Articles | Volume 18, issue 5
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3505–3521, 2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Special issue: Anthropogenic dust and its climate impact
Research article 09 Mar 2018
Research article | 09 Mar 2018
Environmentally dependent dust chemistry of a super Asian dust storm in March 2010: observation and simulation
Qiongzhen Wang et al.
No articles found.
Yun Fat Lam, Chi Chiu Cheung, Xuguo Zhang, Joshua S. Fu, and Jimmy Chi Hung Fung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12895–12908,Short summary
In recent years, air pollution forecasting has become an important municipal service of the government. In this study, a new spatial allocation method based on satellite remote sensing and GIS techniques was developed to address the spatial deficiency of industrial source emissions in China, providing a substantial improvement on NO2 and PM2.5 forecast for the Pearl River Delta/Greater Bay Area.
Maggie Chel-Gee Ooi, Ming-Tung Chuang, Joshua S. Fu, Steven S. Kong, Wei-Syun Huang, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Sittichai Pimonsree, Andy Chan, Shantanu Kumar Pani, and Neng-Huei Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12521–12541,Short summary
There is very limited local modeling effort in Southeast Asia, where haze is an annually recurring threat. In this work, the accuracy of haze prediction is improved not only at the burning source but also at the downwind site in northern Southeast Asia to highlight the influence of trans-boundary haze, which is often regional. The burning haze is carried to the populated west of Taiwan via several mechanisms, with the most severe conditions related to the boreal winter pressure system.
Syuichi Itahashi, Baozhu Ge, Keiichi Sato, Zhe Wang, Junichi Kurokawa, Jiani Tan, Kan Huang, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8709–8734,Short summary
This study presents the detailed analysis of acid deposition over southeast Asia based on the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) phase III. Simulated wet deposition is evaluated with observation data from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). The difficulties of models to capture observations are related to the model performance on precipitation. The precipitation-adjusted approach was applied, and the distribution of wet deposition was successfully revised.
Na Zhao, Xinyi Dong, Kan Huang, Joshua S. Fu, Marianne Tronstad Lund, Kengo Sudo, Daven Henze, Tom Kucsera, Yun Fat Lam, Mian Chin, and Simone Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8637–8654,Short summary
Black carbon acts as a strong climate forcer, especially in vulnerable pristine regions such as the Arctic. This work utilizes ensemble modeling results from the task force Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution Phase 2 to investigate the responses of Arctic black carbon and surface temperature to various source emission reductions. East Asia contributed the most to Arctic black carbon. The response of Arctic temperature to black carbon was substantially more sensitive than the global average.
Yaman Liu, Xinyi Dong, Minghuai Wang, Louisa K. Emmons, Yawen Liu, Yuan Liang, Xiao Li, and Manish Shrivastava
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8003–8021,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is considered one of the most important uncertainties in climate modeling. We evaluate SOA performance in the Community Earth System Model version 2.1 (CESM2.1) configured with the Community Atmosphere Model version 6 with chemistry (CAM6-Chem) through a long-term simulation (1988–2019) with observations in the United States, which indicates monoterpene-formed SOA contributes most to the overestimation of SOA at the surface and underestimation in the upper air.
Xinyi Dong, Man Yue, Yujun Jiang, Xiao-Ming Hu, Qianli Ma, Jingjiao Pu, and Guangqiang Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7217–7233,Short summary
The dynamics of CO2 has received considerable attention in the literature, yet uncertainties remain. We applied an online coupled weather-biosphere model to simulate biosphere processes and meteorology simultaneously to characterize CO2 dynamics in China. Anthropogenic emission was more influential in upper air, and the biosphere flux played a more important role in surface CO2, suggesting a significant influence of the boundary layer thermal structure on the accumulation and depletion of CO2.
Kun Zhang, Ling Huang, Qing Li, Juntao Huo, Yusen Duan, Yuhang Wang, Elly Yaluk, Yangjun Wang, Qingyan Fu, and Li Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5905–5917,Short summary
Recently, high O3 concentrations were frequently observed in rural areas of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region under stagnant conditions. Using an online measurement and observation-based model, we investigated the budget of ROx radicals and the influence of isoprene chemistry on O3 formation. Our results underline that isoprene chemistry in the rural atmosphere becomes important with the participation of anthropogenic NOx.
Ling Huang, Yonghui Zhu, Hehe Zhai, Shuhui Xue, Tianyi Zhu, Yun Shao, Ziyi Liu, Chris Emery, Greg Yarwood, Yangjun Wang, Joshua Fu, Kun Zhang, and Li Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2725–2743,Short summary
Numerical air quality models (AQMs) are being applied extensively to address diverse scientific and regulatory compliance associated with deteriorating air quality in China. For any AQM applications, model performance evaluation is a critical step that guarantees the robustness and reliability of the baseline modeling results and subsequent applications. We provided benchmarks for model performance evaluation of AQM applications in China to demonstrate model robustness.
Ming-Tung Chuang, Maggie Chel Gee Ooi, Neng-Huei Lin, Joshua S. Fu, Chung-Te Lee, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Ming-Cheng Yen, Steven Soon-Kai Kong, and Wei-Syun Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14947–14967,Short summary
This study evaluated the impact of Asian haze from the three biggest industrial regions on Taiwan and analyzed the process during transport. The production and removal process revealed the mechanisms of long-range transport. This is the first time that the brute force method and process analysis technique has been applied in a Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System. Also, this study simulated the interesting transboundary transport of pollutants from southern mainland China to Taiwan.
Hajime Akimoto, Tatsuya Nagashima, Natsumi Kawano, Li Jie, Joshua S. Fu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15003–15014,Short summary
In order to perform proper model simulation of ozone near the ground in the coastal area of northeastern Asia, it has been found that it is very important to select appropriate dry deposition velocities of ozone on the oceanic water of specific area of the northwestern Pacific. Empirical measurement of the mixing ratios and dry deposition flux of ozone over the ocean in this area is highly recommended.
Rui Li, Qiongqiong Wang, Xiao He, Shuhui Zhu, Kun Zhang, Yusen Duan, Qingyan Fu, Liping Qiao, Yangjun Wang, Ling Huang, Li Li, and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12047–12061,
Xiaofei Qin, Leiming Zhang, Guochen Wang, Xiaohao Wang, Qingyan Fu, Jian Xu, Hao Li, Jia Chen, Qianbiao Zhao, Yanfen Lin, Juntao Huo, Fengwen Wang, Kan Huang, and Congrui Deng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10985–10996,Short summary
The uncertainties in mercury emissions are much larger from natural sources than anthropogenic sources. A method was developed to quantify the contributions of natural surface emissions to ambient GEM based on PMF modeling. The annual GEM concentration in eastern China showed a decreasing trend from 2015 to 2018, while the relative contribution of natural surface emissions increased significantly from 41 % in 2015 to 57 % in 2018, gradually surpassing those from anthropogenic sources.
Baozhu Ge, Syuichi Itahashi, Keiichi Sato, Danhui Xu, Junhua Wang, Fan Fan, Qixin Tan, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Meigen Zhang, Zhe Wang, Meng Li, Jung-Hun Woo, Junichi Kurokawa, Yuepeng Pan, Qizhong Wu, Xuejun Liu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10587–10610,Short summary
Performances of the simulated deposition for different reduced N (Nr) species in China were conducted with the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia. Results showed that simulated wet deposition of oxidized N was overestimated in northeastern China and underestimated in south China, but Nr was underpredicted in all regions by all models. Oxidized N has larger uncertainties than Nr, indicating that the chemical reaction process is one of the most importance factors affecting model performance.
Jiani Tan, Joshua S. Fu, Gregory R. Carmichael, Syuichi Itahashi, Zhining Tao, Kan Huang, Xinyi Dong, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Xuemei Wang, Yiming Liu, Hyo-Jung Lee, Chuan-Yao Lin, Baozhu Ge, Mizuo Kajino, Jia Zhu, Meigen Zhang, Hong Liao, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7393–7410,Short summary
This study evaluated the performance of 12 chemical transport models from MICS-Asia III for predicting the particulate matter (PM) over East Asia. Four model processes were investigated as the possible reasons for model bias with measurements and the factors causing inconsistent predictions of PM from different models: (1) model inputs, (2) gas–particle conversion, (3) dust emission modules and (4) removal mechanisms (wet and dry depositions). The influence of each process was discussed.
Jian Xu, Jia Chen, Na Zhao, Guochen Wang, Guangyuan Yu, Hao Li, Juntao Huo, Yanfen Lin, Qingyan Fu, Hongyu Guo, Congrui Deng, Shan-Hu Lee, Jianmin Chen, and Kan Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7259–7269,Short summary
This study provided evidence that gas-particle partitioning of ammonia, as opposed to ammonia concentration, plays a critical role in the haze formation. A reduction in ammonia emissions alone may not reduce air pollution effectively, at least at rural agricultural sites in China.
Zhi-Zhen Ni, Kun Luo, Yang Gao, Xiang Gao, Fei Jiang, Cheng Huang, Jian-Ren Fan, Joshua S. Fu, and Chang-Hong Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5963–5976,Short summary
The Weather Research Forecast with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model was used to simulate spatial and temporal O3 evolution in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region. Various atmospheric processes were analyzed to determine the influential factors of ozone formation through the integrated process rate method. This paper provides insight into urban O3 formation and dispersion during tropical cyclone events and supports the Model Intercomparison Study Asia Phase III (MICS-Asia Phase III).
Syuichi Itahashi, Baozhu Ge, Keiichi Sato, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Meigen Zhang, Zhe Wang, Meng Li, Junichi Kurokawa, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2667–2693,Short summary
This study gives an overview of acid deposition from the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) phase III. Wet deposition simulated by a total of nine models is evaluated with observation data from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). The total deposition maps comparing to emissions over Asia are presented. To seek a way to improve the model performance, ensemble approaches and the precipitation-adjusted method are discussed.
Meng Gao, Zhiwei Han, Zhining Tao, Jiawei Li, Jeong-Eon Kang, Kan Huang, Xinyi Dong, Bingliang Zhuang, Shu Li, Baozhu Ge, Qizhong Wu, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Joshua S. Fu, Tijian Wang, Mian Chin, Meng Li, Jung-Hun Woo, Qiang Zhang, Yafang Cheng, Zifa Wang, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1147–1161,Short summary
Topic 3 of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) Phase III examines how online coupled air quality models perform in simulating high aerosol pollution in the North China Plain region during wintertime haze events and evaluates the importance of aerosol radiative feedbacks. This paper discusses the estimates of aerosol radiative forcing, aerosol feedbacks, and possible causes for the differences among the models.
Lei Kong, Xiao Tang, Jiang Zhu, Zifa Wang, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Syuichi Itahashi, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Chuan-Yao Lin, Lei Chen, Meigen Zhang, Zhining Tao, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Zhe Wang, Kengo Sudo, Yuesi Wang, Yuepeng Pan, Guiqian Tang, Meng Li, Qizhong Wu, Baozhu Ge, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 181–202,Short summary
Evaluation and uncertainty investigation of NO2, CO and NH3 modeling over China were conducted in this study using 14 chemical transport model results from MICS-Asia III. All models largely underestimated CO concentrations and showed very poor performance in reproducing the observed monthly variations of NH3 concentrations. Potential factors related to such deficiencies are investigated and discussed in this paper.
Jie Li, Tatsuya Nagashima, Lei Kong, Baozhu Ge, Kazuyo Yamaji, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Qi Fan, Syuichi Itahashi, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Chuan-Yao Lin, Meigen Zhang, Zhining Tao, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Meng Li, Jung-Hun Woo, Jun-ichi Kurokawa, Zhe Wang, Qizhong Wu, Hajime Akimoto, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12993–13015,Short summary
This study evaluated and intercompared 14 CTMs with ozone observations in East Asia, within the framework of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for ASIA Phase III (MICS-Asia III). Potential causes of the discrepancies between model results and observation were investigated by assessing the planetary boundary layer heights, emission fluxes, dry deposition, chemistry and vertical transport among models. Finally, a multi-model estimate of pollution distributions was provided.
Lei Chen, Yi Gao, Meigen Zhang, Joshua S. Fu, Jia Zhu, Hong Liao, Jialin Li, Kan Huang, Baozhu Ge, Xuemei Wang, Yun Fat Lam, Chuan-Yao Lin, Syuichi Itahashi, Tatsuya Nagashima, Mizuo Kajino, Kazuyo Yamaji, Zifa Wang, and Jun-ichi Kurokawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11911–11937,Short summary
Simulated aerosol concentrations from 14 CTMs within the framework of MICS-Asia III are detailedly evaluated with an extensive set of measurements in East Asia. Similarities and differences among model performances are also analyzed. Although more considerable capacities for reproducing the aerosol concentrations and their variations are shown in current CTMs than those in MICS-Asia II, more efforts are needed to reduce diversities of simulated aerosol concentrations among air quality models.
Rui Li, Lulu Cui, Yilong Zhao, Ziyu Zhang, Tianming Sun, Junlin Li, Wenhui Zhou, Ya Meng, Kan Huang, and Hongbo Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11043–11070,Short summary
Acid deposition is still an important environmental issue in China. Rainwater samples in 320 cities in China were collected to determine the acidic ion concentrations and identify their spatiotemporal variations and sources. The higher acidic ions showed higher concentrations in winter. Furthermore, the highest acidic ion concentrations were mainly distributed in YRD and SB. These acidic ions were mainly sourced from industrial emissions and agricultural activities.
Shengqian Zhou, Haowen Li, Tianjiao Yang, Ying Chen, Congrui Deng, Yahui Gao, Changping Chen, and Jian Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10447–10467,Short summary
An integrated observation on aerosol aminiums over a coastal city in eastern China, a nearby island and the surrounding marginal seas was conducted. Aminium concentrations exhibited significant spatiotemporal variation, which is dependent on their sources and environmental factors, including boundary layer height, temperature, atmospheric oxidizing capacity and relative humidity. The contributions of terrestrial and marine sources to aminiums over coastal areas were quantitatively calculated.
Li Li, Shuhui Zhu, Jingyu An, Min Zhou, Hongli Wang, Rusha Yan, Liping Qiao, Xudong Tian, Lijuan Shen, Ling Huang, Yangjun Wang, Cheng Huang, Jeremy C. Avise, and Joshua S. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9037–9060,Short summary
Heavy haze usually occurs in winter in eastern China. To control the severe air pollution during the season, comprehensive regional joint-control strategies were implemented throughout a campaign. To evaluate the effectiveness of these strategies and to provide some insight into strengthening the joint-control mechanism, the influence of control measures on levels of air pollution was estimated in this paper.
Jianming Xu, Xuexi Tie, Wei Gao, Yanfen Lin, and Qingyan Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9017–9035,Short summary
The PM2.5 in China has decreased significantly in recent years as a result of the implementation of the Chinese Clean Air Action Plan in 2013, while the O3 pollution is getting worse, especially in megacities. The work aims to better understand the elevated O3 pollution in the megacity of Shanghai, China, and its response to emission changes, which is important for developing an effective emission control strategy in the future.
Xinning Wang, Yin Shen, Yanfen Lin, Jun Pan, Yan Zhang, Peter K. K. Louie, Mei Li, and Qingyan Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6315–6330,Short summary
Shipping emissions were measured online at Shanghai Port, and their impacts on local air quality at the port and in the surrounding area were quantitatively assessed. Ship emission plumes were readily detectable before they dissipated. We captured ship emission plumes using synchronized peaks of SO2 and vanadium particles. By measuring the pollutant concentrations during plumes and their occurrence frequency, we made quantitative estimations of ship emission impacts on port air quality.
Junlan Feng, Yan Zhang, Shanshan Li, Jingbo Mao, Allison P. Patton, Yuyan Zhou, Weichun Ma, Cong Liu, Haidong Kan, Cheng Huang, Jingyu An, Li Li, Yin Shen, Qingyan Fu, Xinning Wang, Juan Liu, Shuxiao Wang, Dian Ding, Jie Cheng, Wangqi Ge, Hong Zhu, and Katherine Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6167–6183,Short summary
This study aims to estimate the emissions, air quality and population exposure impacts of shipping in 2015, prior to the implementation of the DECAs. It shows that ship emissions within 12 NM of the shore could account for over 55 % of the shipping impact on air pollution in the YRD in summer. Ships entering the Yangtze River and other inland waterways of Shanghai contribute 40–80 % of the ship-related air pollution and population exposure，which both have important implications regarding policy.
Xiaofei Qin, Xiaohao Wang, Yijie Shi, Guangyuan Yu, Na Zhao, Yanfen Lin, Qingyan Fu, Dongfang Wang, Zhouqing Xie, Congrui Deng, and Kan Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5923–5940,Short summary
The seasonal pattern of atmospheric mercury species over a regional transport intersection zone in east China indicated impacts from both natural re-emissions and anthropogenic emissions. Quasi-local sources were more important than long-range transport for mercury, opposite from particles. Shipping activities were especially outstanding emissions. Abnormally high GOM was ascribed to the high oxidant levels. The gas–particle partition inhibited the formation of GOM under high particle levels.
Zhaofeng Tan, Keding Lu, Meiqing Jiang, Rong Su, Hongli Wang, Shengrong Lou, Qingyan Fu, Chongzhi Zhai, Qinwen Tan, Dingli Yue, Duohong Chen, Zhanshan Wang, Shaodong Xie, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3493–3513,Short summary
We evaluated the atmospheric oxidation capacity (AOC) in four Chinese megacities during photochemically polluted seasons. The chemical production of ozone and particle nitrate was diagnosed through a box model, which can be attributed to daytime radical chemistry. Our work highlights that the formation of both ozone and fine particles is largely driven by the atmospheric radical chemistry in China. Consequently, we suggest future pollution mitigation strategies should consider the role of AOC.
Hajime Akimoto, Tatsuya Nagashima, Jie Li, Joshua S. Fu, Dongsheng Ji, Jiani Tan, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 603–615,Short summary
The regional model intercomparison study called MICS-Asia III revealed that substantial discrepancy still exists for surface ozone simulation in East Asia, even though common emissions, meteorological field, and boundary conditions have been used among the models. Three factors have been identified as possible causes of such discrepancy, (1) chemistry sub-models, (2) heterogeneous reactions, and (3) vertical transport parameters, and each component has been discussed.
Xinyi Dong, Joshua S. Fu, Qingzhao Zhu, Jian Sun, Jiani Tan, Terry Keating, Takashi Sekiya, Kengo Sudo, Louisa Emmons, Simone Tilmes, Jan Eiof Jonson, Michael Schulz, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Yanko Davila, Daven Henze, Toshihiko Takemura, Anna Maria Katarina Benedictow, and Kan Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15581–15600,Short summary
We have applied the HTAP phase II multi-model data to investigate the long-range transport impacts on surface concentration and column density of PM from Europe and Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine to eastern Asia, with a special focus on the long-range transport contribution during haze episodes in China. We found that long-range transport plays a more important role in elevating the background concentration of surface PM during the haze days.
Ying Ji, Xiaofei Qin, Bo Wang, Jian Xu, Jiandong Shen, Jianmin Chen, Kan Huang, Congrui Deng, Renchang Yan, Kaier Xu, and Tian Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13581–13600,Short summary
Large-scale joint emission control measures were carried out in the Yangtze River Delta during the Hangzhou G20 Summit in 2016. The extent of secondary inorganic aerosol formation was found to be significantly enhanced under transport conditions from northern China. However, the formation of secondary organic aerosols was also greatly suppressed due to the emission control measures. Overall, it was found that regional/long-range transport could have offset part of the emission control efforts.
Jiani Tan, Joshua S. Fu, Frank Dentener, Jian Sun, Louisa Emmons, Simone Tilmes, Johannes Flemming, Toshihiko Takemura, Huisheng Bian, Qingzhao Zhu, Cheng-En Yang, and Terry Keating
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12223–12240,Short summary
Have contributions of hemispheric air pollution to deposition at global scale been overlooked in the past years? How do we assess the critical load for the acid deposition when we look for the demand of forest and crop? This study highlights the significant impact of hemispheric transport on deposition in coastal regions, open ocean and low-emission regions. Further research is proposed for improving ecosystem and human health in these regions, with regards to the enhanced hemispheric transport.
Yunhua Chang, Kan Huang, Mingjie Xie, Congrui Deng, Zhong Zou, Shoudong Liu, and Yanlin Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11793–11812,Short summary
We continuously performed a one-year and hourly-resolved measurement of 18 atmospheric elements in PM2.5 in Shanghai megacity. Here our high time-resolution observations over a long-term period provide baseline data with high detail, which are of great use for examining acute exposure of morbidity and mortality risk in association with PM2.5 metal species in China's megacities.
Stefano Galmarini, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Efisio Solazzo, Ummugulsum Alyuz, Alessandra Balzarini, Roberto Bellasio, Anna M. K. Benedictow, Roberto Bianconi, Johannes Bieser, Joergen Brandt, Jesper H. Christensen, Augustin Colette, Gabriele Curci, Yanko Davila, Xinyi Dong, Johannes Flemming, Xavier Francis, Andrea Fraser, Joshua Fu, Daven K. Henze, Christian Hogrefe, Ulas Im, Marta Garcia Vivanco, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, Jan Eiof Jonson, Nutthida Kitwiroon, Astrid Manders, Rohit Mathur, Laura Palacios-Peña, Guido Pirovano, Luca Pozzoli, Marie Prank, Martin Schultz, Rajeet S. Sokhi, Kengo Sudo, Paolo Tuccella, Toshihiko Takemura, Takashi Sekiya, and Alper Unal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8727–8744,Short summary
An ensemble of model results relating to ozone concentrations in Europe in 2010 has been produced and studied. The novelty consists in the fact that the ensemble is made of results of models working at two different scales (regional and global), therefore contributing in detail two different parts of the atmospheric spectrum. The ensemble defined as a hybrid has been studied in detail and shown to bring additional value to the assessment of air quality.
Jiani Tan, Joshua S. Fu, Frank Dentener, Jian Sun, Louisa Emmons, Simone Tilmes, Kengo Sudo, Johannes Flemming, Jan Eiof Jonson, Sylvie Gravel, Huisheng Bian, Yanko Davila, Daven K. Henze, Marianne T. Lund, Tom Kucsera, Toshihiko Takemura, and Terry Keating
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6847–6866,Short summary
We study the distributions of sulfur and nitrogen deposition, which are associated with current environmental issues such as formation of acid rain and ecosystem eutrophication and result in widespread problems such as loss of environmental diversity, harming the crop yield and even food insecurity. According to our study, both the amount and distribution of sulfate and nitrogen deposition have changed significantly in the last decade, particularly in East Asia, South Asia and Southeast Asia.
Meng Gao, Zhiwei Han, Zirui Liu, Meng Li, Jinyuan Xin, Zhining Tao, Jiawei Li, Jeong-Eon Kang, Kan Huang, Xinyi Dong, Bingliang Zhuang, Shu Li, Baozhu Ge, Qizhong Wu, Yafang Cheng, Yuesi Wang, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Joshua S. Fu, Tijian Wang, Mian Chin, Jung-Hun Woo, Qiang Zhang, Zifa Wang, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4859–4884,Short summary
Topic 3 of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) Phase III examines how online coupled air quality models perform in simulating high aerosol pollution in the North China Plain region during wintertime haze events and evaluates the importance of aerosol radiative and microphysical feedbacks. A comprehensive overview of the MICS-ASIA III Topic 3 study design is presented.
Bin Zhao, Wenjing Wu, Shuxiao Wang, Jia Xing, Xing Chang, Kuo-Nan Liou, Jonathan H. Jiang, Yu Gu, Carey Jang, Joshua S. Fu, Yun Zhu, Jiandong Wang, Yan Lin, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12031–12050,Short summary
Using over 1000 chemical transport model simulations in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, we find that the emissions of primary inorganic PM2.5 make the largest contribution to PM2.5 concentrations and thus should be prioritized in PM2.5 control strategies. Among the precursors, PM2.5 concentrations are primarily sensitive to the emissions of NH3, NMVOC+IVOC, and POA, and the sensitivities increase substantially for NH3 and NHx with the increase in emission reduction ratio.
Yunhua Chang, Congrui Deng, Fang Cao, Chang Cao, Zhong Zou, Shoudong Liu, Xuhui Lee, Jun Li, Gan Zhang, and Yanlin Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9945–9964,Short summary
This paper presents the results from a 5-year and near-real-time measurement study of carbonaceous aerosols in PM2.5 conducted at an urban site in Shanghai. Moreover, we integrated the results from historical field measurements and satellite observations, concluding that carbonaceous aerosol pollution in Shanghai has gradually reduced since 2006. This can be largely explained by the introduction of air-cleaning measures such as controlling vehicular emissions.
Stefano Galmarini, Brigitte Koffi, Efisio Solazzo, Terry Keating, Christian Hogrefe, Michael Schulz, Anna Benedictow, Jan Jurgen Griesfeller, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Greg Carmichael, Joshua Fu, and Frank Dentener
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1543–1555,Short summary
We present an overview of the coordinated global numerical modelling experiments performed during 2012–2016 by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP), the regional experiments by the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) over Europe and North America, and the Model Intercomparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia). Given the organizational complexity of bringing together these three initiatives, the experiment organization is presented.
Yunhua Chang, Xuejun Liu, Congrui Deng, Anthony J. Dore, and Guoshun Zhuang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11635–11647,Short summary
First, we establish a pool of isotopic signatures (δ15N–NH3) for the major NH3 emission sources in China. Second, we demonstrated that the isotopic source signatures of NH3 represent an emerging tool for partitioning NH3 sources in urban atmospheres.
Xinyi Dong, Joshua S. Fu, Kan Huang, Daniel Tong, and Guoshun Zhuang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8157–8180,Short summary
The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model has been further developed in terms of simulating natural wind-blown dust in this study, with a series of modifications aimed at improving the model's capability to predict the emission, transport, and chemical reactions of dust aerosols. Evaluation with observations suggested improved model performance by correcting the double counting of soil moisture impact, applying source-dependent speciation profile, and implementing heterogeneous chemitry.
Yunhua Chang, Zhong Zou, Congrui Deng, Kan Huang, Jeffrey L. Collett, Jing Lin, and Guoshun Zhuang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3577–3594,Short summary
This study linked a long-term and near real-time measurement of NH3 at one of China’s flagship supersites with a vehicle source-specific campaign performed inside and outside of a major freeway tunnel in Shanghai. Our results clearly show that vehicle emissions associated with combustion are an important NH3 source in Shanghai urban areas and may have potential implications for PM2.5 pollution in the urban atmosphere.
N. Li, T.-M. Fu, J. J. Cao, J. Y. Zheng, Q. Y. He, X. Long, Z. Z. Zhao, N. Y. Cao, J. S. Fu, and Y. F. Lam
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Y. Zhang, N. Mahowald, R. A. Scanza, E. Journet, K. Desboeufs, S. Albani, J. F. Kok, G. Zhuang, Y. Chen, D. D. Cohen, A. Paytan, M. D. Patey, E. P. Achterberg, J. P. Engelbrecht, and K. W. Fomba
Biogeosciences, 12, 5771–5792,Short summary
A new technique to determine a size-fractionated global soil elemental emission inventory based on a global soil and mineralogical data set is introduced. Spatial variability of mineral dust elemental fractions (8 elements, e.g., Ca, Fe, Al) is identified on a global scale, particularly for Ca. The Ca/Al ratio ranged between 0.1 and 5.0 and is confirmed as an indicator of dust source regions by a global dust model. Total and soluble dust element fluxes into different ocean basins are estimated.
D. C. Wong, C. E. Yang, J. S. Fu, K. Wong, and Y. Gao
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1033–1046,
S. Xiao, M. Y. Wang, L. Yao, M. Kulmala, B. Zhou, X. Yang, J. M. Chen, D. F. Wang, Q. Y. Fu, D. R. Worsnop, and L. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1769–1781,
B. Zhao, S. X. Wang, J. Xing, K. Fu, J. S. Fu, C. Jang, Y. Zhu, X. Y. Dong, Y. Gao, W. J. Wu, J. D. Wang, and J. M. Hao
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 115–128,
K. Huang, G. Zhuang, Q. Wang, J. S. Fu, Y. Lin, T. Liu, L. Han, and C. Deng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Y. Gao, J. S. Fu, J. B. Drake, J.-F. Lamarque, and Y. Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9607–9621,
Y. Kanaya, H. Akimoto, Z.-F. Wang, P. Pochanart, K. Kawamura, Y. Liu, J. Li, Y. Komazaki, H. Irie, X.-L. Pan, F. Taketani, K. Yamaji, H. Tanimoto, S. Inomata, S. Kato, J. Suthawaree, K. Okuzawa, G. Wang, S. G. Aggarwal, P. Q. Fu, T. Wang, J. Gao, Y. Wang, and G. Zhuang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8265–8283,
K. Huang, G. Zhuang, Y. Lin, Q. Wang, J. S. Fu, Q. Fu, T. Liu, and C. Deng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5927–5942,
J.-T. Lin, Z. Liu, Q. Zhang, H. Liu, J. Mao, and G. Zhuang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 12255–12275,
K. Huang, G. Zhuang, Y. Lin, Q. Wang, J. S. Fu, R. Zhang, J. Li, C. Deng, and Q. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 11631–11645,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Dramatic changes in Harbin aerosol during 2018–2020: the roles of open burning policy and secondary aerosol formationTime-dependent source apportionment of submicron organic aerosol for a rural site in an alpine valley using a rolling positive matrix factorisation (PMF) windowCharacterization of non-refractory (NR) PM1 and source apportionment of organic aerosol in Kraków, PolandSources of black carbon at residential and traffic environments obtained by two source apportionment methodsReduced volatility of aerosols from surface emissions to the top of the planetary boundary layerMeasurement report: Receptor modeling for source identification of urban fine and coarse particulate matter using hourly elemental compositionPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitrated and oxygenated derivatives in the Arctic boundary layer: seasonal trends and local anthropogenic influenceMeasurement report: The chemical composition of and temporal variability in aerosol particles at Tuktoyaktuk, Canada, during the Year of Polar Prediction Second Special Observing PeriodAmmonium nitrate promotes sulfate formation through uptake kinetic regimeMeasurement report: Indirect evidence for the controlling influence of acidity on the speciation of iodine in Atlantic aerosolsUrban aerosol chemistry at a land–water transition site during summer – Part 1: Impact of agricultural and industrial ammonia emissionsMeasurement report: Vertical distribution of biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosols in the urban boundary layer over Beijing during late summerSource-specific light absorption by carbonaceous components in the complex aerosol matrix from yearly filter-based measurementsVariability in black carbon mass concentration in surface snow at SvalbardRapid mass growth and enhanced light extinction of atmospheric aerosols during the heating season haze episodes in Beijing revealed by aerosol–chemistry–radiation–boundary layer interactionMeasurement report: Saccharide composition in atmospheric fine particulate matter during spring at the remote sites of southwest China and estimates of source contributionsGas–particle partitioning of polyol tracers at a suburban site in Nanjing, east China: increased partitioning to the particle phaseMeasurement report: Source characteristics of water-soluble organic carbon in PM2.5 at two sites in Japan, as assessed by long-term observation and stable carbon isotope ratioThe importance of sesquiterpene oxidation products for secondary organic aerosol formation in a springtime hemiboreal forestPM1 composition and source apportionment at two sites in Delhi, India, across multiple seasonsIncrease of nitrooxy organosulfates in firework-related urban aerosols during Chinese New Year's EveDifferentiation of coarse-mode anthropogenic, marine and dust particles in the High Arctic islands of SvalbardSource apportionment of atmospheric PM10 oxidative potential: synthesis of 15 year-round urban datasets in FranceMeasurement report: Long-emission-wavelength chromophores dominate the light absorption of brown carbon in aerosols over Bangkok: impact from biomass burningSecondary organic aerosols from anthropogenic volatile organic compounds contribute substantially to air pollution mortalityMediterranean nascent sea spray organic aerosol and relationships with seawater biogeochemistrySeasonal analysis of submicron aerosol in Old Delhi using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry: chemical characterisation, source apportionment and new marker identificationEight years of sub-micrometre organic aerosol composition data from the boreal forest characterized using a machine-learning approachQuantification of solid fuel combustion and aqueous chemistry contributions to secondary organic aerosol during wintertime haze events in BeijingLarge seasonal and interannual variations of biogenic sulfur compounds in the Arctic atmosphere (Svalbard; 78.9° N, 11.9° E)Disparities in particulate matter (PM10) origins and oxidative potential at a city scale (Grenoble, France) – Part 2: Sources of PM10 oxidative potential using multiple linear regression analysis and the predictive applicability of multilayer perceptron neural network analysisContribution of combustion Fe in marine aerosols over the northwestern Pacific estimated by Fe stable isotope ratiosInter-annual variations of wet deposition in Beijing from 2014–2017: implications of below-cloud scavenging of inorganic aerosolsSources and nature of ice-nucleating particles in the free troposphere at Jungfraujoch in winter 2017Urban organic aerosol composition in eastern China differs from north to south: molecular insight from a liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (Orbitrap) studyCultivable halotolerant ice-nucleating bacteria and fungi in coastal precipitationDetermination of free amino acids, saccharides, and selected microbes in biogenic atmospheric aerosols – seasonal variations, particle size distribution, chemical and microbial relationsPhysical and chemical properties of urban aerosols in São Paulo, Brazil: links between composition and size distribution of submicron particlesSubstantial changes in gaseous pollutants and chemical compositions in fine particles in the North China Plain during the COVID-19 lockdown period: anthropogenic vs. meteorological influencesMeasurement report: Spatiotemporal and policy-related variations of PM2.5 compositions and sources during 2015–2019 at multisite of a Chinese megacityMeasurement report: Molecular composition, optical properties, and radiative effects of water-soluble organic carbon in snowpack samples from northern Xinjiang, ChinaSpatiotemporal Variability in the Oxidative Potential of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter in Midwestern United StatesSignificant contrasts in aerosol acidity between China and the United StatesIncrease in secondary organic aerosol in an urban environmentCarbonaceous aerosol composition in air masses influenced by large-scale biomass burning: a case study in northwestern VietnamThe role of coarse aerosol particles as a sink of HNO3 in wintertime pollution events in the Salt Lake ValleyMolecular characterization of gaseous and particulate oxygenated compounds at a remote site in Cape Corsica in the western Mediterranean BasinAircraft measurements of aerosol and trace gas chemistry in the eastern North AtlanticImpacts of the COVID-19 lockdown on air pollution at regional and urban background sites in northern ItalyMeasurement report: Fourteen months of real-time characterisation of the submicronic aerosol and its atmospheric dynamics at the Marseille–Longchamp supersite
Yuan Cheng, Qin-qin Yu, Jiu-meng Liu, Xu-bing Cao, Ying-jie Zhong, Zhen-yu Du, Lin-lin Liang, Guan-nan Geng, Wan-li Ma, Hong Qi, Qiang Zhang, and Ke-bin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15199–15211,Short summary
Open burning policies in Heilongjiang Province experienced a rapid transition during 2018 to 2020. This study evaluated the responses of PM2.5 pollution to this transition and suggested that neither of the policies could be considered successful. In addition, heterogeneous reactions were found to be at play in secondary aerosol formation, even in the frigid atmosphere in Heilongjiang. The unique haze in northeast China deserves more attention.
Gang Chen, Yulia Sosedova, Francesco Canonaco, Roman Fröhlich, Anna Tobler, Athanasia Vlachou, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Carlo Bozzetti, Christoph Hueglin, Peter Graf, Urs Baltensperger, Jay G. Slowik, Imad El Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15081–15101,Short summary
A novel, advanced source apportionment technique was applied to a dataset measured in Magadino. Rolling positive matrix factorisation (PMF) allows for retrieving more realistic, time-dependent, and detailed information on organic aerosol sources. The strength of the rolling PMF mechanism is highlighted by comparing it with results derived from conventional seasonal PMF. Overall, this comprehensive interpretation of aerosol chemical speciation monitor data could be a role model for similar work.
Anna K. Tobler, Alicja Skiba, Francesco Canonaco, Griša Močnik, Pragati Rai, Gang Chen, Jakub Bartyzel, Miroslaw Zimnoch, Katarzyna Styszko, Jaroslaw Nęcki, Markus Furger, Kazimierz Różański, Urs Baltensperger, Jay G. Slowik, and Andre S. H. Prevot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14893–14906,Short summary
Kraków is among the cities with the highest particulate matter levels within Europe. We conducted long-term and highly time-resolved measurements of the chemical composition of submicron particlulate matter (PM1). Combined with advanced source apportionment techniques, which allow for time-dependent factor profiles, our results elucidate that traffic and residential heating (biomass burning and coal combustion) as well as oxygenated organic aerosol are the key PM sources in Kraków.
Sanna Saarikoski, Jarkko V. Niemi, Minna Aurela, Liisa Pirjola, Anu Kousa, Topi Rönkkö, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14851–14869,Short summary
This study presents the main sources of black carbon (BC) at two urban environments. The largest fraction of BC originated from biomass burning at the residential site (38 %) and from vehicular emissions (57 %) in the street canyon. Also, a significant fraction of BC was associated with urban background or long-range transport. The data are needed by modelers and authorities when assessing climate and air quality impact of BC as well as directing the emission legislation and mitigation actions.
Quan Liu, Dantong Liu, Yangzhou Wu, Kai Bi, Wenkang Gao, Ping Tian, Delong Zhao, Siyuan Li, Chenjie Yu, Guiqian Tang, Yunfei Wu, Kang Hu, Shuo Ding, Qian Gao, Fei Wang, Shaofei Kong, Hui He, Mengyu Huang, and Deping Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14749–14760,Short summary
Through simultaneous online measurements of detailed aerosol compositions at both surface and surface-influenced mountain sites, the evolution of aerosol composition during daytime vertical transport was investigated. The results show that, from surface to the top of the planetary boundary layer, the oxidation state of organic aerosol had been significantly enhanced due to evaporation and further oxidation of these evaporated gases.
Magdalena Reizer, Giulia Calzolai, Katarzyna Maciejewska, José A. G. Orza, Luca Carraresi, Franco Lucarelli, and Katarzyna Juda-Rezler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14471–14492,Short summary
The elemental composition of atmospheric PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 was measured during wintertime, with 1 h resolution, using a streaker sampler for the first time at a Central European urban background site. A set of multivariate and wind- and trajectory-based receptor models identified the main sources of ambient aerosol. Fine PM fraction was mainly comprised of regionally transported aged secondary sulfate from residential solid fuel combustion, while the coarse mode showed traffic-related origins.
Tatiana Drotikova, Alena Dekhtyareva, Roland Kallenborn, and Alexandre Albinet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14351–14370,Short summary
A total of 86 polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), toxic compounds mainly emitted after fossil fuel combustion, were measured during 8 months in the urban air of Longyearbyen (78° N, 15° E), the most populated settlement in Svalbard. Contrary to a stereotype of pristine Arctic conditions with very low human activity, considerable PAC concentrations were detected, with spring levels comparable to European levels. Air pollution was caused by local snowmobiles in spring and shipping in summer.
John MacInnis, Jai Prakash Chaubey, Crystal Weagle, David Atkinson, and Rachel Ying-Wen Chang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14199–14213,Short summary
This study measured particulate matter in the western Canadian Arctic during 2018 as part of the Year of Polar Prediction. It was found that the particles were likely from the ocean, soil, road dust, and combustion. The concentrations of small aerosol particles, which can affect human health, were low, suggesting they had little impact on local air quality. These results can be used to understand future changes in local aerosol particle sources and concentrations.
Yongchun Liu, Zemin Feng, Feixue Zheng, Xiaolei Bao, Pengfei Liu, Yanli Ge, Yan Zhao, Tao Jiang, Yunwen Liao, Yusheng Zhang, Xiaolong Fan, Chao Yan, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Wei Du, Jing Cai, Federico Bianchi, Tuukka Petäjä, Yujing Mu, Hong He, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13269–13286,Short summary
The mechanisms and kinetics of particulate sulfate formation in the atmosphere are still open questions although they have been extensively discussed. We found that uptake of SO2 is the rate-determining step for the conversion of SO2 to particulate sulfate. NH4NO3 plays an important role in AWC, the phase state of aerosol particles, and subsequently the uptake kinetics of SO2 under high-RH conditions. This work is a good example of the feedback between aerosol physics and aerosol chemistry.
Alex R. Baker and Chan Yodle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13067–13076,Short summary
Iodine is emitted from the ocean and helps to destroy ozone in the lower atmosphere before being taken up into aerosol particles. We measured the chemical forms of iodine in aerosols over the Atlantic Ocean, because some of these forms can return to the gas phase and destroy more ozone. Our results indicate that aerosol acidity exerts a strong control on iodine speciation and therefore on its recycling behaviour and impact on ozone concentrations.
Nicholas Balasus, Michael A. Battaglia Jr., Katherine Ball, Vanessa Caicedo, Ruben Delgado, Annmarie G. Carlton, and Christopher J. Hennigan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13051–13065,Short summary
Measurements of aerosol and gas composition were carried out at a land–water transition site near Baltimore, MD. Gas-phase ammonia concentrations were highly elevated compared to measurements at a nearby inland site. Our analysis reveals that NH2 was from both industrial and agricultural sources. This had a pronounced effect on aerosol chemical composition at the site, most notably contributing to episodic spikes of aerosol nitrate.
Hong Ren, Wei Hu, Lianfang Wei, Siyao Yue, Jian Zhao, Linjie Li, Libin Wu, Wanyu Zhao, Lujie Ren, Mingjie Kang, Qiaorong Xie, Sihui Su, Xiaole Pan, Zifa Wang, Yele Sun, Kimitaka Kawamura, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12949–12963,Short summary
This study presents vertical profiles of biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in the urban boundary layer based on a 325 m tower in Beijing in late summer. The increases in the isoprene and toluene SOAs with height were found to be more related to regional transport, whereas the decrease in those from monoterpenes and sesquiterpene were more subject to local emissions. Such complicated vertical distributions of SOA should be considered in future modeling work.
Vaios Moschos, Martin Gysel-Beer, Robin L. Modini, Joel C. Corbin, Dario Massabò, Camilla Costa, Silvia G. Danelli, Athanasia Vlachou, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Sönke Szidat, Paolo Prati, André S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, and Imad El Haddad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12809–12833,Short summary
This study provides a holistic approach to studying the spectrally resolved light absorption by atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) and black carbon using long time series of daily samples from filter-based measurements. The obtained results provide (1) a better understanding of the aerosol absorption profile and its dependence on BrC and on lensing from less absorbing coatings and (2) an estimation of the most important absorbers at typical European locations.
Michele Bertò, David Cappelletti, Elena Barbaro, Cristiano Varin, Jean-Charles Gallet, Krzysztof Markowicz, Anna Rozwadowska, Mauro Mazzola, Stefano Crocchianti, Luisa Poto, Paolo Laj, Carlo Barbante, and Andrea Spolaor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12479–12493,Short summary
We present the daily and seasonal variability in black carbon (BC) in surface snow inferred from two specific experiments based on the hourly and daily time resolution sampling during the Arctic spring in Svalbard. These unique data sets give us, for the first time, the opportunity to evaluate the associations between the observed surface snow BC mass concentration and a set of predictors corresponding to the considered meteorological and snow physico-chemical parameters.
Zhuohui Lin, Yonghong Wang, Feixue Zheng, Ying Zhou, Yishuo Guo, Zemin Feng, Chang Li, Yusheng Zhang, Simo Hakala, Tommy Chan, Chao Yan, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, Juha Kangasluoma, Lei Yao, Xiaolong Fan, Wei Du, Jing Cai, Runlong Cai, Tom V. Kokkonen, Putian Zhou, Lili Wang, Tuukka Petäjä, Federico Bianchi, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12173–12187,Short summary
We find that ammonium nitrate and aerosol water content contributed most during low mixing layer height conditions; this may further trigger enhanced formation of sulfate and organic aerosol via heterogeneous reactions. The results of this study contribute towards a more detailed understanding of the aerosol–chemistry–radiation–boundary layer feedback that is likely to be responsible for explosive aerosol mass growth events in urban Beijing.
Zhenzhen Wang, Di Wu, Zhuoyu Li, Xiaona Shang, Qing Li, Xiang Li, Renjie Chen, Haidong Kan, Huiling Ouyang, Xu Tang, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12227–12241,Short summary
This study firstly investigates the composition of sugars in the fine fraction of aerosol over three sites in southwest China. The result suggested no significant reduction in biomass burning emissions in southwest Yunnan Province to some extent. The result shown sheds light on the contributions of biomass burning and the characteristics of biogenic saccharides in these regions, which could be further applied to regional source apportionment models and global climate models.
Chao Qin, Yafeng Gou, Yuhang Wang, Yuhao Mao, Hong Liao, Qin'geng Wang, and Mingjie Xie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12141–12153,Short summary
In this study, we found that the aqueous solution in aerosols is an important absorbing phase for gaseous polyols in the atmosphere, indicating that the dissolution in aerosol liquid water should not be ignored when investigating gas–particle partitioning of water-soluble organics. The exponential increase in effective partitioning coefficients of polyol tracers with sulfate ion concentrations could be attributed to organic–inorganic interactions in the particle phase.
Nana Suto and Hiroto Kawashima
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11815–11828,Short summary
The sources and seasonal trends of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in PM2.5 on long-term trends at two sites in Japan are investigated by carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) of WSOC. At the rural site, the δ13C of WSOC from autumn to spring was concluded to reflect mainly the biomass burning of rice straw. The heaviest δ13C of WSOC from February to April 2019 might reflect long-range transport of particles resulting from the overseas burning of C4 plants such as corn.
Luis M. F. Barreira, Arttu Ylisirniö, Iida Pullinen, Angela Buchholz, Zijun Li, Helina Lipp, Heikki Junninen, Urmas Hõrrak, Steffen M. Noe, Alisa Krasnova, Dmitrii Krasnov, Kaia Kask, Eero Talts, Ülo Niinemets, Jose Ruiz-Jimenez, and Siegfried Schobesberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11781–11800,Short summary
We present results from PM1 atmospheric composition and concentration measurements performed in a springtime hemiboreal forest. Sesquiterpene mixing ratios and particle-phase concentrations of corresponding oxidation products were rapidly increasing on some early mornings. The particle volatility suggested that condensable sesquiterpene oxidation products are rapidly formed in the atmosphere. The results revealed the importance of sesquiterpenes for secondary organic aerosol particulate mass.
Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Upasana Panda, Eoghan Darbyshire, James M. Cash, Rutambhara Joshi, Ben Langford, Chiara F. Di Marco, Neil J. Mullinger, Mohammed S. Alam, Leigh R. Crilley, Daniel J. Rooney, W. Joe F. Acton, Will Drysdale, Eiko Nemitz, Michael Flynn, Aristeidis Voliotis, Gordon McFiggans, Hugh Coe, James Lee, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Mathew R. Heal, Sachin S. Gunthe, Tuhin K. Mandal, Bhola R. Gurjar, Shivani, Ranu Gadi, Siddhartha Singh, Vijay Soni, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11655–11667,Short summary
This paper shows the first multisite online measurements of PM1 in Delhi, India, with measurements over different seasons in Old Delhi and New Delhi in 2018. Organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment was performed using positive matrix factorisation (PMF). Traffic was the main primary aerosol source for both OAs and black carbon, seen with PMF and Aethalometer model analysis, indicating that control of primary traffic exhaust emissions would make a significant reduction to Delhi air pollution.
Qiaorong Xie, Sihui Su, Jing Chen, Yuqing Dai, Siyao Yue, Hang Su, Haijie Tong, Wanyu Zhao, Lujie Ren, Yisheng Xu, Dong Cao, Ying Li, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Cong-Qiang Liu, Kimitaka Kawamura, Guibin Jiang, Yafang Cheng, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11453–11465,Short summary
This study investigated the role of nighttime chemistry during Chinese New Year's Eve that enhances the formation of nitrooxy organosulfates in the aerosol phase. Results show that anthropogenic precursors, together with biogenic ones, considerably contribute to the formation of low-volatility nitrooxy OSs. Our study provides detailed molecular composition of firework-related aerosols, which gives new insights into the physicochemical properties and potential health effects of urban aerosols.
Congbo Song, Manuel Dall'Osto, Angelo Lupi, Mauro Mazzola, Rita Traversi, Silvia Becagli, Stefania Gilardoni, Stergios Vratolis, Karl Espen Yttri, David C. S. Beddows, Julia Schmale, James Brean, Agung Ghani Kramawijaya, Roy M. Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11317–11335,Short summary
We present a cluster analysis of relatively long-term (2015–2019) aerosol aerodynamic volume size distributions up to 20 μm in the Arctic for the first time. The study found that anthropogenic and natural aerosols comprised 27 % and 73 % of the occurrence of the coarse-mode aerosols, respectively. Our study shows that about two-thirds of the coarse-mode aerosols are related to two sea-spray-related aerosol clusters, indicating that sea spray aerosol may more complex in the Arctic environment.
Samuël Weber, Gaëlle Uzu, Olivier Favez, Lucille Joanna S. Borlaza, Aude Calas, Dalia Salameh, Florie Chevrier, Julie Allard, Jean-Luc Besombes, Alexandre Albinet, Sabrina Pontet, Boualem Mesbah, Grégory Gille, Shouwen Zhang, Cyril Pallares, Eva Leoz-Garziandia, and Jean-Luc Jaffrezo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11353–11378,Short summary
Oxidative potential (OP) of aerosols is apportioned to the main PM sources found in 15 sites over France. The sources present clear distinct intrinsic OPs at a large geographic scale, and a drastic redistribution between the mass concentration and OP measured by both ascorbic acid and dithiothreitol is highlighted. Moreover, the high discrepancy between the mean and median contributions of the sources to the given metrics raises some important questions when dealing with health endpoints.
Jiao Tang, Jiaqi Wang, Guangcai Zhong, Hongxing Jiang, Yangzhi Mo, Bolong Zhang, Xiaofei Geng, Yingjun Chen, Jianhui Tang, Congguo Tian, Surat Bualert, Jun Li, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11337–11352,Short summary
This article provides a combined EEM–PARAFAC and statistical analysis method to explore how excitation–emission matrix (EEM) chromophores influence BrC light absorption in soluble organic matter. The application enables us to deduce that BrC absorption is mainly dependent on longer-emission-wavelength chromophores largely associated with biomass burning emissions. This method promotes the application of EEM spectroscopy and helps us understand the light absorption of BrC in the atmosphere.
Benjamin A. Nault, Duseong S. Jo, Brian C. McDonald, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Weiwei Hu, Jason C. Schroder, James Allan, Donald R. Blake, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Hugh Coe, Matthew M. Coggon, Peter F. DeCarlo, Glenn S. Diskin, Rachel Dunmore, Frank Flocke, Alan Fried, Jessica B. Gilman, Georgios Gkatzelis, Jacqui F. Hamilton, Thomas F. Hanisco, Patrick L. Hayes, Daven K. Henze, Alma Hodzic, James Hopkins, Min Hu, L. Greggory Huey, B. Thomas Jobson, William C. Kuster, Alastair Lewis, Meng Li, Jin Liao, M. Omar Nawaz, Ilana B. Pollack, Jeffrey Peischl, Bernhard Rappenglück, Claire E. Reeves, Dirk Richter, James M. Roberts, Thomas B. Ryerson, Min Shao, Jacob M. Sommers, James Walega, Carsten Warneke, Petter Weibring, Glenn M. Wolfe, Dominique E. Young, Bin Yuan, Qiang Zhang, Joost A. de Gouw, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11201–11224,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is an important aspect of poor air quality for urban regions around the world, where a large fraction of the population lives. However, there is still large uncertainty in predicting SOA in urban regions. Here, we used data from 11 urban campaigns and show that the variability in SOA production in these regions is predictable and is explained by key emissions. These results are used to estimate the premature mortality associated with SOA in urban regions.
Evelyn Freney, Karine Sellegri, Alessia Nicosia, Leah R. Williams, Matteo Rinaldi, Jonathan T. Trueblood, André S. H. Prévôt, Melilotus Thyssen, Gérald Grégori, Nils Haëntjens, Julie Dinasquet, Ingrid Obernosterer, France Van Wambeke, Anja Engel, Birthe Zäncker, Karine Desboeufs, Eija Asmi, Hilkka Timonen, and Cécile Guieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10625–10641,Short summary
In this work, we present observations of the organic aerosol content in primary sea spray aerosols (SSAs) continuously generated along a 5-week cruise in the Mediterranean. This information is combined with seawater biogeochemical properties also measured continuously along the ship track to develop a number of parametrizations that can be used in models to determine SSA organic content in oligotrophic waters that represent 60 % of the oceans from commonly measured seawater variables.
James M. Cash, Ben Langford, Chiara Di Marco, Neil J. Mullinger, James Allan, Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Ruthambara Joshi, Mathew R. Heal, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Pawel K. Misztal, Will Drysdale, Tuhin K. Mandal, Shivani, Ranu Gadi, Bhola Ram Gurjar, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10133–10158,Short summary
We present the first real-time composition of submicron particulate matter (PM1) in Old Delhi using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry. Seasonal analysis shows peak concentrations occur during the post-monsoon, and novel-tracers reveal the largest sources are a combination of local open and regional crop residue burning. Strong links between increased chloride aerosol concentrations and burning sources of PM1 suggest burning sources are responsible for the post-monsoon chloride peak.
Liine Heikkinen, Mikko Äijälä, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Gang Chen, Olga Garmash, Diego Aliaga, Frans Graeffe, Meri Räty, Krista Luoma, Pasi Aalto, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10081–10109,Short summary
In many locations worldwide aerosol particles have been shown to be made up of organic aerosol (OA). The boreal forest is a region where aerosol particles possess a high OA mass fraction. Here, we studied OA composition using the longest time series of OA composition ever obtained from a boreal environment. For this purpose, we tested a new analysis framework and discovered that most of the OA was highly oxidized, with strong seasonal behaviour reflecting different sources in summer and winter.
Yandong Tong, Veronika Pospisilova, Lu Qi, Jing Duan, Yifang Gu, Varun Kumar, Pragati Rai, Giulia Stefenelli, Liwei Wang, Ying Wang, Haobin Zhong, Urs Baltensperger, Junji Cao, Ru-Jin Huang, André S. H. Prévôt, and Jay G. Slowik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9859–9886,Short summary
We investigate SOA sources and formation processes by a field deployment of the EESI-TOF-MS and L-TOF AMS in Beijing in late autumn and early winter. Our study shows that the sources and processes giving rise to haze events in Beijing are variable and seasonally dependent: (1) in the heating season, SOA formation is driven by oxidation of aromatics from solid fuel combustion; and (2) under high-NOx and RH conditions, aqueous-phase chemistry can be a major contributor to SOA formation.
Sehyun Jang, Ki-Tae Park, Kitack Lee, Young Jun Yoon, Kitae Kim, Hyun Young Chung, Eunho Jang, Silvia Becagli, Bang Yong Lee, Rita Traversi, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Radovan Krejci, and Ove Hermansen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9761–9777,Short summary
This study provides comprehensive datasets encompassing seasonal and interannual variations in sulfate and MSA concentration in aerosol particles in the Arctic atmosphere. As oxidation products of DMS have important roles in new particle formation and growth, we focused on factors affecting their variability and the branching ratio of DMS oxidation. We found a strong correlation between the ratio and the light condition, chemical properties of particles, and biological activities near Svalbard.
Lucille Joanna S. Borlaza, Samuël Weber, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Stephan Houdier, Rémy Slama, Camille Rieux, Alexandre Albinet, Steve Micallef, Cécile Trébluchon, and Gaëlle Uzu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9719–9739,Short summary
With an enhanced source apportionment obtained in a companion paper, this paper acquires more understanding of the spatiotemporal associations of the sources of PM to oxidative potential (OP), an emerging health-based metric. Multilayer perceptron neural network analysis was used to apportion OP from PM sources. Results showed that such a methodology is as robust as the linear classical inversion and permits an improvement in the OP prediction when local features or non-linear effects occur.
Minako Kurisu, Kohei Sakata, Mitsuo Uematsu, Akinori Ito, and Yoshio Takahashi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Aerosol iron (Fe) input can enhance oceanic primary production. We analyzed Fe isotope ratios of size fractionated aerosols over the northwestern Pacific to evaluate the contribution of natural and combustion Fe. It was found that combustion Fe was an important soluble Fe source in marine aerosols and possibly in surface seawater when air masses were from East Asia. This study showed the applicability of Fe isotope ratios for a more quantitative understanding of Fe cycle in the surface ocean.
Baozhu Ge, Danhui Xu, Oliver Wild, Xuefeng Yao, Junhua Wang, Xueshun Chen, Qixin Tan, Xiaole Pan, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9441–9454,Short summary
In this study, an improved sequential sampling method is developed and implemented to estimate the contribution of below-cloud and in-cloud wet deposition over four years of measurements in Beijing. We find that the contribution of below-cloud scavenging for Ca2+, SO4 2–, and NH4+ decreases from above 50 % in 2014 to below 40 % in 2017. This suggests that the Action Plan has mitigated particulate matter pollution in the surface layer and hence decreased scavenging due to the washout process.
Larissa Lacher, Hans-Christian Clemen, Xiaoli Shen, Stephan Mertes, Martin Gysel-Beer, Alireza Moallemi, Martin Steinbacher, Stephan Henne, Harald Saathoff, Ottmar Möhler, Kristina Höhler, Thea Schiebel, Daniel Weber, Jann Schrod, Johannes Schneider, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We investigate ice-nucleating particle properties at Jungfraujoch during the joint INUIT/CLACE 2017 field campaign, to improve the knowledge about those rare particles in a cloud-relevant environment. By quantifying ice-nucleating particles in parallel to single-particle mass spectrometry measurements, we find that mineral dust and aged sea spray particles are potential candidates for ice-nucleating particles. Our findings are supported by ice residual analysis and source region modelling.
Kai Wang, Ru-Jin Huang, Martin Brüggemann, Yun Zhang, Lu Yang, Haiyan Ni, Jie Guo, Meng Wang, Jiajun Han, Merete Bilde, Marianne Glasius, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9089–9104,Short summary
Here we present the detailed molecular composition of the organic aerosol collected in three eastern Chinese cities from north to south, Changchun, Shanghai and Guangzhou, by applying LC–Orbitrap analysis. Accordingly, the aromaticity degree of chemical compounds decreases from north to south, while the oxidation degree increases from north to south, which can be explained by the different anthropogenic emissions and photochemical oxidation processes.
Charlotte M. Beall, Jennifer M. Michaud, Meredith A. Fish, Julie Dinasquet, Gavin C. Cornwell, M. Dale Stokes, Michael D. Burkart, Thomas C. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, and Kimberly A. Prather
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9031–9045,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) can influence multiple climate-relevant cloud properties by triggering droplet freezing at relative humidities below or temperatures above the freezing point of water. The ocean is a significant INP source; however, the specific identities of marine INPs remain largely unknown. Here, we identify 14 ice-nucleating microbes from aerosol and precipitation samples collected at a coastal site in southern California, two or more of which are likely marine.
Jose Ruiz-Jimenez, Magdalena Okuljar, Outi-Maaria Sietiö, Giorgia Demaria, Thanaporn Liangsupree, Elisa Zagatti, Juho Aalto, Kari Hartonen, Jussi Heinonsalo, Jaana Bäck, Tuukka Petäjä, and Marja-Liisa Riekkola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8775–8790,Short summary
Altogether, 84 size-segregated aerosol samples from four particle size fractions were collected at the Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations, Hyytiälä, Finland, in autumn 2017 for the clarification of the complex interrelationships between airborne and particulate chemical traces, amino acids and saccharides, gene copy numbers (16S and 18S for bacteria and fungi, respectively), gas-phase chemistry, and the particle size distribution.
Djacinto Monteiro dos Santos, Luciana Varanda Rizzo, Samara Carbone, Patrick Schlag, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8761–8773,Short summary
The metropolitan area of São Paulo (MASP), with very extensive biofuel use, has unique atmospheric chemistry among world megacities. In this study, we examine the complex relationships between aerosol chemical composition and particle size distribution. Our findings provide a better understanding of the dynamics of the physicochemical properties of submicron particles and highlight the key role of secondary organic aerosol formation in the pollution levels in São Paulo.
Rui Li, Yilong Zhao, Hongbo Fu, Jianmin Chen, Meng Peng, and Chunying Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8677–8692,Short summary
Based on a random forest model, the strict lockdown measures significantly decreased primary components such as Cr (−67 %) and Fe (−61 %) in PM2.5 (p < 0.01), whereas the higher relative humidity (RH) and NH3 level and the lower air temperature (T) remarkably enhanced the production of secondary aerosol including SO42− (29 %), NO3− (29 %), and NH4+ (21 %) (p < 0.05). The natural experiment suggested that the NH3 emission should be strictly controlled.
Xinyao Feng, Yingze Tian, Qianqian Xue, Danlin Song, Fengxia Huang, and Yinchang Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study focused on PM2.5 compositions and sources, and explored their spatiotemporal and policy-related variations based on observation at 19 sites during wintertime of 2015–2019 in a fast-developing megacity. We found that PM2.5 compositions for outer-most zone in 2019 were similar to that for core zone two or three years ago. Percentage contributions of coal and biomass combustion dramatically declined in core zone, while traffic source showed an increasing trend.
Yue Zhou, Christopher P. West, Anusha P. S. Hettiyadura, Xiaoying Niu, Hui Wen, Jiecan Cui, Tenglong Shi, Wei Pu, Xin Wang, and Alexander Laskin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8531–8555,Short summary
We present a comprehensive characterization of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in seasonal snow of northwestern China. We applied complementary multimodal analytical techniques to investigate bulk and molecular-level composition, optical properties, and sources of WSOC. For the first time, we estimated the extent of radiative forcing due to WSOC in snow using a model simulation and showed the profound influences of WSOC on the energy budget of midlatitude seasonal snowpack.
Haoran Yu, Joseph Varghese Puthussery, Yixiang Wang, and Vishal Verma
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We assessed the oxidative potential (OP) of ambient PM2.5 collected from five sites in the Midwest US. Compared to the homogeneously distributed PM2.5 mass, OP showed high spatiotemporal variation. Weak correlations for the regression between mass and OP indicated a limited role of mass in determining the OP. Moreover, the intercorrelations among different OP endpoints were not strong, justifying the need for using multiple assays for determining the oxidative levels of the particles.
Bingqing Zhang, Huizhong Shen, Pengfei Liu, Hongyu Guo, Yongtao Hu, Yilin Chen, Shaodong Xie, Ziyan Xi, T. Nash Skipper, and Armistead G. Russell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8341–8356,Short summary
Extended ground-level measurements are coupled with model simulations to comprehensively compare the aerosol acidity in China and the United States. Aerosols in China are significantly less acidic than those in the United States, with pH values 1–2 units higher. Higher aerosol mass concentrations and the abundance of ammonia and ammonium in China, compared to the United States, are leading causes of the pH difference between these two countries.
Marta Via, María Cruz Minguillón, Cristina Reche, Xavier Querol, and Andrés Alastuey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8323–8339,Short summary
Atmospheric pollutants have been measured in an urban environment by means of state-of-the-art techniques, allowing the origin and the sources of pollution to be identified. Recent years are shown to be increasingly dominated by non-directly emitted particulate matter. Knowledge about the sources of atmospheric pollutants is necessary to design effective mitigation policies.
Dac-Loc Nguyen, Hendryk Czech, Simone M. Pieber, Jürgen Schnelle-Kreis, Martin Steinbacher, Jürgen Orasche, Stephan Henne, Olga B. Popovicheva, Gülcin Abbaszade, Guenter Engling, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Nhat-Anh Nguyen, Xuan-Anh Nguyen, and Ralf Zimmermann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8293–8312,Short summary
Southeast Asia is well-known for emission-intense and recurring wildfires and after-harvest crop residue burning during the pre-monsoon season from February to April. We describe a biomass burning (BB) plume arriving at remote Pha Din meteorological station, outline its carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) constituents based on more than 50 target compounds and discuss possible BB sources. This study adds valuable information on chemical PM composition for a region with scarce data availability.
Amy Hrdina, Jennifer G. Murphy, Anna Gannet Hallar, John C. Lin, Alexander Moravek, Ryan Bares, Ross C. Petersen, Alessandro Franchin, Ann M. Middlebrook, Lexie Goldberger, Ben H. Lee, Munkh Baasandorj, and Steven S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8111–8126,Short summary
Wintertime air pollution in the Salt Lake Valley is primarily composed of ammonium nitrate, which is formed when gas-phase ammonia and nitric acid react. The major point in this work is that the chemical composition of snow tells a very different story to what we measured in the atmosphere. With the dust–sea salt cations observed in PM2.5 and particle sizing data, we can estimate how much nitric acid may be lost to dust–sea salt that is not accounted for and how much more PM2.5 this could form.
Vincent Michoud, Elise Hallemans, Laura Chiappini, Eva Leoz-Garziandia, Aurélie Colomb, Sébastien Dusanter, Isabelle Fronval, François Gheusi, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Thierry Léonardis, Nadine Locoge, Nicolas Marchand, Stéphane Sauvage, Jean Sciare, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8067–8088,Short summary
A multiphasic molecular characterization of oxygenated compounds has been carried out during the ChArMEx field campaign using offline analysis. It leads to the identification of 97 different compounds in the gas and aerosol phases and reveals the important contribution of organic acids to organic aerosol. In addition, comparison between experimental and theoretical partitioning coefficients revealed in most cases a large underestimation by the theory reaching 1 to 7 orders of magnitude.
Maria A. Zawadowicz, Kaitlyn Suski, Jiumeng Liu, Mikhail Pekour, Jerome Fast, Fan Mei, Arthur J. Sedlacek, Stephen Springston, Yang Wang, Rahul A. Zaveri, Robert Wood, Jian Wang, and John E. Shilling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7983–8002,Short summary
This paper describes the results of a recent field campaign in the eastern North Atlantic, where two mass spectrometers were deployed aboard a research aircraft to measure the chemistry of aerosols and trace gases. Very clean conditions were found, dominated by local sulfate-rich acidic aerosol and very aged organics. Evidence of long-range transport of aerosols from the continents was also identified.
Jean-Philippe Putaud, Luca Pozzoli, Enrico Pisoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Friedrich Lagler, Guido Lanzani, Umberto Dal Santo, and Augustin Colette
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7597–7609,Short summary
To determine the impact of the COVID lockdown on air quality in northern Italy, measurements of atmospheric pollutants (NO2, PM10, O3, NO, SO2 ) were compared to the output of a model ignoring the lockdown. We found that NO2 decreased on average by −30 % to −40 %. Unlike NO2, PM10 was not significantly affected due to the compensation of decreased emissions from traffic by increased emissions from domestic heating and/or by changes in atmospheric chemistry enhancing secondary aerosol formation.
Benjamin Chazeau, Brice Temime-Roussel, Grégory Gille, Boualem Mesbah, Barbara D'Anna, Henri Wortham, and Nicolas Marchand
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7293–7319,Short summary
The temporal trends in the chemical composition and particle number of the submicron aerosols in a Mediterranean city, Marseille, are investigated over 14 months. Fifteen days were found to exceed the WHO PM2.5 daily limit (25 µg m−3) only during the cold period, with two distinct origins: local pollution events with an increased fraction of the carbonaceous fraction due to domestic wood burning and long-range pollution events with a high level of oxygenated organic aerosol and ammonium nitrate.
Bi, J., Shi, J., and Xie, Y.: Dust Aerosol Characteristics and Shortwave Radiative Impact at a Gobi Desert of Northwest China during the Spring of 2012, J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn., 92, 33–56, 2014.
Bi, J., Huang, J., Holben, B., and Zhang, G.: Comparison of key absorption and optical properties between pure and transported anthropogenic dust over East and Central Asia, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15501–15516, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-15501-2016, 2016.
Buseck, P. and Posfai, M.: Airborne minerals and related aerosol particles: Effects on climate and the environment, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 96, 3372–3379, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.96.7.3372, 1999.
Chen, S., Huang, J., Kang, L., Wang, H., Ma, X., He, Y., Yuan, T., Yang, B., Huang, Z., and Zhang, G.: Emission, transport, and radiative effects of mineral dust from the Taklimakan and Gobi deserts: comparison of measurements and model results, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2401–2421, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-2401-2017, 2017.
Creamean, J. M., Suski, K. J., Rosenfeld, D., Cazorla, A., Demott, P. J., Sullivan, R. C., White, A. B., Ralph, F. M., Minnis, P., and Comstock, J. M.: Dust and biological aerosols from the Sahara and Asia influence precipitation in the western U.S., Science, 339, 1572, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1227279, 2013.
Dong, X., Fu, J. S., Huang, K., Tong, D., and Zhuang, G.: Model development of dust emission and heterogeneous chemistry within the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system and its application over East Asia, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8157–8180, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-8157-2016, 2016.
Dupart, Y., King, S. M., Nekat, B., Nowak, A., Wiedensohler, A., Herrmann, H., David, G., Thomas, B., Miffre, A., and Rairoux, P.: Mineral dust photochemistry induces nucleation events in the presence of SO2, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 109, 20842–20847, 2012.
Duvall, R. M., Majestic, B. J., Shafer, M. M., Chuang, P. Y., Simoneit, B. R. T., and Schauer, J. J.: The water-soluble fraction of carbon, sulfur, and crustal elements in Asian aerosols and Asian soils, Atmos. Environ., 42, 5872–5884, 2008.
Eguchi, K., Uno, I., Yumimoto, K., Takemura, T., Shimizu, A., Sugimoto, N., and Liu, Z.: Trans-pacific dust transport: integrated analysis of NASA/CALIPSO and a global aerosol transport model, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 3137–3145, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-3137-2009, 2009.
Fernald, F. G.: Analysis of atmospheric lidar observations: some comments, Appl. Optics, 23, 652–653, 1984.
Fischer, E. V., Perry, K. D., and Jaffe, D. A.: Optical and chemical properties of aerosols transported to Mount Bachelor during spring 2010, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 116, D18202, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JD015932, 2011.
Formenti, P., Schütz, L., Balkanski, Y., Desboeufs, K., Ebert, M., Kandler, K., Petzold, A., Scheuvens, D., Weinbruch, S., and Zhang, D.: Recent progress in understanding physical and chemical properties of African and Asian mineral dust, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 8231–8256, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-8231-2011, 2011.
Fu, J. S., Hsu, N. C., Gao, Y., Huang, K., Li, C., Lin, N.-H., and Tsay, S.-C.: Evaluating the influences of biomass burning during 2006 BASE-ASIA: a regional chemical transport modeling, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 3837–3855, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-3837-2012, 2012.
Fu, Q. Y., Zhuang, G. S., Li, J. A., Huang, K., Wang, Q. Z., Zhang, R., Fu, J., Lu, T., Chen, M., Wang, Q. A., Chen, Y., Xu, C., and Hou, B.: Source, long-range transport, and characteristics of a heavy dust pollution event in Shanghai, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. 115, D00K29, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD013208, 2010.
Fu, X., Wang, S. X., Cheng, Z., Xing, J., Zhao, B., Wang, J. D., and Hao, J. M.: Source, transport and impacts of a heavy dust event in the Yangtze River Delta, China, in 2011, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1239–1254, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-1239-2014, 2014.
Guenther, A., Karl, T., Harley, P., Wiedinmyer, C., Palmer, P. I., and Geron, C.: Estimates of global terrestrial isoprene emissions using MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 3181–3210, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-6-3181-2006, 2006.
Guo, J., Rahn, K. A., and Zhuang, G. S.: A mechanism for the increase of pollution elements in dust storms in Beijing, Atmos. Environ., 38, 855–862, 2004.
Hsu, S.-C., Lee, C. S. L., Huh, C.-A., Shaheen, R., Lin, F.-J., Liu, S. C., Liang, M.-C., and Tao, J.: Ammonium deficiency caused by heterogeneous reactions during a super Asian dust episode, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. 119, 6803–6817, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JD021096, 2014.
Huang J., Wang, T., Wang, W., Li, Z., and Yan, H.: Climate effects of dust aerosols over East Asian arid and semiarid regions, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 119, 11398–11416, 2014.
Huang, K., Zhuang, G. S., Li, J. A., Wang, Q. Z., Sun, Y. L., Lin, Y. F., and Fu, J. S.: Mixing of Asian dust with pollution aerosol and the transformation of aerosol components during the dust storm over China in spring 2007, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 115, D00K13, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD013145, 2010a.
Huang, K., Zhuang, G. S., Lin, Y. F., Li, J. A., Sun, Y. L., Zhang, W. J., and Fu, J. S.: Relation between optical and chemical properties of dust aerosol over Beijing, China, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 115, D00K16, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD013212, 2010b.
Huang, K., Zhuang, G., Lin, Y., Fu, J. S., Wang, Q., Liu, T., Zhang, R., Jiang, Y., Deng, C., Fu, Q., Hsu, N. C., and Cao, B.: Typical types and formation mechanisms of haze in an Eastern Asia megacity, Shanghai, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 105–124, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-105-2012, 2012.
Huang, K., Fu, J. S., Hsu, N. C., Gao, Y., Dong, X., Tsay, S. C., and Yun, F. L.: Impact assessment of biomass burning on air quality in Southeast and East Asia during BASE-ASIA, Atmos. Environ., 78, 291–302, 2013.
IPCC: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basiss, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by: Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K., Tignor, M., Allen, S. K., Boschung, J., Nauels, A., Xia, Y., Bex, V., and Midgley, P. M., Cambridge University Press, New York, USA, 2013.
Li, J., Fu, Q., Huo, J., Wang, D., Yang, W., Bian, Q., Duan, Y., Zhang, Y., Pan, J., Lin, Y., Huang, K., Bai, Z., Wang, S.-H., Fu, J. S., and Louie, P. K. K.: Tethered balloon-based black carbon profiles within the lower troposphere of Shanghai in the 2013 East China smog, Atmos. Environ., 123, 327–338, 2015.
Li, J. W., Han, Z. W., and Zhang, R. J.: Model study of atmospheric particulates during dust storm period in March 2010 over East Asia, Atmos. Environ., 45, 3954–3964, 2011.
Li, R. and Min, Q. L.: Impacts of mineral dust on the vertical structure of precipitation, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 115, D09203, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD011925, 2010.
Lida, D. R.: Handbook of Chemistry and Physics: A Ready-Reference Book of Chemical and Physical Data, 86th ed., CRC Press, New York, USA, 14–17, 2006.
Liu, Z. Y., Sugimoto, N., and Murayama, T.: Extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Asian dust observed with high-spectral-resolution lidar and Raman lidar, Appl. Optics, 41, 2760–2767, 2002.
Matsuki, A., Iwasaka, Y., Shi, G., Zhang, D., Trochkine, D., Yamada, M., Kim, Y. S., Chen, B., Nagatani, T., and Miyazawa, T.: Morphological and chemical modification of mineral dust: Observational insight into the heterogeneous uptake of acidic gases, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, 312–329, 2006.
Murayama, T., Masonis, S. J., Redemann, J., Anderson, T. L., Schmid, B., Livingston, J. M., Russell, P. B., Huebert, B., Howell, S. G., and Mcnaughton, C. S.: An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 108, 8561, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD003259, 2003.
Nie, W., Ding, A., Wang, T., Kerminen, V.-M., George, C., Xue, L., Wang, W., Zhang, Q., Petäjä, T., Qi, X., Gao, X., Wang, X., Yang, X., Fu, C., and Kulmala, M.: Polluted dust promotes new particle formation and growth, Sci. Rep., 4, 6634, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep06634, 2014.
Pan, X., Uno, I., Zhe, W., Nishizawa, T., Sugimoto, N., Yamamoto, S., Yamamoto, S., Kobayashi, H., Sun, Y., Fu, P., Tang, X., and Wang, Z.: Real-time observational evidence of changing asian dust morphology with the mixing of heavy anthropogenic pollution, Sci. Rep., 7, 335, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-00444-w, 2017.
Reid, J. S., Hyer, E. J., Prins, E. M., Westphal, D. L., Zhang, J., Wang, J., Christopher, S. A., Curtis, C. A., Schmidt, C. C., and Eleuterio, D. P.: Global Monitoring and Forecasting of Biomass-Burning Smoke: Description of and Lessons From the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) Program, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Appl., 2, 144–162, 2009.
Sakai, T., Nagai T., Nakazato M., Mano Y., and Matsumura T.: Ice clouds and Asian dust studied with lidar measurements of particle extinction-to-backscatter ratio, particle depolarization, and water-vapor mixing ratio over Tsukuba, Appl. Optics, 42, 7103–7116, 2003.
Shimizu, A., Sugimoto, N., Matsui, I., Arao, K., Uno, I., Murayama, T., Kagawa, N., Aoki, K., Uchiyama, A., and Yamazaki, A.: Continuous observations of Asian dust and other aerosols by polarization lidars in China and Japan during ACE-Asia, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 109, D19S17, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD003253, 2004.
Shimizu, A., Nishizawa, T., Jin, Y., Kim, S. W., Wang, Z., Batdorj, D., and Sugimoto, N.: Evolution of a lidar network for tropospheric aerosol detection in east asia, Opt. Eng., 56, 031219, https://doi.org/10.1117/1.oe.56.3.031219, 2017.
Sugimoto, N., Matsui, I., Shimizu, A., Uno, I., Asai, K., Endoh, T., and Nakajima, T.: Observation of dust and anthropogenic aerosol plumes in the Northwest Pacific with a two-wavelength polarization lidar on board the research vessel Mirai, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 1901, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002GL015112, 2002.
Sullivan, R. C., Guazzotti, S. A., Sodeman, D. A., and Prather, K. A.: Direct observations of the atmospheric processing of Asian mineral dust, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 1213–1236, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-1213-2007, 2007.
Sun, Y. L., Zhuang, G. S., Ying, W., Han, L. H., Guo, J. H., Mo, D., Zhang, W. J., Wang, Z. F., and Hao, Z. P.: The air-borne particulate pollution in Beijing – concentration, composition, distribution and sources, Atmos. Environ., 38, 5991–6004, 2004.
Sun, Y. L., Zhuang, G. S., Huang, K., Li, J. A., Wang, Q. Z., Wang, Y., Lin, Y. F., Fu, J. S., Zhang, W. J., Tang, A. H., and Zhao, X. J.: Asian dust over northern China and its impact on the downstream aerosol chemistry in 2004, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 115, D00K09, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD012757, 2010.
Tatarov, B., Muller, D., Noh, Y. M., Lee, K. H., Shin, D. H., Shin, S. K., Sugimoto, N., Seifert, P., and Kim, Y. J.: Record heavy mineral dust outbreaks over Korea in 2010: Two cases observed with multiwavelength aerosol/depolarization/Raman-quartz lidar, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L14801, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL051972, 2012.
Tobo, Y., Zhang, D. Z., Matsuki, A., and Iwasaka, Y.: Asian dust particles converted into aqueous droplets under remote marine atmospheric conditions, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 107, 17905–17910, 2010.
Torres, O., Tanskanen, A., Veihelmann, B., Ahn, C., Braak, R., Bhartia, P. K., Veefkind, P., and Levelt, P.: Aerosols and surface UV products from Ozone Monitoring Instrument observations: An overview, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 112, D24S47, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD008809, 2007.
Tsai, F., Tu, J.-Y., Hsu, S.-C., and Chen, W.-N.: Case study of the Asian dust and pollutant event in spring 2006: Source, transport, and contribution to Taiwan, Sci. Total Environ., 478, 163–174, 2014.
Tsai, F. J., Fang, Y. S., and Huang, S. J.: Case Study Of Asian Dust Event On March 19–25, 2010 And Its Impact On The Marginal Sea Of China, J. Mar. Sci. Technol.-Taiwan, 21, 353–360, 2013.
Tsai, J.-H. T., Huang, K.-L., Lin, N.-H., Chen, S.-J., Lin, T.-C., Chen, S.-C., Lin, C.-C., Hsu, S.-C., and Lin, W.-Y.: Influence of an Asian Dust Storm and Southeast Asian Biomass Burning on the Characteristics of Seashore Atmospheric Aerosols in Southern Taiwan, Aerosol Air Qual. Res., 12, 1105–1115, 2012.
Tsay, S. C., Hsu, N. C., Lau, K. M., Li, C., Gabriel, P. M., Ji, Q., Holben, B. N., Welton, E. J., Nguyen, A. X., and Janjai, S.: From BASE-ASIA toward 7-SEAS: A satellite-surface perspective of boreal spring biomass-burning aerosols and clouds in Southeast Asia, Atmos. Environ., 78, 20–34, 2013.
Uchiyama, A., Yamazaki, A., Togawa, H., Asano, J., and Shi, G.: Single Scattering Albedo of Aeolian Dust as Inferred from Sky-radiometer and in situ Ground-based Measurement, Sola, 1, 209–212, 2005.
Uno, I., Eguchi, K., Yumimoto, K., Takemura, T., Shimizu, A., Uematsu, M., Liu, Z. Y., Wang, Z. F., Hara, Y., and Sugimoto, N.: Asian dust transported one full circuit around the globe, Nat. Geosci., 2, 557–560, 2009.
Wang, S. H., Lin, N. H., OuYang, C. F., Wang, J. L., Campbell, J. R., Peng, C. M., Lee, C. T., Sheu, G. R., and Tsay, S. C.: Impact of Asian dust and continental pollutants on cloud chemistry observed in northern Taiwan during the experimental period of ABC/EAREX 2005, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 115, D00K24, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD013692, 2010.
Wang, S. H., Tsay, S. C., Lin, N. H., Hsu, N. C., Bell, S. W., Li, C., Ji, Q., Jeong, M. J., Hansell, R. A., Welton, E. J., Holben, B. N., Sheu, G. R., Chu, Y. C., Chang, S. C., Liu, J. J., and Chiang, W. L.: First detailed observations of long-range transported dust over the northern South China Sea, Atmos. Environ., 45, 4804–4808, 2011.
Wang, S.-H., Hsu, N. C., Tsay, S.-C., Lin, N.-H., Sayer, A. M., Huang, S.-J., and Lau, W. K. M.: Can Asian dust trigger phytoplankton blooms in the oligotrophic northern South China Sea?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L05811, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL050415, 2012.
Wang, Y., Zhuang, G. S., Sun, Y., and An, Z. S.: Water-soluble part of the aerosol in the dust storm season – evidence of the mixing between mineral and pollution aerosols, Atmos. Environ., 39, 7020–7029, 2005.
Wang, Y., Zhuang, G. S., Sun, Y. L., and An, Z. S.: The variation of characteristics and formation mechanisms of aerosols in dust, haze, and clear days in Beijing, Atmos. Environ., 40, 6579–6591, 2006.
Wu, Y., Han, Z., Nazmi, C., Gross, B., and Moshary, F.: A trans-Pacific Asian dust episode and its impacts to air quality in the east coast of U.S., Atmos. Environ., 106, 358–368, 2015.
Yao, X., Chan, C. K., Fang, M., Cadle, S., Chan, T., Mulawa, P., He, K., and Ye, B.: The water-soluble ionic composition of PM2.5 in Shanghai and Beijing, China, Atmos. Environ., 36, 4223–4234, 2002.
Yuan, H., Wang, Y., and Zhuang, G.: The simultaneous determination of organic acid, MSA with inorganic anions in aerosol and rainwater by ion chromatography, J. Instrum. Anal., 6, 6–12, 2003 (in Chinese).
Yuan, H., Zhuang, G. S., Li, J., Wang, Z. F., and Li, J.: Mixing of mineral with pollution aerosols in dust season in Beijing: Revealed by source apportionment study, Atmos. Environ., 42, 2141–2157, 2008.
Zaizen, Y., Naoe, H., Takahashi, H., and Okada, K.: Modification of Asian-dust particles transported by different routes – A case study, Atmos. Environ., 97, 435–446, 2014.
Zhang, W. J., Zhuang, G. S., Huang, K., Li, J. A., Zhang, R., Wang, Q. Z., Sun, Y. L., Fu, J. S., Chen, Y., Xu, D. Q., and Wang, W.: Mixing and transformation of Asian dust with pollution in the two dust storms over the northern China in 2006, Atmos. Environ., 44, 3394–3403, 2010.
Zhao, B., Wang, S., Dong, X., Wang, J., Duan, L., Fu, X., Hao, J., and Fu, J.: Environmental effects of the recent emission changes in China: implications for particulate matter pollution and soil acidification, Environ. Res. Lett., 8, 024031, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/8/2/024031, 2013.
Zhao, T. L., Gong, S. L., Zhang, X. Y., Blanchet, J. P., Mckendry, I. G., and Zhou, Z. J.: A Simulated Climatology of Asian Dust Aerosol and Its Trans-Pacific Transport. Part I: Mean Climate and Validation, J. Climate, 19, 88–103, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3605.1, 2006.
Zhuang, G. S., Yi, Z., Duce, R. A., and Brown, P. R.: Link between Iron and Sulfur Cycles Suggested by Detection of Fe(Ii) in Remote Marine Aerosols, Nature, 355, 537–539, 1992.
Zhuang, G. S., Guo, J. H., Yuan, H., and Zhao, X. J.: The compositions, sources, and size distribution of the dust storm from China in spring of 2000 and its impact on the global environment, Chinese Sci. Bull., 46, 895–901, 2001.
A synergy of ground-based atmospheric chemistry observation, lidar, and numerical modeling was used to investigate a super dust event passing over Shanghai. The degree of dust that was modified by anthropogenic sources highly depended on the transport pathways. A community regional air quality model with improved dust scheme reproduced reasonable dust chemistry results. The chemical and optical properties of evolving dust are crucial for evaluating the climatic effects of dust.
A synergy of ground-based atmospheric chemistry observation, lidar, and numerical modeling was...