Articles | Volume 12, issue 21
Research article 02 Nov 2012
Research article | 02 Nov 2012
How does deposition of gas phase species affect pH at frozen salty interfaces?
S. N. Wren and D. J. Donaldson
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Laboratory Studies | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)A comparative and experimental study of the reactivity with nitrate radical of two terpenes: α-terpinene and γ-terpinenePhotooxidation of pinonaldehyde at ambient conditions investigated in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIRReaction between CH3C(O)OOH (peracetic acid) and OH in the gas phase: a combined experimental and theoretical study of the kinetics and mechanismSnow heterogeneous reactivity of bromide with ozone lost during snow metamorphismEvaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume VII – Criegee intermediatesTechnical Note: Effect of varying the λ = 185 and 254 nm photon flux ratio on radical generation in oxidation flow reactorsKinetics of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) reactions with isoprene-derived Criegee intermediates studied with direct UV absorptionEmissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds from combustion of domestic fuels in Delhi, IndiaDetermination of the absorption cross sections of higher-order iodine oxides at 355 and 532 nmEvaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume VIII – gas phase reactions of organic species with four, or more, carbon atoms (≥ C4)Evolution of NO3 reactivity during the oxidation of isopreneRate coefficients for reactions of OH with aromatic and aliphatic volatile organic compounds determined by the multivariate relative rate techniqueChemical characterisation of benzene oxidation products under high and low NOx conditions using chemical ionisation mass spectrometryAtmospheric fate of two relevant unsaturated ketoethers: kinetics, products and mechanisms for the reaction of hydroxyl radicals with (E)-4-methoxy-3-buten-2-one and (1E)-1-methoxy-2-methyl-1-penten-3-oneThe nitrogen budget of laboratory-simulated western US wildfires during the FIREX 2016 Fire Lab studyImportance of isomerization reactions for OH radical regeneration from the photo-oxidation of isoprene investigated in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIRKinetics of the OH + NO2 reaction: effect of water vapour and new parameterization for global modellingKinetic and mechanistic study of the reaction between methane sulfonamide (CH3S(O)2NH2) and OHDimensionality-reduction techniques for complex mass spectrometric datasets: application to laboratory atmospheric organic oxidation experimentsAtmospheric fate of a series of saturated alcohols: kinetic and mechanistic studyMulti-generation OH oxidation as a source for highly oxygenated organic molecules from aromaticsPhotolysis and oxidation by OH radicals of two carbonyl nitrates: 4-nitrooxy-2-butanone and 5-nitrooxy-2-pentanonePotential dual effect of anthropogenic emissions on the formation of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA)Effect of NOx on 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB) oxidation product distribution and particle formationMechanistic study of the formation of ring-retaining and ring-opening products from the oxidation of aromatic compounds under urban atmospheric conditionsOH chemistry of non-methane organic gases (NMOGs) emitted from laboratory and ambient biomass burning smoke: evaluating the influence of furans and oxygenated aromatics on ozone and secondary NMOG formationSecondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation of furan: effects of NOx and humidityCarboxylic acids from limonene oxidation by ozone and hydroxyl radicals: insights into mechanisms derived using a FIGAERO-CIMSTrapping of HCl and oxidised organic trace gases in growing ice at temperatures relevant to cirrus cloudsInvestigation of the α-pinene photooxidation by OH in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIRChamber-based insights into the factors controlling epoxydiol (IEPOX) secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yield, composition, and volatilityKinetics of the OH + NO2 reaction: rate coefficients (217–333 K, 16–1200 mbar) and fall-off parameters for N2 and O2 bath gasesTrends in N2O and SF6 mole fractions in archived air samples from Cape Meares, Oregon (USA), 1978–1996Effect of temperature on the formation of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) from alpha-pinene ozonolysispH-dependent production of molecular chlorine, bromine, and iodine from frozen saline surfacesSolubility and solution-phase chemistry of isocyanic acid, methyl isocyanate, and cyanogen halidesROOOH: a missing piece of the puzzle for OH measurements in low-NO environments?Measurements of I/SVOCs in biomass-burning smoke using solid-phase extraction disks and two-dimensional gas chromatographyPrimary emissions of glyoxal and methylglyoxal from laboratory measurements of open biomass burningReactive quenching of electronically excited NO2∗ and NO3∗ by H2O as potential sources of atmospheric HOx radicalsEvaluation of OH and HO2 concentrations and their budgets during photooxidation of 2-methyl-3-butene-2-ol (MBO) in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIRTechnical note: Use of an atmospheric simulation chamber to investigate the effect of different engine conditions on unregulated VOC-IVOC diesel exhaust emissionsHigh- and low-temperature pyrolysis profiles describe volatile organic compound emissions from western US wildfire fuelsInvestigation of the oxidation of methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) by OH radicals in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIRDecadal evolution of ship emissions in China from 2004 to 2013 by using an integrated AIS-based approach and projection to 2040The atmospheric impacts of monoterpene ozonolysis on global stabilised Criegee intermediate budgets and SO2 oxidation: experiment, theory and modellingA self-consistent, multivariate method for the determination of gas-phase rate coefficients, applied to reactions of atmospheric VOCs and the hydroxyl radicalNon-methane organic gas emissions from biomass burning: identification, quantification, and emission factors from PTR-ToF during the FIREX 2016 laboratory experimentAerosol optical properties and trace gas emissions by PAX and OP-FTIR for laboratory-simulated western US wildfires during FIREXTechnical note: Influence of surface roughness and local turbulence on coated-wall flow tube experiments for gas uptake and kinetic studies
Axel Fouqueau, Manuela Cirtog, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Jean-François Doussin, and Bénédicte Picquet-Varrault
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15167–15189,
Michael Rolletter, Marion Blocquet, Martin Kaminski, Birger Bohn, Hans-Peter Dorn, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, Xin Li, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13701–13719,Short summary
The photooxidation of pinonaldehyde is investigated in a chamber study under natural sunlight and low NO conditions with and without an added hydroxyl radical (OH) scavenger. The experimentally determined pinonaldehyde photolysis frequency is faster by a factor of 3.5 than currently used parameterizations in atmospheric models. Yields of degradation products are measured in the presence and absence of OH. Measurements are compared to current atmospheric models and a theory-based mechanism.
Matias Berasategui, Damien Amedro, Luc Vereecken, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13541–13555,Short summary
Peracetic acid is one of the most abundant organic peroxides in the atmosphere. We combine experiments and theory to show that peracetic acid reacts orders of magnitude more slowly with OH than presently accepted, which results in a significant extension of its atmospheric lifetime.
Jacinta Edebeli, Jürg C. Trachsel, Sven E. Avak, Markus Ammann, Martin Schneebeli, Anja Eichler, and Thorsten Bartels-Rausch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13443–13454,Short summary
Earth’s snow cover is very dynamic and can change its physical properties within hours, as is well known by skiers. Snow is also a well-known host of chemical reactions – the products of which impact air composition and quality. Here, we present laboratory experiments that show how the dynamics of snow make snow essentially inert with respect to gas-phase ozone with time despite its content of reactive chemicals. Impacts on polar atmospheric chemistry are discussed.
R. Anthony Cox, Markus Ammann, John N. Crowley, Hartmut Herrmann, Michael E. Jenkin, V. Faye McNeill, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Jürgen Troe, and Timothy J. Wallington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13497–13519,Short summary
Criegee intermediates, formed from alkene–ozone reactions, play a potentially important role as tropospheric oxidants. Evaluated kinetic data are provided for reactions governing their formation and removal for use in atmospheric models. These include their formation from reactions of simple and complex alkenes and removal by decomposition and reaction with a number of atmospheric species (e.g. H2O, SO2). An overview of the tropospheric chemistry of Criegee intermediates is also provided.
Jake P. Rowe, Andrew T. Lambe, and William H. Brune
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13417–13424,Short summary
We conducted a series of experiments in which the 185 to 254 nm photon flux ratio (I185 : I254) emitted by low-pressure mercury lamps installed in an oxidation flow reactor (OFR) was systematically varied using multiple novel lamp configurations. Integrated OH exposure values achieved for each lamp type were obtained as a function of OFR operating conditions. A photochemical box model was used to develop a generalized OH exposure estimation equation as a function of [H2O], [O3], and OH reactivity.
Mei-Tsan Kuo, Isabelle Weber, Christa Fittschen, Luc Vereecken, and Jim Jr-Min Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12983–12993,Short summary
Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is the major sulfur-containing species in the troposphere. Previous work by Newland et al. (2015) reported very high reactivity of isoprene-derived Criegee intermediates (CIs) towards DMS. By monitoring CIs with direct UV absorption, we found CI + DMS reactions are very slow, in contrast to the results of Newland et al. (2015), suggesting these CIs would not oxidize atmospheric DMS at any substantial level.
Gareth J. Stewart, W. Joe F. Acton, Beth S. Nelson, Adam R. Vaughan, James R. Hopkins, Rahul Arya, Arnab Mondal, Ritu Jangirh, Sakshi Ahlawat, Lokesh Yadav, Sudhir K. Sharma, Rachel E. Dunmore, Siti S. M. Yunus, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Eiko Nemitz, Neil Mullinger, Ranu Gadi, Lokesh K. Sahu, Nidhi Tripathi, Andrew R. Rickard, James D. Lee, Tuhin K. Mandal, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Biomass burning is a major source of trace gases to the troposphere; however, the composition and quantity of emissions vary greatly between different fuel types. This work provided near-total quantitation of non-methane volatile organic compounds from combustion of biofuels from India. Emission from cow dung cake combustion were significantly larger than conventional fuel wood combustion, potentially indicating that this source has a disproportionately large impact on regional air quality.
Thomas R. Lewis, Juan Carlos Gómez Martín, Mark A. Blitz, Carlos A. Cuevas, John M. C. Plane, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10865–10887,Short summary
Iodine-bearing gasses emitted from the sea surface are chemically processed in the atmosphere, leading to iodine accumulation in aerosol and transport to continental ecosystems. Such processing involves light-induced break-up of large, particle-forming iodine oxides into smaller, ozone-depleting molecules. We combine experiments and theory to report the photolysis efficiency of iodine oxides required to assess the impact of iodine on ozone depletion and particle formation.
Abdelwahid Mellouki, Markus Ammann, R. Anthony Cox, John N. Crowley, Hartmut Herrmann, Michael E. Jenkin, V. Faye McNeill, Jürgen Troe, and Timothy J. Wallington
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Volatile organic compounds play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. This article, the eighth in the series, presents kinetic and photochemical datasheets evaluated by the IUPAC Task Group on Atmospheric Chemical Kinetic Data Evaluation. It covers the gas phase reactions of organic species with four, or more, carbon atoms (≥ C4) including thermal reactions of closed-shell organic species with HO and NO3 radicals, and their photolysis. These data are important for atmospheric models.
Patrick Dewald, Jonathan M. Liebmann, Nils Friedrich, Justin Shenolikar, Jan Schuladen, Franz Rohrer, David Reimer, Ralf Tillmann, Anna Novelli, Changmin Cho, Kangming Xu, Rupert Holzinger, François Bernard, Li Zhou, Wahid Mellouki, Steven S. Brown, Hendrik Fuchs, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10459–10475,Short summary
We present direct measurements of NO3 reactivity resulting from the oxidation of isoprene by NO3 during an intensive simulation chamber study. Measurements were in excellent agreement with values calculated from measured isoprene amounts and the rate coefficient for the reaction of NO3 with isoprene. Comparison of the measurement with NO3 reactivities from non-steady-state and model calculations suggests that isoprene-derived RO2 and HO2 radicals account to ~ 50 % of overall NO3 losses.
Jacob T. Shaw, Andrew R. Rickard, Mike J. Newland, and Terry J. Dillon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9725–9736,Short summary
This work expands upon the recently developed multivariate relative rate technique, presented in Shaw et al. (2019), for the measurement of rates of reaction between aromatic and aliphatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and OH. Knowledge of the rates of such reactions are important for understanding air quality in urban environments. This work also provides a key validation of structure–activity relationship models, which provide a theoretical method for estimating OH + VOC kinetics.
Michael Priestley, Thomas J. Bannan, Michael Le Breton, Stephen D. Worrall, Sungah Kang, Iida Pullinen, Sebastian Schmitt, Ralf Tillmann, Einhard Kleist, Defeng Zhao, Jürgen Wildt, Olga Garmash, Archit Mehra, Asan Bacak, Dudley E. Shallcross, Åsa Halquist, Mikael Ehn, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Thomas F. Mentel, Gordon McFiggans, Mattias Halquist, Hugh Coe, and Carl J. Percival
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
A significant fraction of emissions from human activity consists of aromatic hydrocarbons e.g. benzene, which oxidise to form new compounds important for particle growth. Characterisation of benzene oxidation products highlights the range of species produced as well as their chemical properties and contextualises them within relevant frameworks e.g. MCM. Cluster analysis of the oxidation product time series' distinguishes behaviours of CHON compounds that can aid identifying functionality.
Rodrigo Gastón Gibilisco, Ian Barnes, Iustinian Gabriel Bejan, and Peter Wiesen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8939–8951,Short summary
Environmental chamber studies were performed to evaluate atmospheric degradation initiated by OH radicals for two unsaturated methoxy ketones. The main gas-phase oxidation products identified and quantified from these reactions are carbonyls and long-lived nitrogen-containing compounds such as peroxyacetyl nitrate and peroxypropionyl nitrate. The kinetic rate constants and atmospheric lifetimes were estimated, degradation mechanisms were developed, and atmospheric implications were assessed.
James M. Roberts, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Robert J. Yokelson, Joost de Gouw, Yong Liu, Vanessa Selimovic, Abigail R. Koss, Kanako Sekimoto, Matthew M. Coggon, Bin Yuan, Kyle J. Zarzana, Steven S. Brown, Cristina Santin, Stefan H. Doerr, and Carsten Warneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8807–8826,Short summary
We measured total reactive nitrogen, Nr, in lab fires from western North American fuels, along with measurements of individual nitrogen compounds. We measured the amount of N that gets converted to inactive compounds (avg. 70 %), and the amount that is accounted for by individual species (85 % of remaining N). We provide guidelines for how the reactive nitrogen is distributed among individual compounds such as NOx and ammonia. This will help estimates and predictions of wildfire emissions.
Anna Novelli, Luc Vereecken, Birger Bohn, Hans-Peter Dorn, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, David Reimer, Franz Rohrer, Simon Rosanka, Domenico Taraborrelli, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Zhujun Yu, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3333–3355,Short summary
Experimental evidence from a simulation chamber study shows that the regeneration efficiency of the hydroxyl radical is maintained globally at values higher than 0.5 for a wide range of nitrogen oxide concentrations as a result of isomerizations of peroxy radicals originating from the OH oxidation of isoprene. The available models were tested, and suggestions on how to improve their ability to reproduce the measured radical and oxygenated volatile organic compound concentrations are provided.
Damien Amedro, Matias Berasategui, Arne J. C. Bunkan, Andrea Pozzer, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3091–3105,Short summary
Our laboratory experiments show that the rate coefficient for the termolecular reaction between OH and NO2 is enhanced in the presence of water vapour. Using a chemistry transport model we show that our new parameterization of the temperature, pressure, and bath-gas dependence of this reaction has a significant impact on, for example, NOx and the HNO2 / NO2 ratio when compared to present recommendations.
Matias Berasategui, Damien Amedro, Achim Edtbauer, Jonathan Williams, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2695–2707,Short summary
We have determined the rate coefficient and mechanism for the reaction of the OH radical with methane sulphonamide, a trace gas which has recently been found in the atmosphere. The rate coefficient is 1.4 × 10−13 cm3 molec.−1 s−1, which indicates a tropospheric lifetime of > 2 months. The observation of CO, CO2, SO2, HNO3, HCOOH, and N2O products enabled us to derive a detailed reaction mechanism for the reaction, which proceeds predominantly by H abstraction from the CH3 group.
Abigail R. Koss, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Alexander Zaytsev, Jordan E. Krechmer, Martin Breitenlechner, Kevin J. Nihill, Christopher Y. Lim, James C. Rowe, Joseph R. Roscioli, Frank N. Keutsch, and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1021–1041,Short summary
Oxidation chemistry of organic compounds in the atmosphere produces a diverse spectrum of products. This diversity is difficult to represent in air quality and climate models, and in laboratory experiments it results in large and complex datasets. This work evaluates several methods to simplify the chemistry of oxidation systems in environmental chambers, including positive matrix factorization, hierarchical clustering analysis, and gamma kinetics parameterization.
Inmaculada Colmenar, Pilar Martin, Beatriz Cabañas, Sagrario Salgado, Araceli Tapia, and Inmaculada Aranda
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 699–720,Short summary
Saturated alcohols (SAs), such as (E)-4-methylcyclohexanol, 3,3-dimethyl-1-butanol, and 3,3-dimethyl-2-butanol, could be used as biofuels. The atmospheric reactivity of these compounds must be established in order to understand the consequences of the presence of these compounds in the atmosphere. The experimental results obtained in this work reveal that uncontrolled emissions of these saturated alcohols could have important atmospheric implications.
Olga Garmash, Matti P. Rissanen, Iida Pullinen, Sebastian Schmitt, Oskari Kausiala, Ralf Tillmann, Defeng Zhao, Carl Percival, Thomas J. Bannan, Michael Priestley, Åsa M. Hallquist, Einhard Kleist, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Mattias Hallquist, Torsten Berndt, Gordon McFiggans, Jürgen Wildt, Thomas F. Mentel, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 515–537,Short summary
Highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) facilitate aerosol formation in the atmosphere. Using NO3− chemical ionization mass spectrometry we investigated HOM composition and yield in oxidation of aromatic compounds at different reactant concentrations, in the presence of NOx and seed aerosol. Higher OH concentrations increased HOM yield, suggesting multiple oxidation steps, and affected HOM composition, potentially explaining in part discrepancies in published secondary organic aerosol yields.
Bénédicte Picquet-Varrault, Ricardo Suarez-Bertoa, Marius Duncianu, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Marc David, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 487–498,Short summary
Multifunctional organic nitrates are important atmospheric species that are known to play a key role in the transport of reactive nitrogen and in aerosol composition. However, very little is known about their atmospheric reactivity. Here we provide an experimental study on the photolysis and reaction of two carbonyl nitrates with OH radicals. Atmospheric implications and the influence of the chemical structure on the reactivity are discussed.
Eetu Kari, Liqing Hao, Arttu Ylisirniö, Angela Buchholz, Ari Leskinen, Pasi Yli-Pirilä, Ilpo Nuutinen, Kari Kuuspalo, Jorma Jokiniemi, Celia L. Faiola, Siegfried Schobesberger, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15651–15671,Short summary
We present, for the first time, the dual effect of GDI-vehicle exhaust on α-pinene SOA mass yield suppression. The first effect is a well-known NOx effect, but the second effect is more complex. Our results imply that this second effect is related to change of reaction pathways of α-pinene in the presence of GDI exhaust. The presence of vehicle exhaust caused more than 50 % suppression in α-pinene SOA mass yield compared to the α-pinene SOA mass yield measured in the absence of GDI emissions.
Epameinondas Tsiligiannis, Julia Hammes, Christian Mark Salvador, Thomas F. Mentel, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15073–15086,Short summary
The role of anthropogenic VOCs (AVOCs) for SOA formation needs to be scrutinised. The aromatic 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB) was shown to form highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) in NOx-free environments, possibly contributing to new particle formation (NPF). However, formation of HOMs and particles was suppressed in the presence of NOx, while the formation of organonitrates (ONs) was increased. Thus, aromatic AVOCs may not enhance NPF in urban air masses.
Alexander Zaytsev, Abigail R. Koss, Martin Breitenlechner, Jordan E. Krechmer, Kevin J. Nihill, Christopher Y. Lim, James C. Rowe, Joshua L. Cox, Joshua Moss, Joseph R. Roscioli, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jesse H. Kroll, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15117–15129,Short summary
Aromatic hydrocarbons contribute significantly to the production of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Here later-generation low-volatility oxygenated products from toluene and 1,2,4-TMB oxidation by OH are detected in the gas and particle phases. We show that these products, previously identified as highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs), are formed in more than one pathway with differing numbers of reaction steps with OH. They also make up a significant fraction of SOA.
Matthew M. Coggon, Christopher Y. Lim, Abigail R. Koss, Kanako Sekimoto, Bin Yuan, Jessica B. Gilman, David H. Hagan, Vanessa Selimovic, Kyle J. Zarzana, Steven S. Brown, James M. Roberts, Markus Müller, Robert Yokelson, Armin Wisthaler, Jordan E. Krechmer, Jose L. Jimenez, Christopher Cappa, Jesse H. Kroll, Joost de Gouw, and Carsten Warneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14875–14899,Short summary
Wildfire emissions significantly contribute to adverse air quality; however, the chemical processes that lead to hazardous pollutants, such as ozone, are not fully understood. In this study, we describe laboratory experiments where we simulate the atmospheric chemistry of smoke emitted from a range of biomass fuels. We show that certain understudied compounds, such as furans and phenolic compounds, are significant contributors to pollutants formed as a result of typical atmospheric oxidation.
Xiaotong Jiang, Narcisse T. Tsona, Long Jia, Shijie Liu, Hailiang Zhang, Yongfu Xu, and Lin Du
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13591–13609,Short summary
Atmospheric furan is a primary and secondary pollutant in the atmosphere, and its emission contributes to the formation of ultrafine particles and ground-level ozone. The present study demonstrates the effect of NOx and humidity on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation during the furan–NOx–NaCl photooxidation. Furthermore, the results illustrate the importance of studying SOA formation over a comprehensive range of environmental conditions.
Julia Hammes, Anna Lutz, Thomas Mentel, Cameron Faxon, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13037–13052,Short summary
Identifying the chemical pathways of condensable products such as carboxylic acids is essential for predicting SOA formation. This identification is inherently difficult, as such products reside in both the gas and particulate phases. We measured acids, produced from atmospheric oxidation of limonene, in both phases and scrutinised the mechanistic understanding of their formation. The mechanisms explain nearly 75 % of the gas-phase signal at the lowest concentration (8.4 ppb, 23 % acid yield).
Matthias Kippenberger, Gerhard Schuster, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11939–11951,Short summary
We investigated the uptake of several trace gases to growing ice surfaces at temperatures relevant to cirrus clouds. HCl, a strong inorganic acid that ionises at the surface, was efficiently trapped in the growing ice, whereas oxidised organic trace gases, which attach to ice by hydrogen bonding, were not. HCl can be efficiently and rapidly removed from the gas phase in supersaturated ice clouds.
Michael Rolletter, Martin Kaminski, Ismail-Hakki Acir, Birger Bohn, Hans-Peter Dorn, Xin Li, Anna Lutz, Sascha Nehr, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11635–11649,Short summary
Here we present a study of the photooxidation of alpha-pinene, the most abundant monoterpene, by hydroxyl radicals (OH) conducted in the simulation chamber SAPHIR under low NOx and atmospheric alpha-pinene concentrations. Yields of the main degradation products acetone, formaldehyde, and pinonaldehyde were determined and the HOx (OH + HO2) radical budget was investigated. Measurements were used to test current atmospheric models and a theory-based mechanism.
Emma L. D'Ambro, Siegfried Schobesberger, Cassandra J. Gaston, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Ben H. Lee, Jiumeng Liu, Alla Zelenyuk, David Bell, Christopher D. Cappa, Taylor Helgestad, Ziyue Li, Alex Guenther, Jian Wang, Matthew Wise, Ryan Caylor, Jason D. Surratt, Theran Riedel, Noora Hyttinen, Vili-Taneli Salo, Galib Hasan, Theo Kurtén, John E. Shilling, and Joel A. Thornton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11253–11265,Short summary
Isoprene is the most abundantly emitted reactive organic gas globally, and thus it is important to understand its fate and role in aerosol formation and growth. A major product of its oxidation is an epoxydiol, IEPOX, which can be efficiently taken up by acidic aerosol to generate substantial amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We present chamber experiments exploring the properties of IEPOX SOA and reconcile discrepancies between field, laboratory, and model studies of this process.
Damien Amedro, Arne J. C. Bunkan, Matias Berasategui, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10643–10657,Short summary
The reaction between the OH radical and nitrogen dioxide plays a critical role in controlling abundances of HOx and NOx from the boundary layer to the stratosphere. Uncertainties associated with the rate coefficient for this reaction lead to uncertainty in model predictions of the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere and photochemical ozone production. We present accurate measurements of the rate coefficient over a range of temperatures and pressures.
Terry C. Rolfe and Andrew L. Rice
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8967–8977,Short summary
We present 159 measurements of the atmospheric mole fraction of nitrous oxide (N2O) and sulfur hexaflouride (SF6) from historic archived air samples collected at Cape Meares, Oregon (USA, 45.5°N, 124.0°W), between 1978 and 1996. These measurements add significantly to the historical record of the atmospheric composition for these important greenhouse gases. Results provide an analysis of the average atmospheric mixing ratio, growth rate, and seasonality for N2O and SF6 at midlatitudes.
Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Kasper Kristensen, Louise Normann Jensen, Bernadette Rosati, Ricky Teiwes, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Otso Peräkylä, Pontus Roldin, Rossana Bossi, Henrik B. Pedersen, Marianne Glasius, Merete Bilde, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7609–7625,Short summary
Highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) form rapidly in oxidation of monoterpenes and have been shown to be crucial for secondary organic aerosol formation. We studied the formation of HOMs under different temperatures, finding a strong dependence on their yields. As temperatures decrease, the isomerization reactions that allow rapid oxidation by molecular oxygen slow down, and competing reaction pathways can suppress the HOM formation almost completely, especially at high VOC loadings.
John W. Halfacre, Paul B. Shepson, and Kerri A. Pratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4917–4931,Short summary
In this study, we found that a chemical called hydroxyl radical can help create chlorine, bromine, and iodine (i.e., halogens) from acidic frozen imitation seawater. Even more halogens are created if we also add ozone. This result helps our understanding of how halogens are released from the frozen Arctic ice and snow into the atmosphere, where they alter the atmosphere's oxidation ability.
James M. Roberts and Yong Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4419–4437,Short summary
Condensed-phase reactions are important removal processes for reduced nitrogen species, isocyanic acid (HNCO), methyl isocyanate (CH3NCO), and cyanogen halides (XCN, X = Cl, Br, I). This chemistry is not well understood, so we measured aqueous-phase solubilities and reaction rates under a range of temperatures and conditions and in n-octanol, a proxy for non-polar media and biological membranes. The results were used to estimate atmospheric removal rates and fates of these nitrogen compounds.
Christa Fittschen, Mohamad Al Ajami, Sebastien Batut, Valerio Ferracci, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Alexander T. Archibald, and Coralie Schoemaecker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 349–362,Short summary
Concentrations of OH, the main oxidant in the atmosphere, were measured in biogenic environments up to a factor of 10 higher than predicted by models. This was interpreted as a major lack in our understanding of biogenic volatile organic compound chemistry. But interferences of unknown origin have also been discovered, and we present experimental and modelling evidence that the interference might be due to the unexpected decomposition of a new class of molecule, ROOOH, in the FAGE instruments.
Lindsay E. Hatch, Albert Rivas-Ubach, Coty N. Jen, Mary Lipton, Allen H. Goldstein, and Kelley C. Barsanti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17801–17817,Short summary
We demonstrate the use of solid-phase extraction (SPE) disks for the untargeted analysis of gas-phase intermediate volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted from biomass burning. SPE and Teflon filter samples collected from laboratory fires were analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography, with distinct differences in the observed chromatographic profiles as a function of fuel type. Fuel-dependent emissions and volatility differences among benzenediol isomers were captured.
Kyle J. Zarzana, Vanessa Selimovic, Abigail R. Koss, Kanako Sekimoto, Matthew M. Coggon, Bin Yuan, William P. Dubé, Robert J. Yokelson, Carsten Warneke, Joost A. de Gouw, James M. Roberts, and Steven S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15451–15470,Short summary
Emissions of glyoxal and methylglyoxal from fuels common to the western United States were measured using cavity-enhanced spectroscopy, which provides a more selective measurement of those compounds than was previously available. Primary emissions of glyoxal were lower than previously reported and showed variability between the different fuel groups. However, emissions of glyoxal relative to formaldehyde were constant across almost all the fuel groups at 6 %–7 %.
Terry J. Dillon and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14005–14015,Short summary
The reactions between electronically excited NO2* and NO3* with water vapour were studied using laser excitation of NO2 (532–647 nm) or NO3 (623–662 nm). No evidence for OH production was observed in either reaction. The reaction of NO2* with water is not a significant source of OH in the atmosphere.
Anna Novelli, Martin Kaminski, Michael Rolletter, Ismail-Hakki Acir, Birger Bohn, Hans-Peter Dorn, Xin Li, Anna Lutz, Sascha Nehr, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Frank Holland, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Hendrik Fuchs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11409–11422,Short summary
The impact of photooxidation of 2-methyl-3-butene-2-ol (MBO) on the concentration of radical species was studied in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR. MBO is a volatile organic compound mainly emitted by ponderosa and lodgepole pines which are very abundant in forests in the central-west USA. A very good agreement between measured and modelled radical concentrations and products from the oxidation of MBO was observed in an environment with NO of ~ 200 pptv.
Kelly L. Pereira, Rachel Dunmore, James Whitehead, M. Rami Alfarra, James D. Allan, Mohammed S. Alam, Roy M. Harrison, Gordon McFiggans, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11073–11096,Short summary
Exhaust emissions from a light-duty diesel engine were introduced into an atmospheric simulation chamber which was used as a holding-cell for sampling, allowing instruments capable of providing detailed chemical speciation of exhaust gas emissions to be used. The effect of different engine conditions on the exhaust gas composition was investigated. The exhaust composition changed considerably due to two influencing factors, engine combustion and diesel oxidative catalyst efficiency.
Kanako Sekimoto, Abigail R. Koss, Jessica B. Gilman, Vanessa Selimovic, Matthew M. Coggon, Kyle J. Zarzana, Bin Yuan, Brian M. Lerner, Steven S. Brown, Carsten Warneke, Robert J. Yokelson, James M. Roberts, and Joost de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9263–9281,Short summary
We found that on average 85 % of the VOC emissions from biomass burning across various fuels representative of the western US (including various coniferous and chaparral fuels) can be explained using only two emission profiles: (i) a high-temperature pyrolysis profile and (ii) a low-temperature pyrolysis profile. The high-temperature profile is quantitatively similar between different fuel types (r2 > 0.84), and likewise for the low-temperature profile.
Hendrik Fuchs, Sascha Albrecht, Ismail–Hakki Acir, Birger Bohn, Martin Breitenlechner, Hans-Peter Dorn, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, Martin Kaminski, Frank N. Keutsch, Anna Novelli, David Reimer, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Luc Vereecken, Robert Wegener, Alexander Zaytsev, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, and Andreas Wahner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8001–8016,Short summary
The photooxidation of methyl vinyl ketone MVK, one of the most important products of isoprene that is emitted by plants, was investigated in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR for conditions found in forested areas. The comparison of measured trace gas time series with model calculations shows a gap in the understanding of radical chemistry in the MVK oxidation scheme. The possibility of unimolecular isomerization reactions were investigated by means of quantum-chemical calculations.
Cheng Li, Jens Borken-Kleefeld, Junyu Zheng, Zibing Yuan, Jiamin Ou, Yue Li, Yanlong Wang, and Yuanqian Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6075–6093,Short summary
We developed an integrated approach based on the Automatic Identification System (AIS) to promote the estimation of sectoral ship emissions in China. Based upon this approach, the sector-based contributions, decadal evolution from 2004 to 2013, emission projection to 2040, and impact of different sizes of Emission Control Areas (ECAs) on emission reductions were investigated, aiming to provide solid scientific support for ship emissions control policy making in China.
Mike J. Newland, Andrew R. Rickard, Tomás Sherwen, Mathew J. Evans, Luc Vereecken, Amalia Muñoz, Milagros Ródenas, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6095–6120,Short summary
Stabilised Criegee intermediates (SCIs) are formed in the reaction of alkenes with ozone, both of which are ubiquitous throughout the troposphere. We determine the fate and global distribution of SCI from monoterpene ozonolysis. One major fate of SCI is reaction with H2O, but for a fraction of SCIs, unimolecular reactions dominate. Concentrations of SCIs are high enough regionally to play a key role in the conversion of sulfur dioxide to aerosol, affecting air quality and climate.
Jacob T. Shaw, Richard T. Lidster, Danny R. Cryer, Noelia Ramirez, Fiona C. Whiting, Graham A. Boustead, Lisa K. Whalley, Trevor Ingham, Andrew R. Rickard, Rachel E. Dunmore, Dwayne E. Heard, Ally C. Lewis, Lucy J. Carpenter, Jacqui F. Hamilton, and Terry J. Dillon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4039–4054,Short summary
The lifetime of a chemical in the atmosphere is largely governed by the rate of its reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Measurements of rates for many of the thousands of identified volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have yet to be determined experimentally. We have developed a new technique for the rapid determination of gas-phase rate coefficients for the simultaneous reactions between multiple VOCs and OH. The method is tasted across a range of scenarios and is used to derive new values.
Abigail R. Koss, Kanako Sekimoto, Jessica B. Gilman, Vanessa Selimovic, Matthew M. Coggon, Kyle J. Zarzana, Bin Yuan, Brian M. Lerner, Steven S. Brown, Jose L. Jimenez, Jordan Krechmer, James M. Roberts, Carsten Warneke, Robert J. Yokelson, and Joost de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3299–3319,Short summary
Non-methane organic gases (NMOGs) were detected by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF) during an extensive laboratory characterization of wildfire emissions. Identifications for PTR-ToF ion masses are proposed and supported by a combination of techniques. Overall excellent agreement with other instrumentation is shown. Scalable emission factors and ratios are reported for many newly reported reactive species. An analysis of chemical characteristics is presented.
Vanessa Selimovic, Robert J. Yokelson, Carsten Warneke, James M. Roberts, Joost de Gouw, James Reardon, and David W. T. Griffith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2929–2948,Short summary
We burned fuels representing western US wildfires in large-scale laboratory simulations to generate relevant emissions as confirmed by lab–field comparison. We report emission factors (EFs) for light scattering and absorption and BC along with SSA at 870 and 401 nm and AAE. We report EF for 22 trace gases that are major inorganic and organic emissions from flaming and smoldering. We report trace gas EF for species rarely (NH3) or not yet measured (e.g., HONO, acetic acid) for real US wildfires.
Guo Li, Hang Su, Uwe Kuhn, Hannah Meusel, Markus Ammann, Min Shao, Ulrich Pöschl, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2669–2686,Short summary
Coated-wall flow tube reactors are frequently used to investigate gas uptake and heterogeneous or multiphase reaction kinetics under laminar flow conditions. In previous applications, the effects of coating surface roughness on flow conditions were not well quantified. In this study, a criterion is proposed to eliminate/minimize the potential effects of coating surface roughness on laminar flow in coated-wall flow tube experiments and validate the applications of diffusion correction methods.
Abbatt, J. P. D., Thomas, J. L., Abrahamsson, K., Boxe, C., Granfors, A., Jones, A. E., King, M. D., Saiz-Lopez, A., Shepson, P. B., Sodeau, J., Toohey, D. W., Toubin, C., von Glasow, R., Wren, S. N., and Yang, X.: Halogen activation via interactions with environmental ice and snow in the polar lower troposphere and other regions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 6237–6271, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-6237-2012, 2012.
Adams, J. W., Holmes, N. S., and Crowley, J. N.: Uptake and reaction of HOBr on frozen and dry NaCl/NaBr surfaces between 253 and 233 K, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2, 79–91, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2-79-2002, 2002.
Alvarez-Aviles, L., Simpson, W. R., Douglas, T. A., Sturm, M., Perovich, D., and Domine, F.: Frost flower chemical composition during growth and its implications for aerosol production and bromine activation, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 113, 21304, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD010277, 2008.
Balon, M., Hidalgo, J., Guardado, P., Munoz, M. A., and Carmona, C.: Acid-base and spectral properties of beta-carbolines – 1. Tetrahydro-beta-carbolines, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 2, 91–97, 1993.
Bock, J. and Jacobi, H. W.: Development of a mechanism for nitrate photochemistry in snow, J. Phys. Chem. A, 114, 1790–1796, 2010.
Cho, H., Shepson, P. B., Barrie, L. A., Cowin, J. P., and Zaveri, R.: NMR investigation of the quasi-brine layer in ice/brine mixtures, J. Phys. Chem. B, 106, 11226–11232, 2002.
Clegg, S. L. and Brimblecombe, P.: Solubility of ammonia in pure aqueous and multicomponent solutions, J. Phys. Chem., 93, 7237–7248, 1989.
Clifford, D. and Donaldson, D. J.: Direct experimental evidence for a heterogeneous reaction of ozone with bromide at the air-aqueous interface, J. Phys. Chem. A, 111, 9809–9814, 2007.
Clifford, D., Bartels-Rausch, T., and Donaldson, D. J.: Suppression of aqueous surface hydrolysis by monolayers of short chain organic amphiphiles, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 9, 1363–1369, 2007.
Delzeit, L., Rowland, B., and Devlin, J. P.: Infrared-spectra of HCl complexed ionized in amorphous hydrates and at ice surfaces in the 15-90-K range, J. Phys. Chem., 97, 10312–10318, 1993.
Dias, A., Varela, A. P., Miguel, M. D., Becker, R. S., Burrows, H. D., and Macanita, A. L.: Beta-carbolines – 2. Rate constants of proton transfer from multiexponential decays in the lowest singlet excited state of harmine in water as a function of pH, J. Phys. Chem., 100, 17970–17977, 1996.
Dibb, J. E., Arsenault, M., Peterson, M. C., and Honrath, R. E.: Fast nitrogen oxide photochemistry in summit, greenland snow, Atmos. Environ., 36, 2501–2511, 2002.
Dieckmann, G. S., Nehrke, G., Papadimitriou, S., Goettlicher, J., Steininger, R., Kennedy, H., Wolf-Gladrow, D., and Thomas, D. N.: Calcium carbonate as ikaite crystals in antarctic sea ice, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, 08501, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL033540, 2008.
Dieckmann, G. S., Nehrke, G., Uhlig, C., Goettlicher, J., Gerland, S., Granskog, M. A., and Thomas, D. N.: Brief communication: Ikaite (CaCO3 6(H2O) discovered in arctic sea ice, Cryosphere, 4, 227–230, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-4-227-2010, 2010.
Domine, F. and Shepson, P. B.: Air-snow interactions and atmospheric chemistry, Science, 297, 1506–1510, 2002.
Doppenschmidt, A., and Butt, H. J.: Measuring the thickness of the liquid-like layer on ice surfaces with atomic force microscopy, Langmuir, 16, 6709–6714, 2000.
Fan, S. M. and Jacob, D. J.: Surface ozone depletion in arctic spring sustained by bromine reactions on aerosols, Nature, 359, 522–524, 1992.
Fickert, S., Adams, J. W., and Crowley, J. N.: Activation of Br-2 and BrCl via uptake of HOBr onto aqueous salt solutions, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 104, 23719–23727, 1999.
Grannas, A. M., Jones, A. E., Dibb, J., Ammann, M., Anastasio, C., Beine, H. J., Bergin, M., Bottenheim, J., Boxe, C. S., Carver, G., Chen, G., Crawford, J. H., Domine, F., Frey, M. M., Guzman, M. I., Heard, D. E., Helmig, D., Hoffmann, M. R., Honrath, R. E., Huey, L. G., Hutterli, M., Jacobi, H. W., Klan, P., Lefer, B., McConnell, J., Plane, J., Sander, R., Savarino, J., Shepson, P. B., Simpson, W. R., Sodeau, J. R., von Glasow, R., Weller, R., Wolff, E. W., and Zhu, T.: An overview of snow photochemistry: Evidence, mechanisms and impacts, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4329–4373, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-4329-2007, 2007.
Hanson, D. R. and Mauersberger, K.: HCl/H2O solid-phase vapor-pressures and HCl solubility in ice, J. Phys. Chem., 94, 4700–4705, 1990.
Heger, D., Jirkovsky, J., and Klan, P.: Aggregation of methylene blue in frozen aqueous solutions studied by absorption spectroscopy, J. Phys. Chem. A, 109, 6702–6709, 2005.
Honrath, R. E., Lu, Y., Peterson, M. C., Dibb, J. E., Arsenault, M. A., Cullen, N. J., and Steffen, K.: Vertical fluxes of NOx, HONO, and HNO3 above the snowpack at Summit, Greenland, Atmos. Environ., 36, 2629–2640, 2002.
Kahan, T. F. and Donaldson, D. J.: Photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on water and ice surfaces, J. Phys. Chem. A, 111, 1277–1285, 2007.
Kahan, T. F. and Donaldson, D. J.: Benzene photolysis on ice: Implications for the fate of organic contaminants in the winter, Environ. Sci.Technol., 44, 3819–3824, 2010.
Kahan, T. F., Reid, J. P., and Donaldson, D. J.: Spectroscopic probes of the quasi-liquid layer on ice, J. Phys. Chem. A, 111, 11006–11012, 2007.
Kahan, T. F., Kwamena, N. O. A., and Donaldson, D. J.: Different photolysis kinetics at the surface of frozen freshwater vs. frozen salt solutions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 10917–10922, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-10917-2010, 2010a.
Kahan, T. F., Zhao, R., and Donaldson, D. J.: Hydroxyl radical reactivity at the air-ice interface, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 843–854, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-10-843-2007, 2010b.
Kahan, T. F., Zhao, R., Jumaa, K. B., and Donaldson, D. J.: Anthracene photolysis in aqueous solution and ice: Photon flux dependence and comparison of kinetics in bulk ice and at the air-ice interface, Environ. Sci. Tech., 44, 1302–1306, 2010c.
Kang, H., Shin, T. H., Park, S. C., Kim, I. K., and Han, S. J.: Acidity of hydrogen chloride on ice, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 122, 9842–9843, 2000.
Koop, T., Kapilashrami, A., Molina, L. T., and Molina, M. J.: Phase transitions of sea-salt/water mixtures at low temperatures: Implications for ozone chemistry in the polar marine boundary layer, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 105, 26393–26402, 2000.
Kuo, M. H., Moussa, S. G., and McNeill, V. F.: Modeling interfacial liquid layers on environmental ices, Atmos. Chem. Phys, 11, 9971–9982, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-9971-2011, 2011.
Langer, S., Pemberton, R. S., and FinlaysonPitts, B. J.: Diffuse reflectance infrared studies of the reaction of synthetic sea salt mixtures with NO2: A key role for hydrates in the kinetics and mechanism, J. Phys. Chem. A, 101, 1277–1286, 1997.
Li, Y. and Somorjai, G. A.: Surface premelting of ice, J. Phys. Chem. C, 111, 9631–9637, 2007.
Liyana-Arachchi, T. P., Valsaraj, K. T., and Hung, F. R.: Molecular simulation study of the adsorption of naphthalene and ozone on atmospheric air/ice interfaces, J. Phys. Chem. A, 115, 9226–9236, 2011.
McNeill, V. F., Loerting, T., Geiger, F. M., Trout, B. L., and Molina, M. J.: Hydrogen chloride-induced surface disordering on ice, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 103, 9422–9427, 2006.
Mmereki, B. T. and Donaldson, D. J.: Laser induced fluorescence of pyrene at an organic coated air-water interface, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 4, 4186–4191, 2002.
Molina, M. J., Tso, T. L., Molina, L. T., and Wang, F. C. Y.: Antarctic stratospheric chemistry of chlorine nitrate, hydrogen-chloride and ice – release of active chlorine, Science, 238, 1253–1257, 1987.
Molina, M. J. The Chemistry of the Atmosphere: The Impact of Global Change, Blackwell Scientific Publications: Boston, Chapter 3, 27–38, 1994
Morin, S., Marion, G. M., von Glasow, R., Voisin, D., Bouchez, J., and Savarino, J.: Precipitation of salts in freezing seawater and ozone depletion events: A status report, Atmos. Chem. Phys, 8, 7317–7324, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-7317-2008, 2008.
Oldridge, N. W. and Abbatt, J. P. D.: Formation of gas-phase bromine from interaction of ozone with frozen and liquid NaCl/NaBr solutions: Quantitative separation of surficial chemistry from bulk-phase reaction, J. Phys. Chem. A, 115, 2590–2598, 2011.
Oum, K. W., Lakin, M. J., and Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.: Bromine activation in the troposphere by the dark reaction of O3 with seawater ice, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 3923–3926, 1998.
Parent, P. and Laffon, C.: Adsorption of HCl on the water ice surface studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy, J. Phys. Chem. B, 109, 1547–1553, 2005.
Park, S. C. and Kang, H.: Adsorption, ionization, and migration of hydrogen chloride on ice films at temperatures between 100 and 140 K, J. Phys. Chem. B, 109, 5124–5132, 2005.
Sander, R., Burrows, J., and Kaleschke, L.: Carbonate precipitation in brine – a potential trigger for tropospheric ozone depletion events, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 4653–4658, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-6-4653-2006, 2006.
Simpson, W. R., von Glasow, R., Riedel, K., Anderson, P., Ariya, P., Bottenheim, J., Burrows, J., Carpenter, L. J., Friess, U., Goodsite, M. E., Heard, D., Hutterli, M., Jacobi, H. W., Kaleschke, L., Neff, B., Plane, J., Platt, U., Richter, A., Roscoe, H., Sander, R., Shepson, P., Sodeau, J., Steffen, A., Wagner, T., and Wolff, E.: Halogens and their role in polar boundary-layer ozone depletion, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4375–4418, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-4375-2007, 2007.
Sjostedt, S. J. and Abbatt, J. P. D.: Release of gas-phase halogens from sodium halide substrates: Heterogeneous oxidation of frozen solutions and desiccated salts by hydroxyl radicals, Environ. Res. Lett., 3, 045007, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/3/4/045007, 2008.
Thibert, E. and Domine, F.: Thermodynamics and kinetics of the solid solution of hcl in ice, J. Phys. Chem. B, 101, 3554–3565, 1997.
Wei, X., Miranda, P. B., Zhang, C., and Shen, Y. R.: Sum-frequency spectroscopic studies of ice interfaces, Phys. Rev. B, 66, 085401, https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.66.085401, 2002.
Wolff, E. W., Mulvaney, R., and Oates, K.: Diffusion and location of hydrochloric-acid in ice – implications for polar stratospheric clouds and ozone depletion, Geophys. Res. Lett., 16, 487–490, 1989.
Wren, S. N. and Donaldson, D. J.: Laboratory study of ph at the air-ice interface, J. Phys. Chem. C, 116, 10171–10180, 2012.
Wren, S. N., Kahan, T. F., Jumaa, K. B., and Donaldson, D. J.: Spectroscopic studies of the heterogeneous reaction between O3(g) and halides at the surface of frozen salt solutions, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 115, 16309, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JD013929, 2010.
Zhou, X. L., Beine, H. J., Honrath, R. E., Fuentes, J. D., Simpson, W., Shepson, P. B., and Bottenheim, J. W.: Snowpack photochemical production of HONO: A major source of OH in the arctic boundary layer in springtime, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 4087–4090, 2001.