Articles | Volume 18, issue 9
Research article 09 May 2018
Research article | 09 May 2018
Photochemical aging of aerosol particles in different air masses arriving at Baengnyeong Island, Korea
Eunha Kang et al.
No articles found.
Dianne Sanchez, Roger Seco, Dasa Gu, Alex Guenther, John Mak, Youngjae Lee, Danbi Kim, Joonyoung Ahn, Don Blake, Scott Herndon, Daun Jeong, John T. Sullivan, Thomas Mcgee, Rokjin Park, and Saewung Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6331–6345,Short summary
We present observations of total reactive gases in a suburban forest observatory in the Seoul metropolitan area. The quantitative comparison with speciated trace gas observations illustrated significant underestimation in atmospheric reactivity from the speciated trace gas observational dataset. We present scientific discussion about potential causes.
Zhenzhen Wang, Di Wu, Zhuoyu Li, Xiaona Shang, Qing Li, Xiang Li, Renjie Chen, Haidong Kan, Huiling Ouyang, Xu Tang, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This study firstly investigates the composition of sugars in the fine fraction of aerosol over three sites in the southwest China. The result suggested no significant reduction in biomass burning emissions in Southwest Yunnan Province to some extent. The result shown shed a light on the contributions of biomass burning and the characteristic of biogenic saccharides in these regions, which can be further applied to regional source apportionment models and global climate models.
Saehee Lim, Meehye Lee, Paolo Laj, Sang-Woo Kim, Kang-Ho Ahn, Junsoo Gil, Xiaona Shang, Marco Zanatta, and Kyeong-Sik Kang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This study identifies the main drivers of the formation and transformation processes of submicron particles and highlights that the thick coating of rBC was a result of active conversion of hygroscopic inorganic salts leading to fine aerosol pollution. Consequently, we suggest BC particles as a key contributor to PM2.5 mass increase, which implies that BC reduction is an effective mitigation against haze pollution as well as climate change in Northeast Asia.
Xiaona Shang, Ling Li, Xinlian Zhang, Huihui Kang, Guodong Sui, Gehui Wang, Xingnan Ye, Hang Xiao, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1037–1045,Short summary
Oxidative stress can be used to evaluate not only adverse health effects but also adverse ecological effects. However, little research uses eco-toxicological assay to assess the risks posed by particle matter to non-human biomes. One important reason might be that the concentration of toxic components of atmospheric particles is far below the high detection limit of eco-toxic measurement. To solve the rapid detection problem, we extended a VACES for ecotoxicity aerosol measurement.
Jake P. Rowe, Andrew T. Lambe, and William H. Brune
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13417–13424,Short summary
We conducted a series of experiments in which the 185 to 254 nm photon flux ratio (I185 : I254) emitted by low-pressure mercury lamps installed in an oxidation flow reactor (OFR) was systematically varied using multiple novel lamp configurations. Integrated OH exposure values achieved for each lamp type were obtained as a function of OFR operating conditions. A photochemical box model was used to develop a generalized OH exposure estimation equation as a function of [H2O], [O3], and OH reactivity.
Chinmoy Sarkar, Gracie Wong, Anne Mielnik, Alex B. Guenther, Taehyung Lee, Taehyun Park, Jihee Ban, Seokwon Kang, Jin-Soo Park, Joonyoung Ahn, Danbi Kim, Hyunjae Kim, Jinsoo Choi, Beom-Keon Seo, Jong-Ho Kim, Jeong-Ho Kim, Soo Bog Park, and Saewung Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We present experimental proofs illustrating emission of ketene in an industrial facility in South Korea. It has been rarely reported the emission of such a compound but our experimental data shows that the emission rate is substantial. It potentially has tremendous implication in regional air quality and public health as it is highly reactive and toxic at the sometime.
Haijie Tong, Fobang Liu, Alexander Filippi, Jake Wilson, Andrea M. Arangio, Yun Zhang, Siyao Yue, Steven Lelieveld, Fangxia Shen, Helmi-Marja K. Keskinen, Jing Li, Haoxuan Chen, Ting Zhang, Thorsten Hoffmann, Pingqing Fu, William H. Brune, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Maosheng Yao, Thomas Berkemeier, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We measured radical yields of aqueous PM2.5 extracts and found lower yields at higher concentrations of PM2.5. Abundances of water-soluble transition metals and aromatics in PM2.5 were positively correlated with the relative fraction (RF) of •OH among detected radicals, but negatively correlated with the RF of C-centered radicals. Composition-dependent reactive species yields may explain differences in the reactivity and health effects of PM2.5 in clean versus polluted air.
Najin Kim, Seong Soo Yum, Minsu Park, Jong Sung Park, Hye Jung Shin, and Joon Young Ahn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11245–11262,Short summary
Chemical effects on the size-resolved hygroscopicity of urban aerosols were examined based on the KORUS-AQ field campaign data (HTDMA and HR-ToF-AMS). The size-resolved chemical composition data were found to be critical in explaining the size-dependent hygroscopicity, as well as the diurnal variation of κ for small particles. Aerosol mixing state information was associated with the size-resolved chemical composition data to reveal chemical information of different hygroscopicity modes.
Katherine R. Travis, Colette L. Heald, Hannah M. Allen, Eric C. Apel, Stephen R. Arnold, Donald R. Blake, William H. Brune, Xin Chen, Róisín Commane, John D. Crounse, Bruce C. Daube, Glenn S. Diskin, James W. Elkins, Mathew J. Evans, Samuel R. Hall, Eric J. Hintsa, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Prasad S. Kasibhatla, Michelle J. Kim, Gan Luo, Kathryn McKain, Dylan B. Millet, Fred L. Moore, Jeffrey Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Tomás Sherwen, Alexander B. Thames, Kirk Ullmann, Xuan Wang, Paul O. Wennberg, Glenn M. Wolfe, and Fangqun Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7753–7781,Short summary
Atmospheric models overestimate the rate of removal of trace gases by the hydroxyl radical (OH). This is a concern for studies of the climate and air quality impacts of human activities. Here, we evaluate the performance of a commonly used model of atmospheric chemistry against data from the NASA Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom) over the remote oceans where models have received little validation. The model is generally successful, suggesting that biases in OH may be a concern over land.
Alexander B. Thames, William H. Brune, David O. Miller, Hannah M. Allen, Eric C. Apel, Donald R. Blake, T. Paul Bui, Roisin Commane, John D. Crounse, Bruce C. Daube, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, James W. Elkins, Samuel R. Hall, Thomas F. Hanisco, Reem A. Hannun, Eric Hintsa, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Michelle J. Kim, Kathryn McKain, Fred L. Moore, Julie M. Nicely, Jeffrey Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Jason M. St. Clair, Colm Sweeney, Alex Teng, Chelsea R. Thompson, Kirk Ullmann, Paul O. Wennberg, and Glenn M. Wolfe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4013–4029,Short summary
Oceans and the atmosphere exchange volatile gases that react with the hydroxyl radical (OH). During a NASA airborne study, measurements of the total frequency of OH reactions, called the OH reactivity, were made in the marine boundary layer of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The measured OH reactivity often exceeded the OH reactivity calculated from measured chemical species. This missing OH reactivity appears to be from unmeasured volatile organic compounds coming out of the ocean.
Yongjoo Choi, Yugo Kanaya, Seung-Myung Park, Atsushi Matsuki, Yasuhiro Sadanaga, Sang-Woo Kim, Itsushi Uno, Xiaole Pan, Meehye Lee, Hyunjae Kim, and Dong Hee Jung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 83–98,Short summary
The relationship between black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) can differ by the different structure of fuel consumption. By investigating the representativeness of the BC and CO emission inventory for real-world comparison with reliable observations, this study suggested that accurate CO emissions should be preferentially investigated to enhance the accuracy of the BC emission rate over East Asia.
Junsu Gil, Jeonghwan Kim, Meehye Lee, Gangwoong Lee, Dongsoo Lee, Jinsang Jung, Joonyeong An, Jinkyu Hong, Seogju Cho, Jeonghoon Lee, and Russell Long
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
During the KORUS-AQ campaign, nitrous acid (HONO) concentrations in Seoul were higher in high-O3 episodes than non-episodes. The photochemical model simulation demonstrates the role of HONO in promoting O3 formation through OH production and subsequent VOCs oxidation. The ambient HONO concentrations were reasonably represented by an Artificial Neural Network model, highlighting NOx, surface area, and relative humidity as crucial parameters for HONO formation in Seoul under high NOx conditions.
Daun Jeong, Roger Seco, Dasa Gu, Youngro Lee, Benjamin A. Nault, Christoph J. Knote, Tom Mcgee, John T. Sullivan, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Donald R. Blake, Dianne Sanchez, Alex B. Guenther, David Tanner, L. Gregory Huey, Russell Long, Bruce E. Anderson, Samuel R. Hall, Kirk Ullmann, Hye-jung Shin, Scott C. Herndon, Youngjae Lee, Danbi Kim, Joonyoung Ahn, and Saewung Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12779–12795,
Erik Ahlberg, Axel Eriksson, William H. Brune, Pontus Roldin, and Birgitta Svenningsson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2701–2712,Short summary
The effects of wet or dry salt seed particle concentration (ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate) on secondary organic aerosol mass yields from a mixture of m-xylene and α-pinene were examined in an oxidation flow reactor. The experiments confirmed that increasing the condensation sink significantly increases the particle mass yields in oxidation flow reactors. Further, wet seed particles increased the particle mass yield by 60 % more than dry particles.
Nathan J. Janechek, Rachel F. Marek, Nathan Bryngelson, Ashish Singh, Robert L. Bullard, William H. Brune, and Charles O. Stanier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1649–1664,Short summary
Cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes (cVMSs) are widely used chemicals in personal care products which can undergo oxidation to generate secondary organic aerosol. In this work, cVMS oxidation aerosols were generated using a photochemical chamber and the physical properties characterized. The aerosol yield, volatility, hygroscopicity, morphology, elemental composition, and proposed parameters for treatment as secondary organic aerosol in atmospheric models are provided.
Benjamin A. Nault, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Jason C. Schroder, Bruce Anderson, Andreas J. Beyersdorf, Donald R. Blake, William H. Brune, Yonghoon Choi, Chelsea A. Corr, Joost A. de Gouw, Jack Dibb, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Alan Fried, L. Gregory Huey, Michelle J. Kim, Christoph J. Knote, Kara D. Lamb, Taehyoung Lee, Taehyun Park, Sally E. Pusede, Eric Scheuer, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Jung-Hun Woo, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17769–17800,Short summary
Aerosol impacts visibility and human health in large cities. Sources of aerosols are still highly uncertain, especially for cities surrounded by numerous other cities. We use observations collected during the Korea–United States Air Quality study to determine sources of organic aerosol (OA). We find that secondary OA (SOA) is rapidly produced over Seoul, South Korea, and that the sources of the SOA originate from short-lived hydrocarbons, which originate from local emissions.
William H. Brune, Xinrong Ren, Li Zhang, Jingqiu Mao, David O. Miller, Bruce E. Anderson, Donald R. Blake, Ronald C. Cohen, Glenn S. Diskin, Samuel R. Hall, Thomas F. Hanisco, L. Gregory Huey, Benjamin A. Nault, Jeff Peischl, Ilana Pollack, Thomas B. Ryerson, Taylor Shingler, Armin Sorooshian, Kirk Ullmann, Armin Wisthaler, and Paul J. Wooldridge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14493–14510,Short summary
Thunderstorms pull in polluted air from near the ground, transport it up through clouds containing lightning, and deposit it at altitudes where airplanes fly. The resulting chemical mixture in this air reacts to form ozone and particles, which affect climate. In this study, aircraft observations of the reactive gases responsible for this chemistry generally agree with modeled values, even in ice clouds. Thus, atmospheric oxidation chemistry appears to be mostly understood for this environment.
Xiaona Shang, Meehye Lee, Saehee Lim, Örjan Gustafsson, Gangwoong Lee, and Limseok Chang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
At Gosan Climate Observatory, the three main sources including anthropogenic pollution, soil dust, and agricultural fertilizer were distinguished for PM10, PM2.5, and PM1, which accounted for 71 % of the total variances for their mass and composition. The mass of mean + σ were comparable to the 90th percentile and the top 10 % implies the substantial impact of soil dust and haze pollution. In PM2.5, the contribution from non-combustion source such as soil dust should not be ignored.
Jingqiu Mao, Annmarie Carlton, Ronald C. Cohen, William H. Brune, Steven S. Brown, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jose L. Jimenez, Havala O. T. Pye, Nga Lee Ng, Lu Xu, V. Faye McNeill, Kostas Tsigaridis, Brian C. McDonald, Carsten Warneke, Alex Guenther, Matthew J. Alvarado, Joost de Gouw, Loretta J. Mickley, Eric M. Leibensperger, Rohit Mathur, Christopher G. Nolte, Robert W. Portmann, Nadine Unger, Mika Tosca, and Larry W. Horowitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2615–2651,Short summary
This paper is aimed at discussing progress in evaluating, diagnosing, and improving air quality and climate modeling using comparisons to SAS observations as a guide to thinking about improvements to mechanisms and parameterizations in models.
Paul S. Romer, Kaitlin C. Duffey, Paul J. Wooldridge, Eric Edgerton, Karsten Baumann, Philip A. Feiner, David O. Miller, William H. Brune, Abigail R. Koss, Joost A. de Gouw, Pawel K. Misztal, Allen H. Goldstein, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2601–2614,Short summary
Observations of increased ozone on hotter days are widely reported, but the mechanisms driving this relationship remain uncertain. We use measurements from the rural southeastern United States to study how temperature affects ozone production. We find that changing NOx emissions, most likely from soil microbes, can be a major driver of increased ozone with temperature in the continental background. These findings suggest that ozone will increase with temperature under a wide range of conditions.
Xiaona Shang, Kai Zhang, Fan Meng, Shihao Wang, Meehye Lee, Inseon Suh, Daigon Kim, Kwonho Jeon, Hyunju Park, Xuezhong Wang, and Yuxi Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2573–2584,Short summary
The main sources of PM2.5 during the 2013–2014 winter period in Beijing were identified as soil dust, traffic emission, biomass combustion, industrial emission, and coal combustion. A red-alert haze was almost equally contributed by local traffic and transported coal combustion emissions from Beijing vicinities. This study emphasizes the role of weather condition in haze formation by building up stagnant condition that facilitates the transport of emissions from Beijing's neighboring cities.
Kenneth E. Christian, William H. Brune, Jingqiu Mao, and Xinrong Ren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2443–2460,Short summary
We applied a global sensitivity analysis to the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model analyzing some well-studied tropospheric oxidants for a time period corresponding to an aircraft field campaign. We find modeled results generally agree with measurements when uncertainties in both the model and measurements are taken into account. While model results were largely sensitive to emissions, chemical reaction rates also represented a large source of uncertainty.
Claire F. Fortenberry, Michael J. Walker, Yaping Zhang, Dhruv Mitroo, William H. Brune, and Brent J. Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2199–2224,Short summary
In these laboratory studies, two types of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) were generated in a combustion chamber and treated in a flow reactor to mimic atmospheric oxidation. Complementary bulk and molecular chemical measurements show that while many species deplete with oxidation, oxidized BBOA markers are enhanced. The results provide insight into the complex chemical evolution of BBOA over nearly 10 days of atmospheric photochemistry, informing future laboratory and field studies.
Hendrik Fuchs, Anna Novelli, Michael Rolletter, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Stephan Kessel, Achim Edtbauer, Jonathan Williams, Vincent Michoud, Sebastien Dusanter, Nadine Locoge, Nora Zannoni, Valerie Gros, Francois Truong, Roland Sarda-Esteve, Danny R. Cryer, Charlotte A. Brumby, Lisa K. Whalley, Daniel Stone, Paul W. Seakins, Dwayne E. Heard, Coralie Schoemaecker, Marion Blocquet, Sebastien Coudert, Sebastien Batut, Christa Fittschen, Alexander B. Thames, William H. Brune, Cheryl Ernest, Hartwig Harder, Jennifer B. A. Muller, Thomas Elste, Dagmar Kubistin, Stefanie Andres, Birger Bohn, Thorsten Hohaus, Frank Holland, Xin Li, Franz Rohrer, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Zhujun Yu, Qi Zou, and Andreas Wahner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4023–4053,Short summary
Hydroxyl radical reactivity (k(OH)) is closely related to processes that lead to the formation of oxidised, secondary pollutants such as ozone and aerosol. In order to compare the performances of instruments measuring k(OH), experiments were conducted in the simulation chamber SAPHIR. Chemical conditions were chosen either to be representative of the atmosphere or to test potential limitations of instruments. Overall, the results show that instruments are capable of measuring k(OH).
Bianca C. Baier, William H. Brune, David O. Miller, Donald Blake, Russell Long, Armin Wisthaler, Christopher Cantrell, Alan Fried, Brian Heikes, Steven Brown, Erin McDuffie, Frank Flocke, Eric Apel, Lisa Kaser, and Andrew Weinheimer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11273–11292,Short summary
Ozone production rates were measured using the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS). Measurements are compared to modeled ozone production rates using two different chemical mechanisms. At high nitric oxide levels, observed rates are higher than those modeled, prompting the need to revisit current model photochemistry. These direct measurements can add to our understanding of the ozone chemistry within air quality models and can be used to guide government regulatory strategies.
Jihyun Han, Meehye Lee, Xiaona Shang, Gangwoong Lee, and Louisa K. Emmons
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10619–10631,Short summary
Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) was first measured at Gosan Climate Observatory during the fall of 2010, when PAN was better correlated with PM10 than with O3. In particular, PAN and O3 concentrations were greatly elevated in haze and the Beijing plume and much higher than those from model simulation. This study highlights the decoupling of PAN from O3 in Chinese outflows and suggests PAN as a potential indicator of overall aerosol formation in aged air masses impacted by biomass burning.
Andrew Lambe, Paola Massoli, Xuan Zhang, Manjula Canagaratna, John Nowak, Conner Daube, Chao Yan, Wei Nie, Timothy Onasch, John Jayne, Charles Kolb, Paul Davidovits, Douglas Worsnop, and William Brune
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2283–2298,Short summary
This work enables the study of NOx-influenced secondary organic aerosol formation chemistry in oxidation flow reactors to an extent that was not previously possible. The method uses reactions of exited oxygen O(1D) radicals (formed from ozone photolysis at 254 nm or nitrous oxide photolysis at 185 nm) with nitrous oxide (N2O) to produce NO. We demonstrate proof of concept using chemical ionization mass spectrometer measurements to detect gas-phase oxidation products of isoprene and
Hilkka Timonen, Panu Karjalainen, Erkka Saukko, Sanna Saarikoski, Päivi Aakko-Saksa, Pauli Simonen, Timo Murtonen, Miikka Dal Maso, Heino Kuuluvainen, Matthew Bloss, Erik Ahlberg, Birgitta Svenningsson, Joakim Pagels, William H. Brune, Jorma Keskinen, Douglas R. Worsnop, Risto Hillamo, and Topi Rönkkö
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5311–5329,Short summary
The effect of fuel ethanol content (10–100 %) on primary emissions and the subsequent secondary aerosol formation was investigated for a Euro 5 flex-fuel gasoline vehicle. The emissions were characterized during the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) using high time-resolution instruments. The chemical composition of the exhaust particulate matter was studied using a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS), and the secondary aerosol formation was studied with an oxidation chamber.
Kenneth E. Christian, William H. Brune, and Jingqiu Mao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3769–3784,Short summary
To better understand the sources of uncertainty in modeled Arctic tropospheric oxidants, we created and analyzed an ensemble of chemical transport model runs with inputs perturbed according to their respective uncertainties. Ozone and OH were most sensitive to various emissions and chemical factors. HO2 was overwhelmingly sensitive to aerosol particle uptake. When compared to airborne measurements, better agreement was found when the model used lower aerosol particle uptake rates.
Weiwei Hu, Brett B. Palm, Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jordan E. Krechmer, Zhe Peng, Suzane S. de Sá, Scot T. Martin, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Karsten Baumann, Lina Hacker, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Abigail R. Koss, Joost A. de Gouw, Allen H. Goldstein, Roger Seco, Steven J. Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex B. Guenther, Saewung Kim, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, William H. Brune, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11563–11580,Short summary
IEPOX-SOA is biogenically derived secondary organic aerosol under anthropogenic influence, which has been shown to comprise a substantial fraction of OA globally. We investigated the lifetime of ambient IEPOX-SOA in the SE US and Amazonia, with an oxidation flow reactor and thermodenuder coupled with MS-based instrumentation. The low volatility and long lifetime of IEPOX-SOA against OH radicals' oxidation (> 2 weeks) was observed, which can help to constrain OA impact on air quality and climate.
J. Kaiser, K. M. Skog, K. Baumann, S. B. Bertman, S. B. Brown, W. H. Brune, J. D. Crounse, J. A. de Gouw, E. S. Edgerton, P. A. Feiner, A. H. Goldstein, A. Koss, P. K. Misztal, T. B. Nguyen, K. F. Olson, J. M. St. Clair, A. P. Teng, S. Toma, P. O. Wennberg, R. J. Wild, L. Zhang, and F. N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9349–9359,Short summary
OH reactivity can be used to assess the amount of reactive carbon in an air mass. “Missing” reactivity is commonly found in forested environments and is attributed to either direct emissions of unmeasured volatile organic compounds or to unmeasured/underpredicted oxidation products. Using a box model and measurements from the 2013 SOAS campaign, we find only small discrepancies in measured and calculated reactivity. Our results suggest the discrepancies stem from unmeasured direct emissions.
Panu Karjalainen, Hilkka Timonen, Erkka Saukko, Heino Kuuluvainen, Sanna Saarikoski, Päivi Aakko-Saksa, Timo Murtonen, Matthew Bloss, Miikka Dal Maso, Pauli Simonen, Erik Ahlberg, Birgitta Svenningsson, William Henry Brune, Risto Hillamo, Jorma Keskinen, and Topi Rönkkö
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8559–8570,Short summary
We characterized time-resolved primary particulate emissions and secondary particle formation from a modern gasoline passenger car. In mass terms, the amount of secondary particles was 13 times the amount of primary particles. The highest emissions were observed after a cold start when the engine and catalyst performance were suboptimal. The key parameter for secondary particle formation was the amount of gaseous hydrocarbons in the exhaust.
Luping Su, Edward G. Patton, Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Alex B. Guenther, Lisa Kaser, Bin Yuan, Fulizi Xiong, Paul B. Shepson, Li Zhang, David O. Miller, William H. Brune, Karsten Baumann, Eric Edgerton, Andrew Weinheimer, Pawel K. Misztal, Jeong-Hoo Park, Allen H. Goldstein, Kate M. Skog, Frank N. Keutsch, and John E. Mak
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7725–7741,
Paul S. Romer, Kaitlin C. Duffey, Paul J. Wooldridge, Hannah M. Allen, Benjamin R. Ayres, Steven S. Brown, William H. Brune, John D. Crounse, Joost de Gouw, Danielle C. Draper, Philip A. Feiner, Juliane L. Fry, Allen H. Goldstein, Abigail Koss, Pawel K. Misztal, Tran B. Nguyen, Kevin Olson, Alex P. Teng, Paul O. Wennberg, Robert J. Wild, Li Zhang, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7623–7637,Short summary
The lifetime of nitrogen oxides (NOx) is evaluated by analysis of field measurements from the southeastern United States. At warm temperatures in the daytime boundary layer, NOx interconverts rapidly with both PAN and alkyl and multifunctional nitrates (RONO2), and the relevant lifetime is the combined lifetime of these three classes. We find that the production of RONO2, followed by hydrolysis to produce nitric acid, is the dominant pathway for NOx removal in an isoprene dominated forest.
Amber M. Ortega, Patrick L. Hayes, Zhe Peng, Brett B. Palm, Weiwei Hu, Douglas A. Day, Rui Li, Michael J. Cubison, William H. Brune, Martin Graus, Carsten Warneke, Jessica B. Gilman, William C. Kuster, Joost de Gouw, Cándido Gutiérrez-Montes, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7411–7433,Short summary
An oxidation flow reactor (OFR) was deployed to study secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and aging of urban emissions at a wide range of OH exposures during the CalNex campaign in Pasadena, CA, in 2010. Results include linking SOA formation to short-lived reactive compounds, similar elemental composition of reactor-aged emissions to atmospheric aging, changes in OA mass due to condensation of oxidized gas-phase species and heterogeneous oxidation of particle-phase species.
Zhe Peng, Douglas A. Day, Amber M. Ortega, Brett B. Palm, Weiwei Hu, Harald Stark, Rui Li, Kostas Tsigaridis, William H. Brune, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4283–4305,Short summary
Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) are promising tools of studying atmospheric oxidation processes. Elevated concentrations of both OH and non-OH oxidants in OFRs leave room for speculation that non-OH chemistry can play a major role. Through systematic modeling, we find conditions where non-OH VOC fate is significant and show that, in most field studies of SOA using OFRs, non-OH VOC fate in OFRs was insignificant. We also provide guidelines helping OFR users avoid significant non-OH VOC oxidation.
Dominik van Pinxteren, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Stephan Mertes, Konrad Müller, Gerald Spindler, Johannes Schneider, Taehyoung Lee, Jeffrey L. Collett, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3185–3205,
Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Amber M. Ortega, Douglas A. Day, Lisa Kaser, Werner Jud, Thomas Karl, Armin Hansel, James F. Hunter, Eben S. Cross, Jesse H. Kroll, Zhe Peng, William H. Brune, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2943–2970,Short summary
Ambient pine forest air was oxidized by OH radicals in a PAM oxidation flow reactor during the BEACHON-RoMBAS campaign to study secondary organic aerosol formation. Approximately 4.4 times more secondary organic aerosol was formed in the reactor than could be explained by the volatile organic gases (VOCs) measured in ambient air. The organic aerosol formation can be explained by including an SOA yield from typically unmeasured semivolatile and intermediate-volatility organic gases (S/IVOCs).
Haijie Tong, Andrea M. Arangio, Pascale S. J. Lakey, Thomas Berkemeier, Fobang Liu, Christopher J. Kampf, William H. Brune, Ulrich Pöschl, and Manabu Shiraiwa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1761–1771,Short summary
We provide experimental evidence that terpene and isoprene SOA form substantial amounts of OH radicals upon interaction with liquid water and iron. Our measurements and model results imply that the chemical reactivity of SOA in the atmosphere, particularly in clouds, can be faster than previously thought. Inhalation and deposition of SOA particles in the human respiratory tract may lead to a substantial release of OH radicals in vivo, causing oxidative stress and adverse aerosol health effects.
S. Kundu, K. Kawamura, M. Kobayashi, E. Tachibana, M. Lee, P. Q. Fu, and J. Jung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 585–596,Short summary
Chemistry-transport models have predicted a change in secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the future atmosphere with a large uncertainty. This study measures diacids, major water-soluble surrogates of SOA, on a sub-decadal scale in atmospheric aerosols in eastern Asia. Diacids are observed to increase by 3.9–47.4 % per year. The increases in the water-soluble organic acid fraction could modify the aerosol organic composition and its sensitivity to climate-relevant physical properties.
A. J. Boris, T. Lee, T. Park, J. Choi, S. J. Seo, and J. L. Collett Jr.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 437–453,Short summary
Samples of fog water collected in the Yellow Sea during summer 2014 represent fog downwind of polluted regions and provide new insight into the fate of regional emissions. Organic and inorganic components reveal contributions from urban, biogenic, marine, and biomass burning emissions, as well as evidence of aqueous organic processing reactions. Many fog components are products of extensive photochemical aging during multiday transport, including oxidation within wet aerosols or fogs.
Z. Peng, D. A. Day, H. Stark, R. Li, J. Lee-Taylor, B. B. Palm, W. H. Brune, and J. L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4863–4890,
J. Han, B. Shin, M. Lee, G. Hwang, J. Kim, J. Shim, G. Lee, and C. Shim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12611–12621,Short summary
In east Asia, emissions of O3 precursors have gradually increased and O3 concentrations are expected to increase in the near future. Ieodo Ocean Research Station (IORS), located in the East China Sea, is a unique research tower suitable for observing continental outflows from east Asia. In this study, we present long-term measurements of O3 at IORS, describe their characteristic variations, and evaluate their continental influence on the regional background concentrations of O3.
F. Xiong, K. M. McAvey, K. A. Pratt, C. J. Groff, M. A. Hostetler, M. A. Lipton, T. K. Starn, J. V. Seeley, S. B. Bertman, A. P. Teng, J. D. Crounse, T. B. Nguyen, P. O. Wennberg, P. K. Misztal, A. H. Goldstein, A. B. Guenther, A. R. Koss, K. F. Olson, J. A. de Gouw, K. Baumann, E. S. Edgerton, P. A. Feiner, L. Zhang, D. O. Miller, W. H. Brune, and P. B. Shepson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11257–11272,Short summary
Hydroxynitrates from isoprene oxidation were quantified both in the laboratory and through field studies. The yield of hydroxynitrates 9(+4/-3)% derived from chamber experiments was applied in a zero-dimensional model to simulate the production and loss of isoprene hydroxynitrates in an ambient environment during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). NOx was determined to be the limiting factor for the formation of isoprene hydroxynitrates during SOAS.
K. W. Fomba, D. van Pinxteren, K. Müller, Y. Iinuma, T. Lee, J. L. Collett Jr., and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8751–8765,
A. A. May, T. Lee, G. R. McMeeking, S. Akagi, A. P. Sullivan, S. Urbanski, R. J. Yokelson, and S. M. Kreidenweis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6323–6335,Short summary
Smoke plumes from some prescribed fires in the southeastern United States were sampled via aircraft to observe changes in organic aerosol (OA) with atmospheric transport. These plumes underwent rapid mixing, and, hence, substantial dilution with background air occurred. Dilution-driven evaporation appears to be the primary driver of OA transformations within the sampled plumes rather than photochemistry.
E. A. Bruns, I. El Haddad, A. Keller, F. Klein, N. K. Kumar, S. M. Pieber, J. C. Corbin, J. G. Slowik, W. H. Brune, U. Baltensperger, and A. S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2315–2332,
K. R. Baker, A. G. Carlton, T. E. Kleindienst, J. H. Offenberg, M. R. Beaver, D. R. Gentner, A. H. Goldstein, P. L. Hayes, J. L. Jimenez, J. B. Gilman, J. A. de Gouw, M. C. Woody, H. O. T. Pye, J. T. Kelly, M. Lewandowski, M. Jaoui, P. S. Stevens, W. H. Brune, Y.-H. Lin, C. L. Rubitschun, and J. D. Surratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5243–5258,Short summary
This work details the evaluation of PM2.5 carbon, VOC precursors, and OH estimated by the CMAQ photochemical transport model using routine and special measurements from the 2010 CalNex field study. Here, CMAQ and most recent emissions inventory (2011 NEI) are used to generate model PM2.5 OC estimates that are examined in novel ways including primary vs. secondary formation, fossil vs. contemporary carbon, OH and HO2 evaluation, and the relationship between key VOC precursors and SOC tracers.
S. Kim, S.-Y. Kim, M. Lee, H. Shim, G. M. Wolfe, A. B. Guenther, A. He, Y. Hong, and J. Han
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4357–4371,
A. T. Lambe, P. S. Chhabra, T. B. Onasch, W. H. Brune, J. F. Hunter, J. H. Kroll, M. J. Cummings, J. F. Brogan, Y. Parmar, D. R. Worsnop, C. E. Kolb, and P. Davidovits
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3063–3075,Short summary
We compared the chemistry and yields of SOA generated from OH oxidation of gas-phase precursors in a flow reactor (high OH, short residence time) and environmental chambers (low OH, long residence time). We find that chemical composition of SOA produced in the flow reactor and in chambers is similar. SOA yields measured in the flow reactor are lower than in chambers. Seed particles increase the yield of SOA produced in the flow reactor and may account in part for higher SOA yields in chambers.
M. I. Schurman, T. Lee, Y. Sun, B. A. Schichtel, S. M. Kreidenweis, and J. L. Collett Jr.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 737–752,Short summary
Atmospheric particles can contribute to environmental degradation. An aerosol mass spectrometer was used with positive matrix factorization to explore submicron particle sources in Rocky Mountain National Park, finding that ammonium (3.9%), nitrate (4.3%), sulfate (16.6%), and two types of oxidized organic aerosol (66.9% total) are transported on upslope winds from the urban Front Range, while local campfires contribute 8.4% of mass.
T. B. Nguyen, J. D. Crounse, R. H. Schwantes, A. P. Teng, K. H. Bates, X. Zhang, J. M. St. Clair, W. H. Brune, G. S. Tyndall, F. N. Keutsch, J. H. Seinfeld, and P. O. Wennberg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13531–13549,
Y. You, V. P. Kanawade, J. A. de Gouw, A. B. Guenther, S. Madronich, M. R. Sierra-Hernández, M. Lawler, J. N. Smith, S. Takahama, G. Ruggeri, A. Koss, K. Olson, K. Baumann, R. J. Weber, A. Nenes, H. Guo, E. S. Edgerton, L. Porcelli, W. H. Brune, A. H. Goldstein, and S.-H. Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12181–12194,Short summary
Amiens play important roles in atmospheric secondary aerosol formation and human health, but the fast response measurements of amines are lacking. Here we show measurements in a southeastern US forest and a moderately polluted midwestern site. Our results show that gas to particle conversion is an important process that controls ambient amine concentrations and that biomass burning is an important source of amines.
A. P. Sullivan, A. A. May, T. Lee, G. R. McMeeking, S. M. Kreidenweis, S. K. Akagi, R. J. Yokelson, S. P. Urbanski, and J. L. Collett Jr.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10535–10545,
S. Lim, M. Lee, S.-W. Kim, S.-C. Yoon, G. Lee, and Y. J. Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7781–7793,
E. N. Kirillova, A. Andersson, J. Han, M. Lee, and Ö. Gustafsson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1413–1422,
E. C. Browne, K.-E. Min, P. J. Wooldridge, E. Apel, D. R. Blake, W. H. Brune, C. A. Cantrell, M. J. Cubison, G. S. Diskin, J. L. Jimenez, A. J. Weinheimer, P. O. Wennberg, A. Wisthaler, and R. C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4543–4562,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Chemical composition and source attribution of sub-micrometre aerosol particles in the summertime Arctic lower troposphereIn-depth characterization of submicron particulate matter inter-annual variations at a street canyon site in northern EuropeMeasurement report: Firework impacts on air quality in Metro Manila, Philippines, during the 2019 New Year revelryChemical composition of PM2.5 in October 2017 Northern California wildfire plumesAtmospheric conditions and composition that influence PM2.5 oxidative potential in Beijing, ChinaOrganic aerosol volatility and viscosity in the North China Plain: contrast between summer and winterDisparities in particulate matter (PM10) origins and oxidative potential at a city scale (Grenoble, France) – Part 1: Source apportionment at three neighbouring sitesMeasurement report: Comparison of wintertime individual particles at ground level and above the mixed layer in urban BeijingAerosol characteristics at the Southern Great Plains site during the HI-SCALE campaignA two-component parameterization of marine ice-nucleating particles based on seawater biology and sea spray aerosol measurements in the Mediterranean SeaSeasonal variations in the highly time-resolved aerosol composition, sources and chemical processes of background submicron particles in the North China PlainConcerted measurements of lipids in seawater and on submicrometer aerosol particles at the Cabo Verde islands: biogenic sources, selective transfer and high enrichmentsMeasurement report: Long-range transport patterns into the tropical northwest Pacific during the CAMP2Ex aircraft campaign: chemical composition, size distributions, and the impact of convectionIdentification and source attribution of organic compounds in ultrafine particles near Frankfurt International AirportSource apportionment and impact of long-range transport on carbonaceous aerosol particles in central Germany during HCCT-2010Measurement report: PM2.5-bound nitrated aromatic compounds in Xi'an, Northwest China – seasonal variations and contributions to optical properties of brown carbonCompositions and mixing states of aerosol particles by aircraft observations in the Arctic springtime, 2018Measurement report: Chemical characteristics of PM2.5 during typical biomass burning season at an agricultural site of the North China PlainMeasurement report: Spatial variations in ionic chemistry and water-stable isotopes in the snowpack on glaciers across Svalbard during the 2015–2016 snow accumulation seasonOrganosulfates in atmospheric aerosols in Shanghai, China: seasonal and interannual variability, origin, and formation mechanismsMeasurement report: Hydrolyzed amino acids in fine and coarse atmospheric aerosol in Nanchang, China: concentrations, compositions, sources and possible bacterial degradation stateSulfuric acid–amine nucleation in urban BeijingPersistent residential burning-related primary organic particles during wintertime hazes in North China: insights into their aging and optical changesConcentrations, particle-size distributions, and dry deposition fluxes of aerosol trace elements over the Antarctic Peninsula in austral summerCharacteristics, primary sources and secondary formation of water-soluble organic aerosols in downtown BeijingMeasurement report: Effects of photochemical aging on the formation and evolution of summertime secondary aerosol in BeijingIncreased new particle yields with largely decreased probability of survival to CCN size at the summit of Mt. Tai under reduced SO2 emissionsEnhancement of secondary aerosol formation by reduced anthropogenic emissions during Spring Festival 2019 and enlightenment for regional PM2.5 control in BeijingLinking marine phytoplankton emissions, meteorological processes, and downwind particle properties with FLEXPARTHighly time-resolved measurements of element concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5: comparison of Delhi, Beijing, London, and KrakowMeasurement report: Molecular composition, optical properties, and radiative effects of water-soluble organic carbon in snowpack samples from Northern Xinjiang, ChinaAtmospheric evolution of emissions from a boreal forest fire: the formation of highly functionalized oxygen-, nitrogen-, and sulfur-containing organic compoundsConcerted measurements of free amino acids at the Cabo Verde islands: high enrichments in submicron sea spray aerosol particles and cloud dropletsInvestigating three patterns of new particles growing to the size of cloud condensation nuclei in Beijing's urban atmosphereCultivable, halotolerant ice nucleating bacteria and fungi in coastal precipitationSubstantial changes of gaseous pollutants and chemical compositions in fine particles in North China Plain during COVID-19 lockdown period: anthropogenic vs meteorological influencesMeasurement report: dual-carbon isotopic characterization of carbonaceous aerosol reveals different primary and secondary sources in Beijing and Xi'an during severe haze eventsNorth Atlantic marine organic aerosol characterized by novel offline thermal desorption mass spectrometry: polysaccharides, recalcitrant material, and secondary organicsSources and characteristics of size-resolved particulate organic acids and methanesulfonate in a coastal megacity: Manila, PhilippinesEffects of AIR pollution on cardiopuLmonary disEaSe in urban and peri-urban reSidents in Beijing: protocol for the AIRLESS studyChemical composition and source apportionment of atmospheric aerosols on the Namibian coastExploring the drivers of the increased ozone production in Beijing in summertime during 2005–2016Increase of secondary organic aerosol over four years in an urban environmentOptical source apportionment and radiative effect of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols in a tropical marine monsoon climate zone: the importance of ship emissionsTrends, composition, and sources of carbonaceous aerosol in the last 18 years at the Birkenes Observatory, Northern EuropeMeasurement report: Seasonality, distribution and sources of organophosphate esters in PM2.5 from an inland urban city in Southwest ChinaNationwide increase of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ultrafine particles during winter over China revealed by size-segregated measurementsSize-resolved exposure risk of persistent free radicals (PFRs) in atmospheric aerosols and their potential sourcesSource apportionment of black carbon aerosols from light absorption observation and source-oriented modeling: an implication in a coastal city in ChinaTracing the evolution of morphology and mixing state of soot particles along with the movement of an Asian dust storm
Franziska Köllner, Johannes Schneider, Megan D. Willis, Hannes Schulz, Daniel Kunkel, Heiko Bozem, Peter Hoor, Thomas Klimach, Frank Helleis, Julia Burkart, W. Richard Leaitch, Amir A. Aliabadi, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Andreas B. Herber, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6509–6539,Short summary
We present in situ observations of vertically resolved particle chemical composition in the summertime Arctic lower troposphere. Our analysis demonstrates the strong vertical contrast between particle properties within the boundary layer and aloft. Emissions from vegetation fires and anthropogenic sources in northern Canada, Europe, and East Asia influenced particle composition in the free troposphere. Organics detected in Arctic aerosol particles can partly be identified as dicarboxylic acids.
Luis M. F. Barreira, Aku Helin, Minna Aurela, Kimmo Teinilä, Milla Friman, Leena Kangas, Jarkko V. Niemi, Harri Portin, Anu Kousa, Liisa Pirjola, Topi Rönkkö, Sanna Saarikoski, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6297–6314,Short summary
We present results from the long-term measurements (5 years) of highly time-resolved atmospheric PM1 composition at an urban street canyon site. Overall, the results increased knowledge of the variability of PM1 concentration, composition, and sources in a traffic site and the implications for urban air quality. The investigation of pollution episodes showed that both local and long-range-transported pollutants can still cause elevated PM1 and PM2.5 concentrations in northern Europe.
Genevieve Rose Lorenzo, Paola Angela Bañaga, Maria Obiminda Cambaliza, Melliza Templonuevo Cruz, Mojtaba AzadiAghdam, Avelino Arellano, Grace Betito, Rachel Braun, Andrea F. Corral, Hossein Dadashazar, Eva-Lou Edwards, Edwin Eloranta, Robert Holz, Gabrielle Leung, Lin Ma, Alexander B. MacDonald, Jeffrey S. Reid, James Bernard Simpas, Connor Stahl, Shane Marie Visaga, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6155–6173,Short summary
Firework emissions change the physicochemical and optical properties of water-soluble particles, which subsequently alters the background aerosol’s respirability, influence on surroundings, ability to uptake gases, and viability as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). There was heavy aerosol loading due to fireworks in the boundary layer. The aerosol constituents were largely water-soluble and submicrometer in size due to both inorganic salts in firework materials and gas-to-particle conversion.
Yutong Liang, Coty N. Jen, Robert J. Weber, Pawel K. Misztal, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5719–5737,Short summary
This article reports the molecular composition of smoke particles people in SF Bay Area were exposed to during northern California wildfires in Oct. 2017. Major components are sugars, acids, aromatics, and terpenoids. These observations can be used to better understand health impacts of smoke exposure. Tracer compounds indicate which fuels burned, including diterpenoids for softwood and syringyls for hardwood. A statistical analysis reveals a group of secondary compounds formed in daytime aging.
Steven J. Campbell, Kate Wolfer, Battist Utinger, Joe Westwood, Zhi-Hui Zhang, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Sarah S. Steimer, Tuan V. Vu, Jingsha Xu, Nicholas Straw, Steven Thomson, Atallah Elzein, Yele Sun, Di Liu, Linjie Li, Pingqing Fu, Alastair C. Lewis, Roy M. Harrison, William J. Bloss, Miranda Loh, Mark R. Miller, Zongbo Shi, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5549–5573,Short summary
In this study, we quantify PM2.5 oxidative potential (OP), a metric widely suggested as a potential measure of particle toxicity, in Beijing in summer and winter using four acellular assays. We correlate PM2.5 OP with a comprehensive range of atmospheric and particle composition measurements, demonstrating inter-assay differences and seasonal variation of PM2.5 OP. Using multivariate statistical analysis, we highlight specific particle chemical components and sources that influence OP.
Weiqi Xu, Chun Chen, Yanmei Qiu, Ying Li, Zhiqiang Zhang, Eleni Karnezi, Spyros N. Pandis, Conghui Xie, Zhijie Li, Jiaxing Sun, Nan Ma, Wanyun Xu, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Jiang Zhu, Douglas R. Worsnop, Nga Lee Ng, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5463–5476,Short summary
Here aerosol volatility and viscosity at a rural site (Gucheng) and an urban site (Beijing) in the North China Plain (NCP) were investigated in summer and winter. Our results showed that organic aerosol (OA) in winter in the NCP is more volatile than that in summer due to enhanced primary emissions from coal combustion and biomass burning. We also found that OA existed mainly as a solid in winter in Beijing but as semisolids in Beijing in summer and Gucheng in winter.
Lucille Joanna S. Borlaza, Samuël Weber, Gaëlle Uzu, Véronique Jacob, Trishalee Cañete, Steve Micallef, Cécile Trébuchon, Rémy Slama, Olivier Favez, and Jean-Luc Jaffrezo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5415–5437,Short summary
This study focuses on fully discriminating the origins of particulates by tackling specific secondary organic aerosol (SOA) sources that are difficult to resolve using traditional datasets, especially at a city scale. This is done through the use of additional fit-for-purpose tracers in the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model, which can be obtained using simpler and more targeted techniques, and the comparison of the PMF models from sites in close range but with different urban typologies.
Wenhua Wang, Longyi Shao, Claudio Mazzoleni, Yaowei Li, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Janarjan Bhandari, Jiaoping Xing, Xiaolei Feng, Mengyuan Zhang, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5301–5314,Short summary
We compared the characteristics of individual particles at ground level and above the mixed-layer height. We found that the particles above the mixed-layer height during haze periods are more aged compared to ground level. More coal-combustion-related primary organic particles were found above the mixed-layer height. We suggest that the particles above the mixed-layer height are affected by the surrounding areas, and once mixed down to the ground, they might contribute to ground air pollution.
Jiumeng Liu, Liz Alexander, Jerome D. Fast, Rodica Lindenmaier, and John E. Shilling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5101–5116,Short summary
To bridge the gaps in modeling and observational results due to insufficient understanding of aerosol properties, co-located measurements of aerosols and trace gases were conducted at SGP during the HI-SCALE campaign. Organic aerosols at the SGP site exhibited to be highly oxidized, and biogenic emissions appear to largely control the formation of organic aerosols. Seasonal variations of sources and meteorological impacts likely resulted in the highly oxygenated feature of aerosols.
Jonathan V. Trueblood, Alessia Nicosia, Anja Engel, Birthe Zäncker, Matteo Rinaldi, Evelyn Freney, Melilotus Thyssen, Ingrid Obernosterer, Julie Dinasquet, Franco Belosi, Antonio Tovar-Sánchez, Araceli Rodriguez-Romero, Gianni Santachiara, Cécile Guieu, and Karine Sellegri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4659–4676,Short summary
Sea spray aerosols (SSAs) can be an important source of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) that impact cloud properties over the oceans. In the Mediterranean Sea, we found that the INPs in the seawater surface microlayer increased by an order of magnitude after a rain dust event that impacted iron and bacterial abundances. The INP properties of SSA (INPSSA) increased after a 3 d delay. Outside this event, INPSSA could be parameterized as a function of the seawater biogeochemistry.
Jiayun Li, Liming Cao, Wenkang Gao, Lingyan He, Yingchao Yan, Yuexin He, Yuepeng Pan, Dongsheng Ji, Zirui Liu, and Yuesi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4521–4539,Short summary
For the first time, we investigated the highly time-resolved chemical characterization, sources and evolution of atmospheric submicron aerosols at a regional background site in the North China Plain (NCP) using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer and evaluated the seasonal differentials of photochemical and aqueous-phase processing on SOA composition and oxidation degree of OA. The results will help to understand air pollution in the NCP on a regional scale.
Nadja Triesch, Manuela van Pinxteren, Sanja Frka, Christian Stolle, Tobias Spranger, Erik Hans Hoffmann, Xianda Gong, Heike Wex, Detlef Schulz-Bull, Blaženka Gašparović, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4267–4283,Short summary
To investigate the source of lipids and their representatives in the marine atmosphere, concerted measurements of seawater and submicrometer aerosol particle sampling were carried out on the Cabo Verde islands. This field study describes the biogenic sources of lipids, their selective transfer from the ocean into the atmosphere and their enrichment as part of organic matter. A strong enrichment of the studied representatives of the lipid classes on submicrometer aerosol particles was observed.
Miguel Ricardo A. Hilario, Ewan Crosbie, Michael Shook, Jeffrey S. Reid, Maria Obiminda L. Cambaliza, James Bernard B. Simpas, Luke Ziemba, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Phu Nguyen, F. Joseph Turk, Edward Winstead, Claire E. Robinson, Jian Wang, Jiaoshi Zhang, Yang Wang, Subin Yoon, James Flynn, Sergio L. Alvarez, Ali Behrangi, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3777–3802,Short summary
This study characterizes long-range transport from major Asian pollution sources into the tropical northwest Pacific and the impact of scavenging on these air masses. We combined aircraft observations, HYSPLIT trajectories, reanalysis, and satellite retrievals to reveal distinct composition and size distribution profiles associated with specific emission sources and wet scavenging. The results of this work have implications for international policymaking related to climate and health.
Florian Ungeheuer, Dominik van Pinxteren, and Alexander L. Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3763–3775,Short summary
We analysed the chemical composition of ultrafine particles from 10–56 nm near Frankfurt Airport based on cascade impactor samples. We used an offline non-target screening to determine size-resolved molecular fingerprints. Unambiguous attribution of two homologous ester series to jet engine oils enables a new strategy of source attribution and explains the majority of the detected compounds. In addition, we identified additives of jet oils and a detrimental thermal transformation product.
Laurent Poulain, Benjamin Fahlbusch, Gerald Spindler, Konrad Müller, Dominik van Pinxteren, Zhijun Wu, Yoshiteru Iinuma, Wolfram Birmili, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3667–3684,Short summary
We present results from source apportionment analysis on the carbonaceous aerosol particles, including organic aerosol (OA) and equivalent black carbon (eBC), allowing us to distinguish local emissions from long-range transport for OA and eBC sources. By merging online chemical measurements and considering particle number size distribution, the different air masses reaching the sampling place were described and discussed, based on their respective chemical composition and size distribution.
Wei Yuan, Ru-Jin Huang, Lu Yang, Ting Wang, Jing Duan, Jie Guo, Haiyan Ni, Yang Chen, Qi Chen, Yongjie Li, Ulrike Dusek, Colin O'Dowd, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3685–3697,Short summary
We characterized the seasonal variations in nitrated aromatic compounds (NACs) in composition, sources, and their light absorption contribution to brown carbon (BrC) aerosol in Xi'an, Northwest China. Our results show that secondary formation and vehicular emission were dominant sources in summer (~80 %), and biomass burning and coal combustion were major sources in winter (~75 %), and they indicate that the composition and sources of NACs have a profound impact on the light absorption of BrC
Kouji Adachi, Naga Oshima, Sho Ohata, Atsushi Yoshida, Nobuhiro Moteki, and Makoto Koike
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3607–3626,Short summary
Aerosol particles influence the Arctic climate by interacting with solar radiation, forming clouds, and melting surface snow and ice. Individual-particle analyses using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and model simulations provide evidence of biomass burning and anthropogenic contributions to the Arctic aerosols by showing a wide range of compositions and mixing states depending on sampling altitude. Our results reveal the aerosol aging processes and climate influences in the Arctic.
Linlin Liang, Guenter Engling, Chang Liu, Wanyun Xu, Xuyan Liu, Yuan Cheng, Zhenyu Du, Gen Zhang, Junying Sun, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3181–3192,Short summary
A unique episode with extreme biomass burning (BB) impact, with daily concentration of levoglucosan as high as 4.37 µg m-3, was captured at an area upwind of Beijing. How this extreme BB pollution event was generated and what were the chemical properties of PM2.5 under this kind severe BB pollution level in the real atmospheric environment were both presented in this measurement report. Moreover, the variation of the ratios of BB tracers during different BB pollution periods was also exhibited.
Elena Barbaro, Krystyna Koziol, Mats P. Björkman, Carmen P. Vega, Christian Zdanowicz, Tonu Martma, Jean-Charles Gallet, Daniel Kępski, Catherine Larose, Bartłomiej Luks, Florian Tolle, Thomas V. Schuler, Aleksander Uszczyk, and Andrea Spolaor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3163–3180,Short summary
This paper shows the most comprehensive seasonal snow chemistry survey to date, carried out in April 2016 across 22 sites on 7 glaciers across Svalbard. The dataset consists of the concentration, mass loading, spatial and altitudinal distribution of major ion species (Ca2+, K+, Na2+, Mg2+, NH4+, SO42−, Br−, Cl− and NO3−), together with its stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition (δ18O and δ2H) in the snowpack. This study was part of the larger Community Coordinated Snow Study in Svalbard.
Yao Wang, Yue Zhao, Yuchen Wang, Jian-Zhen Yu, Jingyuan Shao, Ping Liu, Wenfei Zhu, Zhen Cheng, Ziyue Li, Naiqiang Yan, and Huayun Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2959–2980,Short summary
Organosulfates (OSs) are important constituents and tracers of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in the atmosphere. Here we characterized the OS species in ambient aerosols in Shanghai, China. We find that the contributions of OSs and SOAs to organic aerosols have increased in recent years and that OS production was largely controlled by the oxidant level (Ox), particularly in summer. We infer that mitigation of Ox pollution can effectively reduce the production of OSs and SOAs in eastern China.
Ren-Guo Zhu, Hua-Yun Xiao, Li Luo, Hongwei Xiao, Zequn Wen, Yuwen Zhu, Xiaozheng Fang, Yuanyuan Pan, and Zhenping Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2585–2600,Short summary
Amino acids (AAs), as important organic nitrogen compounds, play key roles in the nitrogen cycles, climate change and public health. The sources and transformation of AAs in two size-segregated aerosol particles were explored. This study presents the first isotopic evidence that the sources of AAs for fine and coarse aerosol particles may be similar. And the potentially significant role of bacterial degradation processes in aerosol protein degradation state was suggested.
Runlong Cai, Chao Yan, Dongsen Yang, Rujing Yin, Yiqun Lu, Chenjuan Deng, Yueyun Fu, Jiaxin Ruan, Xiaoxiao Li, Jenni Kontkanen, Qiang Zhang, Juha Kangasluoma, Yan Ma, Jiming Hao, Douglas R. Worsnop, Federico Bianchi, Pauli Paasonen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, Lin Wang, Jun Zheng, Markku Kulmala, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2457–2468,Short summary
Based on long-term measurements, we discovered that the collision of H2SO4–amine clusters is the governing mechanism that initializes fast new particle formation in the polluted atmospheric environment of urban Beijing. The mechanism and the governing factors for H2SO4–amine nucleation in the polluted atmosphere are quantitatively investigated in this study.
Lei Liu, Jian Zhang, Yinxiao Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Liang Xu, Qi Yuan, Dantong Liu, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Zongbo Shi, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2251–2265,Short summary
We found that large numbers of light-absorbing primary organic particles with high viscosity, especially tarballs, from domestic coal and biomass burning occurred in rural and even urban hazes in the winter of North China. For the first time, we characterized the atmospheric aging process of these burning-related primary organic particles by microscopic analysis and further evaluated their light absorption enhancement resulting from the “lensing effect” of secondary inorganic coatings.
Songyun Fan, Yuan Gao, Robert M. Sherrell, Shun Yu, and Kaixuan Bu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2105–2124,Short summary
Aerosol sampling was carried out at Palmer Station in the west Antarctic Peninsula during the austral summer of 2016–2017. This study generated new data on the concentrations and particle-size distributions of aerosol trace elements in the marine atmosphere over this region. Measurement data allowed estimating the dry deposition fluxes. The new results are critically important to understanding the properties of aerosol particles and regional biogeochemical cycles.
Qing Yu, Jing Chen, Weihua Qin, Siming Cheng, Yuepeng Zhang, Yuewei Sun, Ke Xin, and Mushtaq Ahmad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1775–1796,Short summary
Water-soluble organic aerosols have significant impacts on haze formation, climate change and human health. This study investigated the characteristics of WSOC in PM2.5 in Beijing to compare the source contributions of different WSOC fractions and the influencing factors for different secondary components in WSOC. Our results help to propose control measures for WSOC during severe haze episodes and underline the importance of SOA properties and heterogeneous reactions in different seasons.
Tianzeng Chen, Jun Liu, Qingxin Ma, Biwu Chu, Peng Zhang, Jinzhu Ma, Yongchun Liu, Cheng Zhong, Pengfei Liu, Yafei Wang, Yujing Mu, and Hong He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1341–1356,Short summary
Effects of photochemical aging on the formation and evolution of summertime secondary aerosol were systematically investigated in a suburb of Beijing. Higher PM1 concentration accompanied longer photochemical age (ta). Sulfate and more-oxidized OOA formation were significantly sensitive to the increase in ta, and their contributions were greatly enhanced at elevated ta levels. Our results suggested that photochemical aging process played a crucial role in PM1 and O3 pollution in summertime.
Yujiao Zhu, Likun Xue, Jian Gao, Jianmin Chen, Hongyong Li, Yong Zhao, Zhaoxin Guo, Tianshu Chen, Liang Wen, Penggang Zheng, Ye Shan, Xinfeng Wang, Tao Wang, Xiaohong Yao, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1305–1323,Short summary
This work investigates the long-term changes in new particle formation (NPF) events under reduced SO2 emissions at the summit of Mt. Tai during seven campaigns from 2007 to 2018. We found the NPF intensity increased 2- to 3-fold in 2018 compared to 2007. In contrast, the probability of new particles growing to CCN size largely decreased. Changes to biogenic VOCs and anthropogenic emissions are proposed to explain the distinct NPF characteristics.
Yuying Wang, Zhanqing Li, Qiuyan Wang, Xiaoai Jin, Peng Yan, Maureen Cribb, Yanan Li, Cheng Yuan, Hao Wu, Tong Wu, Rongmin Ren, and Zhaoxin Cai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 915–926,Short summary
The unexpected increase in surface ozone concentration was found along with the reduced anthropogenic emissions during the 2019 Chinese Spring Festival in Beijing. The enhanced atmospheric oxidation capacity could promote the formation of secondary aerosols, especially sulfate, which offset the decrease in PM2.5 mass concentration. This phenomenon was likely to exist throughout the entire Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) region to be a contributing factor to the haze during the COVID-19 lockdown.
Kevin J. Sanchez, Bo Zhang, Hongyu Liu, Georges Saliba, Chia-Li Chen, Savannah L. Lewis, Lynn M. Russell, Michael A. Shook, Ewan C. Crosbie, Luke D. Ziemba, Matthew D. Brown, Taylor J. Shingler, Claire E. Robinson, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Edward L. Winstead, Carolyn Jordan, Patricia K. Quinn, Timothy S. Bates, Jack Porter, Thomas G. Bell, Eric S. Saltzman, Michael J. Behrenfeld, and Richard H. Moore
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 831–851,Short summary
Models describing atmospheric airflow were combined with satellite measurements representative of marine phytoplankton and other meteorological variables. These combined variables were compared to measured aerosol to identify upwind influences on aerosol concentrations. Results indicate that phytoplankton production rates upwind impact the aerosol mass. Also, results suggest that the condensation of mass onto short-lived large sea spray particles may be a significant sink of aerosol mass.
Pragati Rai, Jay G. Slowik, Markus Furger, Imad El Haddad, Suzanne Visser, Yandong Tong, Atinderpal Singh, Günther Wehrle, Varun Kumar, Anna K. Tobler, Deepika Bhattu, Liwei Wang, Dilip Ganguly, Neeraj Rastogi, Ru-Jin Huang, Jaroslaw Necki, Junji Cao, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 717–730,Short summary
We present a simple conceptual framework based on elemental size distributions and enrichment factors that allows for a characterization of major sources, site-to-site similarities, and local differences and the identification of key information required for efficient policy development. Absolute concentrations are by far the highest in Delhi, followed by Beijing, and then the European cities.
Yue Zhou, Christopher P. West, Anusha P. S. Hettiyadura, Xiaoying Niu, Hui Wen, Jiecan Cui, Tenglong Shi, Wei Pu, Xin Wang, and Alexander Laskin
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We present a comprehensive characterization of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in seasonal snow of northwestern China. We applied complementary multi-modal analytical techniques to investigate bulk and molecular-level composition, optical properties, and sources of WSOC. For the first time, we estimated the extent of radiative forcing due to WSOC in snow using model simulation, and showed profound influences of WSOC on the energy budget of mid-latitude seasonal snowpack.
Jenna C. Ditto, Megan He, Tori N. Hass-Mitchell, Samar G. Moussa, Katherine Hayden, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Amy Leithead, Patrick Lee, Michael J. Wheeler, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, and Drew R. Gentner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 255–267,Short summary
Forest fires are an important source of reactive organic gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. We analyzed organic aerosols collected from an aircraft above a boreal forest fire and reported an increasing contribution from compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur as the plume aged, with sulfide and ring-bound nitrogen functionality. Our results demonstrated chemistry that is important in biomass burning but also in urban/developing regions with high local nitrogen and sulfur emissions.
Nadja Triesch, Manuela van Pinxteren, Anja Engel, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 163–181,Short summary
To investigate the sources of free amino acids (FAAs) in the marine atmosphere, concerted measurements (the simultaneous investigation of seawater, size-segregated aerosol particles and cloud water) were performed at the Cabo Verde islands. This study describes the transfer of FAAs as part of organic matter from the ocean into the atmosphere on a molecular level. In the investigated marine environment, a high enrichment of FAAs in submicron aerosol particles and in cloud droplets was observed.
Liya Ma, Yujiao Zhu, Mei Zheng, Yele Sun, Lei Huang, Xiaohuan Liu, Yang Gao, Yanjie Shen, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 183–200,Short summary
In this study, we investigate three patterns of new particles growing to CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) size, i.e., one-stage growth and two-stage growth-A and growth-B patterns. Combining the observations of gaseous pollutants and measured or modeled particulate chemical species, the three growth patterns were discussed regarding the spatial heterogeneity, formation of secondary aerosols, and evaporation of semivolatile particulates as was the survival probability of new particles to CCN size.
Charlotte M. Beall, Jennifer M. Michaud, Meredith A. Fish, Julie Dinasquet, Gavin C. Cornwell, M. Dale Stokes, Michael D. Burkart, Thomas C. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, and Kimberly A. Prather
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Ice nucleating particles (INPs) can influence multiple climate-relevant cloud properties by triggering droplet freezing at relative humidities below or temperatures above the freezing point of water. The ocean is a significant INP source, yet the specific identities of marine INPs remain largely unknown. Here we identify 14 ice nucleating microbes from aerosol and precipitation samples collected at a coastal site in Southern California, two or more of which are marine.
Rui Li, Yilong Zhao, and Hongbo Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The rapid response to COVID-19 pandemic led to the unprecedented decreases of economic activities, thereby reducing the pollutant emissions. The strict lockdown measures significantly decreased primary components such as Cr (−201 %) and Fe (−154 %) in PM2.5, whereas the higher relative humidity (RH) and NH3 level, and the lower air temperature (T) enhanced the production of secondary aerosol including SO42− (47.2 %), NO3− (38.6 %), and NH4+ (22.7 %).
Haiyan Ni, Ru-Jin Huang, Max M. Cosijn, Lu Yang, Jie Guo, Junji Cao, and Ulrike Dusek
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 16041–16053,Short summary
We investigated sources of carbonaceous aerosols in Beijing and Xi'an during severe winter haze. Elemental carbon (EC) was dominated by vehicle emissions in Xi’an and coal burning in Beijing. Organic carbon (OC) increment during haze days was driven by the increase in primary and secondary OC (SOC). SOC was more from fossil sources in Beijing than Xi’an, especially during haze days. In Xi’an, no strong day–night differences in EC or OC sources suggest a large accumulation of particles.
Michael J. Lawler, Savannah L. Lewis, Lynn M. Russell, Patricia K. Quinn, Timothy S. Bates, Derek J. Coffman, Lucia M. Upchurch, and Eric S. Saltzman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 16007–16022,Short summary
This work describes new measurements of aerosol (particles) composition over the North Atlantic Ocean. It provides concentrations of polysaccharide material likely made from organisms in the surface ocean and improves our understanding of the relative importance of such fresh biogenic material compared to more recalcitrant organic carbon in forming marine organic aerosol. We aim ultimately to understand the role that ocean biology plays in cloud formation in marine regions.
Connor Stahl, Melliza Templonuevo Cruz, Paola Angela Bañaga, Grace Betito, Rachel A. Braun, Mojtaba Azadi Aghdam, Maria Obiminda Cambaliza, Genevieve Rose Lorenzo, Alexander B. MacDonald, Miguel Ricardo A. Hilario, Preciosa Corazon Pabroa, John Robin Yee, James Bernard Simpas, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15907–15935,Short summary
Long-term (16-month) high-frequency (weekly) measurements of size-resolved aerosol composition are reported. Important insights are discussed about factors (e.g., transport, fires, precipitation, photo-oxidation) impacting the mass size distributions of organic and sulfonic acids at a coastal megacity with diverse meteorology. The size-resolved nature of the data yielded one such finding that organic acids preferentially adsorb to dust rather than sea salt particles.
Yiqun Han, Wu Chen, Lia Chatzidiakou, Anika Krause, Li Yan, Hanbin Zhang, Queenie Chan, Ben Barratt, Rod Jones, Jing Liu, Yangfeng Wu, Meiping Zhao, Junfeng Zhang, Frank J. Kelly, Tong Zhu, and the AIRLESS team
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15775–15792,Short summary
Panel studies might be the most suitable way to link intensive air monitoring campaigns for a wide range of pollutant species and personal exposure in different micro-environments, together with epidemiological studies of detailed biological changes in humans. Panel studies are intensive, but related papers are very limited. With the successful collection of a rich dataset, we believe AIRLESS sets a good example for the design of a multidisciplinary study.
Danitza Klopper, Paola Formenti, Andreas Namwoonde, Mathieu Cazaunau, Servanne Chevaillier, Anaïs Feron, Cécile Gaimoz, Patrick Hease, Fadi Lahmidi, Cécile Mirande-Bret, Sylvain Triquet, Zirui Zeng, and Stuart J. Piketh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15811–15833,Short summary
The chemical composition of aerosol particles is very important as it determines to which extent they can affect the Earth's climate by acting with solar light and modifying the properties of clouds. The South Atlantic region is a remote and under-explored region to date where these effects could be important. The measurements presented in this paper consist in the analysis of samples collected at a coastal site in Namibia. The first long-term source apportionment is presented and discussed.
Wenjie Wang, David D. Parrish, Xin Li, Min Shao, Ying Liu, Ziwei Mo, Sihua Lu, Min Hu, Xin Fang, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15617–15633,Short summary
During the past decade, China has devoted very substantial resources to improving the environment. These efforts have improved atmospheric particulate matter loading, but ambient ozone levels have continued to increase. In this paper we investigate the causes of the increasing ozone concentrations through analysis of a data set that is, to our knowledge, unique: a 12-year data set including ground-level O3, NOx, and VOC precursors collected at an urban site in Beijing.
Marta Via, María Cruz Minguillón, Cristina Reche, Xavier Querol, and Andrés Alastuey
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Atmospheric pollutants have been measured in an urban environment by means of state-of-the-art tecniques allowing to identify the origin and the sources of pollution. Last years are shown to be increasingly dominated by non-directly emitted particulate matter. Gathered knowledge about the sources of atmospheric pollutants is mandatory to design effective mitigation policies.
Qiyuan Wang, Huikun Liu, Ping Wang, Wenting Dai, Ting Zhang, Youzhi Zhao, Jie Tian, Wenyan Zhang, Yongming Han, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15537–15549,Short summary
Light-absorbing carbonaceous (LAC) aerosol is an important influencing factor for global climate forcing. In this study, we used a receptor model coupling multi-wavelength absorption with chemical species to explore the source-specific LAC optical properties at a tropical marine monsoon climate zone. The results can improve our understanding of the LAC radiative effects caused by ship emissions.
Karl Espen Yttri, Francesco Canonaco, Sabine Eckhardt, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Markus Fiebig, Hans Gundersen, Anne-Gunn Hjellbrekke, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Stephen Matthew Platt, André S.H. Prévôt, David Simpson, Sverre Solberg, Jason Surratt, Kjetil Tørseth, Hilde Uggerud, Marit Vadset, Xin Wan, and Wenche Aas
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Carbonaceous aerosol sources and trends were studied at the Birkenes Observatory, a site representative of the Northern European region. A large decrease in EC (−3.9 % to −4.2 % yr−1) (2001–2018) and a smaller decline in levoglucosan (−2.8 % yr−1) (2008–2018), suggest that OC / EC from traffic/industry is decreasing, while abatement of OC / EC from biomass burning is less successful. PMF apportioned 72 % of EC to fossil fuel sources and 53 % (PM2.5) and 78 % (PM10-2.5) of OC to biogenic sources.
Hongling Yin, Jinfeng Liang, Di Wu, Shiping Li, Yi Luo, and Xu Deng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14933–14945,Short summary
Samples were collected from six ground-based sites located in Chengdu, a typical rapidly developing metropolitan area in Southwest China, and were analysed for seven OPEs in atmospheric PM2.5 (Σ7 OPEs). The concentrations of Σ7 OPEs were higher in autumn and winter than in summer. In contrast to coastal cities, sustained and stable high local emissions in the inland city studied were identified, which is particularly noteworthy.
Qingqing Yu, Xiang Ding, Quanfu He, Weiqiang Yang, Ming Zhu, Sheng Li, Runqi Zhang, Ruqin Shen, Yanli Zhang, Xinhui Bi, Yuesi Wang, Ping'an Peng, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14581–14595,Short summary
We carried out a 1-year PM concurrent observation at 12 sites across six regions of China, and size-segregated PAHs were measured. We found both PAHs and BaPeq were concentrated in PM1.1, and northern China had higher PAHs' pollution and inhalation cancer risk than southern China. Nationwide increases in both PAH levels and inhalation cancer risk occurred in winter. We suggest reducing coal and biofuel consumption in the residential sector is an important option to mitigate PAHs' health risks.
Qingcai Chen, Haoyao Sun, Wenhuai Song, Fang Cao, Chongguo Tian, and Yan-Lin Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14407–14417,Short summary
This study found environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are widely present in atmospheric particles of different particle sizes and exhibit significant particle size distribution characteristics. EPFR concentrations are higher in coarse particles than in fine particles in summer and vice versa in winter. The potential toxicity caused by EPFRs may also vary with particle size and season. Combustion is the most important source of EPFRs (>70 %).
Junjun Deng, Hao Guo, Hongliang Zhang, Jialei Zhu, Xin Wang, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14419–14435,Short summary
One-year source apportionment of BC aerosols in a coastal city in China was conducted with the light-absorption observation-based method and source-oriented model. Source contributions identified by the two source apportionment methods were compared. Temporal variability, potential sources and transport pathways of BC from fossil fuel and biomass burning were characterized. Significant influence of biomass burning in North and East–Central China on BC in the region was highlighted.
Liang Xu, Satoshi Fukushima, Sophie Sobanska, Kotaro Murata, Ayumi Naganuma, Lei Liu, Yuanyuan Wang, Hongya Niu, Zongbo Shi, Tomoko Kojima, Daizhou Zhang, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14321–14332,Short summary
We quantified the mixing structures of soot particles and found that the dominant mixing structure changed from fresh to partially embedded to fully embedded along the pathway of an Asian dust storm from eastern China to Japan. Soot particles became more compact following transport. Our findings not only provide direct evidence for soot aging during regional transport but also help us understand how their morphology changes in different air environments.
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Brock, C. A., Hudson, P. K., Lovejoy, E. R., Sullivan, A., Nowak, J. B., Huey, L. G., Cooper, O. R., Cziczo, D. J., de Gouw, J., Fehsenfeld, F. C., Holloway, J. S., Hubler, G., Lafleur, B. G., Murphy, D. M., Neuman, J. A., Nicks, D. K., Orsini, D. A., Parrish, D. D., Ryerson, T. B., Tanner, D. J., Warneke, C., Weber, R. J., and Wilson, J. C.: Particle characteristics following cloud-modified transport from Asia to North America, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 109, D23S26, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003jd004198, 2004.
Chacon-Madrid, H. J., Presto, A. A., and Donahue, N. M.: Functionalization vs. fragmentation: n-aldehyde oxidation mechanisms and secondary organic aerosol formation, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 12, 13975–13982, https://doi.org/10.1039/C0cp00200c, 2010.
Choi, J., Kim, J., Lee, T., Choi, Y., Park, T., Oh, J., Park, J., Ahn, J., Jeon, H., Koo, Y., Kim, S., Hong, Y., and Hong, J.: A Study on Chemical Characteristics of Aerosol Composition at West Inflow Regions in the Korean Peninsula I. Characteristics of PM Concentration and Chemical Components, J. Korea Soc. Atmos. Environ., 32, 469–484, https://doi.org/10.5572/KOSAE.2016.32.5.469, 2016.
Cubison, M. J., Ortega, A. M., Hayes, P. L., Farmer, D. K., Day, D., Lechner, M. J., Brune, W. H., Apel, E., Diskin, G. S., Fisher, J. A., Fuelberg, H. E., Hecobian, A., Knapp, D. J., Mikoviny, T., Riemer, D., Sachse, G. W., Sessions, W., Weber, R. J., Weinheimer, A. J., Wisthaler, A., and Jimenez, J. L.: Effects of aging on organic aerosol from open biomass burning smoke in aircraft and laboratory studies, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 12049–12064, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-12049-2011, 2011.
Donahue, N. M., Robinson, A. L., Stanier, C. O., and Pandis, S. N.: Coupled partitioning, dilution, and chemical aging of semivolatile organics, Environ. Sci. Technol., 40, 2635–2643, https://doi.org/10.1021/Es052297c, 2006.
Dunlea, E. J., DeCarlo, P. F., Aiken, A. C., Kimmel, J. R., Peltier, R. E., Weber, R. J., Tomlinson, J., Collins, D. R., Shinozuka, Y., McNaughton, C. S., Howell, S. G., Clarke, A. D., Emmons, L. K., Apel, E. C., Pfister, G. G., van Donkelaar, A., Martin, R. V., Millet, D. B., Heald, C. L., and Jimenez, J. L.: Evolution of Asian aerosols during transpacific transport in INTEX-B, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 7257–7287, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-7257-2009, 2009.
Feiner, P., Brune, W., Miller, D., Zhang, L., Cohen, R., Romer, P., Goldstein, A., Keutsch, F., Skog, K., Wennberg, P., Nguyen, T., Teng, A., DeGouw, J., Koss, A., Wild, R., Brown, S., Guenther, A., Edgerton, E., Baumann, K., and Fry, J.: Testing Atmospheric Oxidation in an Alabama Forest, J. Atmos. Sci., 73, 4699–4710, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-16-0044.1, 2016.
George, I. J. and Abbatt, J. P. D.: Chemical evolution of secondary organic aerosol from OH-initiated heterogeneous oxidation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 5551–5563, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-5551-2010, 2010.
Hallquist, M., Wenger, J. C., Baltensperger, U., Rudich, Y., Simpson, D., Claeys, M., Dommen, J., Donahue, N. M., George, C., Goldstein, A. H., Hamilton, J. F., Herrmann, H., Hoffmann, T., Iinuma, Y., Jang, M., Jenkin, M. E., Jimenez, J. L., Kiendler-Scharr, A., Maenhaut, W., McFiggans, G., Mentel, Th. F., Monod, A., Prév[̂o]t, A. S. H., Seinfeld, J. H., Surratt, J. D., Szmigielski, R., and Wildt, J.: The formation, properties and impact of secondary organic aerosol: current and emerging issues, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 5155–5236, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-5155-2009, 2009.
Hayes, P. L., Carlton, A. G., Baker, K. R., Ahmadov, R., Washenfelder, R. A., Alvarez, S., Rappenglück, B., Gilman, J. B., Kuster, W. C., de Gouw, J. A., Zotter, P., Prévôt, A. S. H., Szidat, S., Kleindienst, T. E., Offenberg, J. H., Ma, P. K., and Jimenez, J. L.: Modeling the formation and aging of secondary organic aerosols in Los Angeles during CalNex 2010, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5773–5801, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-5773-2015, 2015.
Heald, C. L., Kroll, J. H., Jimenez, J. L., Docherty, K. S., DeCarlo, P. F., Aiken, A. C., Chen, Q., Martin, S. T., Farmer, D. K., and Artaxo, P.: A simplified description of the evolution of organic aerosol composition in the atmosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L08803, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010gl042737, 2010.
Henry, K. M. and Donahue, N. M.: Photochemical Aging of alpha-Pinene Secondary Organic Aerosol: Effects of OH Radical Sources and Photolysis, J. Phys. Chem. A, 116, 5932–5940, https://doi.org/10.1021/Jp210288s, 2012.
Hu, W. W., Hu, M., Yuan, B., Jimenez, J. L., Tang, Q., Peng, J. F., Hu, W., Shao, M., Wang, M., Zeng, L. M., Wu, Y. S., Gong, Z. H., Huang, X. F., and He, L. Y.: Insights on organic aerosol aging and the influence of coal combustion at a regional receptor site of central eastern China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10095–10112, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-10095-2013, 2013.
Hu, W., Palm, B. B., Day, D. A., Campuzano-Jost, P., Krechmer, J. E., Peng, Z., de Sá, S. S., Martin, S. T., Alexander, M. L., Baumann, K., Hacker, L., Kiendler-Scharr, A., Koss, A. R., de Gouw, J. A., Goldstein, A. H., Seco, R., Sjostedt, S. J., Park, J.-H., Guenther, A. B., Kim, S., Canonaco, F., Prévôt, A. S. H., Brune, W. H., and Jimenez, J. L.: Volatility and lifetime against OH heterogeneous reaction of ambient isoprene-epoxydiols-derived secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11563–11580, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-11563-2016, 2016.
Huang, R. J., Zhang, Y., Bozzetti, C., Ho, K. F., Cao, J. J., Han, Y., Daellenbach, K. R., Slowik, J. G., Platt, S. M., Canonaco, F., Zotter, P., Wolf, R., Pieber, S. M., Bruns, E. A., Crippa, M., Ciarelli, G., Piazzalunga, A., Schwikowski, M., Abbaszade, G., Schnelle-Kreis, J., Zimmermann, R., An, Z., Szidat, S., Baltensperger, U., Haddad, I. E., and Prevot, A. S. H.: High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China, Nature, 514, 218–222, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13774, 2014.
Jang, M., Czoschke, N. M., Northcross, A. L., Cao, G., and Shaof, D.: SOA formation from partitioning and heterogeneous reactions: Model study in the presence of inorganic species, Environ. Sci. Technol., 40, 3013–3022, https://doi.org/10.1021/Es0511220, 2006.
Jang, M. S., Czoschke, N. M., Lee, S., and Kamens, R. M.: Heterogeneous atmospheric aerosol production by acid-catalyzed particle-phase reactions, Science, 298, 814–817, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1075798, 2002.
Jimenez, J. L., Canagaratna, M. R., Donahue, N. M., Prevot, A. S. H., Zhang, Q., Kroll, J. H., DeCarlo, P. F., Allan, J. D., Coe, H., Ng, N. L., Aiken, A. C., Docherty, K. S., Ulbrich, I. M., Grieshop, A. P., Robinson, A. L., Duplissy, J., Smith, J. D., Wilson, K. R., Lanz, V. A., Hueglin, C., Sun, Y. L., Tian, J., Laaksonen, A., Raatikainen, T., Rautiainen, J., Vaattovaara, P., Ehn, M., Kulmala, M., Tomlinson, J. M., Collins, D. R., Cubison, M. J., Dunlea, E. J., Huffman, J. A., Onasch, T. B., Alfarra, M. R., Williams, P. I., Bower, K., Kondo, Y., Schneider, J., Drewnick, F., Borrmann, S., Weimer, S., Demerjian, K., Salcedo, D., Cottrell, L., Griffin, R., Takami, A., Miyoshi, T., Hatakeyama, S., Shimono, A., Sun, J. Y., Zhang, Y. M., Dzepina, K., Kimmel, J. R., Sueper, D., Jayne, J. T., Herndon, S. C., Trimborn, A. M., Williams, L. R., Wood, E. C., Middlebrook, A. M., Kolb, C. E., Baltensperger, U., and Worsnop, D. R.: Evolution of Organic Aerosols in the Atmosphere, Science, 326, 1525–1529, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1180353, 2009.
Kang, E., Root, M. J., Toohey, D. W., and Brune, W. H.: Introducing the concept of Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 5727–5744, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-5727-2007, 2007.
Kang, E., Brune, W. H., Kim, S., Yoon, S. C., Jung, M., and Lee, M.: A preliminary PAM measurement of ambient air at Gosan, Jeju to study the secondary aerosol forming potential, J. Korean Soc. Atmos. Environ., 27, 534–544, https://doi.org/10.5572/KOSAE.2011.27.5.534, 2011a.
Kang, E., Toohey, D. W., and Brune, W. H.: Dependence of SOA oxidation on organic aerosol mass concentration and OH exposure: experimental PAM chamber studies, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 1837–1852, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-1837-2011, 2011b.
Kang, E., Han, J., Lee, M., Lee, G., and Kim, J. C.: Chemical characteristics of size-resolved aerosols from Asian dust and haze episode in Seoul metropolitan city, Atmos. Res., 127, 34–46, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2013.02.002, 2013.
Kessler, S. H., Nah, T., Daumit, K. E., Smith, J. D., Leone, S. R., Kolb, C. E., Worsnop, D. R., Wilson, K. R., and Kroll, J. H.: OH-Initiated Heterogeneous Aging of Highly Oxidized Organic Aerosol, J. Phys. Chem. A, 116, 6358–6365, https://doi.org/10.1021/Jp212131m, 2012.
Kim, Y. J., Woo, J.-H., Ma, Y.-I., Kim, S., Nam, J. S., Sung, H., Choi, K.-C., Seo, J., Kim, J. S., Kang, C.-H., Lee, G., Ro, C.-U., Chang, D., and Sunwoo, Y.: Chemical characteristics of long-range transport aerosol at background sites in Korea, Atmos. Environ., 43, 5556–5566, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.03.062, 2009.
King, S. M., Rosenoern, T., Shilling, J. E., Chen, Q., Wang, Z., Biskos, G., McKinney, K. A., Pöschl, U., and Martin, S. T.: Cloud droplet activation of mixed organic-sulfate particles produced by the photooxidation of isoprene, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 3953–3964, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-3953-2010, 2010.
Kroll, J. H. and Seinfeld, J. H.: Chemistry of secondary organic aerosol: Formation and evolution of low-volatility organics in the atmosphere, Atmos. Environ., 42, 3593–3624, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.01.003, 2008.
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A potential aerosol mass (PAM) reactor expedites slow atmospheric oxidation reactions and enables the observation of chemical aging processes and the determination of the aerosol-forming power of an air mass. A PAM reactor was deployed at Baengnyeong Island in the Yellow Sea. Experimental results confirm the key role of SO2 in generating secondary aerosols in northeast Asia, and the contribution of organics to secondary aerosols is more variable during transport in the atmosphere.
A potential aerosol mass (PAM) reactor expedites slow atmospheric oxidation reactions and...