Investigating the influences of SO2 and NH3 levels on isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol formation using conditional sampling approaches
Abstract. Filter-based PM2.5 samples were chemically analyzed to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene in a rural atmosphere of the southeastern US influenced by both anthropogenic sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ammonia (NH3) emissions. Daytime PM2.5 samples were collected during summer 2010 using conditional sampling approaches based on pre-defined high and low SO2 or NH3 thresholds. Known molecular-level tracers for isoprene SOA formation, including 2-methylglyceric acid, 3-methyltetrahydrofuran-3,4-diols, 2-methyltetrols, C5-alkene triols, dimers, and organosulfate derivatives, were identified and quantified by gas chromatography coupled to electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) and ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-HR-Q-TOFMS). Mass concentrations of six isoprene low-NOx SOA tracers contributed to 12–19% of total organic matter (OM) in PM2.5 samples collected during the sampling period, indicating the importance of the hydroxyl radical (OH)-initiated oxidation (so-called photooxidation) of isoprene under low-NOx conditions that lead to SOA formation through reactive uptake of gaseous isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) in this region. The contribution of the IEPOX-derived SOA tracers to total organic matter was enhanced by 1.4% (p = 0.012) under high-SO2 sampling scenarios, although only weak associations between aerosol acidity and mass of IEPOX SOA tracers were observed. This suggests that IEPOX-derived SOA formation might be modulated by other factors simultaneously, rather than only aerosol acidity. No clear associations between isoprene SOA formation and high or low NH3 conditional samples were found. Positive correlations between sulfate aerosol loadings and IEPOX-derived SOA tracers for samples collected under all conditions indicates that sulfate aerosol could be a surrogate for surface accommodation in the uptake of IEPOX onto preexisting aerosols.