Articles | Volume 18, issue 15
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
On the role of aerosols, humidity, and vertical wind shear in the transition of shallow-to-deep convection at the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/5 site
Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Kathleen A. Schiro
Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
J. David Neelin
No articles found.
Gaoyun Wang, Rong Fu, Yizhou Zhuang, Paul A. Dirmeyer, Joseph A. Santanello, Guiling Wang, Kun Yang, and Kaighin McColl
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).Short summary
This study investigates the influence of lower tropospheric humidity on land-atmosphere coupling (LAC) during warm seasons in the US Southern Great Plains. Using radiosonde data and a buoyancy model, we find that elevated LT humidity is crucial for generating afternoon precipitation events under dry soil conditions, not accounted for by conventional LAC indices. This underscores the importance of considering LT humidity in understanding LAC over dry soil during droughts in the SGP.
Yizhou Zhuang and Rong Fu
This study investigated how atmospheric circulation affects precipitation variability and changes in the US Great Plains (GP) and Southwest (SW). By developing a new method, we found that circulation significantly influences short-term precipitation variability, accounting for 54–61 % of the total variance. Furthermore, circulation changes contribute considerably to the multi-decadal changes in precipitation and its extremes, especially for Southern GP and SW.
Sudip Chakraborty, Jonathon H. Jiang, Hui Su, and Rong Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12855–12866,Short summary
Boreal autumn is the main wet season over the Congo basin. Thus, changes in its onset date have a significant impact on the rainforest. This study provides compelling evidence that the cooling effect of aerosols modifies the timing and strength of the southern African easterly jet that is central to the boreal autumn wet season over the Congo rainforest. A higher boreal summer aerosol concentration is positively correlated with the boreal autumn wet season onset timing.
Yongkang Xue, Tandong Yao, Aaron A. Boone, Ismaila Diallo, Ye Liu, Xubin Zeng, William K. M. Lau, Shiori Sugimoto, Qi Tang, Xiaoduo Pan, Peter J. van Oevelen, Daniel Klocke, Myung-Seo Koo, Tomonori Sato, Zhaohui Lin, Yuhei Takaya, Constantin Ardilouze, Stefano Materia, Subodh K. Saha, Retish Senan, Tetsu Nakamura, Hailan Wang, Jing Yang, Hongliang Zhang, Mei Zhao, Xin-Zhong Liang, J. David Neelin, Frederic Vitart, Xin Li, Ping Zhao, Chunxiang Shi, Weidong Guo, Jianping Tang, Miao Yu, Yun Qian, Samuel S. P. Shen, Yang Zhang, Kun Yang, Ruby Leung, Yuan Qiu, Daniele Peano, Xin Qi, Yanling Zhan, Michael A. Brunke, Sin Chan Chou, Michael Ek, Tianyi Fan, Hong Guan, Hai Lin, Shunlin Liang, Helin Wei, Shaocheng Xie, Haoran Xu, Weiping Li, Xueli Shi, Paulo Nobre, Yan Pan, Yi Qin, Jeff Dozier, Craig R. Ferguson, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Qing Bao, Jinming Feng, Jinkyu Hong, Songyou Hong, Huilin Huang, Duoying Ji, Zhenming Ji, Shichang Kang, Yanluan Lin, Weiguang Liu, Ryan Muncaster, Patricia de Rosnay, Hiroshi G. Takahashi, Guiling Wang, Shuyu Wang, Weicai Wang, Xu Zhou, and Yuejian Zhu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4465–4494,Short summary
The subseasonal prediction of extreme hydroclimate events such as droughts/floods has remained stubbornly low for years. This paper presents a new international initiative which, for the first time, introduces spring land surface temperature anomalies over high mountains to improve precipitation prediction through remote effects of land–atmosphere interactions. More than 40 institutions worldwide are participating in this effort. The experimental protocol and preliminary results are presented.
Amir Erfanian and Rong Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15199–15216,Short summary
An eastward advection of dry and warm air in spring was identified as a major drought onset mechanism over the US Great Plains (GP). Further breakdown of the zonal advection into the dynamic versus thermodynamic contributions revealed dominance of the latter in the tropospheric drying observed during the onset of GP 2011 and 2012 droughts. The dependence of thermodynamic advection on moisture gradient links the spring precipitation in the Rockies and US southwest to the GP summer precipitation.
Pierre Gentine, Adam Massmann, Benjamin R. Lintner, Sayed Hamed Alemohammad, Rong Fu, Julia K. Green, Daniel Kennedy, and Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4171–4197,Short summary
Land–atmosphere interactions are key for the exchange of water, energy, and carbon dioxide, especially in the tropics. We here review some of the recent findings on land–atmosphere interactions in the tropics and where we see potential challenges and paths forward.
Kathleen A. Schiro and J. David Neelin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1997–2010,Short summary
Downdraft processes in climate models are poorly constrained, largely due to a lack of robust, statistical relationships describing them. Using multi-instrument data from the GoAmazon2014/5 campaign, downdraft properties of mesoscale-organized and unorganized systems are compared and such statistics are presented. Both vertical velocity retrievals and thermodynamic arguments are consistent in suggesting a spectrum of downdraft mass origin levels throughout the lowest few kilometers.
Bin Zhao, Kuo-Nan Liou, Yu Gu, Jonathan H. Jiang, Qinbin Li, Rong Fu, Lei Huang, Xiaohong Liu, Xiangjun Shi, Hui Su, and Cenlin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1065–1078,Short summary
The interactions between aerosols and ice clouds represent one of the largest uncertainties among anthropogenic forcings on climate change. We find that the responses of ice crystal effective radius, a key parameter determining ice clouds' net radiative effect, to aerosol loadings are modulated by water vapor amount and vary from a significant negative correlation in moist conditions (consistent with the “Twomey effect” for liquid clouds) to a strong positive correlation in dry conditions.
Jose A. Marengo, Gilberto F. Fisch, Lincoln M. Alves, Natanael V. Sousa, Rong Fu, and Yizhou Zhuang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7671–7681,Short summary
The onset and demise of the rainy season in Amazonia are assessed in this study using meteorological data from the GoAmazon experiment for the 2014–15 rainy season. The onset of the rainy season was strongly associated with changes in large-scale circulation in the region, and our analyses using regional thermodynamic indices suggest that local changes such the regional thermodynamic characteristics may have been less important on the occurrence of the onset compared to large-scale circulation.
A. Bracco, J. D. Neelin, H. Luo, J. C. McWilliams, and J. E. Meyerson
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 1673–1687,
D. N. Bernstein, J. D. Neelin, Q. B. Li, and D. Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6373–6390,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)New particle formation in the tropical free troposphere during CAMP2Ex: statistics and impact of emission sources, convective activity, and synoptic conditionsExplaining apparent particle shrinkage related to new particle formation events in western Saudi Arabia does not require evaporationInvestigation of the effects of the Greek extreme wildfires of August 2021 on air quality and spectral solar irradianceCharacterization of dust-related new particle formation events based on long-term measurement in the North China PlainAirborne investigation of black carbon interaction with low-level, persistent, mixed-phase clouds in the Arctic summerThe variation in the particle number size distribution during the rainfall: wet scavenging and air mass changingCharacterization of size-segregated particles' turbulent flux and deposition velocity by eddy correlation method at an Arctic siteVertical distribution of black carbon and its mixing state in the urban boundary layer in summerInsights into the size-resolved dust emission from field measurements in the Moroccan SaharaA new method for the quantification of ambient particulate-matter emission fluxesMeasurement report: The 4-year variability and influence of the Winter Olympics and other special events on air quality in urban Beijing during wintertimeCyclones enhance the transport of sea salt aerosols to the high atmosphere in the Southern OceanBlack carbon content of traffic emissions significantly impacts black carbon mass size distributions and mixing statesMeasurement Report: Wintertime new particle formation in the rural area of the North China Plain – influencing factors and possible formation mechanismMeasurement report: Rapid decline of aerosol absorption coefficient and aerosol optical property effects on radiative forcing in an urban area of Beijing from 2018 to 20213D assimilation and radiative impact assessment of aerosol black carbon over the Indian region using aircraft, balloon, ground-based, and multi-satellite observationsAerosol and dynamical contributions to cloud droplet formation in Arctic low-level cloudsAerosol first indirect effect of African smoke at the cloud base of marine cumulus clouds over Ascension Island, southern Atlantic OceanMeasurement report: Atmospheric fluorescent bioaerosol concentrations measured during 18 months in a coniferous forest in the south of SwedenNew particle formation leads to enhanced cloud condensation nuclei concentrations at Antarctic PeninsulaMeasurement report: High Arctic aerosol hygroscopicity at sub- and supersaturated conditions during spring and summerIce-nucleating particles in northern Greenland: annual cycles, biological contribution and parameterizationsAerosol deposition to the boreal forest in the vicinity of the Alberta Oil SandsThe density of ambient black carbon retrieved by a new method: implications for cloud condensation nuclei predictionEvaluation of aerosol- and gas-phase tracers for identification of transported biomass burning emissions in an industrially influenced location in Texas, USALong-range transported continental aerosol in the eastern North Atlantic: three multiday event regimes influence cloud condensation nucleiImpact of 2020 COVID-19 lockdowns on particulate air pollution across EuropeMeasurement report: Understanding the seasonal cycle of Southern Ocean aerosolsElucidating ozone and PM2.5 pollution in the Fenwei Plain reveals the co-benefits of controlling precursor gas emissions in winter hazeAnnual cycle of aerosol properties over the central Arctic during MOSAiC 2019–2020 — light-extinction, CCN, and INP levels from the boundary layer to the tropopauseQuantifying particle-to-particle heterogeneity in aerosol hygroscopicityMeasurement report: Black carbon properties and concentrations in southern Sweden urban and rural air – the importance of long-range transportDiurnal differences in the effect of aerosols on cloud-to-ground lightning in the Sichuan BasinIntensive aerosol properties of boreal and regional biomass burning aerosol at Mt. Bachelor Observatory: larger and black carbon (BC)-dominant particles transported from Siberian wildfiresCharacterization of ultrafine particles and the occurrence of new particle formation events in an urban and coastal site of the Mediterranean areaAtmospheric nanoparticles hygroscopic growth measurement by a combined surface plasmon resonance microscope and hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzerPhysicochemical Characterization and Source Apportionment of Arctic Ice Nucleating Particles Observed in Ny-Ålesund in Autumn 2019Quantified effect of seawater biogeochemistry on the temperature dependence of sea spray aerosol fluxesA full year of aerosol size distribution data from the central Arctic under an extreme positive Arctic Oscillation: insights from the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) expeditionAnnual cycle of hygroscopic properties and mixing state of the suburban aerosol in Athens, GreeceMeasurement report: Atmospheric new particle formation at a peri-urban site in Lille, northern FranceNew particle formation and growth during summer in an urban environment: a dual chamber studyAn evaluation of biomass burning aerosol mass, extinction, and size distribution in GEOS using observations from CAMP2ExSeasonal significance of new particle formation impacts on cloud condensation nuclei at a mountaintop locationAerosol activation characteristics and prediction at the central European ACTRIS research station of Melpitz, GermanyMeasurement report: Increasing trend of atmospheric ion concentrations in the boreal forestVertical profiles of cloud condensation nuclei number concentration and its empirical estimate from aerosol optical properties over the North China PlainMeasurement report: The Urmia playa as a source of airborne dust and ice-nucleating particles – Part 1: Correlation between soils and airborne samplesConstraining the particle-scale diversity of black carbon light absorption using a unified frameworkSurvival probability of new atmospheric particles: closure between theory and measurements from 1.4 to 100 nm
Qian Xiao, Jiaoshi Zhang, Yang Wang, Luke D. Ziemba, Ewan Crosbie, Edward L. Winstead, Claire E. Robinson, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Jeffrey S. Reid, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Armin Sorooshian, Miguel Ricardo A. Hilario, Sarah Woods, Paul Lawson, Snorre A. Stamnes, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9853–9871,Short summary
Using recent airborne measurements, we show that the influences of anthropogenic emissions, transport, convective clouds, and meteorology lead to new particle formation (NPF) under a variety of conditions and at different altitudes in tropical marine environments. NPF is enhanced by fresh urban emissions in convective outflow but is suppressed in air masses influenced by aged urban emissions where reactive precursors are mostly consumed while particle surface area remains relatively high.
Simo Hakala, Ville Vakkari, Heikki Lihavainen, Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen, Kimmo Neitola, Jenni Kontkanen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Tareq Hussein, Mamdouh I. Khoder, Mansour A. Alghamdi, and Pauli Paasonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9287–9321,Short summary
Things are not always as they first seem in ambient aerosol measurements. Observations of decreasing particle sizes are often interpreted as resulting from particle evaporation. We show that such observations can counterintuitively be explained by particles that are constantly growing in size. This requires one to account for the previous movements of the observed air. Our explanation implies a larger number of larger particles, meaning more significant effects of aerosols on climate and health.
Akriti Masoom, Ilias Fountoulakis, Stelios Kazadzis, Ioannis-Panagiotis Raptis, Anna Kampouri, Basil E. Psiloglou, Dimitra Kouklaki, Kyriakoula Papachristopoulou, Eleni Marinou, Stavros Solomos, Anna Gialitaki, Dimitra Founda, Vasileios Salamalikis, Dimitris Kaskaoutis, Natalia Kouremeti, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Vassilis Amiridis, Andreas Kazantzidis, Alexandros Papayannis, Christos S. Zerefos, and Kostas Eleftheratos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8487–8514,Short summary
We analyse the spatial and temporal aerosol spectral optical properties during the extreme wildfires of August 2021 in Greece and assess their effects on air quality and solar radiation quantities related to health, agriculture, and energy. Different aerosol conditions are identified (pure smoke, pure dust, dust–smoke together); the largest impact on solar radiation quantities is found for cases with mixed dust–smoke aerosols. Such situations are expected to occur more frequently in the future.
Xiaojing Shen, Junying Sun, Huizheng Che, Yangmei Zhang, Chunhong Zhou, Ke Gui, Wanyun Xu, Quan Liu, Junting Zhong, Can Xia, Xinyao Hu, Sinan Zhang, Jialing Wang, Shuo Liu, Jiayuan Lu, Aoyuan Yu, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8241–8257,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) events occur when the dust episodes' fade is analysed based on long-term measurement of particle number size distribution. Analysis shows that the observed formation and growth rates are approximately 50 % of and 30 % lower than those of other NPF events. As a consequence of the uptake of precursor gases on mineral dust, the physical and chemical properties of submicron particles, as well as the ability to be cloud condensation nuclei, can be changed.
Marco Zanatta, Stephan Mertes, Olivier Jourdan, Regis Dupuy, Emma Järvinen, Martin Schnaiter, Oliver Eppers, Johannes Schneider, Zsófia Jurányi, and Andreas Herber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7955–7973,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) particles influence the Arctic radiative balance. Vertical measurements of black carbon were conducted during the ACLOUD campaign in the European Arctic to study the interaction of BC with clouds. This study shows that clouds influence the vertical variability of BC properties across the inversion layer and that multiple activation and transformation mechanisms of BC may occur in the presence of low-level, persistent, mixed-phase clouds.
Guangdong Niu, Ximeng Qi, Liangduo Chen, Lian Xue, Shiyi Lai, Xin Huang, Jiaping Wang, Xuguang Chi, Wei Nie, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7521–7534,Short summary
The reported below-cloud wet-scavenging coefficients (BWSCs) are much higher than theoretical data, but the reason remains unclear. Based on long-term observation, we find that air mass changing during rainfall events causes the overestimation of BWSCs. Thus, the discrepancy in BWSCs between observation and theory is not as large as currently believed. To obtain reasonable BWSCs and parameterizations from field observations, the effect of air mass changes needs to be considered.
Antonio Donateo, Gianluca Pappaccogli, Daniela Famulari, Mauro Mazzola, Federico Scoto, and Stefano Decesari
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7425–7445,Short summary
This work aims to measure the turbulent fluxes and the dry deposition velocity for size-segregated particles (from ultrafine to quasi-coarse range) at an Arctic site (Svalbard). Aiming to characterize the effect of surface properties on dry deposition, continuous observations were performed from the coldest months (on snow surface) to the snow melting period and throughout the summer (snow-free surface). A data fit of the deposition velocity as a function of particle diameters will be provided.
Hang Liu, Xiaole Pan, Shandong Lei, Yuting Zhang, Aodong Du, Weijie Yao, Guiqian Tang, Tao Wang, Jinyuan Xin, Jie Li, Yele Sun, Junji Cao, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7225–7239,Short summary
We provide the average vertical profiles of black carbon (BC) concentration, size distribution and coating thickness at different times of the day in an urban area based on 112 vertical profiles. In addition, it is found that BC in the residual layer generally has a thicker coating, higher absorption enhancement and hygroscopicity than on the surface. Such aged BC could enter into the boundary layer and influence the BC properties in the early morning.
Cristina González-Flórez, Martina Klose, Andrés Alastuey, Sylvain Dupont, Jerónimo Escribano, Vicken Etyemezian, Adolfo Gonzalez-Romero, Yue Huang, Konrad Kandler, George Nikolich, Agnesh Panta, Xavier Querol, Cristina Reche, Jesús Yus-Díez, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7177–7212,Short summary
Atmospheric mineral dust consists of tiny mineral particles that are emitted by wind erosion from arid regions. Its particle size distribution (PSD) affects its impact on the Earth's system. Nowadays, there is an incomplete understanding of the emitted dust PSD and a lot of debate about its variability. Here, we try to address these issues based on the measurements performed during a wind erosion and dust emission field campaign in the Moroccan Sahara within the framework of FRAGMENT project.
Stergios Vratolis, Evangelia Diapouli, Manousos I. Manousakas, Susana Marta Almeida, Ivan Beslic, Zsofia Kertesz, Lucyna Samek, and Konstantinos Eleftheriadis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6941–6961,Short summary
Using a dataset from 16 European and Asian cities we develop a new method so as to identify and quantify the emission fluxes from each geographic grid cell for secondary sulfate and dust aerosol. The information provided by the new method allows the implementation of targeted mitigation measures. The new method could be applied to several other pollutants (e.g., black carbon).
Yishuo Guo, Chenjuan Deng, Aino Ovaska, Feixue Zheng, Chenjie Hua, Junlei Zhan, Yiran Li, Jin Wu, Zongcheng Wang, Jiali Xie, Ying Zhang, Tingyu Liu, Yusheng Zhang, Boying Song, Wei Ma, Yongchun Liu, Chao Yan, Jingkun Jiang, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Men Xia, Tuomo Nieminen, Wei Du, Tom Kokkonen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6663–6690,Short summary
Using the comprehensive datasets, we investigated the long-term variations of air pollutants during winter in Beijing from 2019 to 2022 and analyzed the characteristics of atmospheric pollution cocktail during different short-term special events (e.g., Beijing Winter Olympics, COVID lockdown and Chinese New Year) associated with substantial emission reductions. Our results are useful in planning more targeted and sustainable long-term pollution control plans.
Jun Shi, Jinpei Yan, Shanshan Wang, Shuhui Zhao, Miming Zhang, Suqing Xu, Qi Lin, Hang Yang, and Siying Dai
An underway aerosol monitoring system was used to determine the Na+ concentration during different cyclone periods in the Southern Ocean in order to access the potential effects of cyclone on SSA emissions. It was estimated that more than 23 % of SSAs were transported upward during cyclone periods. Vertically transported SSAs can be regarded as an important source of CCN and hence have an effect on climate in the mid and high latitudes of the southern hemisphere.
Fei Li, Biao Luo, Miaomiao Zhai, Li Liu, Gang Zhao, Hanbing Xu, Tao Deng, Xuejiao Deng, Haobo Tan, Ye Kuang, and Jun Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6545–6558,Short summary
A field campaign was conducted to study black carbon (BC) mass size distributions and mixing states connected to traffic emissions using a system that combines a differential mobility analyzer and single-particle soot photometer. Results showed that the black carbon content of traffic emissions has a considerable influence on both BC mass size distributions and mixing states, which has crucial implications for accurately representing BC from various sources in regional and climate models.
Juan Hong, Min Tang, Qiaoqiao Wang, Nan Ma, Shaowen Zhu, Shaobin Zhang, Xihao Pan, Linhong Xie, Guo Li, Uwe Kuhn, Chao Yan, Jiangchuan Tao, Ye Kuang, Yao He, Wanyun Xu, Runlong Cai, Yaqing Zhou, Zhibin Wang, Guangsheng Zhou, Bin Yuan, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5699–5713,Short summary
A comprehensive investigation of the characteristics of new particle formation (NPF) events was conducted at a rural site on the North China Plain (NCP), China, during the wintertime of 2018 by covering the particle number size distribution down to sub–3 nm. Potential mechanisms for NPF under the current environment were explored, followed by a further discussion on the factors governing the occurrence of NPF at this rural site compared with other regions (e.g., urban areas) in the NCP region.
Xinyao Hu, Junying Sun, Can Xia, Xiaojing Shen, Yangmei Zhang, Quan Liu, Zhaodong Liu, Sinan Zhang, Jialing Wang, Aoyuan Yu, Jiayuan Lu, Shuo Liu, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5517–5531,Short summary
The simultaneous measurements under dry conditions of aerosol optical properties were conducted at three wavelengths for PM1 and PM10 in urban Beijing from 2018 to 2021. Considerable reductions in aerosol absorption coefficient and increased single scattering albedo demonstrated that absorbing aerosols were more effectively controlled than scattering aerosols due to pollution control measures. The aerosol radiative effect and the transport's impact on aerosol optical properties were analysed.
Nair Krishnan Kala, Narayana Anand, Mohanan R. Manoj, Srinivasan Prasanth, Harshavardhana S. Pathak, Thara Prabhakaran, Pramod D. Safai, Krishnaswamy K. Moorthy, and Sreedharan K. Satheesh
We present a 3D data set of aerosol black carbon over the Indian mainland by assimilating data from surface, aircraft, and balloon measurements, along with multi-satellite observations. Radiative transfer computations using height-resolved aerosol absorption show higher warming in the free-troposphere and will have large implications for atmospheric stability. This data set will help reduce the uncertainty in aerosol radiative effects in climate model simulations over the Indian region.
Ghislain Motos, Gabriel Freitas, Paraskevi Georgakaki, Jörg Wieder, Guangyu Li, Wenche Aas, Chris Lunder, Radovan Krejci, Julie Therese Pasquier, Jan Henneberger, Robert Oscar David, Christoph Ritter, Claudia Mohr, Paul Zieger, and Athanasios Nenes
Low-altitude clouds play a key role in regulating the climate of the Arctic, a region that suffers from climate change more than any other on the planet. We gathered meteorological and aerosol physical and chemical data over a year and utilized them for a parameterization that help us unravel the factors driving and limiting the efficiency of cloud droplet formation. We then linked these information to the sources of aerosol found during each season and to processes of cloud glaciation.
Martin de Graaf, Karolina Sarna, Jessica Brown, Elma V. Tenner, Manon Schenkels, and David P. Donovan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5373–5391,Short summary
Clouds over the oceans reflect sunlight and cool the earth. Simultaneous measurements were performed of cloud droplet sizes and smoke particles in and near the cloud base over Ascension Island, a remote island in the Atlantic Ocean, to determine the sensitivity of cloud droplets to smoke from the African continent. The smoke was found to reduce cloud droplet sizes, which makes the cloud droplets more susceptible to evaporation, reducing cloud lifetime.
Madeleine Petersson Sjögren, Malin Alsved, Tina Šantl-Temkiv, Thomas Bjerring Kristensen, and Jakob Löndahl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4977–4992,Short summary
Biological aerosol particles (bioaerosols) affect human health by spreading diseases and may be important agents for atmospheric processes, but their abundance and size distributions are largely unknown. We measured bioaerosols for 18 months in the south of Sweden to investigate bioaerosol temporal variations and their couplings to meteorology. Our results showed that the bioaerosols emissions were coupled to meteorological parameters and depended strongly on the season.
Jiyeon Park, Hyojin Kang, Yeontae Gim, Eunho Jang, Ki-Tae Park, Sangjong Park, Chang Hoon Jung, Darius Ceburnis, Colin O'Dowd, and Young Jun Yoon
We measured the number size distribution of 2.5–300 nm particles and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations at King Sejong Station in the Antarctic Peninsula continuously from January 1 to December 31, 2018. During the pristine and clean periods, Ninety-seven new particle formation (NPF) events were detected. Of the 83 events, CCN concentrations increased by 2–268 % (median 44 %) following 1 to 36 hours (median 8 hours) after NPF events.
Andreas Massling, Robert Lange, Jakob Boyd Pernov, Ulrich Gosewinkel, Lise-Lotte Sørensen, and Henrik Skov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4931–4953,Short summary
The effect of anthropogenic activities on cloud formation introduces the highest uncertainties with respect to climate change. Data on Arctic aerosols and their corresponding cloud-forming properties are very scarce and most important as the Arctic is warming about 2 times as fast as the rest of the globe. Our studies investigate aerosols in the remote Arctic and suggest relatively high cloud-forming potential, although differences are observed between the Arctic spring and summer.
Kevin C. H. Sze, Heike Wex, Markus Hartmann, Henrik Skov, Andreas Massling, Diego Villanueva, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4741–4761,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) play an important role in cloud formation and thus in our climate. But little is known about the abundance and properties of INPs, especially in the Arctic, where the temperature increases almost 4 times as fast as that of the rest of the globe. We observe higher INP concentrations and more biological INPs in summer than in winter, likely from local sources. We also provide three equations for estimating INP concentrations in models at different times of the year.
Timothy Jiang, Mark Gordon, Paul A. Makar, Ralf M. Staebler, and Michael Wheeler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4361–4372,Short summary
Measurements of submicron aerosols (particles smaller than 1 / 1000 of a millimeter) were made in a forest downwind of oil sands mining and production facilities in northern Alberta. These measurements tell us how quickly aerosols are absorbed by the forest (known as deposition rate) and how the deposition rate depends on the size of the aerosol. The measurements show good agreement with a parameterization developed from a recent study for deposition of aerosols to a similar pine forest.
Jingye Ren, Lu Chen, Jieyao Liu, and Fang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4327–4342,Short summary
The density of black carbon (BC) is linked to its morphology and mixing state and could cause uncertainty in evaluating cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. A method for retrieving the mixing state and density of BC in the urban atmosphere is developed. The mean retrieval density of internally mixed BC was lower, assuming void-free spherical structures. Our study suggests the importance of accounting for variable BC density in models when assessing its climate effect in urban atmosphere.
Sujan Shrestha, Shan Zhou, Manisha Mehra, Meghan C. Guagenti, Subin Yoon, Sergio L. Alvarez, Fangzhou Guo, Chun-Ying Chao, James H. Flynn III, Yuxuan Wang, Robert J. Griffin, Sascha Usenko, and Rebecca J. Sheesley
We evaluated different methods for assessing the influence of long range transport of biomass burning (BB) plumes at a coastal site in Texas, USA. We show that the aerosol composition and optical properties exhibited good agreement while CO and acetonitrile trends were less specific for assessing BB source influence. Our results demonstrate that the network of aerosol optical measurements can be useful to identify the influence of aged BB plumes in anthropogenically-influenced areas.
Francesca Gallo, Janek Uin, Kevin J. Sanchez, Richard H. Moore, Jian Wang, Robert Wood, Fan Mei, Connor Flynn, Stephen Springston, Eduardo B. Azevedo, Chongai Kuang, and Allison C. Aiken
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4221–4246,Short summary
This study provides a summary statistic of multiday aerosol plume transport event influences on aerosol physical properties and the cloud condensation nuclei budget at the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Facility in the eastern North Atlantic (ENA). An algorithm that integrates aerosol properties is developed and applied to identify multiday aerosol transport events. The influence of the aerosol plumes on aerosol populations at the ENA is successively assessed.
Jean-Philippe Putaud, Enrico Pisoni, Alexander Mangold, Christoph Hueglin, Jean Sciare, Michael Pikridas, Chrysanthos Savvides, Jakub Ondracek, Saliou Mbengue, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Laurent Poulain, Dominik van Pinxteren, Hartmut Herrmann, Andreas Massling, Claus Nordstroem, Andrés Alastuey, Cristina Reche, Noemí Pérez, Sonia Castillo, Mar Sorribas, Jose Antonio Adame, Tuukka Petaja, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Jarkko Niemi, Véronique Riffault, Joel F. de Brito, Augustin Colette, Olivier Favez, Jean-Eudes Petit, Valérie Gros, Maria I. Gini, Stergios Vratolis, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Evangelia Diapouli, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Karl Espen Yttri, and Wenche Aas
Many European people are still exposed to levels of air pollution that can affect their health. COVID-19 lockdowns in 2020 were used to assess the impact of the reduction in human mobility on air pollution across Europe by comparing measurement data with values expected if no lockdown had occurred. We show that lockdown measures did not lead to consistent decreases in the concentrations of fine particulate matter suspended in the air, and investigate why.
Ruhi S. Humphries, Melita D. Keywood, Jason P. Ward, James Harnwell, Simon P. Alexander, Andrew R. Klekociuk, Keiichiro Hara, Ian M. McRobert, Alain Protat, Joel Alroe, Luke T. Cravigan, Branka Miljevic, Zoran D. Ristovski, Robyn Schofield, Stephen R. Wilson, Connor J. Flynn, Gourihar R. Kulkarni, Gerald G. Mace, Greg M. McFarquhar, Scott D. Chambers, Alastair G. Williams, and Alan D. Griffiths
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3749–3777,Short summary
Observations of aerosols in pristine regions are rare but are vital to constraining the natural baseline from which climate simulations are calculated. Here we present recent seasonal observations of aerosols from the Southern Ocean and contrast them with measurements from Antarctica, Australia and regionally relevant voyages. Strong seasonal cycles persist, but striking differences occur at different latitudes. This study highlights the need for more long-term observations in remote regions.
Chunshui Lin, Ru-Jin Huang, Haobin Zhong, Jing Duan, Zixi Wang, Wei Huang, and Wei Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3595–3607,Short summary
The complex interaction between O3 and PM2.5, coupled with the topology of the Fenwei Plain and the evolution of the boundary layer height, highlights the challenges in further reducing particulate pollution in winter despite years of efforts to reduce emissions. Through scenario analysis in a chemical box model constrained by observation, we show the co-benefits of reducing NOx and VOCs simultaneously in reducing ozone and SOA.
Albert Ansmann, Kevin Ohneiser, Ronny Engelmann, Martin Radenz, Hannes Griesche, Julian Hofer, Dietrich Althausen, Jessie M. Creamean, Matthew C. Boyer, Daniel A. Knopf, Sandro Dahlke, Marion Maturilli, Henriette Gebauer, Johannes Bühl, Cristofer Jimenez, Patric Seifert, and Ulla Wandinger
The one-year MOSAiC (2019–2020) expedition with the German ice breaker Polarstern was the largest polar field campaign ever conducted. The Polarstern with our lidar aboard drifted with the pack ice north of 85° N for more than seven months (October 2019 to mid–May 2020). We measured the full annual cycle of aerosol conditions in terms of aerosol optical and cloud-process-relevant properties. We observed a strong contrast between polluted winter and clean summer aerosol conditions.
Liang Yuan and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3195–3205,Short summary
Chemical compositions vary between and within particles due to the complex sources and aging processes, causing particle-to-particle heterogeneity in aerosol hygroscopicity, which is of great importance to aerosol climatic and environmental effects. This study proposes an algorithm to quantify the heterogeneity from in situ measurements, sheds light on the reanalysis of the existing H-TDMA datasets, and could have a large impact on how we use and think about these datasets.
Erik Ahlberg, Stina Ausmeel, Lovisa Nilsson, Mårten Spanne, Julija Pauraite, Jacob Klenø Nøjgaard, Michele Bertò, Henrik Skov, Pontus Roldin, Adam Kristensson, Erik Swietlicki, and Axel Eriksson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3051–3064,Short summary
To investigate the properties and origin of black carbon particles in southern Sweden during late summer, we performed measurements both at a rural site and the nearby city of Malmö. We found that local traffic emissions of black carbon led to concentrations around twice as high as those at the rural site. Modeling show that these emissions are not clearly distinguishable at the rural site, unless meteorology was favourable, which shows the importance of long-range transport and processing.
Haichao Wang, Yongbo Tan, Zheng Shi, Ning Yang, and Tianxue Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2843–2857,Short summary
The effects of aerosols on lightning are complex and still far from understood. We analysed the impacts of aerosols on lightning activity in the Sichuan Basin. Results show that lightning flashes first increase with aerosol loading during all periods and then behave differently (decrease in the afternoon and flatten at night). This suggests that the changes in solar radiation can modulate the aerosol effects on the occurrence and development of convection and lightning activity.
Nathaniel W. May, Noah Bernays, Ryan Farley, Qi Zhang, and Daniel A. Jaffe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2747–2764,Short summary
In summer 2019 at Mt. Bachelor Observatory, we observed smoke from wildfires with transport times ranging from less than a day up to 2 weeks. Aerosol absorption of multi-day transported smoke was dominated by black carbon, while smoke with shorter transport times had greater brown carbon absorption. Notably, Siberian smoke exhibited aerosol scattering and physical properties indicative of contributions from larger particles than typically observed in smoke.
Adelaide Dinoi, Daniel Gulli, Kay Weinhold, Ivano Ammoscato, Claudia R. Calidonna, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Daniele Contini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2167–2181,Short summary
In this study, particle number size distribution analysis was performed with the purpose of characterizing new particle formation (NPF) events occurring in two areas of southern Italy over 5 years of measurements. The identification of NPF events produced different results in terms of frequency and seasonality. Some of the main variables involved in the process, the local atmospheric conditions in which the events occurred, and the role of the air masses were discussed and compared.
Zhibo Xie, Jiaoshi Zhang, Huaqiao Gui, Yang Liu, Bo Yang, Haosheng Dai, Hang Xiao, Douguo Zhang, Da-Ren Chen, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2079–2088,Short summary
The hygroscopic growth of single nanoparticles is important for hygroscopic characteristic analysis of atmospheric particles and for scientific studies involving atmospheric particles. Based on the hygroscopicity difference of subgroups of atmospheric nanoparticles, the classification and proportion analysis of atmospheric nanoparticles has been completed, which has potential significance in predicting the contribution of the atmospheric particulate hygroscopicity and particle growth mechanism.
Guangyu Li, Elise K. Wilbourn, Zezhen Cheng, Jörg Wieder, Allison Fagerson, Jan Henneberger, Ghislain Motos, Rita Traversi, Sarah D. Brooks, Mauro Mazzola, Swarup China, Athanasios Nenes, Ulrike Lohmann, Naruki Hiranuma, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
In this work, we present results from an Arctic field campaign (NASCENT) in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, on the abundance, variability, physicochemical properties and potential sources of ice-nucleating particles relevant for mixed-phase cloud formation. This work improves the data coverage of Arctic INPs and aerosol properties, allowing for the validation of models predicting cloud microphysical and radiative properties of mixed-phase clouds in the rapidly warming Arctic.
Karine Sellegri, Theresa Barthelmeß, Jonathan Trueblood, Antonia Cristi, Evelyn Freney, Clémence Rose, Neill Barr, Mike Harvey, Karl Safi, Stacy Deppeler, Karen Thompson, Wayne Dillon, Anja Engel, and Cliff Law
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The number of sea spray emitted to the atmosphere depends on the ocean temperature, but this dependency is not well understood, especially when ocean biology is involved. In this study, we show that sea spray emissions are increased by up to a factor of four at low seawater temperatures compared to moderate temperatures, and quantify the temperature dependence as a function of the ocean biogeochemistry.
Matthew Boyer, Diego Aliaga, Jakob Boyd Pernov, Hélène Angot, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Lubna Dada, Benjamin Heutte, Manuel Dall'Osto, David C. S. Beddows, Zoé Brasseur, Ivo Beck, Silvia Bucci, Marina Duetsch, Andreas Stohl, Tiia Laurila, Eija Asmi, Andreas Massling, Daniel Charles Thomas, Jakob Klenø Nøjgaard, Tak Chan, Sangeeta Sharma, Peter Tunved, Radovan Krejci, Hans Christen Hansson, Federico Bianchi, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kay Weinhold, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Mikko Sipilä, Julia Schmale, and Tuija Jokinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 389–415,Short summary
The Arctic is a unique environment that is warming faster than other locations on Earth. We evaluate measurements of aerosol particles, which can influence climate, over the central Arctic Ocean for a full year and compare the data to land-based measurement stations across the Arctic. Our measurements show that the central Arctic has similarities to but also distinct differences from the stations further south. We note that this may change as the Arctic warms and sea ice continues to decline.
Christina Spitieri, Maria Gini, Martin Gysel-Beer, and Konstantinos Eleftheriadis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 235–249,Short summary
The paper provides insights into the hygroscopic properties and state of mixing of atmospheric aerosol through 1 year of measurements of key microphysical parameters in the suburbs of the most densely populated city of Greece, Athens, in the eastern Mediterranean, which is considered an important climate change hotspot. The results can be used for the prediction of cloud condensation nuclei and quantification of the influence of ambient relative humidity on light scattering by aerosol particles.
Suzanne Crumeyrolle, Jenni S. S. Kontkanen, Clémence Rose, Alejandra Velazquez Garcia, Eric Bourrianne, Maxime Catalfamo, Véronique Riffault, Emmanuel Tison, Joel Ferreira de Brito, Nicolas Visez, Nicolas Ferlay, Frédérique Auriol, and Isabelle Chiapello
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 183–201,Short summary
Ultrafine particles (UFPs) are particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 100 nm or less and negligible mass concentration but are the dominant contributor to the total particle number concentration. The present study aims to better understand the environmental factors favoring or inhibiting atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) over Lille, a large city in the north of France, and to analyze the impact of such an event on urban air quality using a long-term dataset (3 years).
Spiro D. Jorga, Kalliopi Florou, David Patoulias, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 85–97,Short summary
We take advantage of this unexpected low, new particle formation frequency in Greece and use a dual atmospheric simulation chamber system with starting point ambient air in an effort to gain insight about the chemical species that is limiting nucleation in this area. A potential nucleation precursor, ammonia, was added in one of the chambers while the other one was used as a reference. The addition of ammonia assisted new particle formation in almost 50 % of the experiments conducted.
Allison B. Marquardt Collow, Virginie Buchard, Peter R. Colarco, Arlindo M. da Silva, Ravi Govindaraju, Edward P. Nowottnick, Sharon Burton, Richard Ferrare, Chris Hostetler, and Luke Ziemba
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 16091–16109,Short summary
Biomass burning aerosol impacts aspects of the atmosphere and Earth system through radiative forcing, serving as cloud condensation nuclei, and air quality. Despite its importance, the representation of biomass burning aerosol is not always accurate in models. Field campaign observations from CAMP2Ex are used to evaluate the mass and extinction of aerosols in the GEOS model. Notable biases in the model illuminate areas of future development with GEOS and the underlying GOCART aerosol module.
Noah S. Hirshorn, Lauren M. Zuromski, Christopher Rapp, Ian McCubbin, Gerardo Carrillo-Cardenas, Fangqun Yu, and A. Gannet Hallar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15909–15924,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) is a source of atmospheric aerosol number concentration that can impact climate by growing to larger sizes and under proper conditions form cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Using novel methods, we find that at Storm Peak Laboratory, a remote, mountaintop site in Colorado, NPF is observed to enhance CCN concentrations in the spring by a factor of 1.54 and in the winter by a factor of 1.36 which can occur on a regional scale having important climate implications.
Yuan Wang, Silvia Henning, Laurent Poulain, Chunsong Lu, Frank Stratmann, Yuying Wang, Shengjie Niu, Mira L. Pöhlker, Hartmut Herrmann, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15943–15962,Short summary
Aerosol particle activation affects cloud, precipitation, radiation, and thus the global climate. Its long-term measurements are important but still scarce. In this study, more than 4 years of measurements at a central European station were analyzed. The overall characteristics and seasonal changes of aerosol particle activation are summarized. The power-law fit between particle hygroscopicity factor and diameter was recommended for predicting cloud condensation nuclei number concentration.
Juha Sulo, Janne Lampilahti, Xuemeng Chen, Jenni Kontkanen, Tuomo Nieminen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Katrianne Lehtipalo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15223–15242,Short summary
We measured atmospheric ion concentrations continuously in a boreal forest between 2005 and 2021 and observed an increasing interannual trend. The increase in cluster ion concentrations can be largely explained by an overall decreasing level of anthropogenic aerosols in the boreal forest. This suggests that the role of ions in atmospheric new particle formation may be more important in the future.
Rui Zhang, Yuying Wang, Zhanqing Li, Zhibin Wang, Russell R. Dickerson, Xinrong Ren, Hao He, Fei Wang, Ying Gao, Xi Chen, Jialu Xu, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14879–14891,Short summary
Factors of cloud condensation nuclei number concentration (NCCN) profiles determined in the North China Plain include air mass sources, temperature structure, anthropogenic emissions, and terrain distribution. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra suggest that the ability of aerosol activation into CCN is stronger in southeasterly than in northwesterly air masses and stronger in the free atmosphere than near the surface. A good method to parameterize NCCN from aerosol optical data is found.
Nikou Hamzehpour, Claudia Marcolli, Sara Pashai, Kristian Klumpp, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14905–14930,Short summary
Playa surfaces in Iran that emerged through Lake Urmia (LU) desiccation have become a relevant dust source of regional relevance. Here, we identify highly erodible LU playa surfaces and determine their physicochemical properties and mineralogical composition and perform emulsion-freezing experiments with them. We find high ice nucleation activities (up to 250 K) that correlate positively with organic matter and clay content and negatively with pH, salinity, K-feldspars, and quartz.
Payton Beeler and Rajan K. Chakrabarty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14825–14836,Short summary
Understanding and parameterizing the influences of black carbon (BC) particle morphology and compositional heterogeneity on its light absorption represent a fundamental problem. We develop scaling laws using a single unifying parameter that effectively encompasses large-scale diversity observed in BC light absorption on a per-particle basis. The laws help reconcile the disparities between field observations and model predictions. Our framework is packaged in an open-source Python application.
Runlong Cai, Chenjuan Deng, Dominik Stolzenburg, Chenxi Li, Junchen Guo, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jingkun Jiang, Markku Kulmala, and Juha Kangasluoma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14571–14587,Short summary
The survival probability of new particles is the key parameter governing their influences on the atmosphere and climate, yet the knowledge of particle survival in the atmosphere is rather limited. We propose methods to compute the size-resolved particle survival probability and validate them using simulations and measurements from diverse environments. Using these methods, we could explain particle survival from the cluster size to the cloud condensation nuclei size.
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This study shows the observational evidence of the role of humidity and associations from wind shear and aerosol concentrations on the evolution of deep convective clouds from shallow clouds. This study shows how humidity, wind shear, and aerosols influence a parcel's buoyancy before the clouds form.
This study shows the observational evidence of the role of humidity and associations from wind...