Articles | Volume 21, issue 5
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4219–4230, 2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-4219-2021
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4219–4230, 2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-4219-2021

ACP Letters 18 Mar 2021

ACP Letters | 18 Mar 2021

Interhemispheric transport of metallic ions within ionospheric sporadic E layers by the lower thermospheric meridional circulation

Bingkun Yu et al.

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Latest update: 18 Sep 2021
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Short summary
A long-standing mystery of metal ions within Es layers in the Earth's upper atmosphere is the marked seasonal dependence, with a summer maximum and a winter minimum. We report a large-scale winter-to-summer transport of metal ions from 6-year multi-satellite observations and worldwide ground-based stations. A global atmospheric circulation is responsible for the phenomenon. Our results emphasise the effect of this atmospheric circulation on the transport of composition in the upper atmosphere.
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