Articles | Volume 21, issue 5
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4219–4230, 2021
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4219–4230, 2021

ACP Letters 18 Mar 2021

ACP Letters | 18 Mar 2021

Interhemispheric transport of metallic ions within ionospheric sporadic E layers by the lower thermospheric meridional circulation

Bingkun Yu et al.

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Cited articles

Arras, C. and Wickert, J.: Estimation of ionospheric sporadic E intensities from GPS radio occultation measurements, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys., 171, 60–63, 2018. a, b
Arras, C., Wickert, J., Beyerle, G., Heise, S., Schmidt, T., and Jacobi, C.: A global climatology of ionospheric irregularities derived from GPS radio occultation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L14809,, 2008. a, b
Bedey, D. F. and Watkins, B. J.: Simultaneous observations of thin ion layers and the ionospheric electric field over Sondrestrom, J. Geophys. Res.-Space, 106, 8169–8183, 2001. a
Bibl, K. and Reinisch, B. W.: The universal digital ionosonde, Radio Science, 13, 519–530, 1978. a
Short summary
A long-standing mystery of metal ions within Es layers in the Earth's upper atmosphere is the marked seasonal dependence, with a summer maximum and a winter minimum. We report a large-scale winter-to-summer transport of metal ions from 6-year multi-satellite observations and worldwide ground-based stations. A global atmospheric circulation is responsible for the phenomenon. Our results emphasise the effect of this atmospheric circulation on the transport of composition in the upper atmosphere.
Final-revised paper