Articles | Volume 13, issue 7
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3811–3823, 2013
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article 10 Apr 2013
Research article | 10 Apr 2013
Montreal Protocol Benefits simulated with CCM SOCOL
T. Egorova et al.
V. Zubov, E. Rozanov, T. Egorova, I. Karol, and W. Schmutz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4697–4706,
Panagiotis G. Kosmopoulos, Stelios Kazadzis, Alois W. Schmalwieser, Panagiotis I. Raptis, Kyriakoula Papachristopoulou, Ilias Fountoulakis, Akriti Masoom, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Julia Bilbao, Mario Blumthaler, Axel Kreuter, Anna Maria Siani, Kostas Eleftheratos, Chrysanthi Topaloglou, Julian Gröbner, Bjørn Johnsen, Tove Svendby, Jose Manuel Vilaplana, Lionel Doppler, Ann R. Webb, Marina Khazova, Hugo De Backer, Anu Heikkilä, Kaisa Lakkala, Janusz Jaroslawski, Charikleia Meleti, Henri Diémoz, Gregor Hülsen, Barbara Klotz, John Rimmer, and Charalampos Kontoes
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Large-scale retrievals of the Ultraviolet Index(UVI) in real-time by exploiting the modern Earth Observation data and techniques, are capable of forming operational early warning systems that raise awareness among citizens of the health implications of high UVI doses. To this direction a novel UVI operating system, the so called UVIOS, was introduced for massive outputs, while its performance was tested against ground-based measurements revealing a dependence on the input quality and resolution.
Julian Gröbner, Herbert Schill, Luca Egli, and René Stübi
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
The world's longest continuous total column ozone time series was initiated in 1926 at the Lichtklimatisches Observatorium (LKO), at Arosa, in the Swiss Alps. The measurements between Dobson and Brewer spectroradiometers have shown seasonal variations of the order of 2 %. The results of the study show that the consistency between the two instrument types can be significantly improved when the ozone cross-sections from Serdyuchenko et al. (2013) and the measured slit functions are used.
Sarah F. Kew, Sjoukje Y. Philip, Mathias Hauser, Mike Hobbins, Niko Wanders, Geert Jan van Oldenborgh, Karin van der Wiel, Ted I. E. Veldkamp, Joyce Kimutai, Chris Funk, and Friederike E. L. Otto
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 17–35,Short summary
Motivated by the possible influence of rising temperatures, this study synthesises results from observations and climate models to explore trends (1900–2018) in eastern African (EA) drought measures. However, no discernible trends are found in annual soil moisture or precipitation. Positive trends in potential evaporation indicate that for irrigated regions more water is now required to counteract increased evaporation. Precipitation deficit is, however, the most useful indicator of EA drought.
Kaisa Lakkala, Jukka Kujanpää, Colette Brogniez, Nicolas Henriot, Antti Arola, Margit Aun, Frédérique Auriol, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Germar Bernhard, Veerle De Bock, Maxime Catalfamo, Christine Deroo, Henri Diémoz, Luca Egli, Jean-Baptiste Forestier, Ilias Fountoulakis, Katerina Garane, Rosa Delia Garcia, Julian Gröbner, Seppo Hassinen, Anu Heikkilä, Stuart Henderson, Gregor Hülsen, Bjørn Johnsen, Niilo Kalakoski, Angelos Karanikolas, Tomi Karppinen, Kevin Lamy, Sergio F. León-Luis, Anders V. Lindfors, Jean-Marc Metzger, Fanny Minvielle, Harel B. Muskatel, Thierry Portafaix, Alberto Redondas, Ricardo Sanchez, Anna Maria Siani, Tove Svendby, and Johanna Tamminen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6999–7024,Short summary
The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) onboard the Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) satellite was launched on 13 October 2017 to provide the atmospheric composition for atmosphere and climate research. Ground-based data from 25 sites located in Arctic, subarctic, temperate, equatorial and Antarctic areas were used for the validation of the TROPOMI surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation product. For most sites 60 %–80 % of TROPOMI data was within ± 20 % of ground-based data.
Maialen Iturbide, José M. Gutiérrez, Lincoln M. Alves, Joaquín Bedia, Ruth Cerezo-Mota, Ezequiel Cimadevilla, Antonio S. Cofiño, Alejandro Di Luca, Sergio Henrique Faria, Irina V. Gorodetskaya, Mathias Hauser, Sixto Herrera, Kevin Hennessy, Helene T. Hewitt, Richard G. Jones, Svitlana Krakovska, Rodrigo Manzanas, Daniel Martínez-Castro, Gemma T. Narisma, Intan S. Nurhati, Izidine Pinto, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Bart van den Hurk, and Carolina S. Vera
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2959–2970,Short summary
We present an update of the IPCC WGI reference regions used in AR5 for the synthesis of climate change information. This revision was guided by the basic principles of climatic consistency and model representativeness (in particular for the new CMIP6 simulations). We also present a new dataset of monthly CMIP5 and CMIP6 spatially aggregated information using the new reference regions and describe a worked example of how to use this dataset to inform regional climate change studies.
Ilias Fountoulakis, Henri Diémoz, Anna Maria Siani, Gregor Hülsen, and Julian Gröbner
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2787–2810,Short summary
In this study we discuss the procedures and the technical aspects which ensure the high quality of the measurements of the global solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiance performed by a Bentham spectroradiometer located at Aosta–Saint-Christophe (north-western Alps), Italy. This particular instrument is the reference for the Aosta Valley UV monitoring network, which is the first UV monitoring network in Italy. The final spectra constitute one of the most accurate datasets globally.
Kathrin Wehrli, Mathias Hauser, and Sonia I. Seneviratne
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 855–873,Short summary
The 2018 summer was unusually hot for large areas in the Northern Hemisphere, and heatwaves on three continents led to major impacts on agriculture and society. This study investigates storylines for the extreme 2018 summer, given the observed atmospheric circulation but different levels of background global warming. The results reveal a strong contribution by the present-day level of global warming and show a dramatic outlook for similar events in a warmer climate.
Marek Šmíd, Geiland Porrovecchio, Jiří Tesař, Tim Burnitt, Luca Egli, Julian Grőbner, Petr Linduška, and Martin Staněk
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMT
Christine Aebi, Julian Gröbner, Stelios Kazadzis, Laurent Vuilleumier, Antonis Gkikas, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 907–923,Short summary
Clouds are one of the largest sources of uncertainties in climate models. The current study estimates the cloud optical thickness (COT), the effective droplet radius and the single scattering albedo of stratus–altostratus and cirrus–cirrostratus clouds in Payerne, Switzerland, by combining ground- and satellite-based measurements and radiative transfer models. The estimated values are thereafter compared with data retrieved from other methods. The mean COT is distinct for different seasons.
Stephan Nyeki, Stefan Wacker, Christine Aebi, Julian Gröbner, Giovanni Martucci, and Laurent Vuilleumier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13227–13241,Short summary
The trends of meteorological parameters and surface downward shortwave radiation (DSR) and downward longwave radiation (DLR) were analysed at four stations (between 370 and 3580 m a. s. l.) in Switzerland for the 1996–2015 period. Trends in DSR and DLR were positive during cloudy as well as clear conditions. The trend due to the influence of clouds decreased in magnitude, which implies a reduction in cloud cover and/or a change towards a different cloud type over the four Swiss sites.
Emilio Cuevas, Pedro Miguel Romero-Campos, Natalia Kouremeti, Stelios Kazadzis, Petri Räisänen, Rosa Delia García, Africa Barreto, Carmen Guirado-Fuentes, Ramón Ramos, Carlos Toledano, Fernando Almansa, and Julian Gröbner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4309–4337,Short summary
A comprehensive comparison of more than 70 000 synchronous 1 min aerosol optical depth (AOD) data from 3 Global Atmosphere Watch precision filter radiometers (GAW-PFR) and 15 Aerosol Robotic Network Cimel radiometers (AERONET-Cimel) was performed for the four
nearwavelengths (380, 440, 500 and 870 nm) in the period 2005–2015. The goal of this study is to assess whether their long term AOD data are comparable and consistent.
Mathias Hauser, Wim Thiery, and Sonia Isabelle Seneviratne
Earth Syst. Dynam., 10, 157–169,Short summary
We develop a method to keep the amount of water in the soil at the present-day level, using only local water sources in a global climate model. This leads to less drying over many land areas, but also decreases river runoff. We find that temperature extremes in the 21st century decrease substantially using our method. This provides a new perspective on how land water can influence regional climate and introduces land water management as potential tool for local mitigation of climate change.
Christine Aebi, Julian Gröbner, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5549–5563,Short summary
A newly developed hemispherical thermal infrared cloud camera (IRCCAM) is presented. The IRCCAM allows automatic cloud detection during the day and at night-time. The cloud fraction determined from the IRCCAM is compared with the cloud fraction determined from other instruments over a time period of 2 years. The IRCCAM has an agreement of +/- 2 oktas cloud fraction in 90 % of the data compared to other instruments. There are no significant differences between seasons or different times of day.
Carlos Toledano, Ramiro González, David Fuertes, Emilio Cuevas, Thomas F. Eck, Stelios Kazadzis, Natalia Kouremeti, Julian Gröbner, Philippe Goloub, Luc Blarel, Roberto Román, África Barreto, Alberto Berjón, Brent N. Holben, and Victoria E. Cachorro
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14555–14567,Short summary
Most of the ground-based radiometric networks have their reference instruments and/or calibrate them at Mauna Loa or Izaña. The suitability of these high-mountain stations for absolute radiometric calibrations is investigated with the support of 20 years of first-class Sun photometer data from the AERONET and GAW-PFR networks. We analyze the number of calibration days at each site in a climatological sense and investigate the uncertainty of the calibrations based on long-term statistics.
Kaisa Lakkala, Antti Arola, Julian Gröbner, Sergio Fabian León-Luis, Alberto Redondas, Stelios Kazadzis, Tomi Karppinen, Juha Matti Karhu, Luca Egli, Anu Heikkilä, Tapani Koskela, Antonio Serrano, and José Manuel Vilaplana
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5167–5180,Short summary
The performance of the cosine error correction method for correcting spectral UV measurements of the Brewer spectroradiometer was studied. The correction depends on the sky radiation distribution, which can change during one spectral scan. The results showed that the correction varied between 4 and 14 %, and that the relative differences between the reference and the Brewer diminished by 10 %. The method is applicable to other instruments as long as the required input parameters are available.
Ronny Meier, Edouard L. Davin, Quentin Lejeune, Mathias Hauser, Yan Li, Brecht Martens, Natalie M. Schultz, Shannon Sterling, and Wim Thiery
Biogeosciences, 15, 4731–4757,Short summary
Deforestation not only releases carbon dioxide to the atmosphere but also affects local climatic conditions by altering energy fluxes at the land surface and thereby the local temperature. Here, we evaluate the local impact of deforestation in a widely used land surface model. We find that the model reproduces the daytime warming effect of deforestation well. On the other hand, the warmer temperatures observed during night in forests are not present in this model.
Alberto Redondas, Virgilio Carreño, Sergio F. León-Luis, Bentorey Hernández-Cruz, Javier López-Solano, Juan J. Rodriguez-Franco, José M. Vilaplana, Julian Gröbner, John Rimmer, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Vladimir Savastiouk, Juan R. Moreta, Lamine Boulkelia, Nis Jepsen, Keith M. Wilson, Vadim Shirotov, and Tomi Karppinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9441–9455,Short summary
This work shows an overview of the total ozone comparison of the Brewer instrument during the 10th RBCC-E campaign in a joint effort with the EUBREWNET COST 1207 action. The status of the network after 2 years of calibration shows 16 out of the 21 participating Brewer instruments (76 %) agreed within better than ±1 %, and 10 instruments (50 %) agreed within better than ±0.5 %. After applying the final calibration and the stray light correction all working instruments agreed at the ±0.5 % level.
Anna Vaskuri, Petri Kärhä, Luca Egli, Julian Gröbner, and Erkki Ikonen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3595–3610,Short summary
In this work, we introduce a Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis that takes into account possible systematic spectral deviations in the atmospheric full spectrum ozone retrieval method. Accounting for possible systematic spectral deviations in the spectral data is important since they produce larger total ozone column uncertainties than uncorrelated noise-like variations that traditional uncertainty estimations predict.
Rosa Delia García, Africa Barreto, Emilio Cuevas, Julian Gröbner, Omaira Elena García, Angel Gómez-Peláez, Pedro Miguel Romero-Campos, Alberto Redondas, Victoria Eugenia Cachorro, and Ramon Ramos
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 2139–2152,Short summary
A 7-year comparison study between measured and simulated longwave downward radiation under cloud-free conditions has been performed at BSRN Izaña. Results show an excellent agreement with a mean bias (simulated–measured) less than 1.1 % and RMSE less than 1 %, which are within the instrumental error (2 %).
Daniela Meloni, Alcide di Sarra, Gérard Brogniez, Cyrielle Denjean, Lorenzo De Silvestri, Tatiana Di Iorio, Paola Formenti, José L. Gómez-Amo, Julian Gröbner, Natalia Kouremeti, Giuliano Liuzzi, Marc Mallet, Giandomenico Pace, and Damiano M. Sferlazzo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4377–4401,Short summary
This study examines how different aerosol optical properties determine the dust longwave radiative effects at the surface, in the atmosphere and at the top of the atmosphere, based on the combination of remote sensing and in situ observations from the ground, from airborne sensors, and from space, by means of radiative transfer modelling. The closure experiment is based on longwave irradiances and spectral brightness temperatures measured during the 2013 ChArMEx–ADRIMED campaign at Lampedusa.
Christof Janssen, Hadj Elandaloussi, and Julian Gröbner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1707–1723,Short summary
Monitoring ozone layer recovery at a rate of few percent per decade requires dedicated instrumentation and spectroscopic data of the highest quality. Highly accurate absorption cross sections of ozone are rare, especially in the important UV region between 300 and 340 nm. Our measurement provides the first reference point with permil level of accuracy in this range. Interestingly, our value is lower than currently used data. This might resolve an inconsistency between UV and IR measurements.
Javier López-Solano, Alberto Redondas, Thomas Carlund, Juan J. Rodriguez-Franco, Henri Diémoz, Sergio F. León-Luis, Bentorey Hernández-Cruz, Carmen Guirado-Fuentes, Natalia Kouremeti, Julian Gröbner, Stelios Kazadzis, Virgilio Carreño, Alberto Berjón, Daniel Santana-Díaz, Manuel Rodríguez-Valido, Veerle De Bock, Juan R. Moreta, John Rimmer, Andrew R. D. Smedley, Lamine Boulkelia, Nis Jepsen, Paul Eriksen, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Vadim Shirotov, José M. Vilaplana, Keith M. Wilson, and Tomi Karppinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3885–3902,Short summary
The European Brewer Network (EUBREWNET, COST Action ES1207) is comprised of close to 50 instruments and currently provides near-real-time ozone and UV data. Aerosols also play key role in the Earth–atmosphere system and introduce a large uncertainty into our understanding of climate change. In this work we describe and validate a method to incorporate the measurement of aerosols in EUBREWNET. We find that this Brewer network can provide reliable aerosol data across Europe in the UV range.
Pavle Arsenovic, Eugene Rozanov, Julien Anet, Andrea Stenke, Werner Schmutz, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3469–3483,Short summary
Global warming will persist in the 21st century, even if the solar activity undergoes an unusually strong and long decline. Decreased ozone production caused by reduction of solar activity and change of atmospheric dynamics due to the global warming might result in further thinning of the tropical ozone layer. Globally, total ozone would not recover to the pre-ozone hole values as long as the decline of solar activity lasts. This may let more ultra-violet radiation reach the Earth's surface.
Stelios Kazadzis, Natalia Kouremeti, Henri Diémoz, Julian Gröbner, Bruce W. Forgan, Monica Campanelli, Victor Estellés, Kathleen Lantz, Joseph Michalsky, Thomas Carlund, Emilio Cuevas, Carlos Toledano, Ralf Becker, Stephan Nyeki, Panagiotis G. Kosmopoulos, Viktar Tatsiankou, Laurent Vuilleumier, Frederick M. Denn, Nozomu Ohkawara, Osamu Ijima, Philippe Goloub, Panagiotis I. Raptis, Michael Milner, Klaus Behrens, Africa Barreto, Giovanni Martucci, Emiel Hall, James Wendell, Bryan E. Fabbri, and Christoph Wehrli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3185–3201,Short summary
Aerosol optical depth measured from ground-based sun photometers is the most important parameter for studying the changes in the Earth's radiation balance due to aerosols. Representatives for various sun photometer types belonging to individual institutions or international aerosol networks gather every 5 years, for 3 weeks, in Davos, Switzerland, in order to compare their aeorosol optical depth retrievals. This work presents the results of the latest (fourth) filter radiometer intercomparison.
Panagiotis-Ioannis Raptis, Stelios Kazadzis, Julian Gröbner, Natalia Kouremeti, Lionel Doppler, Ralf Becker, and Constantinos Helmis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1143–1157,Short summary
The purpose of this work is to retrieve integrated water vapour using spectral measurements from Precision Solar Spectroradiometer (PSR). Two different approaches were developed one using single-channel direct sun irradiance measurements, and the second one integrating at a certain spectral region. The results of the spectral approach are closer to the retrievals of non-photometric techniques (GPS, microwave radiometer and radiosondes), suggesting this method provide more accurate IWV product.
Stelios Kazadzis, Natalia Kouremeti, Stephan Nyeki, Julian Gröbner, and Christoph Wehrli
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 7, 39–53,Short summary
The World Optical Depth Research Calibration Center (WORCC) has been established after the recommendations of WMO for calibration of aerosol optical depth (AOD) -related sun photometers. WORCC is mandated to initiate homogenization activities among different AOD networks and to run a network (GAW-PFR) of sun photometers. To calibrate such instruments aiming at low measurement uncertainties the quality assurance, quality control and a basic hierarchy have to be defined and followed.
Christine Aebi, Julian Gröbner, Niklaus Kämpfer, and Laurent Vuilleumier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4587–4600,Short summary
The current study analyses the cloud radiative effect during the daytime depending on cloud fraction and cloud type at two stations in Switzerland over a time period of 3–5 years. Information about fractional cloud coverage and cloud type is retrieved from images taken by visible all-sky cameras. Cloud cover, cloud type and other atmospheric parameters have an influence on the magnitude of the longwave cloud effect as well as on the shortwave.
René Stübi, Herbert Schill, Jörg Klausen, Laurent Vuilleumier, Julian Gröbner, Luca Egli, and Dominique Ruffieux
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4479–4490,Short summary
Long-term measurement series are the pillars of all climate change analysis. The Arosa total ozone series is the world's longest record, starting in 1926. To secure the future of these measurements, it is foreseen to move the instruments in Davos. To ascertain that the series will not be affected by this change, a multiyear campaign of parallel measurements on both sites has been done. The analysis of these data is presented and it is concluded that no discernible difference can be identified.
Johann H. Jungclaus, Edouard Bard, Mélanie Baroni, Pascale Braconnot, Jian Cao, Louise P. Chini, Tania Egorova, Michael Evans, J. Fidel González-Rouco, Hugues Goosse, George C. Hurtt, Fortunat Joos, Jed O. Kaplan, Myriam Khodri, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Natalie Krivova, Allegra N. LeGrande, Stephan J. Lorenz, Jürg Luterbacher, Wenmin Man, Amanda C. Maycock, Malte Meinshausen, Anders Moberg, Raimund Muscheler, Christoph Nehrbass-Ahles, Bette I. Otto-Bliesner, Steven J. Phipps, Julia Pongratz, Eugene Rozanov, Gavin A. Schmidt, Hauke Schmidt, Werner Schmutz, Andrew Schurer, Alexander I. Shapiro, Michael Sigl, Jason E. Smerdon, Sami K. Solanki, Claudia Timmreck, Matthew Toohey, Ilya G. Usoskin, Sebastian Wagner, Chi-Ju Wu, Kok Leng Yeo, Davide Zanchettin, Qiong Zhang, and Eduardo Zorita
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4005–4033,Short summary
Climate model simulations covering the last millennium provide context for the evolution of the modern climate and for the expected changes during the coming centuries. They can help identify plausible mechanisms underlying palaeoclimatic reconstructions. Here, we describe the forcing boundary conditions and the experimental protocol for simulations covering the pre-industrial millennium. We describe the PMIP4 past1000 simulations as contributions to CMIP6 and additional sensitivity experiments.
Julian Gröbner, Ingo Kröger, Luca Egli, Gregor Hülsen, Stefan Riechelmann, and Peter Sperfeld
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3375–3383,Short summary
We have produced a benchmark high-resolution solar extraterrestrial spectrum from ground-based measurements of direct solar irradiance in the wavelength range 300 to 500 nm. This spectrum can be used for model calculations and for validating solar spectra measured in space. The metrological traceability of this solar spectrum to the International System of Units (SI) is assured by an unbroken chain of calibrations traceable to the primary spectral irradiance standard of PTB.
Stephan Nyeki, Stefan Wacker, Julian Gröbner, Wolfgang Finsterle, and Martin Wild
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3057–3071,Short summary
A large number of radiometers used to measure solar and terrestrial broadband radiation are traceable to World Standard Groups at PMOD/WRC in Davos, Switzerland. A small correction of each group may be required in the future, and this study examines the methods and implications of this on data sets collected at four remote baseline stations since the 1990s. The goal is to develop a better estimate of the solar and terrestrial radiation budget at the Earth's surface.
Mathias Hauser, René Orth, and Sonia I. Seneviratne
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1665–1677,Short summary
Water in the soil can influence temperature and precipitation of the atmosphere. However, the atmosphere also alters the soil moisture content. Climate model simulations prescribing soil moisture are a means to decouple these relationships. We find that the atmospheric response depends strongly on the method used to fix the soil moisture, as well as on the employed soil moisture data set.
Thomas Carlund, Natalia Kouremeti, Stelios Kazadzis, and Julian Gröbner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 905–923,Short summary
Aerosols play an important role in atmospheric processes. Aerosol optical depth is the most common measure of columnar aerosol load. We present a sunphotometer called UVPFR that is able to measure aerosol optical depth in the ultraviolet range, including the calibration, characterization and validation of the instrument/measurements. The instrument will serve as a reference on the intercalibration of Brewer spectrophotometers that are also able to measure aerosol optical depth in the UV region.
Christos S. Zerefos, Kostas Eleftheratos, John Kapsomenakis, Stavros Solomos, Antje Inness, Dimitris Balis, Alberto Redondas, Henk Eskes, Marc Allaart, Vassilis Amiridis, Arne Dahlback, Veerle De Bock, Henri Diémoz, Ronny Engelmann, Paul Eriksen, Vitali Fioletov, Julian Gröbner, Anu Heikkilä, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Janusz Jarosławski, Weine Josefsson, Tomi Karppinen, Ulf Köhler, Charoula Meleti, Christos Repapis, John Rimmer, Vladimir Savinykh, Vadim Shirotov, Anna Maria Siani, Andrew R. D. Smedley, Martin Stanek, and René Stübi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 551–574,Short summary
The paper makes a convincing case that the Brewer network is capable of detecting enhanced SO2 columns, as observed, e.g., after volcanic eruptions. For this reason, large volcanic eruptions of the past decade have been used to detect and forecast SO2 plumes of volcanic origin using the Brewer and other ground-based networks, aided by satellite, trajectory analysis calculations and modelling.
Stefan Brönnimann, Abdul Malik, Alexander Stickler, Martin Wegmann, Christoph C. Raible, Stefan Muthers, Julien Anet, Eugene Rozanov, and Werner Schmutz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15529–15543,Short summary
The Quasi-Biennial Oscillation is a wind oscillation in the equatorial stratosphere. Effects on climate have been found, which is relevant for seasonal forecasts. However, up to now only relatively short records were available, and even within these the climate imprints were intermittent. Here we analyze a 108-year long reconstruction as well as four 405-year long simulations. We confirm most of the claimed QBO effects on climate, but they are small, which explains apparently variable effects.
William T. Ball, Aleš Kuchař, Eugene V. Rozanov, Johannes Staehelin, Fiona Tummon, Anne K. Smith, Timofei Sukhodolov, Andrea Stenke, Laura Revell, Ancelin Coulon, Werner Schmutz, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15485–15500,Short summary
We find monthly, mid-latitude temperature changes above 40 km are related to ozone and temperature variations throughout the middle atmosphere. We develop an index to represent this atmospheric variability. In statistical analysis, the index can account for up to 60 % of variability in tropical temperature and ozone above 27 km. The uncertainties can be reduced by up to 35 % and 20 % in temperature and ozone, respectively. This index is an important tool to quantify current and future ozone recovery.
Luca Egli, Julian Gröbner, Gregor Hülsen, Luciano Bachmann, Mario Blumthaler, Jimmy Dubard, Marina Khazova, Richard Kift, Kees Hoogendijk, Antonio Serrano, Andrew Smedley, and José-Manuel Vilaplana
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1553–1567,Short summary
Array spectroradiometers are small, light, robust and cost-effective instruments, and are increasingly used for atmospheric measurements. The quality of array spectroradiometers is assessed for the reliable quantification of ultraviolet radiation (UV) in order to monitor the exposure of UV radiation to human health. The study shows that reliable UV measurements with these instruments are limited for observations around noon and show large biases in the morning and evening.
África Barreto, Emilio Cuevas, María-José Granados-Muñoz, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Pedro M. Romero, Julian Gröbner, Natalia Kouremeti, Antonio F. Almansa, Tom Stone, Carlos Toledano, Roberto Román, Mikhail Sorokin, Brent Holben, Marius Canini, and Margarita Yela
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 631–654,Short summary
This paper presents the new photometer CE318-T, able to perform daytime and night-time photometric measurements using the sun and the moon as light sources. This new device permits a complete cycle of diurnal aerosol and water vapour measurements to be extracted, valuable to enhance atmospheric monitoring. We have also highlighted the ability of this new device to capture short-term atmospheric variations, critical for climate studies.
T. Sukhodolov, E. Rozanov, A. I. Shapiro, J. Anet, C. Cagnazzo, T. Peter, and W. Schmutz
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2859–2866,Short summary
The performance of the main generations of the ECHAM shortwave radiation schemes is analysed in terms of the representation of the solar signal in the heating rates. The way to correct missing or underrepresented spectral intervals in the solar signal in the heating rates is suggested using the example of ECHAM6 and six-band ECHAM5 schemes. The suggested method is computationally fast and suitable for any other radiation scheme.
M. Lothon, F. Lohou, D. Pino, F. Couvreux, E. R. Pardyjak, J. Reuder, J. Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, P Durand, O. Hartogensis, D. Legain, P. Augustin, B. Gioli, D. H. Lenschow, I. Faloona, C. Yagüe, D. C. Alexander, W. M. Angevine, E Bargain, J. Barrié, E. Bazile, Y. Bezombes, E. Blay-Carreras, A. van de Boer, J. L. Boichard, A. Bourdon, A. Butet, B. Campistron, O. de Coster, J. Cuxart, A. Dabas, C. Darbieu, K. Deboudt, H. Delbarre, S. Derrien, P. Flament, M. Fourmentin, A. Garai, F. Gibert, A. Graf, J. Groebner, F. Guichard, M. A. Jiménez, M. Jonassen, A. van den Kroonenberg, V. Magliulo, S. Martin, D. Martinez, L. Mastrorillo, A. F. Moene, F. Molinos, E. Moulin, H. P. Pietersen, B. Piguet, E. Pique, C. Román-Cascón, C. Rufin-Soler, F. Saïd, M. Sastre-Marugán, Y. Seity, G. J. Steeneveld, P. Toscano, O. Traullé, D. Tzanos, S. Wacker, N. Wildmann, and A. Zaldei
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10931–10960,
S. Muthers, J. G. Anet, A. Stenke, C. C. Raible, E. Rozanov, S. Brönnimann, T. Peter, F. X. Arfeuille, A. I. Shapiro, J. Beer, F. Steinhilber, Y. Brugnara, and W. Schmutz
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2157–2179,
S. Kazadzis, I. Veselovskii, V. Amiridis, J. Gröbner, A. Suvorina, S. Nyeki, E. Gerasopoulos, N. Kouremeti, M. Taylor, A. Tsekeri, and C. Wehrli
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Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Stratosphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Slow feedbacks resulting from strongly enhanced atmospheric methane mixing ratios in a chemistry–climate model with mixed-layer oceanImpact of the eruption of Mt Pinatubo on the chemical composition of the stratosphereProjecting ozone hole recovery using an ensemble of chemistry–climate models weighted by model performance and independenceInconsistencies between chemistry–climate models and observed lower stratospheric ozone trends since 1998Reformulating the bromine alpha factor and equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC): evolution of ozone destruction rates of bromine and chlorine in future climate scenariosAnalysis and attribution of total column ozone changes over the Tibetan Plateau during 1979–2017Seasonal impact of biogenic very short-lived bromocarbons on lowermost stratospheric ozone between 60° N and 60° S during the 21st centuryModelling the potential impacts of the recent, unexpected increase in CFC-11 emissions on total column ozone recoveryThe potential impacts of a sulfur- and halogen-rich supereruption such as Los Chocoyos on the atmosphere and climateTechnical note: Intermittent reduction of the stratospheric ozone over northern Europe caused by a storm in the Atlantic OceanEvaluating stratospheric ozone and water vapor changes in CMIP6 models from 1850–2100Possible implications of enhanced chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations on ozoneTechnical note: Reanalysis of Aura MLS chemical observationsSeparating the role of direct radiative heating and photolysis in modulating the atmospheric response to the amplitude of the 11-year solar cycle forcingReactive nitrogen (NOy) and ozone responses to energetic electron precipitation during Southern Hemisphere winterImplication of strongly increased atmospheric methane concentrations for chemistry–climate connectionsMultitimescale variations in modeled stratospheric water vapor derived from three modern reanalysis productsHow robust are stratospheric age of air trends from different reanalyses?Evaluation of CESM1 (WACCM) free-running and specified dynamics atmospheric composition simulations using global multispecies satellite data recordsChlorine nitrate in the atmosphereLinking uncertainty in simulated Arctic ozone loss to uncertainties in modelled tropical stratospheric water vapourImportance of seasonally resolved oceanic emissions for bromoform delivery from the tropical Indian Ocean and west Pacific to the stratosphereThe representation of solar cycle signals in stratospheric ozone – Part 2: Analysis of global modelsInvestigating the yield of H2O and H2 from methane oxidation in the stratosphereComparison of ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) simulations of the Arctic winter 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 with Envisat/MIPAS and Aura/MLS observationsOn the discrepancy of HCl processing in the core of the wintertime polar vorticesEstimates of ozone return dates from Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative simulationsTrend differences in lower stratospheric water vapour between Boulder and the zonal mean and their role in understanding fundamental observational discrepanciesOn ozone trend detection: using coupled chemistry–climate simulations to investigate early signs of total column ozone recoveryFuture changes in the stratosphere-to-troposphere ozone mass flux and the contribution from climate change and ozone recoveryThe maintenance of elevated active chlorine levels in the Antarctic lower stratosphere through HCl null cyclesChemical and climatic drivers of radiative forcing due to changes in stratospheric and tropospheric ozone over the 21st centuryOzone sensitivity to varying greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting substances in CCMI-1 simulationsDiagnosing the radiative and chemical contributions to future changes in tropical column ozone with the UM-UKCA chemistry–climate modelDenitrification, dehydration and ozone loss during the 2015/2016 Arctic winterAssessment of upper tropospheric and stratospheric water vapor and ozone in reanalyses as part of S-RIPA quantitative analysis of the reactions involved in stratospheric ozone depletion in the polar vortex coreAn assessment of ozone mini-hole representation in reanalyses over the Northern HemisphereImpact of biogenic very short-lived bromine on the Antarctic ozone hole during the 21st centuryInfluence of enhanced Asian NOx emissions on ozone in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in chemistry–climate model simulationsDetermination of the atmospheric lifetime and global warming potential of sulfur hexafluoride using a three-dimensional modelAntarctic ozone depletion between 1960 and 1980 in observations and chemistry–climate model simulationsSeasonal variability of stratospheric methane: implications for constraining tropospheric methane budgets using total column observationsThe role of methane in projections of 21st century stratospheric water vapourFuture Arctic ozone recovery: the importance of chemistry and dynamicsAtmospheric changes caused by galactic cosmic rays over the period 1960–2010Stratospheric ozone changes under solar geoengineering: implications for UV exposure and air qualityEvaluation of the ACCESS – chemistry–climate model for the Southern HemisphereStratospheric ozone change and related climate impacts over 1850–2100 as modelled by the ACCMIP ensembleComparison of the CMAM30 data set with ACE-FTS and OSIRIS: polar regions
Laura Stecher, Franziska Winterstein, Martin Dameris, Patrick Jöckel, Michael Ponater, and Markus Kunze
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 731–754,Short summary
This study investigates the impact of strongly increased atmospheric methane mixing ratios on the Earth's climate. An interactive model system including atmospheric dynamics, chemistry, and a mixed-layer ocean model is used to analyse the effect of doubled and quintupled methane mixing ratios. We assess feedbacks on atmospheric chemistry and changes in the stratospheric circulation, focusing on the impact of tropospheric warming, and their relevance for the model's climate sensitivity.
Markus Kilian, Sabine Brinkop, and Patrick Jöckel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11697–11715,Short summary
After the volcanic eruption of Mt Pinatubo in 1991, ozone decreased in the tropics and increased in the midlatitudes and polar regions for 1 year. The change in the ozone column is solely a result of the volcanic heating, followed by an ozone decrease in the higher latitudes. This is caused by the volcanic aerosol, which changes the heterogeneous chemistry and thus the catalytic ozone loss cycles. Vertical transport of water vapour is enhanced by volcanic heating and increases methane.
Matt Amos, Paul J. Young, J. Scott Hosking, Jean-François Lamarque, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alexander T. Archibald, Slimane Bekki, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Douglas Kinnison, Ole Kirner, Markus Kunze, Marion Marchand, David A. Plummer, David Saint-Martin, Kengo Sudo, Simone Tilmes, and Yousuke Yamashita
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9961–9977,Short summary
We present an updated projection of Antarctic ozone hole recovery using an ensemble of chemistry–climate models. To do so, we employ a method, more advanced and skilful than the current multi-model mean standard, which is applicable to other ensemble analyses. It calculates the performance and similarity of the models, which we then use to weight the model. Calculating model similarity allows us to account for models which are constructed from similar components.
William T. Ball, Gabriel Chiodo, Marta Abalos, Justin Alsing, and Andrea Stenke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9737–9752,Short summary
Recent lower stratospheric ozone decreases remain unexplained. We show that chemistry–climate models are not generally able to reproduce mid-latitude ozone and water vapour changes. Our analysis of observations provides evidence that climate change may be responsible for the ozone trends. While model projections suggest that extratropical ozone should recover by 2100, our study raises questions about their efficacy in simulating lower stratospheric changes in this region.
J. Eric Klobas, Debra K. Weisenstein, Ross J. Salawitch, and David M. Wilmouth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9459–9471,Short summary
The rates of important ozone-destroying chemical reactions in the stratosphere are likely to change in the future. We employ a computer model to evaluate how the rates of ozone destruction by chlorine and bromine may evolve in four climate change scenarios with the introduction of the eta factor. We then show how these changing rates will impact the ozone-depleting power of the stratosphere with a new metric known as Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Benchmark-normalized Chlorine (EESBnC).
Yajuan Li, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Sandip S. Dhomse, Richard J. Pope, Faquan Li, and Dong Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8627–8639,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau (TP) exerts important thermal and dynamical effects on atmospheric circulation, climate change as well as the ozone distribution. In this study, we use updated observations and model simulations to investigate the ozone trends and variations over the TP. Wintertime TP ozone variations are largely controlled by tropical to high-latitude transport processes, whereas summertime concentrations are a combined effect of photochemical decay and tropical processes.
Javier Alejandro Barrera, Rafael Pedro Fernandez, Fernando Iglesias-Suarez, Carlos Alberto Cuevas, Jean-Francois Lamarque, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8083–8102,Short summary
The inclusion of biogenic very short-lived bromocarbons (VSLBr) in the CAM-chem model improves the model–satellite agreement of the total ozone columns at mid-latitudes and drives a persistent hemispheric asymmetry in lowermost stratospheric ozone loss. The seasonal VSLBr impact on mid-latitude lowermost stratospheric ozone is influenced by the heterogeneous reactivation processes of inorganic chlorine on ice crystals, with a clear increase in ozone destruction during spring and winter.
James Keeble, N. Luke Abraham, Alexander T. Archibald, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip Dhomse, Paul T. Griffiths, and John A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7153–7166,Short summary
The Montreal Protocol was agreed in 1987 to limit and then stop the production of man-made CFCs, which destroy stratospheric ozone. As a result, the atmospheric abundances of CFCs are now declining in the atmosphere. However, the atmospheric abundance of CFC-11 is not declining as expected under complete compliance with the Montreal Protocol. Using the UM-UKCA chemistry–climate model, we explore the impact of future unregulated production of CFC-11 on ozone recovery.
Hans Brenna, Steffen Kutterolf, Michael J. Mills, and Kirstin Krüger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6521–6539,Short summary
The Los Chocoyos supereruption (84 000 years ago) in Guatemala was one of the largest volcanic events of the last 100 000 years. This eruption released enormous amounts of sulfur, which cooled the climate, as well as chlorine and bromine, which destroyed the ozone in the stratosphere. We have simulated this eruption by using an advanced chemistry–climate model. We found a collapse in the ozone layer lasting more than 10 years, increased surface–UV radiation, and a 30-year climate-cooling period.
Mikhail Sofiev, Rostislav Kouznetsov, Risto Hänninen, and Viktoria F. Sofieva
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1839–1847,Short summary
An episode of anomalously low ozone concentrations in the stratosphere over northern Europe occurred on 3–5 November 2018. The 30 % reduction of the ozone layer was predicted by the global chemistry-transport model of the Finnish Meteorological Institute driven by weather forecasts of ECMWF. The reduction was subsequently observed by ozone monitoring satellites. The episode was caused by a storm in the northern Atlantic, which uplifted air from the troposphere to stratosphere.
James Keeble, Birgit Hassler, Antara Banerjee, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Gabriel Chiodo, Sean Davis, Veronika Eyring, Paul T. Griffiths, Olaf Morgenstern, Peer Nowack, Guang Zeng, Jiankai Zhang, Greg Bodeker, David Cugnet, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Makoto Deushi, Larry W. Horowitz, Lijuan Li, Martine Michou, Michael J. Mills, Pierre Nabat, Sungsu Park, and Tongwen Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Stratospheric ozone and water vapour are key components of the Earth system, and changes to both have important impacts on global and regional climate. We evaluate changes to these species from 1850-2100 in the new generation of CMIP6 models. There is good agreement between the multi-model mean and observations, although there is substantial variation between the individual models. The future evolution of both ozone and water vapour is strongly dependent on the assumed future emissions scenario.
Martin Dameris, Patrick Jöckel, and Matthias Nützel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13759–13771,Short summary
A chemistry–climate model (CCM) study is performed, investigating the consequences of a constant CFC-11 surface mixing ratio for stratospheric ozone in the future. The total column ozone is particularly affected in both polar regions in winter and spring. It turns out that the calculated ozone changes, especially in the upper stratosphere, are smaller than expected. In this attitudinal region the additional ozone depletion due to the catalysis by reactive chlorine is partly compensated for.
Quentin Errera, Simon Chabrillat, Yves Christophe, Jonas Debosscher, Daan Hubert, William Lahoz, Michelle L. Santee, Masato Shiotani, Sergey Skachko, Thomas von Clarmann, and Kaley Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13647–13679,Short summary
BRAM2 is a 13-year reanalysis of the chemical composition from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere based on the assimilation of the Microwave Limb Sounder observations where eight species are assimilated: O3, H2O, N2O, HNO3, HCl, ClO, CH3Cl and CO. BRAM2 agrees generally well with independent observations in the middle stratosphere, the polar vortex and the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere but also shows several issues in the model and in the observations.
Ewa M. Bednarz, Amanda C. Maycock, Peter Braesicke, Paul J. Telford, N. Luke Abraham, and John A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9833–9846,Short summary
The atmospheric response to the amplitude of 11-year solar cycle in UM-UKCA is separated into the contributions from changes in direct radiative heating and photolysis rates, and the results compared with a control case with both effects included. We find that while the tropical responses are largely additive, this is not necessarily the case in the high latitudes. We suggest that solar-induced changes in ozone are important for modulating the SH dynamical response to the 11-year solar cycle.
Pavle Arsenovic, Alessandro Damiani, Eugene Rozanov, Bernd Funke, Andrea Stenke, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9485–9494,Short summary
Low-energy electrons (LEE) are the dominant source of odd nitrogen, which destroys ozone, in the mesosphere and stratosphere in polar winter in the geomagnetically active periods. However, the observed stratospheric ozone anomalies can be reproduced only when accounting for both low- and middle-range energy electrons (MEE) in the chemistry-climate model. Ozone changes may induce further dynamical and thermal changes in the atmosphere. We recommend including both LEE and MEE in climate models.
Franziska Winterstein, Fabian Tanalski, Patrick Jöckel, Martin Dameris, and Michael Ponater
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7151–7163,Short summary
The atmospheric concentrations of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas methane are predicted to rise in the future. In this paper we investigate how very strong methane concentrations will impact the atmosphere. We analyse two experiments, one with doubled and one with quintupled methane concentrations and focus on the rapid atmospheric changes before the ocean adjusts to the induced forcing. In particular these are changes in temperature, ozone, the hydroxyl radical and stratospheric water vapour.
Mengchu Tao, Paul Konopka, Felix Ploeger, Xiaolu Yan, Jonathon S. Wright, Mohamadou Diallo, Stephan Fueglistaler, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6509–6534,Short summary
This paper examines the annual and interannual variations as well as long-term trend of modeled stratospheric water vapor with a Lagrangian chemical transport model driven by ERA-I, MERRA-2 and JRA-55. We find reasonable consistency among the annual cycle, QBO and the variabilities induced by ENSO and volcanic aerosols. The main discrepancies are linked to the differences in reanalysis upwelling rates in the lower stratosphere. The trends are sensitive to the reanalyses that drives the model.
Felix Ploeger, Bernard Legras, Edward Charlesworth, Xiaolu Yan, Mohamadou Diallo, Paul Konopka, Thomas Birner, Mengchu Tao, Andreas Engel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6085–6105,Short summary
We analyse the change in the circulation of the middle atmosphere based on current generation meteorological reanalysis data sets. We find that long-term changes from 1989 to 2015 are similar for the chosen reanalyses, mainly resembling the forced response in climate model simulations to climate change. For shorter periods circulation changes are less robust, and the representation of decadal variability appears to be a major uncertainty for modelling the circulation of the middle atmosphere.
Lucien Froidevaux, Douglas E. Kinnison, Ray Wang, John Anderson, and Ryan A. Fuller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4783–4821,Short summary
This work evaluates two versions of a 3-D global model of upper-atmospheric composition for recent decades. The two versions differ mainly in their dynamical (wind) constraints. Model–data differences, variability, and trends in five gases (ozone, H2O, HCl, HNO3, and N2O) are compared. While the match between models and observations is impressive, a few areas of discrepancy are noted. This work also updates trends in composition based on recent satellite-based measurements (through 2018).
Thomas von Clarmann and Sören Johansson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15363–15386,Short summary
This review article compiles the characteristics of the gas chlorine nitrate and discusses its role in atmospheric chemistry. Chlorine nitrate is a reservoir of both stratospheric chlorine and nitrogen. Formation and sink processes are discussed, as well as spectral features and spectroscopic studies. Remote sensing, fluorescence, and mass spectroscopic measurement techniques are introduced, and global distributions and the annual cycle are discussed in the context of chlorine de-/activation.
Laura Thölix, Alexey Karpechko, Leif Backman, and Rigel Kivi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15047–15067,Short summary
We analyse the impact of water vapour (WV) on Arctic ozone loss and find the strongest impact during intermediately cold stratospheric winters when chlorine activation increases with increasing PSCs and WV. In colder winters the impact is limited because chlorine activation becomes complete at relatively low WV values, so further addition of WV does not affect ozone loss. Our results imply that improved simulations of WV are needed for more reliable projections of ozone layer recovery.
Alina Fiehn, Birgit Quack, Irene Stemmler, Franziska Ziska, and Kirstin Krüger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11973–11990,Short summary
Oceanic very short-lived substances, VSLS, contribute to stratospheric halogen loading and ozone depletion. We created bromoform emission inventories with monthly resolution for the tropical Indian Ocean and west Pacific and modeled the atmospheric transport of bromoform with the particle dispersion model FLEXPART/ERA-Interim. Results underline that the seasonal and regional stratospheric bromine entrainment critically depends on the seasonality and spatial distribution of the VSLS emissions.
Amanda C. Maycock, Katja Matthes, Susann Tegtmeier, Hauke Schmidt, Rémi Thiéblemont, Lon Hood, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Slimane Bekki, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Oliver Kirner, Markus Kunze, Marion Marchand, Daniel R. Marsh, Martine Michou, David Plummer, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Andrea Stenke, Yousuke Yamashita, and Kohei Yoshida
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11323–11343,Short summary
The 11-year solar cycle is an important driver of climate variability. Changes in incoming solar ultraviolet radiation affect atmospheric ozone, which in turn influences atmospheric temperatures. Constraining the impact of the solar cycle on ozone is therefore important for understanding climate variability. This study examines the representation of the solar influence on ozone in numerical models used to simulate past and future climate. We highlight important differences among model datasets.
Franziska Frank, Patrick Jöckel, Sergey Gromov, and Martin Dameris
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9955–9973,Short summary
It is frequently assumed that one methane molecule produces two water molecules. Applying various modeling concepts, we find that the yield of water from methane is vertically not constantly 2. In the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere, transport of intermediate H2 molecules even led to a yield greater than 2. We conclude that for a realistic chemical source of stratospheric water vapor, one must also take other sources (H2), intermediates and the chemical removal of water into account.
Farahnaz Khosrawi, Oliver Kirner, Gabriele Stiller, Michael Höpfner, Michelle L. Santee, Sylvia Kellmann, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8873–8892,Short summary
An extensive assessment of the performance of the chemistry–climate model EMAC is given for Arctic winters 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. The EMAC simulations are compared to satellite observations. The comparisons between EMAC simulations and satellite observations show that model and measurements compare well for these two Arctic winters. However, differences between model and observations are found that need improvements in the model in the future.
Jens-Uwe Grooß, Rolf Müller, Reinhold Spang, Ines Tritscher, Tobias Wegner, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Douglas E. Kinnison, and Sasha Madronich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8647–8666,Short summary
We investigate a discrepancy between model simulations and observations of HCl in the dark polar stratosphere. In early winter, the less-well-studied period of the onset of chlorine activation, observations show a much faster depletion of HCl than simulations of three models. This points to some unknown process that is currently not represented in the models. Various hypotheses for potential causes are investigated that partly reduce the discrepancy. The impact on polar ozone depletion is low.
Sandip S. Dhomse, Douglas Kinnison, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Ross J. Salawitch, Irene Cionni, Michaela I. Hegglin, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alex T. Archibald, Ewa M. Bednarz, Slimane Bekki, Peter Braesicke, Neal Butchart, Martin Dameris, Makoto Deushi, Stacey Frith, Steven C. Hardiman, Birgit Hassler, Larry W. Horowitz, Rong-Ming Hu, Patrick Jöckel, Beatrice Josse, Oliver Kirner, Stefanie Kremser, Ulrike Langematz, Jared Lewis, Marion Marchand, Meiyun Lin, Eva Mancini, Virginie Marécal, Martine Michou, Olaf Morgenstern, Fiona M. O'Connor, Luke Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, John A. Pyle, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Robyn Schofield, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Kengo Sudo, Simone Tilmes, Daniele Visioni, Yousuke Yamashita, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8409–8438,Short summary
We analyse simulations from the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) to estimate the return dates of the stratospheric ozone layer from depletion by anthropogenic chlorine and bromine. The simulations from 20 models project that global column ozone will return to 1980 values in 2047 (uncertainty range 2042–2052). Return dates in other regions vary depending on factors related to climate change and importance of chlorine and bromine. Column ozone in the tropics may continue to decline.
Stefan Lossow, Dale F. Hurst, Karen H. Rosenlof, Gabriele P. Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, Sabine Brinkop, Martin Dameris, Patrick Jöckel, Doug E. Kinnison, Johannes Plieninger, David A. Plummer, Felix Ploeger, William G. Read, Ellis E. Remsberg, James M. Russell, and Mengchu Tao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8331–8351,Short summary
Trend estimates of lower stratospheric H2O derived from the FPH observations at Boulder and a merged zonal mean satellite data set clearly differ for the time period from the late 1980s to 2010. We investigate if a sampling bias between Boulder and the zonal mean around the Boulder latitude can explain these trend discrepancies. Typically they are small and not sufficient to explain the trend discrepancies in the observational database.
James Keeble, Hannah Brown, N. Luke Abraham, Neil R. P. Harris, and John A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7625–7637,Short summary
2017 marks the 30th anniversary of the Montreal Protocol, which was implemented to protect the stratospheric ozone layer from the harmful effects of synthetic ozone depleting substances. Since the late 1990s atmospheric concentrations of these species have begun to decline, and as a result ozone concentrations are expected to increase. In this study we use an ensemble of chemistry–climate simulations to investigate recent ozone trends and search for early signs of ozone recovery.
Stefanie Meul, Ulrike Langematz, Philipp Kröger, Sophie Oberländer-Hayn, and Patrick Jöckel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7721–7738,Short summary
Using a chemistry--climate model future changes in the stratosphere-to-troposphere ozone mass flux, their drivers, and the future distribution of stratospheric ozone in the troposphere are investigated. In an extreme greenhouse gas (GHG) scenario, the global influx of stratospheric ozone into the troposphere is projected to grow between 2000 and 2100 by 53%. The increase is due to the recovery of stratospheric ozone owing to declining halogens and GHG induced circulation and temperature changes.
Rolf Müller, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Abdul Mannan Zafar, Sabine Robrecht, and Ralph Lehmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2985–2997,Short summary
This paper revisits the chemistry leading to strong ozone depletion in the Antarctic. We focus on the heart of the ozone layer in the lowermost stratosphere in the core of the vortex. We argue that chemical cycles (referred to as HCl null cycles) that have hitherto been largely neglected counteract the deactivation of chlorine and are therefore key to ozone depletion in the core of the Antarctic vortex. The key process to full activation of chlorine is the photolysis of formaldehyde.
Antara Banerjee, Amanda C. Maycock, and John A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2899–2911,Short summary
This study quantifies the radiative forcing (RF) of future ozone changes. Under climate change, even the sign of the ozone RF can change depending on the greenhouse gas emissions scenario followed. Stratosphere–troposphere exchange plays an important role in driving ozone RF due to reductions in ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) and increases in methane abundance. These could negate the ozone-derived climate benefits of air-quality controls on non-methane ozone precursor emissions.
Olaf Morgenstern, Kane A. Stone, Robyn Schofield, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Yousuke Yamashita, Douglas E. Kinnison, Rolando R. Garcia, Kengo Sudo, David A. Plummer, John Scinocca, Luke D. Oman, Michael E. Manyin, Guang Zeng, Eugene Rozanov, Andrea Stenke, Laura E. Revell, Giovanni Pitari, Eva Mancini, Glauco Di Genova, Daniele Visioni, Sandip S. Dhomse, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1091–1114,Short summary
We assess how ozone as simulated by a group of chemistry–climate models responds to variations in man-made climate gases and ozone-depleting substances. We find some agreement, particularly in the middle and upper stratosphere, but also considerable disagreement elsewhere. Such disagreement affects the reliability of future ozone projections based on these models, and also constitutes a source of uncertainty in climate projections using prescribed ozone derived from these simulations.
James Keeble, Ewa M. Bednarz, Antara Banerjee, N. Luke Abraham, Neil R. P. Harris, Amanda C. Maycock, and John A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13801–13818,Short summary
In this study we explore the chemical and transport processes controlling ozone abundances in different altitude regions in the tropics for the present day and how these processes may change in the future in order to determine when total-column ozone values in the tropics will recover to pre-1980s values following the implementation of the Montreal Protocol and its subsequent amendments, which imposed bans on the use and emissions of CFCs.
Farahnaz Khosrawi, Oliver Kirner, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Sören Johansson, Michael Höpfner, Michelle L. Santee, Lucien Froidevaux, Jörn Ungermann, Roland Ruhnke, Wolfgang Woiwode, Hermann Oelhaf, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12893–12910,Short summary
The 2015/2016 Arctic winter was one of the coldest winters in recent years, allowing extensive PSC formation and chlorine activation. Model simulations of the 2015/2016 Arctic winter were performed with the atmospheric chemistry–climate model ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC). We find that ozone loss was quite strong but not as strong as in 2010/2011; denitrification and dehydration were so far the strongest observed in the Arctic stratosphere in at least the past 10 years.
Sean M. Davis, Michaela I. Hegglin, Masatomo Fujiwara, Rossana Dragani, Yayoi Harada, Chiaki Kobayashi, Craig Long, Gloria L. Manney, Eric R. Nash, Gerald L. Potter, Susann Tegtmeier, Tao Wang, Krzysztof Wargan, and Jonathon S. Wright
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12743–12778,Short summary
Ozone and water vapor in the stratosphere are important gases that affect surface climate and absorb incoming solar ultraviolet radiation. These gases are represented in reanalyses, which create a complete picture of the state of Earth's atmosphere using limited observations. We evaluate reanalysis water vapor and ozone fidelity by intercomparing them, and comparing them to independent observations. Generally reanalyses do a good job at representing ozone, but have problems with water vapor.
Ingo Wohltmann, Ralph Lehmann, and Markus Rex
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10535–10563,Short summary
We present a quantitative analysis of the chemical reactions involved in polar ozone depletion in the stratosphere, and of the relevant reaction pathways and cycles. We show time series of reaction rates averaged over the core of the polar vortex in winter and spring for all relevant reactions. An emphasis is put on the partitioning of the relevant chemical families (nitrogen, hydrogen, chlorine, bromine and odd oxygen) and activation and deactivation of chlorine.
Luis F. Millán and Gloria L. Manney
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9277–9289,Short summary
An ozone mini-hole is a synoptic-scale region with strongly decreased total column ozone resulting from dynamical processes. Using total column measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and ozone profile measurements from the Microwave Limb Sounder, we evaluate the accuracy of mini-hole representation in five reanalyses.
Rafael P. Fernandez, Douglas E. Kinnison, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Simone Tilmes, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1673–1688,Short summary
The inclusion of biogenic very-short lived bromine (VSLBr) in a chemistry-climate model produces an expansion of the ozone hole area of ~ 5 million km2, which is equivalent in magnitude to the recently estimated Antarctic ozone healing due to the reduction of anthropogenic CFCs and halons. The maximum Antarctic ozone hole depletion increases by up to 14 % when natural VSLBr are considered, but does not introduce a significant delay of the modelled ozone return date to 1980 October levels.
Chaitri Roy, Suvarna Fadnavis, Rolf Müller, D. C. Ayantika, Felix Ploeger, and Alexandru Rap
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1297–1311,Short summary
In the monsoon season, Asian NOx emissions are rapidly transported to the UTLS and can impact ozone in the UTLS. From chemistry–climate model simulations, we show that increasing Asian NOx emissions have enhanced ozone radiative forcing over Southeast Asia, which leads to significant warming over the Tibetan Plateau and increase precipitation over India. However, a further increase in NOx emissions elicited negative precipitation due to reversal of monsoon Hadley circulation.
Tamás Kovács, Wuhu Feng, Anna Totterdill, John M. C. Plane, Sandip Dhomse, Juan Carlos Gómez-Martín, Gabriele P. Stiller, Florian J. Haenel, Christopher Smith, Piers M. Forster, Rolando R. García, Daniel R. Marsh, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 883–898,Short summary
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is a very potent greenhouse gas, which is present in the atmosphere only through its industrial use, for example as an electrical insulator. To estimate accurately the impact of SF6 emissions on climate we need to know how long it persists in the atmosphere before being removed. Previous estimates of the SF6 lifetime indicate a large degree of uncertainty. Here we use a detailed atmospheric model to calculate a current best estimate of the SF6 lifetime.
Ulrike Langematz, Franziska Schmidt, Markus Kunze, Gregory E. Bodeker, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15619–15627,Short summary
The extent of anthropogenically driven Antarctic ozone depletion prior to 1980 is examined using transient chemistry–climate model simulations from 1960 to 2000 with prescribed changes of ozone depleting substances in conjunction with observations. All models show a long-term, halogen-induced negative trend in Antarctic ozone from 1960 to 1980, ranging between 26 and 50 % of the total anthropogenic ozone depletion from 1960 to 2000. A stronger ozone decline of 56 % was estimated from observation.
Katherine M. Saad, Debra Wunch, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. T. Griffith, Frank Hase, Martine De Mazière, Justus Notholt, David F. Pollard, Coleen M. Roehl, Matthias Schneider, Ralf Sussmann, Thorsten Warneke, and Paul O. Wennberg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14003–14024,Short summary
Current approaches to constrain the global methane budget assimilate total column measurements into models, but model biases can impact results. We use tropospheric methane columns to evaluate model transport errors and identify a seasonal time lag in the Northern Hemisphere troposphere masked by stratospheric compensating effects. We find systematic biases in the stratosphere will alias into model-derived emissions estimates, especially those in the high Northern latitudes that vary seasonally.
Laura E. Revell, Andrea Stenke, Eugene Rozanov, William Ball, Stefan Lossow, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13067–13080,Short summary
Water vapour in the stratosphere plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry and the Earth's radiative balance. We have analysed trends in stratospheric water vapour through the 21st century as simulated by a coupled chemistry–climate model following a range of greenhouse gas emission scenarios. We have also quantified the contribution that methane oxidation in the stratosphere makes to projected water vapour trends.
Ewa M. Bednarz, Amanda C. Maycock, N. Luke Abraham, Peter Braesicke, Olivier Dessens, and John A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12159–12176,Short summary
Future trends in springtime Arctic ozone, and its chemical dynamical and radiative drivers, are analysed using a 7-member ensemble of chemistry–climate model integrations, allowing for a detailed assessment of interannual variability. Despite the future long-term recovery of Arctic ozone, there is large interannual variability and episodic reductions in springtime Arctic column ozone. Halogen chemistry will become a smaller but non-negligible driver of Arctic ozone variability over the century.
Charles H. Jackman, Daniel R. Marsh, Douglas E. Kinnison, Christopher J. Mertens, and Eric L. Fleming
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5853–5866,Short summary
Two global models were used to investigate the impact of galactic cosmic ray (GCRs) on the atmosphere over the 1960-2010 time period. The primary impact of the naturally occurring GCRs on ozone was found to be due to their production of NOx and this impact varies with the atmospheric chlorine loading, sulfate aerosol loading, and solar cycle variation. GCR-caused decreases of annual average global total ozone were computed to be 0.2 % or less.
Peer Johannes Nowack, Nathan Luke Abraham, Peter Braesicke, and John Adrian Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4191–4203,Short summary
Various forms of solar radiation management (SRM) have been proposed to counteract man-made climate change. However, all these countermeasures could have unintended side-effects. We add a novel perspective to this discussion by showing how atmospheric ozone changes under solar geoengineering could affect UV exposure and air pollution. This would have implications for human health and ecology. Atmospheric composition changes are therefore important to consider in the evaluation of any SRM scheme.
Kane A. Stone, Olaf Morgenstern, David J. Karoly, Andrew R. Klekociuk, W. John French, N. Luke Abraham, and Robyn Schofield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2401–2415,Short summary
This paper describes the set-up and evaluation of the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator – chemistry-climate model.
Emphasis is placed on the Antarctic ozone hole, which is very important considering its role modulating Southern Hemisphere surface climate. While the model simulates the global distribution of ozone well, there is a disparity in the vertical location of springtime ozone depletion over Antarctica, highlighting important areas for future development.
Emphasis is placed on the Antarctic ozone hole, which is very important considering its role modulating Southern Hemisphere surface climate. While the model simulates the global distribution of ozone well, there is a disparity in the vertical location of springtime ozone depletion over Antarctica, highlighting important areas for future development.
F. Iglesias-Suarez, P. J. Young, and O. Wild
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 343–363,
D. Pendlebury, D. Plummer, J. Scinocca, P. Sheese, K. Strong, K. Walker, and D. Degenstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12465–12485,Short summary
The CMAM30 data set takes a chemistry-climate model and relaxes the dynamics to reanalysis, which can then provide chemistry fields not available from the reanalysis data set. This paper addresses this gap by comparing temperature, water vapour, ozone and methane to satellite data to determine and document any biases in the model fields. The lack of ozone destruction and dehydration in the SH polar vortex is shown to be due to the treatment of polar stratosphere clouds in the model.
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