Articles | Volume 14, issue 10
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
H2O and HCl trace gas kinetics on crystalline HCl hydrates and amorphous HCl / H2O in the range 170 to 205 K: the HCl / H2O phase diagram revisited
Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry (LAC), Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), PSI Villigen, 5232, Switzerland
M. J. Rossi
Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry (LAC), Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), PSI Villigen, 5232, Switzerland
No articles found.
Christophe Delval and Michel J. Rossi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15903–15919,Short summary
Evaporation rates of H2O and HCl were observed from a thin film condensate at low temperature at an average HCl mole fraction of 10(−5)–10(−3) in order to probe the evaporative lifetime of ice particles of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The results show a decrease in the H2O evaporation rate with increasing mass loss of the condensate under conditions where the saturation vapor pressure corresponded to pure ice. This supports gas–surface reactions of HCl-doped ice particles.
Ugo Molteni, Federico Bianchi, Felix Klein, Imad El Haddad, Carla Frege, Michel J. Rossi, Josef Dommen, and Urs Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1909–1921,Short summary
Anthropogenic volatile organic compounds often dominate the urban atmosphere and consist to a large degree of aromatics. These compounds are already known as important precursors for the formation of secondary organic aerosol. This study shows how the oxidation of aromatics with an OH radical leads to subsequent autoxidation chain reactions forming highly oxygenated molecules. We hypothesize that these may contribute substantially to new particle formation events detected in urban areas.
Carla Frege, Federico Bianchi, Ugo Molteni, Jasmin Tröstl, Heikki Junninen, Stephan Henne, Mikko Sipilä, Erik Herrmann, Michel J. Rossi, Markku Kulmala, Christopher R. Hoyle, Urs Baltensperger, and Josef Dommen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2613–2629,Short summary
We present measurements of the chemical composition of atmospheric ions at high altitude (3450 m a.s.l.) during a 9-month campaign. We detected remarkably high correlation between methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and SO5−. Halogenated species were also detected frequently at this continental location. New-particle formation events occurred via the condensation of highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) at very low sulfuric acid concentration or, less frequently, due to ammonia–sulfuric acid clusters.
Riccardo Iannarelli and Michel J. Rossi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11937–11960,Short summary
Both adsorption and evaporation kinetics of water, nitric acid and hydrochloric acid on nitric acid hydrates were measured under upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric conditions. The evaporative lifetimes of "contaminated" ice clouds are important parameters for heterogeneous processing controlling polar ozone in the winter/spring season ("ozone hole"). We measured both the adsorption and evaporation kinetics, resulting in the corresponding vapor pressure as a validity check of the results.
S. Chiesa and M. J. Rossi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11905–11923,
M. Ammann, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, M. E. Jenkin, A. Mellouki, M. J. Rossi, J. Troe, and T. J. Wallington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8045–8228,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Laboratory Studies | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)On the formation of highly oxidized pollutants by autoxidation of terpenes under low-temperature-combustion conditions: the case of limonene and α-pineneSelective deuteration as a tool for resolving autoxidation mechanisms in α-pinene ozonolysisComparison of isoprene chemical mechanisms under atmospheric night-time conditions in chamber experiments: evidence of hydroperoxy aldehydes and epoxy products from NO3 oxidationAtmospheric oxidation of new 'green' solvents part II: methyl pivalate and pinacoloneEvolution of Organic Carbon in the Laboratory Oxidation of Biomass Burning EmissionsMeasurement of Henry's law and liquid-phase loss rate constants of peroxypropionic nitric anhydride (PPN) in deionized water and in n-octanolProduct distribution, kinetics, and aerosol formation from the OH oxidation of dimethyl sulfide under different RO2 regimesAtmospheric breakdown chemistry of the new “green” solvent 2,2,5,5-tetramethyloxolane via gas-phase reactions with OH and Cl radicalsImpact of cooking style and oil on semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic compound emissions from Chinese domestic cookingObservations of gas-phase products from the nitrate-radical-initiated oxidation of four monoterpenesInvestigation of the limonene photooxidation by OH at different NO concentrations in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction Chamber)Kinetic study of the atmospheric oxidation of a series of epoxy compounds by OH radicalsAn experimental study of the reactivity of terpinolene and β-caryophyllene with the nitrate radicalOxidation product characterization from ozonolysis of the diterpene ent-kaureneKinetics of OH + SO2 + M: temperature-dependent rate coefficients in the fall-off regime and the influence of water vapourFormation of organic sulfur compounds through SO2-initiated photochemistry of PAHs and dimethylsulfoxide at the air-water interfaceStable carbon isotopic composition of biomass burning emissions – implications for estimating the contribution of C3 and C4 plantsEvaluation of the daytime tropospheric loss of 2-methylbutanalInvestigations into the gas-phase photolysis and OH radical kinetics of nitrocatechols: implications of intramolecular interactions on their atmospheric behaviourReproducing Arctic springtime tropospheric ozone and mercury depletion events in an outdoor mesocosm sea ice facilityN2O5 uptake onto saline mineral dust: a potential missing source of tropospheric ClNO2 in inland ChinaNO3 chemistry of wildfire emissions: a kinetic study of the gas-phase reactions of furans with the NO3 radicalMarine gas-phase sulfur emissions during an induced phytoplankton bloomBiomass burning plume chemistry: OH-radical-initiated oxidation of 3-penten-2-one and its main oxidation product 2-hydroxypropanalAtmospheric photo-oxidation of myrcene: OH reaction rate constant, gas-phase oxidation products and radical budgetsCharacterization of ambient volatile organic compounds, source apportionment, and the ozone–NOx–VOC sensitivities in a heavily polluted megacity of central China: effect of sporting events and emission reductionsAtmospheric oxidation of α,β-unsaturated ketones: kinetics and mechanism of the OH radical reactionReactions of NO3 with aromatic aldehydes: gas-phase kinetics and insights into the mechanism of the reactionAtmospheric photooxidation and ozonolysis of Δ3-carene and 3-caronaldehyde: rate constants and product yieldsMeasurement report: Biogenic volatile organic compound emission profiles of rapeseed leaf litter and its secondary organic aerosol formation potentialHighly oxygenated organic molecules produced by the oxidation of benzene and toluene in a wide range of OH exposure and NOx conditionsMolecular composition and volatility of multi-generation products formed from isoprene oxidation by nitrate radicalHighly oxygenated organic molecule (HOM) formation in the isoprene oxidation by NO3 radicalVolatile organic compound emissions from solvent- and water-borne coatings – compositional differences and tracer compound identificationsEvaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: volume VIII – gas-phase reactions of organic species with four, or more, carbon atoms ( ≥ C4)Chemical characterisation of benzene oxidation products under high- and low-NOx conditions using chemical ionisation mass spectrometryEmissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds from combustion of domestic fuels in Delhi, IndiaA comparative and experimental study of the reactivity with nitrate radical of two terpenes: α-terpinene and γ-terpinenePhotooxidation of pinonaldehyde at ambient conditions investigated in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIRReaction between CH3C(O)OOH (peracetic acid) and OH in the gas phase: a combined experimental and theoretical study of the kinetics and mechanismSnow heterogeneous reactivity of bromide with ozone lost during snow metamorphismEvaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume VII – Criegee intermediatesTechnical Note: Effect of varying the λ = 185 and 254 nm photon flux ratio on radical generation in oxidation flow reactorsKinetics of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) reactions with isoprene-derived Criegee intermediates studied with direct UV absorptionDetermination of the absorption cross sections of higher-order iodine oxides at 355 and 532 nmEvolution of NO3 reactivity during the oxidation of isopreneRate coefficients for reactions of OH with aromatic and aliphatic volatile organic compounds determined by the multivariate relative rate techniqueAtmospheric fate of two relevant unsaturated ketoethers: kinetics, products and mechanisms for the reaction of hydroxyl radicals with (E)-4-methoxy-3-buten-2-one and (1E)-1-methoxy-2-methyl-1-penten-3-oneThe nitrogen budget of laboratory-simulated western US wildfires during the FIREX 2016 Fire Lab studyImportance of isomerization reactions for OH radical regeneration from the photo-oxidation of isoprene investigated in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR
Roland Benoit, Nesrine Belhadj, Zahraa Dbouk, Maxence Lailliau, and Philippe Dagaut
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5715–5733,Short summary
We observed a surprisingly similar set of oxidation product chemical formulas from limonene and α-pinene, including oligomers, formed under cool-flame (present experiments) and simulated atmospheric oxidation (literature). Data analysis indicated that a subset of chemical formulas is common to all experiments independently of experimental conditions. Also, this study indicates that many detected chemical formulas can be ascribed to an autooxidation reaction.
Melissa Meder, Otso Peräkylä, Jonathan G. Varelas, Jingyi Luo, Runlong Cai, Yanjun Zhang, Theo Kurtén, Matthieu Riva, Matti Rissanen, Franz M. Geiger, Regan J. Thomson, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4373–4390,Short summary
We discuss and show the viability of a method where multiple isotopically labelled precursors are used for probing the formation pathways of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) from the oxidation of the monoterpene a-pinene. HOMs are very important for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in forested regions, and monoterpenes are the single largest source of SOA globally. The fast reactions forming HOMs have thus far remained elusive despite considerable efforts over the last decade.
Philip T. M. Carlsson, Luc Vereecken, Anna Novelli, François Bernard, Steven S. Brown, Bellamy Brownwood, Changmin Cho, John N. Crowley, Patrick Dewald, Peter M. Edwards, Nils Friedrich, Juliane L. Fry, Mattias Hallquist, Luisa Hantschke, Thorsten Hohaus, Sungah Kang, Jonathan Liebmann, Alfred W. Mayhew, Thomas Mentel, David Reimer, Franz Rohrer, Justin Shenolikar, Ralf Tillmann, Epameinondas Tsiligiannis, Rongrong Wu, Andreas Wahner, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3147–3180,Short summary
The investigation of the night-time oxidation of the most abundant hydrocarbon, isoprene, in chamber experiments shows the importance of reaction pathways leading to epoxy products, which could enhance particle formation, that have so far not been accounted for. The chemical lifetime of organic nitrates from isoprene is long enough for the majority to be further oxidized the next day by daytime oxidants.
Caterina Mapelli, James K. Donnelly, Úna E. Hogan, Andrew R. Rickard, Abbie T. Robinson, Fergal Byrne, Con Rob McElroy, Basile F. E. Curchod, Daniel Hollas, and Terry J. Dillon
Solvents are chemical compounds with countless uses in the chemical industry and they also represent one of the main sources of pollution in the chemical sector. Scientists are trying to develop new ‘green’ safer solvents which present favourable advantages when compared to traditional solvents. Since the assessment of these ‘green’ solvents often lack air quality considerations, this study aims to understand the behaviour of these compounds, investigating their reactivity in the troposphere.
Kevin John Nihill, Matthew M. Coggon, Christopher Y. Lim, Abigail R. Koss, Bin Yuan, Jordan E. Krechmer, Kanako Sekimoto, Jose-Luis Jimenez, Joost de Gouw, Christopher D. Cappa, Colette L. Heald, Carsten Warneke, and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
In this work, we collect emissions from controlled burns of biomass fuels that can be found in the Western US into an environmental chamber in order to simulate their oxidation as they pass through the atmosphere. These findings provide a detailed characterization of the composition of the atmosphere downwind of wildfires. In turn, this will help to explore the effects of these changing emissions on downwind populations, and will also directly inform atmospheric and climate models.
Kevin D. Easterbrook, Mitchell A. Vona, Kiana Nayebi-Astaneh, Amanda M. Miller, and Hans D. Osthoff
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 311–322,Short summary
The trace gas peroxypropionyl nitrate (PPN) is generated in photochemical smog, phytotoxic, a strong eye irritant, and possibly mutagenic. Here, its solubility and reactivity in water and in octanol were investigated using a bubble flow apparatus, yielding its Henry's law constant and octanol–water partition coefficient (Kow). The results allow the fate of PPN to be more accurately constrained in atmospheric chemical transport models, including its uptake on clouds, organic aerosol, and leaves.
Qing Ye, Matthew B. Goss, Jordan E. Krechmer, Francesca Majluf, Alexander Zaytsev, Yaowei Li, Joseph R. Roscioli, Manjula Canagaratna, Frank N. Keutsch, Colette L. Heald, and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 16003–16015,Short summary
The atmospheric oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a major natural source of sulfate particles in the atmosphere. However, its mechanism is poorly constrained. In our work, laboratory measurements and mechanistic modeling were conducted to comprehensively investigate DMS oxidation products and key reaction rates. We find that the peroxy radical (RO2) has a controlling effect on product distribution and aerosol yield, with the isomerization of RO2 leading to the suppression of aerosol yield.
Caterina Mapelli, Juliette V. Schleicher, Alex Hawtin, Conor D. Rankine, Fiona C. Whiting, Fergal Byrne, C. Rob McElroy, Claudiu Roman, Cecilia Arsene, Romeo I. Olariu, Iustinian G. Bejan, and Terry J. Dillon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14589–14602,Short summary
Solvents represent an important source of pollution from the chemical industry. New "green" solvents aim to replace toxic solvents with new molecules made from renewable sources and designed to be less harmful. Whilst these new molecules are selected according to toxicity and other characteristics, no consideration has yet been included on air quality. Studying the solvent breakdown in air, we found that TMO has a lower impact on air quality than traditional solvents with similar properties.
Kai Song, Song Guo, Yuanzheng Gong, Daqi Lv, Yuan Zhang, Zichao Wan, Tianyu Li, Wenfei Zhu, Hui Wang, Ying Yu, Rui Tan, Ruizhe Shen, Sihua Lu, Shuangde Li, Yunfa Chen, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9827–9841,Short summary
Emissions from four typical Chinese domestic cooking and fried chicken using four kinds of oils were investigated to illustrate the impact of cooking style and oil. Of the estimated SOA, 10.2 %–32.0 % could be explained by S/IVOC oxidation. Multiway principal component analysis (MPCA) emphasizes the importance of the unsaturated fatty acid-alkadienal volatile product mechanism (oil autoxidation) accelerated by the cooking and heating procedure.
Michelia Dam, Danielle C. Draper, Andrey Marsavin, Juliane L. Fry, and James N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9017–9031,Short summary
We performed chamber experiments to measure the composition of the gas-phase reaction products of nitrate-radical-initiated oxidation of four monoterpenes. The total organic yield, effective oxygen-to-carbon ratio, and dimer-to-monomer ratio were correlated with the observed particle formation for the monoterpene systems with some exceptions. The Δ-carene system produced the most particles, followed by β-pinene, with the α-pinene and α-thujene systems producing no particles.
Jacky Yat Sing Pang, Anna Novelli, Martin Kaminski, Ismail-Hakki Acir, Birger Bohn, Philip T. M. Carlsson, Changmin Cho, Hans-Peter Dorn, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Xin Li, Anna Lutz, Sascha Nehr, David Reimer, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8497–8527,Short summary
This study investigates the radical chemical budget during the limonene oxidation at different atmospheric-relevant NO concentrations in chamber experiments under atmospheric conditions. It is found that the model–measurement discrepancies of HO2 and RO2 are very large at low NO concentrations that are typical for forested environments. Possible additional processes impacting HO2 and RO2 concentrations are discussed.
Carmen Maria Tovar, Ian Barnes, Iustinian Gabriel Bejan, and Peter Wiesen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6989–7004,Short summary
This work explores the kinetics and reactivity of epoxides towards the OH radical using two different simulation chambers. Estimation of the rate coefficients has also been made using different structure–activity relationship (SAR) approaches. The results indicate a direct influence of the structural and geometric properties of the epoxides not considered in SAR estimations, influencing the reactivity of these compounds. The outcomes of this work are in very good agreement with previous studies.
Axel Fouqueau, Manuela Cirtog, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Jean-François Doussin, and Bénédicte Picquet-Varrault
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6411–6434,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds are intensely emitted by forests and crops and react with the nitrate radical during the nighttime to form functionalized products. The purpose of this study is to furnish kinetic and mechanistic data for terpinolene and β-caryophyllene, using simulation chamber experiments. Rate constants have been measured using both relative and absolute methods, and mechanistic studies have been conducted in order to identify and quantify the main reaction products.
Yuanyuan Luo, Olga Garmash, Haiyan Li, Frans Graeffe, Arnaud P. Praplan, Anssi Liikanen, Yanjun Zhang, Melissa Meder, Otso Peräkylä, Josep Peñuelas, Ana María Yáñez-Serrano, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5619–5637,Short summary
Diterpenes were only recently observed in the atmosphere, and little is known of their atmospheric fates. We explored the ozonolysis of the diterpene kaurene in a chamber, and we characterized the oxidation products for the first time using chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Our findings highlight similarities and differences between diterpenes and smaller terpenes during their atmospheric oxidation.
Wenyu Sun, Matias Berasategui, Andrea Pozzer, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4969–4984,Short summary
The reaction between OH and SO2 is a termolecular process that in the atmosphere results in the formation of H2SO4 and thus aerosols. We present the first temperature- and pressure-dependent measurements of the rate coefficients in N2. This is also the first study to examine the effects of water vapour on the kinetics of this reaction. Our results indicate the rate coefficient is larger than that recommended by evaluation panels, with deviations of up to 30 % in some parts of the atmosphere.
Haoyu Jiang, Yingyao He, Yiqun Wang, Sheng Li, Bin Jiang, Luca Carena, Xue Li, Lihua Yang, Tiangang Luan, Davide Vione, and Sasho Gligorovski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4237–4252,Short summary
Heterogeneous oxidation of SO2 is suggested to be one of the most important pathways for sulfate formation during extreme haze events in China, yet the exact mechanism remains highly uncertain. Our study reveals that ubiquitous compounds at the sea surface PAHS and DMSO, when exposed to SO2 under simulated sunlight irradiation, generate abundant organic sulfur compounds, providing implications for air-sea interaction and secondary organic aerosols formation processes.
Roland Vernooij, Ulrike Dusek, Maria Elena Popa, Peng Yao, Anupam Shaikat, Chenxi Qiu, Patrik Winiger, Carina van der Veen, Thomas Callum Eames, Natasha Ribeiro, and Guido R. van der Werf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2871–2890,Short summary
Landscape fires are a major source of greenhouse gases and aerosols, particularly in sub-tropical savannas. Stable carbon isotopes in emissions can be used to trace the contribution of C3 plants (e.g. trees or shrubs) and C4 plants (e.g. savanna grasses) to greenhouse gases and aerosols if the process is well understood. This helps us to link individual vegetation types to emissions, identify biomass burning emissions in the atmosphere, and improve the reconstruction of historic fire regimes.
María Asensio, María Antiñolo, Sergio Blázquez, José Albaladejo, and Elena Jiménez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2689–2701,Short summary
The diurnal atmospheric degradation of 2-methylbutanal, 2 MB, emitted by sources like vegetation or the poultry industry is evaluated in this work. Sunlight and oxidants like hydroxyl (OH) radicals and chlorine (Cl) atoms initiate this degradation. Measurements of how fast 2 MB is degraded and what products are generated are presented. The lifetime of 2 MB is around 1 h at noon, when the OH reaction dominates. Thus, 2 MB will not be transported far, affecting only local air quality.
Claudiu Roman, Cecilia Arsene, Iustinian Gabriel Bejan, and Romeo Iulian Olariu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2203–2219,Short summary
Gas-phase reaction rate coefficients of OH radicals with four nitrocatechols have been investigated for the first time by using ESC-Q-UAIC chamber facilities. The reactivity of all investigated nitrocatechols is influenced by the formation of the intramolecular H-bonds that are connected to the deactivating electromeric effect of the NO2 group. For the 3-nitrocatechol compounds, the electromeric effect of the
freeOH group is diminished by the deactivating E-effect of the NO2 group.
Zhiyuan Gao, Nicolas-Xavier Geilfus, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, and Feiyue Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1811–1824,Short summary
Every spring in the Arctic, a series of photochemical events occur over the ice-covered ocean, known as bromine explosion events, ozone depletion events, and mercury depletion events. Here we report the re-creation of these events at an outdoor sea ice facility in Winnipeg, Canada, far away from the Arctic. The success provides a new platform with new opportunities to uncover fundamental mechanisms of these Arctic springtime phenomena and how they may change in a changing climate.
Haichao Wang, Chao Peng, Xuan Wang, Shengrong Lou, Keding Lu, Guicheng Gan, Xiaohong Jia, Xiaorui Chen, Jun Chen, Hongli Wang, Shaojia Fan, Xinming Wang, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1845–1859,Short summary
Via combining laboratory and modeling work, we found that heterogeneous reaction of N2O5 with saline mineral dust aerosol could be an important source of tropospheric ClNO2 in inland regions.
Mike J. Newland, Yangang Ren, Max R. McGillen, Lisa Michelat, Véronique Daële, and Abdelwahid Mellouki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1761–1772,Short summary
Wildfires are increasing in extent and severity, driven by climate change. Such fires emit large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. Many of these, such as the furans studied here, are very reactive and are rapidly converted to other VOCs, which are expected to have negative health effects and to further impact the climate. Here, we establish the importance of the nitrate radical for removing these compounds both during the night and during the day.
Delaney B. Kilgour, Gordon A. Novak, Jon S. Sauer, Alexia N. Moore, Julie Dinasquet, Sarah Amiri, Emily B. Franklin, Kathryn Mayer, Margaux Winter, Clare K. Morris, Tyler Price, Francesca Malfatti, Daniel R. Crocker, Christopher Lee, Christopher D. Cappa, Allen H. Goldstein, Kimberly A. Prather, and Timothy H. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1601–1613,Short summary
We report measurements of gas-phase volatile organosulfur molecules made during a mesocosm phytoplankton bloom experiment. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS), methanethiol (MeSH), and benzothiazole accounted for on average over 90 % of total gas-phase sulfur emissions. This work focuses on factors controlling the production and emission of DMS and MeSH and the role of non-DMS molecules (such as MeSH and benzothiazole) in secondary sulfate formation in coastal marine environments.
Niklas Illmann, Iulia Patroescu-Klotz, and Peter Wiesen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18557–18572,Short summary
Understanding the chemistry of biomass burning plumes is of global interest. Within this work we investigated the OH radical reaction of 3-penten-2-one, which has been identified in biomass burning emissions. We observed the primary formation of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), a key NOx reservoir species. Besides, PAN precursors were also identified as main oxidation products. 3-Penten-2-one is shown to be an example explaining rapid PAN formation within young biomass burning plumes.
Zhaofeng Tan, Luisa Hantschke, Martin Kaminski, Ismail-Hakki Acir, Birger Bohn, Changmin Cho, Hans-Peter Dorn, Xin Li, Anna Novelli, Sascha Nehr, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16067–16091,Short summary
The photo-oxidation of myrcene, a monoterpene species emitted by plants, was investigated at atmospheric conditions in the outdoor simulation chamber SAPHIR. The chemical structure of myrcene is partly similar to isoprene. Therefore, it can be expected that hydrogen shift reactions could play a role as observed for isoprene. In this work, their potential impact on the regeneration efficiency of hydroxyl radicals is investigated.
Shijie Yu, Fangcheng Su, Shasha Yin, Shenbo Wang, Ruixin Xu, Bing He, Xiangge Fan, Minghao Yuan, and Ruiqin Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15239–15257,Short summary
This study measured 106 VOC species using a GC-MS/FID. Meanwhile, the WRF-CMAQ model was used to investigate the nonlinearity of the O3 response to precursor reductions. This study highlights the effectiveness of stringent emission controls in relation to solvent utilization and coal combustion. However, unreasonable emission reduction may aggravate ozone pollution during control periods. It is suggested that emission-reduction ratios of the precursors (VOC : NOx) should be more than 2.
Niklas Illmann, Rodrigo Gastón Gibilisco, Iustinian Gabriel Bejan, Iulia Patroescu-Klotz, and Peter Wiesen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13667–13686,Short summary
Within this work we determined the rate coefficients and products of the reaction of unsaturated ketones with OH radicals in an effort to complete the gaps in the knowledge needed for modelling chemistry in the atmosphere. Both substances are potentially emitted by biomass burning, industrial activities or formed in the troposphere by oxidation of terpenes. As products we identified aldehydes and ketones which in turn are known to be responsible for the transportation of NOx species.
Yangang Ren, Li Zhou, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Véronique Daële, Mahmoud Idir, Steven S. Brown, Branko Ruscic, Robert S. Paton, Max R. McGillen, and A. R. Ravishankara
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13537–13551,Short summary
Aromatic aldehydes are a family of compounds emitted into the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources that are formed from the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons. Their atmospheric degradation may impact air quality. We report on their atmospheric degradation through reaction with NO3, which is useful to estimate their atmospheric lifetimes. We have also attempted to elucidate the mechanism of these reactions via studies of isotopic substitution and quantum chemistry.
Luisa Hantschke, Anna Novelli, Birger Bohn, Changmin Cho, David Reimer, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Marvin Glowania, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12665–12685,Short summary
The reactions of Δ3-carene with ozone and the hydroxyl radical (OH) and the photolysis and OH reaction of caronaldehyde were investigated in the simulation chamber SAPHIR. Reaction rate constants of these reactions were determined. Caronaldehyde yields of the ozonolysis and OH reaction were determined. The organic nitrate yield of the reaction of Δ3-carene and caronaldehyde-derived peroxy radicals with NO was determined. The ROx budget (ROx = OH+HO2+RO2) was also investigated.
Letizia Abis, Carmen Kalalian, Bastien Lunardelli, Tao Wang, Liwu Zhang, Jianmin Chen, Sébastien Perrier, Benjamin Loubet, Raluca Ciuraru, and Christian George
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12613–12629,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from rapeseed leaf litter have been investigated by means of a controlled atmospheric simulation chamber. The diversity of emitted VOCs increased also in the presence of UV light irradiation. SOA formation was observed when leaf litter was exposed to both UV light and ozone, indicating a potential contribution to particle formation or growth at local scales.
Xi Cheng, Qi Chen, Yong Jie Li, Yan Zheng, Keren Liao, and Guancong Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12005–12019,Short summary
In this study, we conducted laboratory studies to investigate the formation of gas-phase highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs). We provide a thorough analysis on the importance of multistep auto-oxidation and multigeneration OH reactions. We also give an intensive investigation on the roles of high-NO2 conditions that represent a wide range of anthropogenically influenced environments.
Rongrong Wu, Luc Vereecken, Epameinondas Tsiligiannis, Sungah Kang, Sascha R. Albrecht, Luisa Hantschke, Defeng Zhao, Anna Novelli, Hendrik Fuchs, Ralf Tillmann, Thorsten Hohaus, Philip T. M. Carlsson, Justin Shenolikar, François Bernard, John N. Crowley, Juliane L. Fry, Bellamy Brownwood, Joel A. Thornton, Steven S. Brown, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, Mattias Hallquist, and Thomas F. Mentel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10799–10824,Short summary
Isoprene is the biogenic volatile organic compound with the largest emissions rates. The nighttime reaction of isoprene with the NO3 radical has a large potential to contribute to SOA. We classified isoprene nitrates into generations and proposed formation pathways. Considering the potential functionalization of the isoprene nitrates we propose that mainly isoprene dimers contribute to SOA formation from the isoprene NO3 reactions with at least a 5 % mass yield.
Defeng Zhao, Iida Pullinen, Hendrik Fuchs, Stephanie Schrade, Rongrong Wu, Ismail-Hakki Acir, Ralf Tillmann, Franz Rohrer, Jürgen Wildt, Yindong Guo, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, Sungah Kang, Luc Vereecken, and Thomas F. Mentel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9681–9704,Short summary
The reaction of isoprene, a biogenic volatile organic compound with the globally largest emission rates, with NO3, an nighttime oxidant influenced heavily by anthropogenic emissions, forms a large number of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOM). These HOM are formed via one or multiple oxidation steps, followed by autoxidation. Their total yield is much higher than that in the daytime oxidation of isoprene. They may play an important role in nighttime organic aerosol formation and growth.
Chelsea E. Stockwell, Matthew M. Coggon, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, John Ortega, Brian C. McDonald, Jeff Peischl, Kenneth Aikin, Jessica B. Gilman, Michael Trainer, and Carsten Warneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6005–6022,Short summary
Volatile chemical products are emerging as a large source of petrochemical organics in urban environments. We identify markers for the coatings category by linking ambient observations to laboratory measurements, investigating volatile organic compound (VOC) composition, and quantifying key VOC emissions via controlled evaporation experiments. Ingredients and sales surveys are used to confirm the prevalence and usage trends to support the assignment of water and solvent-borne coating tracers.
Abdelwahid Mellouki, Markus Ammann, R. Anthony Cox, John N. Crowley, Hartmut Herrmann, Michael E. Jenkin, V. Faye McNeill, Jürgen Troe, and Timothy J. Wallington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4797–4808,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. This article, the eighth in the series, presents kinetic and photochemical data sheets evaluated by the IUPAC Task Group on Atmospheric Chemical Kinetic Data Evaluation. It covers the gas-phase reactions of organic species with four, or more, carbon atoms (≥ C4) including thermal reactions of closed-shell organic species with HO and NO3 radicals and their photolysis. These data are important for atmospheric models.
Michael Priestley, Thomas J. Bannan, Michael Le Breton, Stephen D. Worrall, Sungah Kang, Iida Pullinen, Sebastian Schmitt, Ralf Tillmann, Einhard Kleist, Defeng Zhao, Jürgen Wildt, Olga Garmash, Archit Mehra, Asan Bacak, Dudley E. Shallcross, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Åsa M. Hallquist, Mikael Ehn, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Mattias Hallquist, Thomas F. Mentel, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3473–3490,Short summary
A significant fraction of emissions from human activity consists of aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g. benzene, which oxidise to form new compounds important for particle growth. Characterisation of benzene oxidation products highlights the range of species produced as well as their chemical properties and contextualises them within relevant frameworks, e.g. MCM. Cluster analysis of the oxidation product time series distinguishes behaviours of CHON compounds that could aid in identifying functionality.
Gareth J. Stewart, W. Joe F. Acton, Beth S. Nelson, Adam R. Vaughan, James R. Hopkins, Rahul Arya, Arnab Mondal, Ritu Jangirh, Sakshi Ahlawat, Lokesh Yadav, Sudhir K. Sharma, Rachel E. Dunmore, Siti S. M. Yunus, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Eiko Nemitz, Neil Mullinger, Ranu Gadi, Lokesh K. Sahu, Nidhi Tripathi, Andrew R. Rickard, James D. Lee, Tuhin K. Mandal, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2383–2406,Short summary
Biomass burning is a major source of trace gases to the troposphere; however, the composition and quantity of emissions vary greatly between different fuel types. This work provided near-total quantitation of non-methane volatile organic compounds from combustion of biofuels from India. Emissions from cow dung cake combustion were significantly larger than conventional fuelwood combustion, potentially indicating that this source has a disproportionately large impact on regional air quality.
Axel Fouqueau, Manuela Cirtog, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Jean-François Doussin, and Bénédicte Picquet-Varrault
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15167–15189,
Michael Rolletter, Marion Blocquet, Martin Kaminski, Birger Bohn, Hans-Peter Dorn, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, Xin Li, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13701–13719,Short summary
The photooxidation of pinonaldehyde is investigated in a chamber study under natural sunlight and low NO conditions with and without an added hydroxyl radical (OH) scavenger. The experimentally determined pinonaldehyde photolysis frequency is faster by a factor of 3.5 than currently used parameterizations in atmospheric models. Yields of degradation products are measured in the presence and absence of OH. Measurements are compared to current atmospheric models and a theory-based mechanism.
Matias Berasategui, Damien Amedro, Luc Vereecken, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13541–13555,Short summary
Peracetic acid is one of the most abundant organic peroxides in the atmosphere. We combine experiments and theory to show that peracetic acid reacts orders of magnitude more slowly with OH than presently accepted, which results in a significant extension of its atmospheric lifetime.
Jacinta Edebeli, Jürg C. Trachsel, Sven E. Avak, Markus Ammann, Martin Schneebeli, Anja Eichler, and Thorsten Bartels-Rausch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13443–13454,Short summary
Earth’s snow cover is very dynamic and can change its physical properties within hours, as is well known by skiers. Snow is also a well-known host of chemical reactions – the products of which impact air composition and quality. Here, we present laboratory experiments that show how the dynamics of snow make snow essentially inert with respect to gas-phase ozone with time despite its content of reactive chemicals. Impacts on polar atmospheric chemistry are discussed.
R. Anthony Cox, Markus Ammann, John N. Crowley, Hartmut Herrmann, Michael E. Jenkin, V. Faye McNeill, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Jürgen Troe, and Timothy J. Wallington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13497–13519,Short summary
Criegee intermediates, formed from alkene–ozone reactions, play a potentially important role as tropospheric oxidants. Evaluated kinetic data are provided for reactions governing their formation and removal for use in atmospheric models. These include their formation from reactions of simple and complex alkenes and removal by decomposition and reaction with a number of atmospheric species (e.g. H2O, SO2). An overview of the tropospheric chemistry of Criegee intermediates is also provided.
Jake P. Rowe, Andrew T. Lambe, and William H. Brune
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13417–13424,Short summary
We conducted a series of experiments in which the 185 to 254 nm photon flux ratio (I185 : I254) emitted by low-pressure mercury lamps installed in an oxidation flow reactor (OFR) was systematically varied using multiple novel lamp configurations. Integrated OH exposure values achieved for each lamp type were obtained as a function of OFR operating conditions. A photochemical box model was used to develop a generalized OH exposure estimation equation as a function of [H2O], [O3], and OH reactivity.
Mei-Tsan Kuo, Isabelle Weber, Christa Fittschen, Luc Vereecken, and Jim Jr-Min Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12983–12993,Short summary
Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is the major sulfur-containing species in the troposphere. Previous work by Newland et al. (2015) reported very high reactivity of isoprene-derived Criegee intermediates (CIs) towards DMS. By monitoring CIs with direct UV absorption, we found CI + DMS reactions are very slow, in contrast to the results of Newland et al. (2015), suggesting these CIs would not oxidize atmospheric DMS at any substantial level.
Thomas R. Lewis, Juan Carlos Gómez Martín, Mark A. Blitz, Carlos A. Cuevas, John M. C. Plane, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10865–10887,Short summary
Iodine-bearing gasses emitted from the sea surface are chemically processed in the atmosphere, leading to iodine accumulation in aerosol and transport to continental ecosystems. Such processing involves light-induced break-up of large, particle-forming iodine oxides into smaller, ozone-depleting molecules. We combine experiments and theory to report the photolysis efficiency of iodine oxides required to assess the impact of iodine on ozone depletion and particle formation.
Patrick Dewald, Jonathan M. Liebmann, Nils Friedrich, Justin Shenolikar, Jan Schuladen, Franz Rohrer, David Reimer, Ralf Tillmann, Anna Novelli, Changmin Cho, Kangming Xu, Rupert Holzinger, François Bernard, Li Zhou, Wahid Mellouki, Steven S. Brown, Hendrik Fuchs, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10459–10475,Short summary
We present direct measurements of NO3 reactivity resulting from the oxidation of isoprene by NO3 during an intensive simulation chamber study. Measurements were in excellent agreement with values calculated from measured isoprene amounts and the rate coefficient for the reaction of NO3 with isoprene. Comparison of the measurement with NO3 reactivities from non-steady-state and model calculations suggests that isoprene-derived RO2 and HO2 radicals account to ~ 50 % of overall NO3 losses.
Jacob T. Shaw, Andrew R. Rickard, Mike J. Newland, and Terry J. Dillon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9725–9736,Short summary
This work expands upon the recently developed multivariate relative rate technique, presented in Shaw et al. (2019), for the measurement of rates of reaction between aromatic and aliphatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and OH. Knowledge of the rates of such reactions are important for understanding air quality in urban environments. This work also provides a key validation of structure–activity relationship models, which provide a theoretical method for estimating OH + VOC kinetics.
Rodrigo Gastón Gibilisco, Ian Barnes, Iustinian Gabriel Bejan, and Peter Wiesen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8939–8951,Short summary
Environmental chamber studies were performed to evaluate atmospheric degradation initiated by OH radicals for two unsaturated methoxy ketones. The main gas-phase oxidation products identified and quantified from these reactions are carbonyls and long-lived nitrogen-containing compounds such as peroxyacetyl nitrate and peroxypropionyl nitrate. The kinetic rate constants and atmospheric lifetimes were estimated, degradation mechanisms were developed, and atmospheric implications were assessed.
James M. Roberts, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Robert J. Yokelson, Joost de Gouw, Yong Liu, Vanessa Selimovic, Abigail R. Koss, Kanako Sekimoto, Matthew M. Coggon, Bin Yuan, Kyle J. Zarzana, Steven S. Brown, Cristina Santin, Stefan H. Doerr, and Carsten Warneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8807–8826,Short summary
We measured total reactive nitrogen, Nr, in lab fires from western North American fuels, along with measurements of individual nitrogen compounds. We measured the amount of N that gets converted to inactive compounds (avg. 70 %), and the amount that is accounted for by individual species (85 % of remaining N). We provide guidelines for how the reactive nitrogen is distributed among individual compounds such as NOx and ammonia. This will help estimates and predictions of wildfire emissions.
Anna Novelli, Luc Vereecken, Birger Bohn, Hans-Peter Dorn, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, David Reimer, Franz Rohrer, Simon Rosanka, Domenico Taraborrelli, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Zhujun Yu, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3333–3355,Short summary
Experimental evidence from a simulation chamber study shows that the regeneration efficiency of the hydroxyl radical is maintained globally at values higher than 0.5 for a wide range of nitrogen oxide concentrations as a result of isomerizations of peroxy radicals originating from the OH oxidation of isoprene. The available models were tested, and suggestions on how to improve their ability to reproduce the measured radical and oxygenated volatile organic compound concentrations are provided.
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