Elizabeth A. Stone, Avram Gold, and Jason D. Surratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11001–11018,Short summary
Formation of organosulfates (OSs) in secondary organic aerosol from the photooxidation of alkanes is reported from smog chamber experiments. Effects of acidity and relative humidity on OS formation were examined. Most of the OSs identified could be explained by formation of gaseous epoxide and/or hydroperoxide precursors with subsequent acid-catalyzed multiphase chemistry onto sulfate aerosol. The OSs identified here were also observed and quantified in aerosols collected in two urban areas.
Rudra P. Pokhrel, Nick L. Wagner, Justin M. Langridge, Daniel A. Lack, Thilina Jayarathne, Elizabeth A. Stone, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Robert J. Yokelson, and Shane M. Murphy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9549–9561,Short summary
This paper gives first multi-wavelength estimates of SSA and AAE of emissions from combustion of Indonesian peat. In addition, it demonstrates that SSA of biomass burning emissions can be parameterized with EC / (EC+OC) and that this parameterization is quantitatively superior to previously published parameterizations based on MCE. It also shows that EC / (EC+OC) parameterization accurately predicts SSA during the first few hours of aging of a biomass burning plume.
J. Kaiser, K. M. Skog, K. Baumann, S. B. Bertman, S. B. Brown, W. H. Brune, J. D. Crounse, J. A. de Gouw, E. S. Edgerton, P. A. Feiner, A. H. Goldstein, A. Koss, P. K. Misztal, T. B. Nguyen, K. F. Olson, J. M. St. Clair, A. P. Teng, S. Toma, P. O. Wennberg, R. J. Wild, L. Zhang, and F. N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9349–9359,Short summary
OH reactivity can be used to assess the amount of reactive carbon in an air mass. “Missing” reactivity is commonly found in forested environments and is attributed to either direct emissions of unmeasured volatile organic compounds or to unmeasured/underpredicted oxidation products. Using a box model and measurements from the 2013 SOAS campaign, we find only small discrepancies in measured and calculated reactivity. Our results suggest the discrepancies stem from unmeasured direct emissions.
Jordan E. Krechmer, Michael Groessl, Xuan Zhang, Heikki Junninen, Paola Massoli, Andrew T. Lambe, Joel R. Kimmel, Michael J. Cubison, Stephan Graf, Ying-Hsuan Lin, Sri H. Budisulistiorini, Haofei Zhang, Jason D. Surratt, Richard Knochenmuss, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jose-Luis Jimenez, and Manjula R. Canagaratna
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3245–3262,
Luping Su, Edward G. Patton, Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Alex B. Guenther, Lisa Kaser, Bin Yuan, Fulizi Xiong, Paul B. Shepson, Li Zhang, David O. Miller, William H. Brune, Karsten Baumann, Eric Edgerton, Andrew Weinheimer, Pawel K. Misztal, Jeong-Hoo Park, Allen H. Goldstein, Kate M. Skog, Frank N. Keutsch, and John E. Mak
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7725–7741,
Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Karsten Baumann, Eric S. Edgerton, Solomon T. Bairai, Stephen Mueller, Stephanie L. Shaw, Eladio M. Knipping, Avram Gold, and Jason D. Surratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5171–5189,Short summary
A year-long near-real-time characterization of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) was conducted at an urban (Atlanta, Georgia, in 2012) and rural (Look Rock, Tennessee, in 2013) site in the southeastern US using the Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor, collocated with established air-monitoring network measurements, to identify sources of organic aerosol (OA). Further, high-volume filter samples were collected for measurements of OA tracers by offline mass spectrometry tools.
Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Panayiota Nikolaou, Iasonas Stavroulas, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Rodney Weber, Athanasios Nenes, Maria Kanakidou, and Nikolaos Mihalopoulos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4579–4591,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols and relevant parameters were measured in the eastern Mediterranean during summer and fall 2012. Submicron aerosol water can contribute up to 33 % of total mass, and 27.5 % of this can be associated with organics. Using these data, the pH of the submicron aerosols was calculated to be highly acidic, varying from 0.5 to 2.8 and independently of air masses origin. Such pH values could increase nutrient availability and thus sea water productivity of the Mediterranean Sea.
Min Zhong, Eri Saikawa, Yang Liu, Vaishali Naik, Larry W. Horowitz, Masayuki Takigawa, Yu Zhao, Neng-Huei Lin, and Elizabeth A. Stone
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1201–1218,Short summary
Large discrepancies exist among emission inventories (e.g., REAS and EDGAR) at the provincial level in China. We use WRF-Chem to evaluate the impact of the difference in existing emission inventories and find that emissions inputs significantly affect our air pollutant simulation results. Our study highlights the importance of constraining emissions at the provincial level for regional air quality modeling over East Asia.
Ting Fang, Vishal Verma, Josephine T. Bates, Joseph Abrams, Mitchel Klein, Matthew J. Strickland, Stefanie E. Sarnat, Howard H. Chang, James A. Mulholland, Paige E. Tolbert, Armistead G. Russell, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3865–3879,Short summary
Ascorbic acid (AA) and Dithiothreitol (DTT) assay measures of water-soluble PM2.5 oxidative potential (OP) are compared in terms of spatiotemporal trends, chemical selectivity, sources, and health impacts based on an epidemiological study with backcast estimated OP. Both assays point to metals from brake/tire wear, but only the DTT assay also identifies organics from combustion. DTT is associated with emergency department visits for asthma/wheeze and congestive heart failure, whereas AA is not.
Sean Coburn, Barbara Dix, Eric Edgerton, Christopher D. Holmes, Douglas Kinnison, Qing Liang, Arnout ter Schure, Siyuan Wang, and Rainer Volkamer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3743–3760,Short summary
Here we present a day of case study measurements of the vertical distribution of bromine monoxide over the coastal region of the Gulf of Mexico. These measurements are used to assess the contribution of bromine radicals to the oxidation of elemental mercury in the troposphere. We find that the measured levels of bromine in the troposphere are sufficient to quickly oxidize mercury, which has significant implications for our understanding of atmospheric mercury processes.
T. P. Riedel, Y.-H. Lin, Z. Zhang, K. Chu, J. A. Thornton, W. Vizuete, A. Gold, and J. D. Surratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1245–1254,Short summary
IEPOX, a photooxidation product of isoprene, contributes to ambient secondary organic aerosol concentrations. Controlled atmospheric chamber experiments and modeling are used to extract formation rate information of chemical species that contribute to IEPOX-derived secondary organic aerosol.
E. W. Butt, A. Rap, A. Schmidt, C. E. Scott, K. J. Pringle, C. L. Reddington, N. A. D. Richards, M. T. Woodhouse, J. Ramirez-Villegas, H. Yang, V. Vakkari, E. A. Stone, M. Rupakheti, P. S. Praveen, P. G. van Zyl, J. P. Beukes, M. Josipovic, E. J. S. Mitchell, S. M. Sallu, P. M. Forster, and D. V. Spracklen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 873–905,Short summary
We estimate the impact of residential emissions (cooking and heating) on atmospheric aerosol, human health, and climate. We find large contributions to annual mean ambient PM2.5 in residential sources regions resulting in significant but uncertain global premature mortality when key uncertainties in emission flux are considered. We show that residential emissions exert an uncertain global radiative effect and suggest more work is needed to characterise residential emissions climate importance.
C. L. Blanchard, G. M. Hidy, S. Shaw, K. Baumann, and E. S. Edgerton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 215–238,Short summary
Fifteen years of gas and particle measurements at eight monitoring sites comprising the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) network offer insights into the sources of organic aerosol in the southeastern United States. Between 1999 and 2013, mean organic aerosol concentrations declined due to decreasing particle emissions from motor vehicles and to less secondary organic aerosol with declining emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds.
B. R. Ayres, H. M. Allen, D. C. Draper, S. S. Brown, R. J. Wild, J. L. Jimenez, D. A. Day, P. Campuzano-Jost, W. Hu, J. de Gouw, A. Koss, R. C. Cohen, K. C. Duffey, P. Romer, K. Baumann, E. Edgerton, S. Takahama, J. A. Thornton, B. H. Lee, F. D. Lopez-Hilfiker, C. Mohr, P. O. Wennberg, T. B. Nguyen, A. Teng, A. H. Goldstein, K. Olson, and J. L. Fry
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13377–13392,Short summary
This paper reports atmospheric gas- and aerosol-phase field measurements from the southeastern United States in summer 2013 to demonstrate that the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds by nitrate radical produces a substantial amount of secondary organic aerosol in this region. This process, driven largely by monoterpenes, results in a comparable aerosol nitrate production rate to inorganic nitrate formation by heterogeneous uptake of HNO3 onto dust particles.
W. W. Hu, P. Campuzano-Jost, B. B. Palm, D. A. Day, A. M. Ortega, P. L. Hayes, J. E. Krechmer, Q. Chen, M. Kuwata, Y. J. Liu, S. S. de Sá, K. McKinney, S. T. Martin, M. Hu, S. H. Budisulistiorini, M. Riva, J. D. Surratt, J. M. St. Clair, G. Isaacman-Van Wertz, L. D. Yee, A. H. Goldstein, S. Carbone, J. Brito, P. Artaxo, J. A. de Gouw, A. Koss, A. Wisthaler, T. Mikoviny, T. Karl, L. Kaser, W. Jud, A. Hansel, K. S. Docherty, M. L. Alexander, N. H. Robinson, H. Coe, J. D. Allan, M. R. Canagaratna, F. Paulot, and J. L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11807–11833,Short summary
This work summarized all the studies reporting isoprene epoxydiols-derived secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA) measured globally by aerosol mass spectrometer and compare them with modeled gas-phase IEPOX, with results suggestive of the importance of IEPOX-SOA for regional and global OA budgets. A real-time tracer of IEPOX-SOA is thoroughly evaluated for the first time by combing multiple field and chamber studies. A quick and easy empirical method on IEPOX-SOA estimation is also presented.
T. Fang, H. Guo, V. Verma, R. E. Peltier, and R. J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11667–11682,Short summary
This work presented a new method of quantifying water-soluble elements in PM2.5 aqueous extracts (N~500) with an X-ray fluorescence analyzer. The results indicate that water-soluble elements had marked spatial and temporal patterns. Four sources were resolved: brake/tire wear, biomass burning, secondary formation, and mineral dust. The findings have informed studies on aerosol oxidative potential and provided insights into the health effects of water-soluble metals, especially Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn.
F. Xiong, K. M. McAvey, K. A. Pratt, C. J. Groff, M. A. Hostetler, M. A. Lipton, T. K. Starn, J. V. Seeley, S. B. Bertman, A. P. Teng, J. D. Crounse, T. B. Nguyen, P. O. Wennberg, P. K. Misztal, A. H. Goldstein, A. B. Guenther, A. R. Koss, K. F. Olson, J. A. de Gouw, K. Baumann, E. S. Edgerton, P. A. Feiner, L. Zhang, D. O. Miller, W. H. Brune, and P. B. Shepson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11257–11272,Short summary
Hydroxynitrates from isoprene oxidation were quantified both in the laboratory and through field studies. The yield of hydroxynitrates 9(+4/-3)% derived from chamber experiments was applied in a zero-dimensional model to simulate the production and loss of isoprene hydroxynitrates in an ambient environment during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). NOx was determined to be the limiting factor for the formation of isoprene hydroxynitrates during SOAS.
H. M. Allen, D. C. Draper, B. R. Ayres, A. Ault, A. Bondy, S. Takahama, R. L. Modini, K. Baumann, E. Edgerton, C. Knote, A. Laskin, B. Wang, and J. L. Fry
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10669–10685,Short summary
We report ion chromatographic measurements of gas- and aerosol-phase inorganic species at the SOAS 2013 field study. Our particular focus is on inorganic nitrate aerosol formation via HNO3 uptake onto coarse-mode dust and sea salt particles, which we find to be the dominant source of episodic inorganic nitrate at this site, due to the high acidity of the particles preventing formation of NH4NO3. We calculate a production rate of inorganic nitrate aerosol.
S. H. Budisulistiorini, X. Li, S. T. Bairai, J. Renfro, Y. Liu, Y. J. Liu, K. A. McKinney, S. T. Martin, V. F. McNeill, H. O. T. Pye, A. Nenes, M. E. Neff, E. A. Stone, S. Mueller, C. Knote, S. L. Shaw, Z. Zhang, A. Gold, and J. D. Surratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8871–8888,Short summary
Isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) are major gas-phase products from the atmospheric oxidation of isoprene that yield secondary organic aerosol (SOA) by reactive uptake onto acidic sulfate aerosol. We report a substantial contribution of IEPOX-derived SOA to the total fine aerosol collected during summer. IEPOX-derived SOA measured by online and offline mass spectrometry techniques is correlated with acidic sulfate aerosol, demonstrating the critical role of anthropogenic emissions in its formation.
K. M. Cerully, A. Bougiatioti, J. R. Hite Jr., H. Guo, L. Xu, N. L. Ng, R. Weber, and A. Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8679–8694,Short summary
The hygroscopicity of SE US aerosol is mostly water-soluble, with a hygroscopicity that is insensitive to partial volatilization in a thermodenuder. The most and least oxidized components of the aerosol are the most hygroscopic of organic constituents. No clear relationship was found between organic aerosol hygroscopicity and oxygen-to-carbon ratio. The aerosol factors covary in a way that induces the observed diurnal invariance in total organic hygroscopicity.
J. Liu, E. Scheuer, J. Dibb, G. S. Diskin, L. D. Ziemba, K. L. Thornhill, B. E. Anderson, A. Wisthaler, T. Mikoviny, J. J. Devi, M. Bergin, A. E. Perring, M. Z. Markovic, J. P. Schwarz, P. Campuzano-Jost, D. A. Day, J. L. Jimenez, and R. J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7841–7858,Short summary
Brown carbon (BrC) is found throughout the US continental troposphere during a summer of extensive biomass burning and its prevalence relative to black carbon (BC) increases with altitude. A radiative transfer model based on direct measurements of aerosol scattering and absorption by BC and BrC shows BrC reduces top-of-atmosphere forcing by 20%. A method to estimate BrC radiative forcing efficiencies from surface-based measurements is provided.
L. Xu, S. Suresh, H. Guo, R. J. Weber, and N. L. Ng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7307–7336,Short summary
Year-long comprehensive characterization of ambient aerosol was performed in both rural and urban sites in the southeastern US as part of Southeastern Center of Air Pollution and Epidemiology (SCAPE) study and Southeastern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). Three independent methods were applied to estimate the concentration of particle-phase organic nitrates. The spatial distribution of organic aerosol is investigated by comparing simultaneous HR-ToF-AMS and ACSM measurements at different sites.
D. B. Millet, M. Baasandorj, D. K. Farmer, J. A. Thornton, K. Baumann, P. Brophy, S. Chaliyakunnel, J. A. de Gouw, M. Graus, L. Hu, A. Koss, B. H. Lee, F. D. Lopez-Hilfiker, J. A. Neuman, F. Paulot, J. Peischl, I. B. Pollack, T. B. Ryerson, C. Warneke, B. J. Williams, and J. Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6283–6304,Short summary
Formic acid (HCOOH) is an abundant atmospheric acid that affects precipitation chemistry and acidity. HCOOH measurements over the USA are 2-3× larger than can be explained by known sources and sinks, revealing a key gap in current understanding. Observations indicate a large biogenic source plus chemical production across a range of precursors. Model simulations cannot capture the HCOOH diurnal amplitude or nocturnal profile, implying a deposition bias and possibly even larger missing source.
A. P. S. Hettiyadura, E. A. Stone, S. Kundu, Z. Baker, E. Geddes, K. Richards, and T. Humphry
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2347–2358,Short summary
Organosulfates are SOA products that have proven difficult to quantify. This study addresses the need for authentic quantification standards with a straightforward approach to synthesizing highly pure organosulfate potassium salts. New standards are used to develop a new separation protocol for small, functionalized organosulfates. Upon validation, this method is used to assess sample preparation protocols and to make new measurements of organosulfates in Centreville, Alabama.
P. L. Hayes, A. G. Carlton, K. R. Baker, R. Ahmadov, R. A. Washenfelder, S. Alvarez, B. Rappenglück, J. B. Gilman, W. C. Kuster, J. A. de Gouw, P. Zotter, A. S. H. Prévôt, S. Szidat, T. E. Kleindienst, J. H. Offenberg, P. K. Ma, and J. L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5773–5801,Short summary
(1) Four different parameterizations for the formation and chemical evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are evaluated using a box model representing the Los Angeles region during the CalNex campaign. (2) The SOA formed only from the oxidation of VOCs is insufficient to explain the observed SOA concentrations. (3) The amount of SOA mass formed from diesel vehicle emissions is estimated to be 16-27%. (4) Modeled SOA depends strongly on the P-S/IVOC volatility distribution.
K. R. Baker, A. G. Carlton, T. E. Kleindienst, J. H. Offenberg, M. R. Beaver, D. R. Gentner, A. H. Goldstein, P. L. Hayes, J. L. Jimenez, J. B. Gilman, J. A. de Gouw, M. C. Woody, H. O. T. Pye, J. T. Kelly, M. Lewandowski, M. Jaoui, P. S. Stevens, W. H. Brune, Y.-H. Lin, C. L. Rubitschun, and J. D. Surratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5243–5258,Short summary
This work details the evaluation of PM2.5 carbon, VOC precursors, and OH estimated by the CMAQ photochemical transport model using routine and special measurements from the 2010 CalNex field study. Here, CMAQ and most recent emissions inventory (2011 NEI) are used to generate model PM2.5 OC estimates that are examined in novel ways including primary vs. secondary formation, fossil vs. contemporary carbon, OH and HO2 evaluation, and the relationship between key VOC precursors and SOC tracers.
H. Guo, L. Xu, A. Bougiatioti, K. M. Cerully, S. L. Capps, J. R. Hite Jr., A. G. Carlton, S.-H. Lee, M. H. Bergin, N. L. Ng, A. Nenes, and R. J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5211–5228,Short summary
Particle pH can affect many aerosol processes, including gas-particle partitioning, SOA formation, and mobilization of toxic redox metals. pH is challenging to directly measure and often improperly characterized by proxies like ion balances or molar ratios of measured aerosol ionic species. We present a detailed analysis predicting pH with a thermodynamic model, verify the prediction, and test pH sensitivity to model inputs based on data from the SOAS field campaign.
J. Huang, M. B. Miller, E. Edgerton, and M. S. Gustin
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM) is a major contributor to Hg in wet and dry deposition. Recent work has indicated that the concentrations of GOM as measured are too low by 3-to-12 times; and that compounds vary across space and time. Data collected in Florida indicate five potential GOM compounds, including HgBr2, HgO, Hg(NO3)2, HgSO4, and an unknown compound. Sources include local combustion (cars and power plants), the marine boundary layer, and long range transport from Asia.
J. W. Taylor, J. D. Allan, D. Liu, M. Flynn, R. Weber, X. Zhang, B. L. Lefer, N. Grossberg, J. Flynn, and H. Coe
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1701–1718,Short summary
When using the SP2 to report black carbon core/shell coating thickness, the core density and refractive index must be estimated from literature values. We systematically vary the assumed parameters and the instrument calibration, and quantify the effects in the derived coatings. The technique is highly sensitive to the core refractive index but has only a minor sensitivity to the core density and coating refractive index. We identify the most appropriate values to use in future analysis.
M. Lewandowski, M. Jaoui, J. H. Offenberg, J. D. Krug, and T. E. Kleindienst
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3773–3783,Short summary
This work explores the impact of acidic sulfate aerosol on the formation of SOA from isoprene and 1,3-butadiene. This study expands on previous work by extending the analysis over a broader range of humidities and aerosol liquid water contents. Extending the experiments to a wider range of hydrocarbons and across a more realistic range of humidities provides data of greater atmospheric relevance and contributes to development of acidity-influenced SOA chemistry mechanisms in air quality models.
C. J. Hennigan, J. Izumi, A. P. Sullivan, R. J. Weber, and A. Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2775–2790,Short summary
We show that the ion balance and molar ratio methods are unsuitable for use as aerosol pH proxies. Our recommendation is that 1) thermodynamic equilibrium models constrained by both gas and aerosol inputs run in the forward (open) mode, and 2) the phase partitioning of ammonia provides the best predictions of aerosol pH. Given the significance of acidity for numerous chemical processes in the atmosphere, the implications of this study are important and far reaching.
B. Yuan, P. R. Veres, C. Warneke, J. M. Roberts, J. B. Gilman, A. Koss, P. M. Edwards, M. Graus, W. C. Kuster, S.-M. Li, R. J. Wild, S. S. Brown, W. P. Dubé, B. M. Lerner, E. J. Williams, J. E. Johnson, P. K. Quinn, T. S. Bates, B. Lefer, P. L. Hayes, J. L. Jimenez, R. J. Weber, R. Zamora, B. Ervens, D. B. Millet, B. Rappenglück, and J. A. de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1975–1993,Short summary
In this work, secondary formation of formic acid at an urban site and a site in an oil and gas production region is studied. We investigated various gas phase formation pathways of formic acid, including those recently proposed, using a box model. The contributions from aerosol-related processes, fog events and air-snow exchange to formic acid are also quantified.
T. Fang, V. Verma, H. Guo, L. E. King, E. S. Edgerton, and R. J. Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 471–482,Short summary
This work summarizes a newly developed semi-automated system for quantifying the oxidative potential of aerosol aqueous extracts using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. 500 sample analyses indicate that DTT activity in the southeast US is likely not dominated by a unique local source, and sources change with season. The unique large data set generated with the technique described in this paper allows new studies on DTT sources and investigating linkages between reactive oxygen species and health.
M. R. Canagaratna, J. L. Jimenez, J. H. Kroll, Q. Chen, S. H. Kessler, P. Massoli, L. Hildebrandt Ruiz, E. Fortner, L. R. Williams, K. R. Wilson, J. D. Surratt, N. M. Donahue, J. T. Jayne, and D. R. Worsnop
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 253–272,Short summary
Atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O:C), hydrogen-to-carbon (H:C), and organic mass-to-organic carbon (OM:OC) ratios of ambient organic aerosol (OA) species provide key constraints for understanding their sources and impacts. Here an improved method for obtaining accurate O:C, H:C, and OM:OC with a widely used aerosol mass spectrometer is developed. These results imply that OA is more oxidized than previously estimated and indicate the need for new chemical mechanisms that simulate ambient oxidation.
V. Verma, T. Fang, H. Guo, L. King, J. T. Bates, R. E. Peltier, E. Edgerton, A. G. Russell, and R. J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12915–12930,Short summary
The major emission sources of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated with ambient particulate matter in the southeastern United States were identified. The study shows biomass burning and secondary aerosol formation as the major sources contributing to the ROS-generating capability of ambient particles. The ubiquitous nature of these two sources suggests widespread population exposures to the toxic aerosol components.
Y. You, V. P. Kanawade, J. A. de Gouw, A. B. Guenther, S. Madronich, M. R. Sierra-Hernández, M. Lawler, J. N. Smith, S. Takahama, G. Ruggeri, A. Koss, K. Olson, K. Baumann, R. J. Weber, A. Nenes, H. Guo, E. S. Edgerton, L. Porcelli, W. H. Brune, A. H. Goldstein, and S.-H. Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12181–12194,Short summary
Amiens play important roles in atmospheric secondary aerosol formation and human health, but the fast response measurements of amines are lacking. Here we show measurements in a southeastern US forest and a moderately polluted midwestern site. Our results show that gas to particle conversion is an important process that controls ambient amine concentrations and that biomass burning is an important source of amines.
G. M. Hidy, C. L. Blanchard, K. Baumann, E. Edgerton, S. Tanenbaum, S. Shaw, E. Knipping, I. Tombach, J. Jansen, and J. Walters
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11893–11914,Short summary
This paper reviews aerometric measurements from Centreville, Alabama. The measurements show annual trends with air pollution emissions from 1999 to 2013. They provide a context for observations from 1 June to 15 July 2013 supporting the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study. An important goal of this experiment was to advance knowledge of aerosols produced in the atmosphere from precursors. The observations were in moist and warm conditions with the lowest gas and particle concentrations recorded.
T. K. V. Nguyen, M. D. Petters, S. R. Suda, H. Guo, R. J. Weber, and A. G. Carlton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10911–10930,
S. H. Budisulistiorini, M. R. Canagaratna, P. L. Croteau, K. Baumann, E. S. Edgerton, M. S. Kollman, N. L. Ng, V. Verma, S. L. Shaw, E. M. Knipping, D. R. Worsnop, J. T. Jayne, R.J. Weber, and J. D. Surratt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1929–1941,
K. Kristensen, T. Cui, H. Zhang, A. Gold, M. Glasius, and J. D. Surratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4201–4218,
J. Liu, M. Bergin, H. Guo, L. King, N. Kotra, E. Edgerton, and R. J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12389–12404,
Y.-H. Lin, E. M. Knipping, E. S. Edgerton, S. L. Shaw, and J. D. Surratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8457–8470,
Y. Cheng, G. Engling, K.-B. He, F.-K. Duan, Y.-L. Ma, Z.-Y. Du, J.-M. Liu, M. Zheng, and R. J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7765–7781,
L. E. King and R. J. Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1647–1658,
S. Kundu, T. A. Quraishi, G. Yu, C. Suarez, F. N. Keutsch, and E. A. Stone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4865–4875,
K. Kristensen, K. L. Enggrob, S. M. King, D. R. Worton, S. M. Platt, R. Mortensen, T. Rosenoern, J. D. Surratt, M. Bilde, A. H. Goldstein, and M. Glasius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3763–3776,
T. L. Lathem, A. J. Beyersdorf, K. L. Thornhill, E. L. Winstead, M. J. Cubison, A. Hecobian, J. L. Jimenez, R. J. Weber, B. E. Anderson, and A. Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2735–2756,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Measurement Report: Investigation on the sources and formation processes of dicarboxylic acids and related species in urban aerosols before and during the COVID-19 lockdown in Jinan, East ChinapH dependence of brown-carbon optical properties in cloud waterOxidative potential in rural, suburban and city centre atmospheric environments in central EuropeSecondary aerosol formation during a special dust transport event: impacts from unusually enhanced ozone and dust backflows over the oceanIntra-event evolution of elemental and ionic concentrations in wet deposition in an urban environmentSpatial and diurnal variations of aerosol organosulfates in summertime Shanghai, China: potential influence of photochemical processes and anthropogenic sulfate pollutionCharacterizing water-soluble brown carbon in fine particles in four typical cities in northwestern China during wintertime: integrating optical properties with chemical processesChemical composition-dependent hygroscopic behavior of individual ambient aerosol particles collected at a coastal siteGas–particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds when wildfire smoke comes to townEnrichment of calcium in sea spray aerosol: insights from bulk measurements and individual particle analysis during the R/V Xuelong cruise in the summertime in Ross Sea, AntarcticaSource apportionment study on particulate air pollution in two high-altitude Bolivian cities: La Paz and El AltoMorphological features and water solubility of iron in aged fine aerosol particles over the Indian OceanWhat chemical species are responsible for new particle formation and growth in the Netherlands? A hybrid positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis using aerosol composition (ACSM) and size (SMPS)Measurement report: Stoichiometry of dissolved iron and aluminum as an indicator of the factors controlling the fractional solubility of aerosol iron – results of the annual observations of size-fractionated aerosol particles in JapanIn-depth study of the formation processes of single atmospheric particles in the south-eastern margin of the Tibetan PlateauClimatology of aerosol properties at an atmospheric monitoring site on the northern California coastConcurrent photochemical whitening and darkening of ambient brown carbonHigh-time-resolution chemical composition and source apportionment of PM2.5 in northern Chinese cities: implications for policyMeasurement report: New insights into the mixing structures of black carbon on the eastern Tibetan Plateau – soot redistribution and fractal dimension enhancement by liquid–liquid phase separationSource Apportionment of Soot Particles and Aqueous-Phase Processing of Black Carbon Coatings in an Urban EnvironmentSeasonal variations in the production of singlet oxygen and organic triplet excited states in aqueous PM2.5 in Hong Kong SAR, South ChinaNighttime NO emissions strongly suppress chlorine and nitrate radical formation during the winter in DelhiInfluence of natural and anthropogenic aerosols on cloud base droplet size distributions in clouds over the South China Sea and West PacificThe important contribution of secondary formation and biomass burning to oxidized organic nitrogen (OON) in a polluted urban area: insights from in situ measurements of a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS)Measurement report: A 1-year study to estimate maritime contributions to PM10 in a coastal area in northern FranceMarine Carbohydrates in Arctic Aerosol Particles and Fog – Diversity of Oceanic Sources and Atmospheric TransformationsEvolution and chemical characteristics of organic aerosols during wintertime PM2.5 episodes in Shanghai, China: insights gained from online measurements of organic molecular markersArctic observations of hydroperoxymethyl thioformate (HPMTF) – seasonal behavior and relationship to other oxidation products of dimethyl sulfide at the Zeppelin Observatory, SvalbardSummertime response of ozone and fine particulate matter to mixing layer meteorology over the North China PlainTrace elements in PM2.5 aerosols in East Asian outflow in the spring of 2018: Emission, transport, and source apportionmentA 1-year aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) source analysis of organic aerosol particle contributions from anthropogenic sources after long-range transport at the TROPOS research station MelpitzContributions of primary emissions and secondary formation to nitrated aromatic compounds in themountain background region of Southeast ChinaMist cannon trucks can exacerbate the formation of water-soluble organic aerosol and PM2.5 pollution in the road environmentAmino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids in the tropical oligotrophic Atlantic Ocean: sea-to-air transfer and atmospheric in situ formationAmbient carbonaceous aerosol levels in Cyprus and the role of pollution transport from the Middle EastHigh contribution of anthropogenic combustion sources to atmospheric inorganic reactive nitrogen in South China evidenced by isotopesMeasurement report: Diurnal variations of brown carbon during two distinct seasons in a megacity in northeast ChinaSource Apportionment of PM2.5 in Montréal, Canada and Health Risk Assessment for Potentially Toxic ElementsCharacterization of water-soluble brown carbon chromophores from wildfire plumes in the western US using size exclusion chromatographyVertical profiles of volatile organic compounds and fine particles in atmospheric air by using an aerial drone with miniaturized samplers and portable devicesMultiple pathways for the formation of secondary organic aerosol in the North China Plain in summerSeasonal variations in composition and sources of atmospheric ultrafine particles in urban Beijing based on near-continuous measurementsInsights into characteristics and formation mechanisms of secondary organic aerosols in the Guangzhou urban areaParticulate-bound alkyl nitrate pollution and formation mechanisms in Beijing, ChinaAn attribution of the low single-scattering albedo of biomass burning aerosol over the southeastern AtlanticMeasurement report: Rapid changes of chemical characteristics and health risks for highly time resolved trace elements in PM2.5 in a typical industrial city in response to stringent clean air actionsMeasurement report: Summertime fluorescence characteristics of atmospheric water-soluble organic carbon in the marine boundary layer of the western Arctic OceanHigh frequency of new particle formation events driven by summer monsoon in the central Tibetan Plateau, ChinaChemical precursors of new particle formation in coastal New ZealandInsights into the single-particle composition, size, mixing state, and aspect ratio of freshly emitted mineral dust from field measurements in the Moroccan Sahara using electron microscopy
Jingjing Meng, Yachen Wang, Yuanyuan Li, Tonglin Huang, Zhifei Wang, Yiqiu Wang, Min Chen, Zhanfang Hou, Houhua Zhou, Keding Lu, Kimitaka Kawamura, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 14481–14503,Short summary
This study investigated the effect of COVID-19 lockdown (LCD) measures on the formation and evolutionary process of diacids and related compounds from field observations. Results demonstrate that more aged organic aerosols are observed during the LCD due to the enhanced photochemical oxidation. Our study also found that the reactivity of 13C was higher than that of 12C in the gaseous photochemical oxidation, leading to higher δ13C values of C2 during the LCD than before the LCD.
Christopher J. Hennigan, Michael McKee, Vikram Pratap, Bryanna Boegner, Jasper Reno, Lucia Garcia, Madison McLaren, and Sara M. Lance
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 14437–14449,Short summary
This study characterized the optical properties of light-absorbing organic compounds, called brown carbon (BrC), in atmospheric cloud water samples. In all samples, light absorption by BrC increased linearly with increasing pH. There was variability in the sensitivity of the absorption–pH relationship, depending on the degree of influence from fire emissions. Overall, these results show that the climate forcing of BrC is quite strongly affected by its pH-dependent absorption.
Máté Vörösmarty, Gaëlle Uzu, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Pamela Dominutti, Zsófia Kertész, Enikő Papp, and Imre Salma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 14255–14269,Short summary
Poor air quality caused by high concentrations of particulate matter is one of the most severe public health concerns for humans worldwide. One of the most important biological mechanisms inducing adverse health effects is the oxidant–antioxidant imbalance. We showed that the oxidative stress changed substantially and in a complex manner with location and season. Biomass burning exhibited the dominant influence, while motor vehicles played an important role in the non-heating period.
Da Lu, Hao Li, Mengke Tian, Guochen Wang, Xiaofei Qin, Na Zhao, Juntao Huo, Fan Yang, Yanfen Lin, Jia Chen, Qingyan Fu, Yusen Duan, Xinyi Dong, Congrui Deng, Sabur F. Abdullaev, and Kan Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13853–13868,Short summary
Environmental conditions during dust are usually not favorable for secondary aerosol formation. However in this study, an unusual dust event was captured in a Chinese mega-city and showed “anomalous” meteorology and a special dust backflow transport pathway. The underlying formation mechanisms of secondary aerosols are probed in the context of this special dust event. This study shows significant implications for the varying dust aerosol chemistry in the future changing climate.
Thomas Audoux, Benoit Laurent, Karine Desboeufs, Gael Noyalet, Franck Maisonneuve, Olivier Lauret, and Servanne Chevaillier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13485–13503,Short summary
In the Paris region, a campaign was conducted to study wet deposition of aerosol particles during rainfall events. Simultaneous measurements of aerosol and wet deposition allowed us to discuss their transfer from the atmosphere to rain. Chemical evolution within events revealed meteorology, atmospheric conditions and local vs. long range sources as key factors. This study highlights the variability of wet deposition and the need to consider event-specific factors to understand its mechanisms.
Ting Yang, Yu Xu, Qing Ye, Yi-Jia Ma, Yu-Chen Wang, Jian-Zhen Yu, Yu-Sen Duan, Chen-Xi Li, Hong-Wei Xiao, Zi-Yue Li, Yue Zhao, and Hua-Yun Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13433–13450,Short summary
In this study, 130 OS species were quantified in ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected in urban and suburban Shanghai (East China) in the summer of 2021. The daytime OS formation was concretized based on the interactions among OSs, ultraviolet (UV), ozone (O3), and sulfate. Our finding provides field evidence for the influence of photochemical process and anthropogenic sulfate on OS formation and has important implications for the mitigation of organic particulate pollution.
Miao Zhong, Jianzhong Xu, Huiqin Wang, Li Gao, Haixia Zhu, Lixiang Zhai, Xinghua Zhang, and Wenhui Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12609–12630,Short summary
This study focus on coal-combustion-dominated aerosol in urban areas in northwestern China and combines the results of optical measurement and chemical analysis to deduce the evolution of these characteristics in the atmosphere, which has previously been unknown. The results provide insights into the effects of atmospheric processes and emissions on brown carbon properties.
Li Wu, Hyo-Jin Eom, Hanjin Yoo, Dhrubajyoti Gupta, Hye-Rin Cho, Pingqing Fu, and Chul-Un Ro
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12571–12588,Short summary
Hygroscopicity of ambient marine aerosols is of critical relevance to investigate their atmospheric impacts, which, however, remain uncertain due to their complex compositions and mixing states. Therefore, a study on the hygroscopic behavior of ambient marine aerosols for understanding the phase states when interacting with water vapor at different RH levels and their subsequent impacts on the heterogeneous chemical reactions, atmospheric environment, and human health is of vital importance.
Yutong Liang, Rebecca A. Wernis, Kasper Kristensen, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Philip L. Croteau, Scott C. Herndon, Arthur W. H. Chan, Nga L. Ng, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12441–12454,Short summary
We measured the gas–particle partitioning behaviors of biomass burning markers and examined the effect of wildfire organic aerosol on the partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds. Most compounds measured are less volatile than model predictions. Wildfire aerosol enhanced the condensation of polar compounds and caused some nonpolar (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) compounds to partition into the gas phase, thus affecting their lifetimes in the atmosphere and the mode of exposure.
Bojiang Su, Xinhui Bi, Zhou Zhang, Yue Liang, Congbo Song, Tao Wang, Yaohao Hu, Lei Li, Zhen Zhou, Jinpei Yan, Xinming Wang, and Guohua Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10697–10711,Short summary
During the R/V Xuelong cruise observation over the Ross Sea, Antarctica, the mass concentrations of water-soluble Ca2+ and the mass spectra of individual calcareous particles were measured. Our results indicated that lower temperature, lower wind speed, and the presence of sea ice may facilitate Ca2+ enrichment in sea spray aerosols and highlighted the potential contribution of organically complexed calcium to calcium enrichment, which is inaccurate based solely on water-soluble Ca2+ estimation.
Valeria Mardoñez, Marco Pandolfi, Lucille Joanna S. Borlaza, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Andrés Alastuey, Jean-Luc Besombes, Isabel Moreno R., Noemi Perez, Griša Močnik, Patrick Ginot, Radovan Krejci, Vladislav Chrastny, Alfred Wiedensohler, Paolo Laj, Marcos Andrade, and Gaëlle Uzu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10325–10347,Short summary
La Paz and El Alto are two fast-growing, high-altitude Bolivian cities forming the second-largest metropolitan area in the country. The sources of particulate matter (PM) in this conurbation were not previously investigated. This study identified 11 main sources of PM, of which dust and vehicular emissions stand out as the main ones. The influence of regional biomass combustion and local waste combustion was also observed, with the latter being a major source of hazardous compounds.
Sayako Ueda, Yoko Iwamoto, Fumikazu Taketani, Mingxu Liu, and Hitoshi Matsui
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10117–10135,Short summary
We examine iron in atmospheric fine aerosol particles collected over the Indian Ocean during shipborne observations in November 2018. Transmission electron microscopy analysis with water dialysis shows that various types of iron (fly ash, iron oxide, and mineral dust) co-exist with ammonium sulfate and that their solubility differs depending on the iron type. Using PM2.5 bulk samples and global model simulations, we elucidate their origins, aging, and implications for present iron simulations.
Farhan R. Nursanto, Roy Meinen, Rupert Holzinger, Maarten C. Krol, Xinya Liu, Ulrike Dusek, Bas Henzing, and Juliane L. Fry
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10015–10034,Short summary
Particulate matter (PM) is a harmful air pollutant that depends on the complex mixture of natural and anthropogenic emissions into the atmosphere. Thus, in different regions and seasons, the way that PM is formed and grows can differ. In this study, we use a combined statistical analysis of the chemical composition and particle size distribution to determine what drives particle formation and growth across seasons, using varying wind directions to elucidate the role of different sources.
Kohei Sakata, Aya Sakaguchi, Yoshiaki Yamakawa, Chihiro Miyamoto, Minako Kurisu, and Yoshio Takahashi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9815–9836,Short summary
Anthropogenic iron is the dominant source of dissolved Fe in aerosol particles, but its contribution to dissolved Fe in aerosol particles has not been quantitatively evaluated. We established the molar concentration ratio of dissolved Fe to dissolved Al as a new indicator to evaluate the contribution of anthropogenic iron. As a result, about 10 % of dissolved Fe in aerosol particles was derived from anthropogenic iron when aerosol particles were transported from East Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Li Li, Qiyuan Wang, Jie Tian, Huikun Liu, Yong Zhang, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Weikang Ran, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9597–9612,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau has a unique geographical location, but there is a lack of detailed research on the real-time characteristics of full aerosol composition. This study elaborates the changes in chemical characteristics between transport and local fine particles during the pre-monsoon, reveals the size distribution and the mixing states of different individual particles, and highlights the contributions of photooxidation and aqueous reaction to the formation of the secondary species.
Erin K. Boedicker, Elisabeth Andrews, Patrick J. Sheridan, and Patricia K. Quinn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9525–9547,Short summary
We present 15 years of measurements from a marine site on the northern California coast and characterize the seasonal trends of aerosol ion composition and optical properties at the site. We investigate the relationship between the chemical and optical properties and show that they both support similar seasonal variations in aerosol sources at the site. Additionally, we show through comparisons to other marine aerosol observations that the site is representative of a clean marine environment.
Qian Li, Dantong Liu, Xiaotong Jiang, Ping Tian, Yangzhou Wu, Siyuan Li, Kang Hu, Quan Liu, Mengyu Huang, Ruijie Li, Kai Bi, Shaofei Kong, Deping Ding, and Chenjie Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9439–9453,Short summary
By attributing the shortwave absorption from black carbon, primary organic aerosol and secondary organic aerosol in a suburban environment, we firstly observed that the photochemically produced nitrogen-containing secondary organic aerosol may contribute to the enhancement of brown carbon absorption, partly compensating for some bleaching effect on the absorption of primary organic aerosol, hereby exerting radiative impacts.
Yong Zhang, Jie Tian, Qiyuan Wang, Lu Qi, Manousos Ioannis Manousakas, Yuemei Han, Weikang Ran, Yele Sun, Huikun Liu, Renjian Zhang, Yunfei Wu, Tianqu Cui, Kaspar Rudolf Daellenbach, Jay Gates Slowik, André S. H. Prévôt, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9455–9471,Short summary
PM2.5 pollution still frequently occurs in northern China during winter, and it is necessary to figure out the causes of air pollution based on intensive real-time measurement. The findings elaborate the chemical characteristics and source contributions of PM2.5 in three pilot cities, reveal potential formation mechanisms of secondary aerosols, and highlight the importance of controlling biomass burning and inhibiting generation of secondary aerosol for air quality improvement.
Qi Yuan, Yuanyuan Wang, Yixin Chen, Siyao Yue, Jian Zhang, Yinxiao Zhang, Liang Xu, Wei Hu, Dantong Liu, Pingqing Fu, Huiwang Gao, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9385–9399,Short summary
This study for the first time found large amounts of liquid–liquid phase separation particles with soot redistributing in organic coatings instead of sulfate cores in the eastern Tibetan Plateau atmosphere. The particle size and the ratio of the organic matter coating thickness to soot size are two of the major possible factors that likely affect the soot redistribution process. The soot redistribution process promoted the morphological compaction of soot particles.
Ryan N. Farley, Sonya Collier, Christopher D. Cappa, Leah R. Williams, Timothy B. Onasch, Lynn M. Russell, Hwajin Kim, and Qi Zhang
Soot particles, also known as black carbon (BC), have important implication on global climate and regional air quality. After the particles are emitted, BC can be coated with other material, impacting the aerosol properties. We selectively measured the composition of particles containing BC to explore their sources and chemical transformations in the atmosphere. We focus on a persistent, multiday fog event in order to study the effects of chemical reactions occurring within liquid droplets.
Yuting Lyu, Yin Hau Lam, Yitao Li, Nadine Borduas-Dedekind, and Theodora Nah
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9245–9263,Short summary
We measured singlet oxygen (1O2*) and triplet excited states of organic matter (3C*) in illuminated aqueous extracts of PM2.5 collected in different seasons at different sites in Hong Kong SAR, South China. In contrast to the locations, seasonality had significant effects on 3C* and 1O2* production due to seasonal variations in long-range air mass transport. The steady-state concentrations of 3C* and 1O2* correlated with the concentration and absorbance of water-soluble organic carbon.
Sophie L. Haslett, David M. Bell, Varun Kumar, Jay G. Slowik, Dongyu S. Wang, Suneeti Mishra, Neeraj Rastogi, Atinderpal Singh, Dilip Ganguly, Joel Thornton, Feixue Zheng, Yuanyuan Li, Wei Nie, Yongchun Liu, Wei Ma, Chao Yan, Markku Kulmala, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, David Hadden, Urs Baltensperger, Andre S. H. Prevot, Sachchida N. Tripathi, and Claudia Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9023–9036,Short summary
In Delhi, some aspects of daytime and nighttime atmospheric chemistry are inverted, and parodoxically, vehicle emissions may be limiting other forms of particle production. This is because the nighttime emissions of nitrogen oxide (NO) by traffic and biomass burning prevent some chemical processes that would otherwise create even more particles and worsen the urban haze.
Rose Marie Miller, Robert M. Rauber, Larry Di Girolamo, Matthew Rilloraza, Dongwei Fu, Greg M. McFarquhar, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Luke D. Ziemba, Sarah Woods, and Kenneth Lee Thornhill
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8959–8977,Short summary
The influence of human-produced aerosols on clouds remains one of the uncertainties in radiative forcing of Earth’s climate. Measurements of aerosol chemistry from sources around the Philippines illustrate the linkage between aerosol chemical composition and cloud droplet characteristics. Differences in aerosol chemical composition in the marine layer from biomass burning, industrial, ship-produced, and marine aerosols are shown to impact cloud microphysical structure just above cloud base.
Yiyu Cai, Chenshuo Ye, Wei Chen, Weiwei Hu, Wei Song, Yuwen Peng, Shan Huang, Jipeng Qi, Sihang Wang, Chaomin Wang, Caihong Wu, Zelong Wang, Baolin Wang, Xiaofeng Huang, Lingyan He, Sasho Gligorovski, Bin Yuan, Min Shao, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8855–8877,Short summary
We studied the variability and molecular composition of ambient oxidized organic nitrogen (OON) in both gas and particle phases using a state-of-the-art online mass spectrometer in urban air. Biomass burning and secondary formation were found to be the two major sources of OON. Daytime nitrate radical chemistry for OON formation was more important than previously thought. Our results improved the understanding of the sources and molecular composition of OON in the polluted urban atmosphere.
Frédéric Ledoux, Cloé Roche, Gilles Delmaire, Gilles Roussel, Olivier Favez, Marc Fadel, and Dominique Courcot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8607–8622,Short summary
We quantify the emissions from the marine sector in northern France, whether from natural or human-made sources. Therefore, a 1-year PM10 sampling campaign was conducted at a French coastal site. Results showed that sea salts contributed 37 %, while secondary nitrate and sulfate contributed 42 %, biomass burning 8 %, and heavy-fuel-oil combustion from shipping emissions 5 %. Sources contributing more than 80 % of PM10 are of regional and/or long-range origin.
Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Manuela van Pinxteren, Markus Hartmann, Moritz Zeising, Astrid Bracher, and Hartmut Herrmann
Marine carbohydrates are produced in the surface of the ocean, enter the atmophere as part of sea spray aerosol particles and potentially contribute to the formation of clouds. Here, we present the results of a sea-air transfer study of marine carbohydrates conducted in the high Arctic. Besides a chemo-selective transfer, we observed a quick atmospheric aging of carbohydrates, possibly as a result of both biotic and abiotic processes.
Shuhui Zhu, Min Zhou, Liping Qiao, Dan Dan Huang, Qiongqiong Wang, Shan Wang, Yaqin Gao, Shengao Jing, Qian Wang, Hongli Wang, Changhong Chen, Cheng Huang, and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7551–7568,Short summary
Organic aerosol (OA) is increasingly important in urban PM2.5 pollution as inorganic ions are becoming lower. We investigated the chemical characteristics of OA during nine episodes in Shanghai. The availability of bi-hourly measured molecular markers revealed that the control of local urban sources such as vehicular and cooking emissions lessened the severity of local episodes. Regional control of precursors and biomass burning would reduce PM2.5 episodes influenced by regional transport.
Karolina Siegel, Yvette Gramlich, Sophie L. Haslett, Gabriel Freitas, Radovan Krejci, Paul Zieger, and Claudia Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7569–7587,Short summary
Hydroperoxymethyl thioformate (HPMTF) is a recently discovered oxidation product of dimethyl sulfide (DMS). We present a full year of concurrent gas- and particle-phase observations of HPMTF and other DMS oxidation products from the Arctic. We did not observe significant amounts of HPMTF in the particle phase but a good agreement between gas-phase HMPTF and methanesulfonic acid in the summer. Our study provides information about the relationship between HPMTF and other DMS oxidation products.
Jiaqi Wang, Jian Gao, Fei Che, Xin Yang, Yuanqin Yang, Lei Liu, and Yan Xiang
Regional-scale observations of surface O3, PM2.5 and its major chemical species, mixing layer height (MLH), and other meteorological parameters were made in the North China Plain during summertime. Unlike cold seasons, synchronized increases in MDA8 O3 and PM2.5 under medium MLH condition have been witnessed. The increasing trend of PM2.5 was associated with enhanced secondary chemical formation. The correlation between MLH and secondary air pollutants should be treated with care in hot seasons.
Takuma Miyakawa, Akinori Ito, Chunmao Zhu, Atsushi Shimizu, Erika Matsumoto, Yusuke Mizuno, and Yugo Kanaya
This study conducted semi-continuous measurements of PM2.5 aerosols and their elemental composition in western Japan, during spring 2018. It analyzed the emissions, transport, and wet removal of elements such as Pb, Cu, Fe, and Mn. It also assessed the accuracy of modeled concentrations and found overestimations of BC and underestimations of Cu and anthropogenic Fe in East Asia. Insights into emissions, removals, and source apportionment of trace metals in the East Asian outflow were provided.
Samira Atabakhsh, Laurent Poulain, Gang Chen, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Mira Pöhlker, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6963–6988,Short summary
The study focuses on the aerosol chemical variations found in the rural-background station of Melpitz based on ACSM and MAAP measurements. Source apportionment on both organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (eBC) was performed, and source seasonality was also linked to air mass trajectories. Overall, three anthropogenic sources were identified in OA and eBC plus two additional aged OA. Our results demonstrate the influence of transported coal-combustion-related OA even during summer time.
Yanqin Ren, Gehui Wang, Jie Wei, Jun Tao, Zhisheng Zhang, and Hong Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6835–6848,Short summary
Nine quantified nitrated aromatic compounds (NACs) in PM2.5 were examined at the peak of Mt. Wuyi. They manifested a significant rise in overall abundance in the winter and autumn. The transport of contaminants had a significant impact on NACs. Under low-NOx conditions, the formation of NACs was comparatively sensitive to NO2, suggesting that NACs would become significant in the aerosol characteristics when nitrate concentrations decreased as a result of emission reduction measures.
Yu Xu, Xin-Ni Dong, Chen He, Dai-She Wu, Hong-Wei Xiao, and Hua-Yun Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6775–6788,Short summary
The air pollution associated with fine particles and secondary organic aerosol is not weakened by the application of mist cannon trucks but rather is aggravated. Our results provide not only new insights into the formation processes of aerosol water-soluble organic compounds associated with the water mist sprayed by mist cannon trucks in the road atmospheric environment but also crucial information for the decision makers to regulate the operation of mist cannon trucks in many cities in China.
Manuela van Pinxteren, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Nadja Triesch, Sanja Frka, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6571–6590,Short summary
Important marine organic carbon compounds were identified in the Atlantic Ocean and marine aerosol particles. These compounds were strongly enriched in the atmosphere. Their enrichment was, however, not solely explained via sea-to-air transfer but also via atmospheric in situ formation. The identified compounds constituted about 50 % of the organic carbon on the aerosol particles, and a pronounced coupling between ocean and atmosphere for this oligotrophic region could be concluded.
Aliki Christodoulou, Iasonas Stavroulas, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Maximillien Desservettaz, Michael Pikridas, Elie Bimenyimana, Jonilda Kushta, Matic Ivančič, Martin Rigler, Philippe Goloub, Konstantina Oikonomou, Roland Sarda-Estève, Chrysanthos Savvides, Charbel Afif, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Stéphane Sauvage, and Jean Sciare
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6431–6456,Short summary
Our study presents, for the first time, a detailed source identification of aerosols at an urban background site in Cyprus (eastern Mediterranean), a region strongly impacted by climate change and air pollution. Here, we identify an unexpected high contribution of long-range transported pollution from fossil fuel sources in the Middle East, highlighting an urgent need to further characterize these fast-growing emissions and their impacts on regional atmospheric composition, climate, and health.
Tingting Li, Jun Li, Zeyu Sun, Hongxing Jiang, Chongguo Tian, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6395–6407,Short summary
N-NH4+ and N-NO3- were vital components in nitrogenous aerosols and contributed 69 % to total nitrogen in PM2.5. Coal combustion was still the most important source of urban atmospheric NO3-. However, the non-agriculture sources play an increasingly important role in NH4+ emissions.
Yuan Cheng, Xu-bing Cao, Jiu-meng Liu, Ying-jie Zhong, Qin-qin Yu, Qiang Zhang, and Ke-bin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6241–6253,Short summary
Brown carbon (BrC) aerosols were explored in the northernmost megacity in China during a frigid winter and an agricultural-fire-impacted spring. BrC was more light absorbing at night for both seasons, with more pronounced diurnal variations in spring, and the dominant drivers were identified as regulations on heavy-duty diesel trucks and open burning, respectively. Agricultural fires resulted in unique absorption spectra of BrC, which were characterized by a distinct peak at ∼365 nm.
Nansi Fakhri, Robin Stevens, Arnold Downey, Konstantina Oikonomou, Jean Sciare, Charbel Afif, and Patrick L. Hayes
The chemical composition of PM2.5 and emission sources as well as potential human health risk associated with trace elements are investigated for an urban site in Montréal over a 3-month period (August–November). To our knowledge, this study represents the first time that such extensive composition measurements were included in an urban source apportionment study in Canada and provides greater resolution of PM2.5 sources than has been previously achieved using PMF in similar Canadian studies.
Lisa Azzarello, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Michael A. Robinson, Alessandro Franchin, Caroline C. Womack, Christopher D. Holmes, Steven S. Brown, Ann Middlebrook, Tim Newberger, Colm Sweeney, and Cora J. Young
We present a molecular size-resolved offline analysis of water-soluble brown carbon collected on an aircraft during FIREX-AQ. The smoke plumes were aged 0 to 5 h where absorption was dominated by small molecular weight molecules, brown carbon absorption downwind did not consistently decrease, and the measurements differed from online absorption measurements of the same samples. We show how differences between online and offline absorption could be related to different measurement conditions.
Eka Dian Pusfitasari, Jose Ruiz-Jimenez, Aleksi Tiusanen, Markus Suuronen, Jesse Haataja, Yusheng Wu, Juha Kangasluoma, Krista Luoma, Tuukka Petäjä, Matti Jussila, Kari Hartonen, and Marja-Liisa Riekkola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5885–5904,Short summary
A miniaturized air-sampling drone system was successfully applied for the collection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and for the measurement of black carbon (BC) and total particle number concentrations in atmospheric air. Here we report, for the first time, the vertical profiles of BC and aerosol number concentrations above the boreal forest in Hyytiälä (Finland) at high altitudes close to the boundary layer in autumn 2021. VOC composition with its distribution was studied as well.
Yifang Gu, Ru-Jin Huang, Jing Duan, Wei Xu, Chunshui Lin, Haobin Zhong, Ying Wang, Haiyan Ni, Quan Liu, Ruiguang Xu, Litao Wang, and Yong Jie Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5419–5433,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can be produced by various pathways, but its formation mechanisms are unclear. Observations were conducted in the North China Plain during a highly oxidizing atmosphere in summer. We found that fast photochemistry dominated SOA formation during daytime. Two types of aqueous-phase chemistry (nocturnal and daytime processing) take place at high relative humidity. The potential transformation from primary organic aerosol (POA) to SOA was also an important pathway.
Xiaoxiao Li, Yijing Chen, Yuyang Li, Runlong Cai, Yiran Li, Chenjuan Deng, Chao Yan, Hairong Cheng, Yongchun Liu, Markku Kulmala, Jiming Hao, James N. Smith, and Jingkun Jiang
The near-continuous measurements reveal the composition, sources, and seasonal variations of UFPs in urban Beijing. Vehicle, cooking emissions, and new particle formation are the main sources of UFP numbers and aqueous/heterogeneous processes increase UFP mode diameters in urban Beijing. UFP numbers are the highest in winter due to the highest primary particle emission rates and new particle formation rates, and CHO fractions are the highest in summer due to the strongest photooxidation.
Miaomiao Zhai, Ye Kuang, Li Liu, Yao He, Biao Luo, Wanyun Xu, Jiangchuan Tao, Yu Zou, Fei Li, Changqin Yin, Chunhui Li, Hanbing Xu, and Xuejiao Deng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5119–5133,Short summary
Using year-long aerosol mass spectrometer measurements, roles of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) during haze formations in an urban area of southern China were systematically analyzed. Almost all severe haze events were accompanied by continuous daytime and nighttime SOA formations, whereas coordinated gas-phase photochemistry and aqueous-phase reactions likely played significant roles in quick daytime SOA formations, and nitrate radicals played significant roles in nighttime SOA formations.
Jiyuan Yang, Guoyang Lei, Jinfeng Zhu, Yutong Wu, Chang Liu, Kai Hu, Junsong Bao, Zitong Zhang, Weili Lin, and Jun Jin
The atmospheric pollution and formation mechanisms of particulate-bound alkyl nitrate in Beijing were studied. Long-chain n-alkyl nitrates contributed more to the total n-alkyl nitrate in PM2.5. Long-chain n-alkyl nitrates negatively correlated with O3 but positively correlated with PM2.5 and NO2, so they may not be produced during photochemical reactions but form through reactions between alkanes and nitrates on PM surfaces. Particulate-bound n-alkyl nitrates strongly influence haze pollution.
Amie Dobracki, Paquita Zuidema, Steven G. Howell, Pablo Saide, Steffen Freitag, Allison C. Aiken, Sharon P. Burton, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Jens Redemann, and Robert Wood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4775–4799,Short summary
Southern Africa produces approximately one-third of the world’s carbon from fires. The thick smoke layer can flow westward, interacting with the southeastern Atlantic cloud deck. The net radiative impact can alter regional circulation patterns, impacting rainfall over Africa. We find that the smoke is highly absorbing of sunlight, mostly because it contains more black carbon than smoke over the Northern Hemisphere.
Rui Li, Yining Gao, Yubao Chen, Meng Peng, Weidong Zhao, Gehui Wang, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4709–4726,Short summary
A random forest model was used to isolate the effects of emission and meteorology to trace elements in PM2.5 in Tangshan. The results suggested that control measures facilitated decreases of Ga, Co, Pb, Zn, and As, due to the strict implementation of coal-to-gas strategies and optimisation of industrial structure and layout. However, the deweathered levels of Ca, Cr, and Fe only displayed minor decreases, indicating that ferrous metal smelting and vehicle emission controls should be enhanced.
Jinyoung Jung, Yuzo Miyazaki, Jin Hur, Yun Kyung Lee, Mi Hae Jeon, Youngju Lee, Kyoung-Ho Cho, Hyun Young Chung, Kitae Kim, Jung-Ok Choi, Catherine Lalande, Joo-Hong Kim, Taejin Choi, Young Jun Yoon, Eun Jin Yang, and Sung-Ho Kang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4663–4684,Short summary
This study examined the summertime fluorescence properties of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in aerosols over the western Arctic Ocean. We found that the WSOC in fine-mode aerosols in coastal areas showed a higher polycondensation degree and aromaticity than in sea-ice-covered areas. The fluorescence properties of atmospheric WSOC in the summertime marine Arctic boundary can improve our understanding of the WSOC chemical and biological linkages at the ocean–sea-ice–atmosphere interface.
Lizi Tang, Min Hu, Dongjie Shang, Xin Fang, Jianjiong Mao, Wanyun Xu, Jiacheng Zhou, Weixiong Zhao, Yaru Wang, Chong Zhang, Yingjie Zhang, Jianlin Hu, Limin Zeng, Chunxiang Ye, Song Guo, and Zhijun Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4343–4359,Short summary
There was an evident distinction in the frequency of new particle formation (NPF) events at Nam Co station on the Tibetan Plateau: 15 % in pre-monsoon season and 80 % in monsoon season. The frequent NPF events in monsoon season resulted from the higher frequency of southerly air masses, which brought the organic precursors to participate in the NPF process. It increased the amount of aerosol and CCN compared with those in pre-monsoon season, which may markedly affect earth's radiation balance.
Maija Peltola, Clémence Rose, Jonathan V. Trueblood, Sally Gray, Mike Harvey, and Karine Sellegri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3955–3983,Short summary
We measured the chemical composition of ambient ions at a coastal New Zealand site and connected these data with aerosol size distribution data to study the chemical precursors of new particle formation at the site. Our results showed that iodine oxides and sulfur species were important for particle formation in marine air, while in land-influenced air sulfuric acid and organics were connected to new particle formation events.
Agnesh Panta, Konrad Kandler, Andres Alastuey, Cristina González-Flórez, Adolfo González-Romero, Martina Klose, Xavier Querol, Cristina Reche, Jesús Yus-Díez, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3861–3885,Short summary
Desert dust is a major aerosol component of the Earth system and affects the climate. Dust properties are influenced by particle size, mineralogy, shape, and mixing state. This work characterizes freshly emitted individual mineral dust particles from a major source region using electron microscopy. Our new insights into critical particle-specific information will contribute to better constraining climate models that consider mineralogical variations in their representation of the dust cycle.
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Blanchard, C. L., Hidy, G. M., Shaw, S., Baumann, K., and Edgerton, E. S.: Effects of emission reductions on organic aerosol in the southeastern United States, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 215–238, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-215-2016, 2016.
Boucher, O., Randall, D., Artaxo, P., Bretherton, C., Feingold, G., Forster, P., Kerminen, V.-M., Kondo, Y., Liao, H., and Lohmann, U.: Clouds and aerosols, in: Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, 571–657, 2013.
Budisulistiorini, S. H., Canagaratna, M. R., Croteau, P. L., Marth, W. J., Baumann, K., Edgerton, E. S., Shaw, S. L., Knipping, E. M., Worsnop, D. R., and Jayne, J. T.: Real-time continuous characterization of secondary organic aerosol derived from isoprene epoxydiols in downtown Atlanta, Georgia, using the Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor, Environ. Sci. Technol., 47, 5686–5694, 2013.
Budisulistiorini, S. H., Li, X., Bairai, S. T., Renfro, J., Liu, Y., Liu, Y. J., McKinney, K. A., Martin, S. T., McNeill, V. F., Pye, H. O. T., Nenes, A., Neff, M. E., Stone, E. A., Mueller, S., Knote, C., Shaw, S. L., Zhang, Z., Gold, A., and Surratt, J. D.: Examining the effects of anthropogenic emissions on isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol formation during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) at the Look Rock, Tennessee ground site, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8871–8888, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-8871-2015, 2015.
Carlton, A. G., Wiedinmyer, C., and Kroll, J. H.: A review of Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 4987–5005, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-4987-2009, 2009.
Carlton, A. G., Bhave, P. V., Napelenok, S. L., Edney, E. O., Sarwar, G., Pinder, R. W., Pouliot, G. A., and Houyoux, M.: Model representation of secondary organic aerosol in CMAQv4. 7, Environ. Sci. Technol., 44, 8553–8560, 2010a.
Carlton, A. G., Pinder, R. W., Bhave, P. V., and Pouliot, G. A.: To what extent can biogenic SOA be controlled?, Environ. Sci. Technol., 44, 3376–3380, 2010b.
Chan, A. W. H., Chan, M. N., Surratt, J. D., Chhabra, P. S., Loza, C. L., Crounse, J. D., Yee, L. D., Flagan, R. C., Wennberg, P. O., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Role of aldehyde chemistry and NOx concentrations in secondary organic aerosol formation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 7169–7188, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-7169-2010, 2010.
Claeys, M., Graham, B., Vas, G., Wang, W., Vermeylen, R., Pashynska, V., Cafmeyer, J., Guyon, P., Andreae, M. O., and Artaxo, P.: Formation of secondary organic aerosols through photooxidation of isoprene, Science, 303, 1173–1176, 2004.
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The mechanisms by which specific anthropogenic pollutants enhance isoprene SOA in ambient PM2.5 remain unclear. As one aspect of an investigation to examine how anthropogenic pollutants influence isoprene-derived SOA formation, high-volume PM2.5 filter samples were collected from Birmingham, AL, during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). Isoprene SOA tracers were measured from these samples and compared to gas and aerosol data collected from the SEARCH network.
The mechanisms by which specific anthropogenic pollutants enhance isoprene SOA in ambient PM2.5...