Articles | Volume 17, issue 20
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Sources of sub-micrometre particles near a major international airport
Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
Division of Epidemiology, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, 265 Crittenden Boulevard, CU 420644, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
also at: Department of Environmental Sciences/Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia
Tuan V. Vu
Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
David C. S. Beddows
No articles found.
Jianghao Li, Alastair C. Lewis, Jim R. Hopkins, Stephen J. Andrews, Tim Murrells, Neil Passant, Ben Richmond, Siqi Hou, William Bloss, Roy Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).Short summary
A summertime ozone event at an urban site in Birmingham is sensitive to volatile organic compound (VOCs), particularly those of oxygenated VOCs. The roles of anthropogenic VOC sources in urban ozone chemistry are examined by integrating the 1990–2019 national atmospheric emission inventory into model scenarios. Road transport remains the most powerful means to further reduce ozone in this case study, but the benefits maybe offset if solvent emission of VOCs were to continue to increase.
Marco Paglione, David C. S. Beddows, Anna Jones, Thomas Lachlan-Cope, Matteo Rinaldi, Stefano Decesari, Francesco Manarini, Mara Russo, Karam Mansour, Roy M. Harrison, Andrea Mazzanti, Emilio Tagliavini, and Manuel Dall'Osto
Applying factor analysis techniques to H-NMR spectra, we present the Organic Aerosol (OA) source apportionment of PM1 samples collected in parallel at two peri-Antarctic stations, namely Signy and Halley, important to investigate aerosol-climate interactions in an unperturbed atmosphere. Our results show remarkable differences between pelagic (open ocean) and sympagic (sea-ice influenced) air masses and indicate that various sources and processes are controlling Antarctic aerosols.
Clarissa Baldo, Paola Formenti, Claudia Di Biagio, Gongda Lu, Congbo Song, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Jean-Francois Doussin, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Olafur Arnalds, David Beddows, A. Robert MacKenzie, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7975–8000,Short summary
This paper presents new shortwave spectral complex refractive index and single scattering albedo data for Icelandic dust. Our results show that the imaginary part of the complex refractive index of Icelandic dust is at the upper end of the range of low-latitude dust. Furthermore, we observed that Icelandic dust is more absorbing towards the near-infrared, which we attribute to its high magnetite content. These findings are important for modeling dust aerosol radiative effects in the Arctic.
Joanna E. Dyson, Lisa K. Whalley, Eloise J. Slater, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Archit Mehra, Thomas J. Bannan, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Bin Ouyang, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Roderic L. Jones, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Supattarachai Saksakulkrai, Jingsha Xu, Zongbo Shi, Roy M. Harrison, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lianfang Wei, Pingqing Fu, Xinming Wang, Stephen R. Arnold, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5679–5697,Short summary
The hydroxyl (OH) and closely coupled hydroperoxyl (HO2) radicals are vital for their role in the removal of atmospheric pollutants. In less polluted regions, atmospheric models over-predict HO2 concentrations. In this modelling study, the impact of heterogeneous uptake of HO2 onto aerosol surfaces on radical concentrations and the ozone production regime in Beijing in the summertime is investigated, and the implications for emissions policies across China are considered.
James Brean, David C. S. Beddows, Roy M. Harrison, Congbo Song, Peter Tunved, Johan Ström, Radovan Krejci, Eyal Freud, Andreas Massling, Henrik Skov, Eija Asmi, Angelo Lupi, and Manuel Dall'Osto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2183–2198,Short summary
Our results emphasize how understanding the geographical variation in surface types across the Arctic is key to understanding secondary aerosol sources. We provide a harmonised analysis of new particle formation across the Arctic.
Matthew Boyer, Diego Aliaga, Jakob Boyd Pernov, Hélène Angot, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Lubna Dada, Benjamin Heutte, Manuel Dall'Osto, David C. S. Beddows, Zoé Brasseur, Ivo Beck, Silvia Bucci, Marina Duetsch, Andreas Stohl, Tiia Laurila, Eija Asmi, Andreas Massling, Daniel Charles Thomas, Jakob Klenø Nøjgaard, Tak Chan, Sangeeta Sharma, Peter Tunved, Radovan Krejci, Hans Christen Hansson, Federico Bianchi, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kay Weinhold, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Mikko Sipilä, Julia Schmale, and Tuija Jokinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 389–415,Short summary
The Arctic is a unique environment that is warming faster than other locations on Earth. We evaluate measurements of aerosol particles, which can influence climate, over the central Arctic Ocean for a full year and compare the data to land-based measurement stations across the Arctic. Our measurements show that the central Arctic has similarities to but also distinct differences from the stations further south. We note that this may change as the Arctic warms and sea ice continues to decline.
Dimitrios Bousiotis, David C. S. Beddows, Ajit Singh, Molly Haugen, Sebastián Diez, Pete M. Edwards, Adam Boies, Roy M. Harrison, and Francis D. Pope
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4047–4061,Short summary
In the last decade, low-cost sensors have revolutionised the field of air quality monitoring. This paper extends the ability of low-cost sensors to not only measure air pollution, but also to understand where the pollution comes from. This "source apportionment" is a critical step in air quality management to allow for the mitigation of air pollution. The techniques developed in this paper have the potential for great impact in both research and industrial applications.
Ülkü Alver Şahin, Roy M. Harrison, Mohammed S. Alam, David C. S. Beddows, Dimitrios Bousiotis, Zongbo Shi, Leigh R. Crilley, William Bloss, James Brean, Isha Khanna, and Rulan Verma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5415–5433,Short summary
Wide-range particle size spectra have been measured in three seasons in Delhi and are interpreted in terms of sources and processes. Condensational growth is a major feature of the fine fraction, and a coarse fraction contributes substantially – but only in summer.
Yingze Tian, Xiaoning Wang, Peng Zhao, Zongbo Shi, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Chemical mass balance (CMB) is a widely used method to apportion the sources of PM2.5. We explore the sensitivity of CMB results to input data of organic markers only (OM-CMB) with a combination of organic and inorganic markers (IOM-CMB), as well as using different chemical profiles for sources. Our results indicate the superiority of combining inorganic and organic tracers and using locally-relevant source profiles in source apportionment of PM.
Deepchandra Srivastava, Jingsha Xu, Tuan V. Vu, Di Liu, Linjie Li, Pingqing Fu, Siqi Hou, Natalia Moreno Palmerola, Zongbo Shi, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14703–14724,Short summary
This study presents the source apportionment of PM2.5 performed by positive matrix factorization (PMF) at urban and rural sites in Beijing. These factors are interpreted as traffic emissions, biomass burning, road and soil dust, coal and oil combustion, and secondary inorganics. PMF failed to resolve some sources identified by CMB and AMS and appears to overestimate the dust sources. Comparison with earlier PMF studies from the Beijing area highlights inconsistent findings using this method.
Beth S. Nelson, Gareth J. Stewart, Will S. Drysdale, Mike J. Newland, Adam R. Vaughan, Rachel E. Dunmore, Pete M. Edwards, Alastair C. Lewis, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, W. Joe Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Leigh R. Crilley, Mohammed S. Alam, Ülkü A. Şahin, David C. S. Beddows, William J. Bloss, Eloise Slater, Lisa K. Whalley, Dwayne E. Heard, James M. Cash, Ben Langford, Eiko Nemitz, Roberto Sommariva, Sam Cox, Shivani, Ranu Gadi, Bhola R. Gurjar, James R. Hopkins, Andrew R. Rickard, and James D. Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13609–13630,Short summary
Ozone production at an urban site in Delhi is sensitive to volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations, particularly those of the aromatic, monoterpene, and alkene VOC classes. The change in ozone production by varying atmospheric pollutants according to their sources, as defined in an emissions inventory, is investigated. The study suggests that reducing road transport emissions alone does not reduce reactive VOCs in the atmosphere enough to perturb an increase in ozone production.
Dimitrios Bousiotis, Francis D. Pope, David C. S. Beddows, Manuel Dall'Osto, Andreas Massling, Jakob Klenø Nøjgaard, Claus Nordstrøm, Jarkko V. Niemi, Harri Portin, Tuukka Petäjä, Noemi Perez, Andrés Alastuey, Xavier Querol, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Stergios Vratolis, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Thomas Tuch, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11905–11925,Short summary
Formation of new particles is a key process in the atmosphere. New particle formation events arising from nucleation of gaseous precursors have been analysed in extensive datasets from 13 sites in five European countries in terms of frequency, nucleation rate, and particle growth rate, with several common features and many differences identified. Although nucleation frequencies are lower at roadside sites, nucleation rates and particle growth rates are typically higher.
Gongda Lu, Eloise A. Marais, Tuan V. Vu, Jingsha Xu, Zongbo Shi, James D. Lee, Qiang Zhang, Lu Shen, Gan Luo, and Fangqun Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Emission controls were imposed in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei in northern China in autumn-winter 2017. We find that regional PM2.5 targets (15 % decrease relative to previous year) were exceeded. Our analysis shows that decline in precursor emissions only leads to less than half (43 %) the improved air quality. Most of the change (57 %) is due to interannual variability in meteorology. Stricter emission controls may be necessary in years with unfavourable meteorology.
Congbo Song, Manuel Dall'Osto, Angelo Lupi, Mauro Mazzola, Rita Traversi, Silvia Becagli, Stefania Gilardoni, Stergios Vratolis, Karl Espen Yttri, David C. S. Beddows, Julia Schmale, James Brean, Agung Ghani Kramawijaya, Roy M. Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11317–11335,Short summary
We present a cluster analysis of relatively long-term (2015–2019) aerosol aerodynamic volume size distributions up to 20 μm in the Arctic for the first time. The study found that anthropogenic and natural aerosols comprised 27 % and 73 % of the occurrence of the coarse-mode aerosols, respectively. Our study shows that about two-thirds of the coarse-mode aerosols are related to two sea-spray-related aerosol clusters, indicating that sea spray aerosol may more complex in the Arctic environment.
Dimitrios Bousiotis, Ajit Singh, Molly Haugen, David C. S. Beddows, Sebastián Diez, Killian L. Murphy, Pete M. Edwards, Adam Boies, Roy M. Harrison, and Francis D. Pope
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4139–4155,Short summary
Measurement and source apportionment of atmospheric pollutants are crucial for the assessment of air quality and the implementation of policies for their improvement. This study highlights the current capability of low-cost sensors in source identification and differentiation using clustering approaches. Future directions towards particulate matter source apportionment using low-cost OPCs are highlighted.
Siqi Hou, Di Liu, Jingsha Xu, Tuan V. Vu, Xuefang Wu, Deepchandra Srivastava, Pingqing Fu, Linjie Li, Yele Sun, Athanasia Vlachou, Vaios Moschos, Gary Salazar, Sönke Szidat, André S. H. Prévôt, Roy M. Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8273–8292,Short summary
This study provides a newly developed method which combines radiocarbon (14C) with organic tracers to enable source apportionment of primary and secondary fossil vs. non-fossil sources of carbonaceous aerosols at an urban and a rural site of Beijing. The source apportionment results were compared with those by chemical mass balance and AMS/ACSM-PMF methods. Correlations of WINSOC and WSOC with different sources of OC were also performed to elucidate the formation mechanisms of SOC.
Jingsha Xu, Di Liu, Xuefang Wu, Tuan V. Vu, Yanli Zhang, Pingqing Fu, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Bo Zheng, Roy M. Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7321–7341,Short summary
Source apportionment of fine aerosols in an urban site of Beijing used a chemical mass balance (CMB) model. Seven primary sources (industrial/residential coal burning, biomass burning, gasoline/diesel vehicles, cooking and vegetative detritus) explained an average of 75.7 % and 56.1 % of fine OC in winter and summer, respectively. CMB was found to resolve more primary OA sources than AMS-PMF, but the latter apportioned more secondary OA sources.
Steven J. Campbell, Kate Wolfer, Battist Utinger, Joe Westwood, Zhi-Hui Zhang, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Sarah S. Steimer, Tuan V. Vu, Jingsha Xu, Nicholas Straw, Steven Thomson, Atallah Elzein, Yele Sun, Di Liu, Linjie Li, Pingqing Fu, Alastair C. Lewis, Roy M. Harrison, William J. Bloss, Miranda Loh, Mark R. Miller, Zongbo Shi, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5549–5573,Short summary
In this study, we quantify PM2.5 oxidative potential (OP), a metric widely suggested as a potential measure of particle toxicity, in Beijing in summer and winter using four acellular assays. We correlate PM2.5 OP with a comprehensive range of atmospheric and particle composition measurements, demonstrating inter-assay differences and seasonal variation of PM2.5 OP. Using multivariate statistical analysis, we highlight specific particle chemical components and sources that influence OP.
Dimitrios Bousiotis, James Brean, Francis D. Pope, Manuel Dall'Osto, Xavier Querol, Andrés Alastuey, Noemi Perez, Tuukka Petäjä, Andreas Massling, Jacob Klenø Nøjgaard, Claus Nordstrøm, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Stergios Vratolis, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Jarkko V. Niemi, Harri Portin, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Thomas Tuch, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3345–3370,Short summary
New particle formation events from 16 sites over Europe have been studied, and the influence of meteorological and atmospheric composition variables has been investigated. Some variables, like solar radiation intensity and temperature, have a positive effect on the occurrence of these events, while others have a negative effect, affecting different aspects such as the rate at which particles are formed or grow. This effect varies depending on the site type and magnitude of these variables.
Lisa K. Whalley, Eloise J. Slater, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Archit Mehra, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Thomas J. Bannan, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Bin Ouyang, Roderic L. Jones, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, William J. Bloss, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lujie Ren, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Xinming Wang, Pingqing Fu, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2125–2147,Short summary
To understand how emission controls will impact ozone, an understanding of the sources and sinks of OH and the chemical cycling between peroxy radicals is needed. This paper presents measurements of OH, HO2 and total RO2 taken in central Beijing. The radical observations are compared to a detailed chemistry model, which shows that under low NO conditions, there is a missing OH source. Under high NOx conditions, the model under-predicts RO2 and impacts our ability to model ozone.
Eloise J. Slater, Lisa K. Whalley, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa Kramer, William Bloss, Tuan Vu, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lujie Ren, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Xinming Wang, Pingqing Fu, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14847–14871,Short summary
The paper details atmospheric chemistry in a megacity (Beijing), focussing on radicals which mediate the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and particles. Highly polluted conditions were experienced, including the highest ever levels of nitric oxide (NO), with simultaneous radical measurements. Radical concentrations were large during "haze" events, demonstrating active photochemistry. Modelling showed that our understanding of the chemistry at high NOx levels is incomplete.
Jingsha Xu, Shaojie Song, Roy M. Harrison, Congbo Song, Lianfang Wei, Qiang Zhang, Yele Sun, Lu Lei, Chao Zhang, Xiaohong Yao, Dihui Chen, Weijun Li, Miaomiao Wu, Hezhong Tian, Lining Luo, Shengrui Tong, Weiran Li, Junling Wang, Guoliang Shi, Yanqi Huangfu, Yingze Tian, Baozhu Ge, Shaoli Su, Chao Peng, Yang Chen, Fumo Yang, Aleksandra Mihajlidi-Zelić, Dragana Đorđević, Stefan J. Swift, Imogen Andrews, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Ye Sun, Agung Kramawijaya, Jinxiu Han, Supattarachai Saksakulkrai, Clarissa Baldo, Siqi Hou, Feixue Zheng, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Chao Yan, Yongchun Liu, Markku Kulmala, Pingqing Fu, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6325–6341,Short summary
An interlaboratory comparison was conducted for the first time to examine differences in water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) measured by 10 labs using ion chromatography (IC) and by two online aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) methods. Major ions including SO42−, NO3− and NH4+ agreed well in 10 IC labs and correlated well with ACSM data. WSII interlab variability strongly affected aerosol acidity results based on ion balance, but aerosol pH computed by ISORROPIA II was very similar.
Atallah Elzein, Gareth J. Stewart, Stefan J. Swift, Beth S. Nelson, Leigh R. Crilley, Mohammed S. Alam, Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Ranu Gadi, Roy M. Harrison, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, and Alastair C. Lewis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14303–14319,Short summary
We collected high-frequency air particle samples (PM2.5) in Beijing (China) and Delhi (India) and measured the concentration of PAHs in daytime and night-time. PAHs were higher in Delhi than in Beijing, and the five-ring PAHs contribute the most to the total PAH concentration. We compared the emission sources and identified the major sectors that could be subject to mitigation measures. The adverse health effects from inhalation exposure to PAHs in Delhi are 2.2 times higher than in Beijing.
Henrik Skov, Jens Hjorth, Claus Nordstrøm, Bjarne Jensen, Christel Christoffersen, Maria Bech Poulsen, Jesper Baldtzer Liisberg, David Beddows, Manuel Dall'Osto, and Jesper Heile Christensen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13253–13265,Short summary
Mercury is toxic in all its forms. It bioaccumulates in food webs, is ubiquitous in the atmosphere, and atmospheric transport is an important source for this element in the Arctic. Measurements of gaseous elemental mercury have been carried out at the Villum Research Station at Station Nord in northern Greenland since 1999. The measurements are compared with model results from the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model. In this way, the dynamics of mercury are investigated.
Sarah S. Steimer, Daniel J. Patton, Tuan V. Vu, Marios Panagi, Paul S. Monks, Roy M. Harrison, Zoë L. Fleming, Zongbo Shi, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13303–13318,Short summary
Air pollution is of growing concern due to its negative effect on public health, especially in low- and middle-income countries. This study investigates how the chemical composition of particles in Beijing changes under different measurement conditions (pollution levels, season) to get a better understanding of the sources of this form of air pollution.
James Brean, David C. S. Beddows, Zongbo Shi, Brice Temime-Roussel, Nicolas Marchand, Xavier Querol, Andrés Alastuey, María Cruz Minguillón, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10029–10045,Short summary
New particle formation is a key process influencing both local air quality and climatically active cloud condensation nuclei concentrations. This study has carried out fundamental measurements of nucleation processes in Barcelona, Spain, and concludes that a mechanism involving stabilisation of sulfuric acid clusters by low molecular weight amines is primarily responsible for new particle formation events.
Yingze Tian, Yinchang Feng, Yongli Liang, Yixuan Li, Qianqian Xue, Zongbo Shi, Jingsha Xu, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Size distributions of inorganic and organic components in particulate matter (PM) can provide critical information on sources and pollution processes. Ions, elements, carbon fractions, n-alkanes, PAHs, hopanes and steranes in size-resolved PM were analyzed during one year in a northern Chinese megacity. Results reveal that size distributions of inorganic and organic aerosol components are dependent on seasons and pollution levels as a result of differing sources and physicochemical processes.
Daniel J. Bryant, William J. Dixon, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Kelly L. Pereira, Marvin Shaw, Freya A. Squires, Thomas J. Bannan, Archit Mehra, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Lisa K. Whalley, Dwayne E. Heard, Eloise J. Slater, Bin Ouyang, Tianqu Cui, Jason D. Surratt, Di Liu, Zongbo Shi, Roy Harrison, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Alastair C. Lewis, James D. Lee, Andrew R. Rickard, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7531–7552,Short summary
Using the chemical composition of offline filter samples, we report that a large share of oxidized organic aerosol in Beijing during summer is due to isoprene secondary organic aerosol (iSOA). iSOA organosulfates showed a strong correlation with the product of ozone and particulate sulfate. This highlights the role of both photochemistry and the availability of particulate sulfate in heterogeneous reactions and further demonstrates that iSOA formation is controlled by anthropogenic emissions.
Thomas Lachlan-Cope, David C. S. Beddows, Neil Brough, Anna E. Jones, Roy M. Harrison, Angelo Lupi, Young Jun Yoon, Aki Virkkula, and Manuel Dall'Osto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4461–4476,Short summary
We present a statistical cluster analysis of the physical characteristics of particle size distributions collected at Halley (Antarctica) for the year 2015. Complex interactions between multiple ecosystems, coupled with different atmospheric circulation, result in very different aerosol size distributions populating the Southern Hemisphere.
James Brean, Roy M. Harrison, Zongbo Shi, David C. S. Beddows, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Freya A. Squires, and James Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14933–14947,Short summary
Measurements of highly oxidized molecules measured during a summer campaign in Beijing are presented. These molecules represent an intermediary between gas-phase chemicals from which they are formed and airborne particles which form from them. Conclusions are drawn as to the factors affecting the formation of new particles within the Beijing atmosphere.
Tuan V. Vu, Zongbo Shi, Jing Cheng, Qiang Zhang, Kebin He, Shuxiao Wang, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11303–11314,Short summary
A 5-year Clean Air Action Plan was implemented in 2013 to improve ambient air quality in Beijing. Here, we applied a novel machine-learning-based model to determine the real trend in air quality from 2013 to 2017 in Beijing to assess the efficacy of the plan. We showed that the action plan led to a major reduction in primary emissions and significant improvement in air quality. The marked decrease in PM2.5 and SO2 is largely attributable to a reduction in coal combustion.
Ruihe Lyu, Zongbo Shi, Mohammed Salim Alam, Xuefang Wu, Di Liu, Tuan V. Vu, Christopher Stark, Pingqing Fu, Yinchang Feng, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10865–10881,Short summary
Severe pollution of the Beijing atmosphere is a frequent occurrence. The airborne particles which characterize the episodes of haze contain a wide range of chemical constituents but organic compounds make up a substantial proportion. In this study individual compounds are analysed under both haze and non-haze conditions, and the measurements are compared with samples collected in London, where the air pollution climate and sources are very different.
Zongbo Shi, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Roy M. Harrison, Sue Grimmond, Siyao Yue, Tong Zhu, James Lee, Yiqun Han, Matthias Demuzere, Rachel E. Dunmore, Lujie Ren, Di Liu, Yuanlin Wang, Oliver Wild, James Allan, W. Joe Acton, Janet Barlow, Benjamin Barratt, David Beddows, William J. Bloss, Giulia Calzolai, David Carruthers, David C. Carslaw, Queenie Chan, Lia Chatzidiakou, Yang Chen, Leigh Crilley, Hugh Coe, Tie Dai, Ruth Doherty, Fengkui Duan, Pingqing Fu, Baozhu Ge, Maofa Ge, Daobo Guan, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Kebin He, Mathew Heal, Dwayne Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Michael Hollaway, Min Hu, Dongsheng Ji, Xujiang Jiang, Rod Jones, Markus Kalberer, Frank J. Kelly, Louisa Kramer, Ben Langford, Chun Lin, Alastair C. Lewis, Jie Li, Weijun Li, Huan Liu, Junfeng Liu, Miranda Loh, Keding Lu, Franco Lucarelli, Graham Mann, Gordon McFiggans, Mark R. Miller, Graham Mills, Paul Monk, Eiko Nemitz, Fionna O'Connor, Bin Ouyang, Paul I. Palmer, Carl Percival, Olalekan Popoola, Claire Reeves, Andrew R. Rickard, Longyi Shao, Guangyu Shi, Dominick Spracklen, David Stevenson, Yele Sun, Zhiwei Sun, Shu Tao, Shengrui Tong, Qingqing Wang, Wenhua Wang, Xinming Wang, Xuejun Wang, Zifang Wang, Lianfang Wei, Lisa Whalley, Xuefang Wu, Zhijun Wu, Pinhua Xie, Fumo Yang, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, Yuanhang Zhang, and Mei Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7519–7546,Short summary
APHH-Beijing is a collaborative international research programme to study the sources, processes and health effects of air pollution in Beijing. This introduction to the special issue provides an overview of (i) the APHH-Beijing programme, (ii) the measurement and modelling activities performed as part of it and (iii) the air quality and meteorological conditions during joint intensive field campaigns as a core activity within APHH-Beijing.
Manuel Dall'Osto, David C. S. Beddows, Peter Tunved, Roy M. Harrison, Angelo Lupi, Vito Vitale, Silvia Becagli, Rita Traversi, Ki-Tae Park, Young Jun Yoon, Andreas Massling, Henrik Skov, Robert Lange, Johan Strom, and Radovan Krejci
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7377–7395,Short summary
We present a cluster analysis of particle size distributions simultaneously collected from three European high Arctic sites centred in the Fram Strait during a 3-year period. Confined for longer time periods by consolidated pack sea ice regions, the Greenland site shows lower ultrafine-mode aerosol concentrations during summer relative to the Svalbard sites. Our study supports international environmental cooperation concerning the Arctic region.
Yue Liu, Mei Zheng, Mingyuan Yu, Xuhui Cai, Huiyun Du, Jie Li, Tian Zhou, Caiqing Yan, Xuesong Wang, Zongbo Shi, Roy M. Harrison, Qiang Zhang, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6595–6609,Short summary
This study is part of the UK–China APHH campaign. To identify both source types and source regions at the same time, this study developed a combined method including receptor model, footprint model, and air quality model for the first time to investigate sources of PM2.5 during haze episodes in Beijing. It is an expansion of the application of the receptor model and is helpful for formulating effective control strategies to improve air quality in this region.
Dimitrios Bousiotis, Manuel Dall'Osto, David C. S. Beddows, Francis D. Pope, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5679–5694,Short summary
New particle formation events are identified at three sites in southern England, including a roadside and urban background site within London and a rural regional background site. The conditions favouring new particle formation events are identified and compared between the sites. Although a higher degree of pollution presents a greater condensation sink, it appears to be largely compensated for by faster particle growth rates.
David C. S. Beddows and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4863–4876,Short summary
Airborne particles are a cause of illness and premature death. Cost-effective control of particles in the atmosphere depends upon a reliable knowledge of their sources. This paper proposes and tests a new method for attributing particles quantitatively to the sources responsible for their emission or atmospheric formation.
Ruihe Lyu, Mohammed S. Alam, Christopher Stark, Ruixin Xu, Zongbo Shi, Yinchang Feng, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2233–2246,Short summary
Organic matter comprises a substantial proportion of the mass of toxic airborne particles which cause poor health and premature death. In this paper, new measurements of three important groups of organic compounds are reported and are analysed to infer their sources and their contributions to airborne particle concentrations.
Roy M. Harrison, David C. S. Beddows, Mohammed S. Alam, Ajit Singh, James Brean, Ruixin Xu, Simone Kotthaus, and Sue Grimmond
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 39–55,Short summary
Particle number size distributions were measured simultaneously at five sites in London during a campaign. Observations are interpreted in terms of both evaporative shrinkage of traffic-generated particles and condensational growth, probably of traffic-generated particles under cool nocturnal conditions, as well as the influence of particles emitted from Heathrow Airport at a distance of about 22 km. The work highlights the highly dynamic behaviour of nanoparticles within the urban atmosphere.
Irina Nikolova, Xiaoming Cai, Mohammed Salim Alam, Soheil Zeraati-Rezaei, Jian Zhong, A. Rob MacKenzie, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17143–17155,Short summary
There are increasing health concerns about the smallest airborne particles found in polluted urban atmospheres. These particles are composed of a mixture of oil-derived substances, but the exact composition is not known and is likely to be very complicated. We provide a way to compute how these particles change as their chemical make-up changes. We also outline the range of particle compositions that reproduce the behaviour of the smallest particles seen in field measurements.
Cristina Carnerero, Noemí Pérez, Cristina Reche, Marina Ealo, Gloria Titos, Hong-Ku Lee, Hee-Ram Eun, Yong-Hee Park, Lubna Dada, Pauli Paasonen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Enrique Mantilla, Miguel Escudero, Francisco J. Gómez-Moreno, Elisabeth Alonso-Blanco, Esther Coz, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Brice Temime-Roussel, Nicolas Marchand, David C. S. Beddows, Roy M. Harrison, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Kang-Ho Ahn, Andrés Alastuey, and Xavier Querol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16601–16618,Short summary
The vertical distribution of new particle formation events was studied using tethered balloons carrying miniaturized instrumentation. Results show that new particle formation and growth occurs only in the lower layer of the atmosphere, where aerosols are mixed due to convection, especially when the atmosphere is clean. A comparison of urban and suburban surface stations was also made, suggesting that such events may have a significant impact on ultrafine particle concentrations in a wide area.
Tuomo Nieminen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Pasi P. Aalto, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Urs Baltensperger, David C. S. Beddows, Johan Paul Beukes, Don Collins, Aijun Ding, Roy M. Harrison, Bas Henzing, Rakesh Hooda, Min Hu, Urmas Hõrrak, Niku Kivekäs, Kaupo Komsaare, Radovan Krejci, Adam Kristensson, Lauri Laakso, Ari Laaksonen, W. Richard Leaitch, Heikki Lihavainen, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Zoltán Németh, Wei Nie, Colin O'Dowd, Imre Salma, Karine Sellegri, Birgitta Svenningsson, Erik Swietlicki, Peter Tunved, Vidmantas Ulevicius, Ville Vakkari, Marko Vana, Alfred Wiedensohler, Zhijun Wu, Annele Virtanen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14737–14756,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols have diverse effects on air quality, human health, and global climate. One important source of aerosols is their formation via nucleation and growth in the atmosphere. We have analyzed long-term observations of regional new particle formation events around the globe and provide a comprehensive view on the characteristics of this phenomenon in diverse environments. The results are useful in developing more realistic representation of atmospheric aerosols in global models.
Kelly L. Pereira, Rachel Dunmore, James Whitehead, M. Rami Alfarra, James D. Allan, Mohammed S. Alam, Roy M. Harrison, Gordon McFiggans, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11073–11096,Short summary
Exhaust emissions from a light-duty diesel engine were introduced into an atmospheric simulation chamber which was used as a holding-cell for sampling, allowing instruments capable of providing detailed chemical speciation of exhaust gas emissions to be used. The effect of different engine conditions on the exhaust gas composition was investigated. The exhaust composition changed considerably due to two influencing factors, engine combustion and diesel oxidative catalyst efficiency.
Mohammed S. Alam, Soheil Zeraati-Rezaei, Zhirong Liang, Christopher Stark, Hongming Xu, A. Rob MacKenzie, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3047–3058,Short summary
Diesel fuel, lubricating oil and diesel exhaust emissions all contain a very complex mixture of chemical compounds with diverse molecular structures. The GC × GC-ToF-MS analytical method is a very powerful way of separating and identifying those compounds. This paper describes the allocation of compounds into groups with similar molecular structures and chemical properties, which facilitates the intercomparison of very complex mixtures such as are found in diesel fuel, oil and emissions.
Xavier Querol, Andrés Alastuey, Gotzon Gangoiti, Noemí Perez, Hong K. Lee, Heeram R. Eun, Yonghee Park, Enrique Mantilla, Miguel Escudero, Gloria Titos, Lucio Alonso, Brice Temime-Roussel, Nicolas Marchand, Juan R. Moreta, M. Arantxa Revuelta, Pedro Salvador, Begoña Artíñano, Saúl García dos Santos, Mónica Anguas, Alberto Notario, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Roy M. Harrison, Millán Millán, and Kang-Ho Ahn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6511–6533,Short summary
We show the main drivers of high O3 episodes in and around Madrid. High levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) are evidenced, but we demonstrate that most O3 arises from the fumigation of high atmospheric layers, whereas UFPs are generated inside the PBL. O3 contributions from the fumigation of the vertical recirculation of regional air masses, hemispheric transport, and horizontally from direct urban plume transport are shown. Complexity arises from the need to quantify them to abate surface O3.
Xavier Querol, Gotzon Gangoiti, Enrique Mantilla, Andrés Alastuey, Maria Cruz Minguillón, Fulvio Amato, Cristina Reche, Mar Viana, Teresa Moreno, Angeliki Karanasiou, Ioar Rivas, Noemí Pérez, Anna Ripoll, Mariola Brines, Marina Ealo, Marco Pandolfi, Hong-Ku Lee, Hee-Ram Eun, Yong-Hee Park, Miguel Escudero, David Beddows, Roy M. Harrison, Amelie Bertrand, Nicolas Marchand, Andrei Lyasota, Bernat Codina, Miriam Olid, Mireia Udina, Bernat Jiménez-Esteve, María R. Soler, Lucio Alonso, Millán Millán, and Kang-Ho Ahn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2817–2838,Short summary
High summer O3 episodes in NE Spain were analysed. We evidence the relevance of local emission of precursors in meteorological scenarios of vertical air mass recirculations, when transboundary contributions are also significant. Forecasting these scenarios and sensitivity analysis of possible O3 precursors drop are key for potential abatement strategies. However, this is a very difficult task due to the complexity of scenarios, the external contributions, and the complex O3 production reactions.
Suad S. Al-Kindi, Francis D. Pope, David C. Beddows, William J. Bloss, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15561–15579,Short summary
Oleic acid is a chemical substance which is emitted from cooking processes and is present as tiny particles in the atmosphere. The oleic acid in the particles reacts chemically with atmospheric ozone, causing substantial changes to the composition of the particles. This paper uses new techniques to explore these chemical reactions and the effect of humidity upon them. The significance of the results for the atmosphere is considered.
Manuel Dall'Osto, David C. S. Beddows, Eoin J. McGillicuddy, Johanna K. Esser-Gietl, Roy M. Harrison, and John C. Wenger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9693–9710,Short summary
The aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) provides size resolved information on the chemical composition of single particles with high time resolution. Within SAPUSS (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies), continuous measurements of ambient particles were made simultaneously at two urban locations in the city of Barcelona (Spain). We find that organic nitrogen is a considerable fraction of the single particles detected, especially at the traffic-dominated site.
Fulvio Amato, Andrés Alastuey, Angeliki Karanasiou, Franco Lucarelli, Silvia Nava, Giulia Calzolai, Mirko Severi, Silvia Becagli, Vorne L. Gianelle, Cristina Colombi, Celia Alves, Danilo Custódio, Teresa Nunes, Mario Cerqueira, Casimiro Pio, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Evangelia Diapouli, Cristina Reche, María Cruz Minguillón, Manousos-Ioannis Manousakas, Thomas Maggos, Stergios Vratolis, Roy M. Harrison, and Xavier Querol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3289–3309,Short summary
Harmonized source apportionment of atmospheric particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) at 5 EU cities (Barcelona, Florence, Milan, Athens and Porto) reveals that vehicle exhaust (excluding nitrate) plus non-exhaust contributes 16–32 % to PM10 and 15–36 % to PM2.5. Secondary PM represents 37–82 % of PM2.5. Biomass burning varies from < 2 to 24 % of PM10, depending on the residential heating fuel. Other sources are local dust (7–19 % of PM10), industries (4–11 % of PM10), shipping, sea salt and Saharan dust.
A. S. Fonseca, N. Talbot, J. Schwarz, J. Ondráček, V. Ždímal, J. Kozáková, M. Viana, A. Karanasiou, X. Querol, A. Alastuey, T. V. Vu, J. M. Delgado-Saborit, and R. M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
This work assessed the performance of 4 cascade impactors, by means of two intercomparison exercises in 2 European locations. The comparability between the different types of impactors assessed was dependent on particle size and on impactor design characteristics. Particle processes such as particle bounce, dissociation of semi volatiles in the coarser stages and/or particle shrinkage were identified as the main causes for the differences observed in particle mass across size fractions.
D. C. S. Beddows, R. M. Harrison, D. C. Green, and G. W. Fuller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10107–10125,Short summary
Particles in the air of London have been assessed both by weight and by number. They have also been subject to chemical analysis. The data from 2 years of sampling have been used to investigate the sources contributing to the measured concentrations both in terms of the weight of the particles and the number of particles.
D. E. Young, J. D. Allan, P. I. Williams, D. C. Green, M. J. Flynn, R. M. Harrison, J. Yin, M. W. Gallagher, and H. Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6351–6366,Short summary
For the first time, the behaviour of non-refractory inorganic and organic submicron particulates through an entire annual cycle is investigated at a UK urban background site. We show secondary aerosols account for a significant fraction of the submicron aerosol burden, high concentration events are governed by different factors depending on season, and on an annual basis there is no variability in the extent of secondary organic aerosol oxidation.
M. Brines, M. Dall'Osto, D. C. S. Beddows, R. M. Harrison, F. Gómez-Moreno, L. Núñez, B. Artíñano, F. Costabile, G. P. Gobbi, F. Salimi, L. Morawska, C. Sioutas, and X. Querol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5929–5945,
L. R. Crilley, W. J. Bloss, J. Yin, D. C. S. Beddows, R. M. Harrison, J. D. Allan, D. E. Young, M. Flynn, P. Williams, P. Zotter, A. S. H. Prevot, M. R. Heal, J. F. Barlow, C. H. Halios, J. D. Lee, S. Szidat, and C. Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3149–3171,Short summary
Wood is a renewable fuel but its combustion for residential heating releases a number of locally acting air pollutants, most notably particulate matter known to have adverse effects on human health. This paper used chemical tracers for wood smoke to estimate the contribution that burning wood makes to concentrations of airborne particles in the atmosphere of southern England and most particularly in London.
D. E. Young, J. D. Allan, P. I. Williams, D. C. Green, R. M. Harrison, J. Yin, M. J. Flynn, M. W. Gallagher, and H. Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2429–2443,Short summary
Two solid fuel organic aerosol (SFOA) factors, both associated with domestic space heating activities, were derived from positive matrix factorisation (PMF) applied to organic aerosol data from an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) deployed at an urban background site in London during winter 2012. The factors controlling the split between the two SFOA factors were assessed, and it is concluded the split is likely governed predominantly by differences in burn conditions.
J. Yin, S. A. Cumberland, R. M. Harrison, J. Allan, D. E. Young, P. I. Williams, and H. Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2139–2158,Short summary
Breathing particles from polluted air is known to cause increased health complaints and higher death rates. Airborne particles come from a range of sources; in order to implement cost-effective control measures, it is necessary to understand the amount contributed by each. In this paper, two advanced procedures for estimating the contributions of particle sources in London are compared with one another, revealing a wide range of sources including traffic, woodsmoke and cooking particles.
S. Decesari, J. Allan, C. Plass-Duelmer, B. J. Williams, M. Paglione, M. C. Facchini, C. O'Dowd, R. M. Harrison, J. K. Gietl, H. Coe, L. Giulianelli, G. P. Gobbi, C. Lanconelli, C. Carbone, D. Worsnop, A. T. Lambe, A. T. Ahern, F. Moretti, E. Tagliavini, T. Elste, S. Gilge, Y. Zhang, and M. Dall'Osto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12109–12132,Short summary
We made use of multiple spectrometric techniques for characterizing the aerosol chemical composition and mixing in the Po Valley in the summer. The oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) concentrations were correlated with simple tracers for recirculated planetary boundary layer air. A full internal mixing between black carbon (BC) and the non-refractory aerosol components was never observed. Local sources in the Po Valley were responsible for the production of organic particles unmixed with BC.
D. Liu, J. D. Allan, D. E. Young, H. Coe, D. Beddows, Z. L. Fleming, M. J. Flynn, M. W. Gallagher, R. M. Harrison, J. Lee, A. S. H. Prevot, J. W. Taylor, J. Yin, P. I. Williams, and P. Zotter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10061–10084,
G. W. Mann, K. S. Carslaw, C. L. Reddington, K. J. Pringle, M. Schulz, A. Asmi, D. V. Spracklen, D. A. Ridley, M. T. Woodhouse, L. A. Lee, K. Zhang, S. J. Ghan, R. C. Easter, X. Liu, P. Stier, Y. H. Lee, P. J. Adams, H. Tost, J. Lelieveld, S. E. Bauer, K. Tsigaridis, T. P. C. van Noije, A. Strunk, E. Vignati, N. Bellouin, M. Dalvi, C. E. Johnson, T. Bergman, H. Kokkola, K. von Salzen, F. Yu, G. Luo, A. Petzold, J. Heintzenberg, A. Clarke, J. A. Ogren, J. Gras, U. Baltensperger, U. Kaminski, S. G. Jennings, C. D. O'Dowd, R. M. Harrison, D. C. S. Beddows, M. Kulmala, Y. Viisanen, V. Ulevicius, N. Mihalopoulos, V. Zdimal, M. Fiebig, H.-C. Hansson, E. Swietlicki, and J. S. Henzing
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4679–4713,
D. C. S. Beddows, M. Dall'Osto, R. M. Harrison, M. Kulmala, A. Asmi, A. Wiedensohler, P. Laj, A.M. Fjaeraa, K. Sellegri, W. Birmili, N. Bukowiecki, E. Weingartner, U. Baltensperger, V. Zdimal, N. Zikova, J.-P. Putaud, A. Marinoni, P. Tunved, H.-C. Hansson, M. Fiebig, N. Kivekäs, E. Swietlicki, H. Lihavainen, E. Asmi, V. Ulevicius, P. P. Aalto, N. Mihalopoulos, N. Kalivitis, I. Kalapov, G. Kiss, G. de Leeuw, B. Henzing, C. O'Dowd, S. G. Jennings, H. Flentje, F. Meinhardt, L. Ries, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, and A. J. H. Visschedijk
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4327–4348,
M. S. Alam, J. M. Delgado-Saborit, C. Stark, and R. M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2467–2477,
M. Dall'Osto, X. Querol, A. Alastuey, M. C. Minguillon, M. Alier, F. Amato, M. Brines, M. Cusack, J. O. Grimalt, A. Karanasiou, T. Moreno, M. Pandolfi, J. Pey, C. Reche, A. Ripoll, R. Tauler, B. L. Van Drooge, M. Viana, R. M. Harrison, J. Gietl, D. Beddows, W. Bloss, C. O'Dowd, D. Ceburnis, G. Martucci, N. L. Ng, D. Worsnop, J. Wenger, E. Mc Gillicuddy, J. Sodeau, R. Healy, F. Lucarelli, S. Nava, J. L. Jimenez, F. Gomez Moreno, B. Artinano, A. S. H. Prévôt, L. Pfaffenberger, S. Frey, F. Wilsenack, D. Casabona, P. Jiménez-Guerrero, D. Gross, and N. Cots
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8991–9019,
J. Genberg, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, D. Simpson, E. Swietlicki, H. Areskoug, D. Beddows, D. Ceburnis, M. Fiebig, H. C. Hansson, R. M. Harrison, S. G. Jennings, S. Saarikoski, G. Spindler, A. J. H. Visschedijk, A. Wiedensohler, K. E. Yttri, and R. Bergström
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8719–8738,
A. Charron, C. Degrendele, B. Laongsri, and R. M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1879–1894,
M. Dall'Osto, X. Querol, A. Alastuey, C. O'Dowd, R. M. Harrison, J. Wenger, and F. J. Gómez-Moreno
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 741–759,
O. Hertel, C. A. Skjøth, S. Reis, A. Bleeker, R. M. Harrison, J. N. Cape, D. Fowler, U. Skiba, D. Simpson, T. Jickells, M. Kulmala, S. Gyldenkærne, L. L. Sørensen, J. W. Erisman, and M. A. Sutton
Biogeosciences, 9, 4921–4954,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Aerosol and dynamical contributions to cloud droplet formation in Arctic low-level cloudsAircraft ice-nucleating particle and aerosol composition measurements in the western North American ArcticMechanisms controlling giant sea salt aerosol size distributions along a tropical orographic coastlineNew particle formation leads to enhanced cloud condensation nuclei concentrations on the Antarctic PeninsulaMixing state and effective density of aerosol particles during the Beijing 2022 Olympic Winter GamesQuantified effect of seawater biogeochemistry on the temperature dependence of sea spray aerosol fluxesAnnual cycle of aerosol properties over the central Arctic during MOSAiC 2019–2020 – light-extinction, CCN, and INP levels from the boundary layer to the tropopause3D assimilation and radiative impact assessment of aerosol black carbon over the Indian region using aircraft, balloon, ground-based, and multi-satellite observationsEvaluation of aerosol- and gas-phase tracers for identification of transported biomass burning emissions in an industrially influenced location in Texas, USAPhysicochemical characterization and source apportionment of Arctic ice-nucleating particles observed in Ny-Ålesund in autumn 2019Cyclones enhance the transport of sea spray aerosols to the high atmosphere in the Southern OceanImpact of 2020 COVID-19 lockdowns on particulate air pollution across EuropeNew particle formation in the tropical free troposphere during CAMP2Ex: statistics and impact of emission sources, convective activity, and synoptic conditionsSignificant spatial gradients in new particle formation frequency in Greece during summerExplaining apparent particle shrinkage related to new particle formation events in western Saudi Arabia does not require evaporationIntroducing the novel concept of cumulative concentration roses for studying the transport of ultrafine particles from an airport to adjacent residential areasInvestigation of the effects of the Greek extreme wildfires of August 2021 on air quality and spectral solar irradianceCharacterization of dust-related new particle formation events based on long-term measurement in the North China PlainAirborne investigation of black carbon interaction with low-level, persistent, mixed-phase clouds in the Arctic summerThe variation in the particle number size distribution during the rainfall: wet scavenging and air mass changingCharacterization of size-segregated particles' turbulent flux and deposition velocity by eddy correlation method at an Arctic siteVertical distribution of black carbon and its mixing state in the urban boundary layer in summerInsights into the size-resolved dust emission from field measurements in the Moroccan SaharaActive thermokarst regions contain rich sources of ice nucleating particlesDrivers controlling black carbon temporal variability in the Arctic lower troposphereA new method for the quantification of ambient particulate-matter emission fluxesMeasurement report: The 4-year variability and influence of the Winter Olympics and other special events on air quality in urban Beijing during wintertimeBlack carbon content of traffic emissions significantly impacts black carbon mass size distributions and mixing statesImpact of desert dust on new particle formation events and cloud condensation nuclei budget in dust-influenced areasMeasurement Report: Wintertime new particle formation in the rural area of the North China Plain – influencing factors and possible formation mechanismMeasurement report: Rapid decline of aerosol absorption coefficient and aerosol optical property effects on radiative forcing in an urban area of Beijing from 2018 to 2021Aerosol first indirect effect of African smoke at the cloud base of marine cumulus clouds over Ascension Island, southern Atlantic OceanMeasurement report: Atmospheric fluorescent bioaerosol concentrations measured during 18 months in a coniferous forest in the south of SwedenMeasurement report: High Arctic aerosol hygroscopicity at sub- and supersaturated conditions during spring and summerExamining the vertical heterogeneity of aerosols over the Southern Great PlainsOpinion: The strength of long-term comprehensive observations to meet multiple grand challenges at different environments and in the atmosphereIce-nucleating particles in northern Greenland: annual cycles, biological contribution and parameterizationsAerosol deposition to the boreal forest in the vicinity of the Alberta Oil SandsThe density of ambient black carbon retrieved by a new method: implications for cloud condensation nuclei predictionAerosol absorption by in-situ filter-based photometer and ground-based sun-photometer in an urban atmosphereLong-range transported continental aerosol in the eastern North Atlantic: three multiday event regimes influence cloud condensation nucleiMeasurement report: Understanding the seasonal cycle of Southern Ocean aerosolsElucidating ozone and PM2.5 pollution in the Fenwei Plain reveals the co-benefits of controlling precursor gas emissions in winter hazeQuantifying particle-to-particle heterogeneity in aerosol hygroscopicityMeasurement report: Size-resolved mass concentration of equivalent black carbon-containing particle larger than 700 nm and its role in radiationMeasurement report: Black carbon properties and concentrations in southern Sweden urban and rural air – the importance of long-range transportDiurnal differences in the effect of aerosols on cloud-to-ground lightning in the Sichuan BasinIntensive aerosol properties of boreal and regional biomass burning aerosol at Mt. Bachelor Observatory: larger and black carbon (BC)-dominant particles transported from Siberian wildfiresCharacterization of ultrafine particles and the occurrence of new particle formation events in an urban and coastal site of the Mediterranean areaAtmospheric nanoparticles hygroscopic growth measurement by a combined surface plasmon resonance microscope and hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer
Ghislain Motos, Gabriel Freitas, Paraskevi Georgakaki, Jörg Wieder, Guangyu Li, Wenche Aas, Chris Lunder, Radovan Krejci, Julie Thérèse Pasquier, Jan Henneberger, Robert Oscar David, Christoph Ritter, Claudia Mohr, Paul Zieger, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13941–13956,Short summary
Low-altitude clouds play a key role in regulating the climate of the Arctic, a region that suffers from climate change more than any other on the planet. We gathered meteorological and aerosol physical and chemical data over a year and utilized them for a parameterization that help us unravel the factors driving and limiting the efficiency of cloud droplet formation. We then linked this information to the sources of aerosol found during each season and to processes of cloud glaciation.
Alberto Sanchez-Marroquin, Sarah L. Barr, Ian T. Burke, James B. McQuaid, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13819–13834,Short summary
The sources and concentrations of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) in the Arctic are still poorly understood. Here we report aircraft-based INP concentrations and aerosol composition in the western North American Arctic. The concentrations of INPs and all aerosol particles were low. The aerosol samples contained mostly sea salt and dust particles. Dust particles were more relevant for the INP concentrations than sea salt. However, dust alone cannot account for all of the measured INPs.
Katherine L. Ackerman, Alison D. Nugent, and Chung Taing
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13735–13753,Short summary
Sea salt aerosol is an important marine aerosol that may be produced in greater quantities in coastal regions than over the open ocean. This study observed these particles along the windward coastline of O'ahu, Hawai'i, to understand how wind and waves influence their production and dispersal. Overall, wave heights were the strongest variable correlated with changes in aerosol concentrations, while wind speeds played an important role in their horizontal dispersal and vertical mixing.
Jiyeon Park, Hyojin Kang, Yeontae Gim, Eunho Jang, Ki-Tae Park, Sangjong Park, Chang Hoon Jung, Darius Ceburnis, Colin O'Dowd, and Young Jun Yoon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13625–13646,Short summary
We measured the number size distribution of 2.5–300 nm particles and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations at King Sejong Station on the Antarctic Peninsula continuously from 1 January to 31 December 2018. During the pristine and clean periods, 97 new particle formation (NPF) events were detected. For 83 of these, CCN concentrations increased by 2 %–268 % (median 44 %) following 1 to 36 h (median 8 h) after NPF events.
Aodong Du, Jiaxing Sun, Hang Liu, Weiqi Xu, Wei Zhou, Yuting Zhang, Lei Li, Xubing Du, Yan Li, Xiaole Pan, Zifa Wang, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13597–13611,Short summary
We characterized the impacts of emission controls on particle mixing state and density during the Beijing Olympic Winter Games using a SPAMS in tandem with a DMA and an AAC. OC and sulfate-containing particles increased, while those from primary emissions decreased. The effective particle densities increased and varied largely for different particles, highlighting the impacts of aging and formation processes on the changes of particle density and mixing state.
Karine Sellegri, Theresa Barthelmeß, Jonathan Trueblood, Antonia Cristi, Evelyn Freney, Clémence Rose, Neill Barr, Mike Harvey, Karl Safi, Stacy Deppeler, Karen Thompson, Wayne Dillon, Anja Engel, and Cliff Law
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12949–12964,Short summary
The amount of sea spray emitted to the atmosphere depends on the ocean temperature, but this dependency is not well understood, especially when ocean biology is involved. In this study, we show that sea spray emissions are increased by up to a factor of 4 at low seawater temperatures compared to moderate temperatures, and we quantify the temperature dependence as a function of the ocean biogeochemistry.
Albert Ansmann, Kevin Ohneiser, Ronny Engelmann, Martin Radenz, Hannes Griesche, Julian Hofer, Dietrich Althausen, Jessie M. Creamean, Matthew C. Boyer, Daniel A. Knopf, Sandro Dahlke, Marion Maturilli, Henriette Gebauer, Johannes Bühl, Cristofer Jimenez, Patric Seifert, and Ulla Wandinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12821–12849,Short summary
The 1-year MOSAiC (2019–2020) expedition with the German ice breaker Polarstern was the largest polar field campaign ever conducted. The Polarstern, with our lidar aboard, drifted with the pack ice north of 85° N for more than 7 months (October 2019 to mid-May 2020). We measured the full annual cycle of aerosol conditions in terms of aerosol optical and cloud-process-relevant properties. We observed a strong contrast between polluted winter and clean summer aerosol conditions.
Nair Krishnan Kala, Narayana Sarma Anand, Mohanan R. Manoj, Srinivasan Prasanth, Harshavardhana S. Pathak, Thara Prabhakaran, Pramod D. Safai, Krishnaswamy K. Moorthy, and Sreedharan K. Satheesh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12801–12819,Short summary
We present a 3D data set of aerosol black carbon over the Indian mainland by assimilating data from surface, aircraft, and balloon measurements, along with multi-satellite observations. Radiative transfer computations using height-resolved aerosol absorption show higher warming in the free troposphere and will have large implications for atmospheric stability. This data set will help reduce the uncertainty in aerosol radiative effects in climate model simulations over the Indian region.
Sujan Shrestha, Shan Zhou, Manisha Mehra, Meghan Guagenti, Subin Yoon, Sergio L. Alvarez, Fangzhou Guo, Chun-Ying Chao, James H. Flynn III, Yuxuan Wang, Robert J. Griffin, Sascha Usenko, and Rebecca J. Sheesley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10845–10867,Short summary
We evaluated different methods for assessing the influence of long-range transport of biomass burning (BB) plumes at a coastal site in Texas, USA. We show that the aerosol composition and optical properties exhibited good agreement, while CO and acetonitrile trends were less specific for assessing BB source influence. Our results demonstrate that the network of aerosol optical measurements can be useful for identifying the influence of aged BB plumes in anthropogenically influenced areas.
Guangyu Li, Elise K. Wilbourn, Zezhen Cheng, Jörg Wieder, Allison Fagerson, Jan Henneberger, Ghislain Motos, Rita Traversi, Sarah D. Brooks, Mauro Mazzola, Swarup China, Athanasios Nenes, Ulrike Lohmann, Naruki Hiranuma, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10489–10516,Short summary
In this work, we present results from an Arctic field campaign (NASCENT) in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, on the abundance, variability, physicochemical properties, and potential sources of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) relevant for mixed-phase cloud formation. This work improves the data coverage of Arctic INPs and aerosol properties, allowing for the validation of models predicting cloud microphysical and radiative properties of mixed-phase clouds in the rapidly warming Arctic.
Jun Shi, Jinpei Yan, Shanshan Wang, Shuhui Zhao, Miming Zhang, Suqing Xu, Qi Lin, Hang Yang, and Siying Dai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10349–10359,Short summary
An underway aerosol-monitoring system was used to determine the Na+ concentration during different cyclone periods in the Southern Ocean in order to assess the potential effects of cyclones on sea spray aerosol (SSA) emissions. It was estimated that more than 23 % of SSAs were transported upwards during cyclone periods. Vertically transported SSAs can be regarded as an important source of CCN and hence have an effect on climate in the middle and high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere.
Jean-Philippe Putaud, Enrico Pisoni, Alexander Mangold, Christoph Hueglin, Jean Sciare, Michael Pikridas, Chrysanthos Savvides, Jakub Ondracek, Saliou Mbengue, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Laurent Poulain, Dominik van Pinxteren, Hartmut Herrmann, Andreas Massling, Claus Nordstroem, Andrés Alastuey, Cristina Reche, Noemí Pérez, Sonia Castillo, Mar Sorribas, Jose Antonio Adame, Tuukka Petaja, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Jarkko Niemi, Véronique Riffault, Joel F. de Brito, Augustin Colette, Olivier Favez, Jean-Eudes Petit, Valérie Gros, Maria I. Gini, Stergios Vratolis, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Evangelia Diapouli, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Karl Espen Yttri, and Wenche Aas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10145–10161,Short summary
Many European people are still exposed to levels of air pollution that can affect their health. COVID-19 lockdowns in 2020 were used to assess the impact of the reduction in human mobility on air pollution across Europe by comparing measurement data with values that would be expected if no lockdown had occurred. We show that lockdown measures did not lead to consistent decreases in the concentrations of fine particulate matter suspended in the air, and we investigate why.
Qian Xiao, Jiaoshi Zhang, Yang Wang, Luke D. Ziemba, Ewan Crosbie, Edward L. Winstead, Claire E. Robinson, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Jeffrey S. Reid, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Armin Sorooshian, Miguel Ricardo A. Hilario, Sarah Woods, Paul Lawson, Snorre A. Stamnes, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9853–9871,Short summary
Using recent airborne measurements, we show that the influences of anthropogenic emissions, transport, convective clouds, and meteorology lead to new particle formation (NPF) under a variety of conditions and at different altitudes in tropical marine environments. NPF is enhanced by fresh urban emissions in convective outflow but is suppressed in air masses influenced by aged urban emissions where reactive precursors are mostly consumed while particle surface area remains relatively high.
Andreas Aktypis, Christos Kaltsonoudis, David Patoulias, Panayiotis Kalkavouras, Angeliki Matrali, Christina N. Vasilakopoulou, Evangelia Kostenidou, Kalliopi Florou, Nikos Kalivitis, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Stergios Vratolis, Maria I. Gini, Athanasios Kouras, Constantini Samara, Mihalis Lazaridis, Sofia-Eirini Chatoutsidou, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, and Spyros N. Pandis
Extensive continuous particle number size distribution measurements took place during two summers (2020 and 2021) in 11 sites in Greece for the investigation of the frequency and the spatial extent of new particle formation. The frequency during summer varied from close to zero in southwestern Greece to more than 60 % in the northern, central, and eastern regions. The spatial variability can be explained by the proximity of the sites to coal-fired power plants and agricultural areas.
Simo Hakala, Ville Vakkari, Heikki Lihavainen, Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen, Kimmo Neitola, Jenni Kontkanen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Tareq Hussein, Mamdouh I. Khoder, Mansour A. Alghamdi, and Pauli Paasonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9287–9321,Short summary
Things are not always as they first seem in ambient aerosol measurements. Observations of decreasing particle sizes are often interpreted as resulting from particle evaporation. We show that such observations can counterintuitively be explained by particles that are constantly growing in size. This requires one to account for the previous movements of the observed air. Our explanation implies a larger number of larger particles, meaning more significant effects of aerosols on climate and health.
Julius Seidler, Markus Norbert Friedrich, Christoph Karl Thomas, and Anke Christine Nölscher
Here we study the transport of ultrafine particles (UFP) from an airport to two new adjacent measuring sites for one year. The number of UFP in the air and the diurnal variation is typical urban. Winds from the airport show increased number concentrations. Additionally, considering wind frequencies, we estimate that from all UFP measured at the two sites 10–14 % originate from the airport and/or other UFP sources from between airport and site.
Akriti Masoom, Ilias Fountoulakis, Stelios Kazadzis, Ioannis-Panagiotis Raptis, Anna Kampouri, Basil E. Psiloglou, Dimitra Kouklaki, Kyriakoula Papachristopoulou, Eleni Marinou, Stavros Solomos, Anna Gialitaki, Dimitra Founda, Vasileios Salamalikis, Dimitris Kaskaoutis, Natalia Kouremeti, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Vassilis Amiridis, Andreas Kazantzidis, Alexandros Papayannis, Christos S. Zerefos, and Kostas Eleftheratos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8487–8514,Short summary
We analyse the spatial and temporal aerosol spectral optical properties during the extreme wildfires of August 2021 in Greece and assess their effects on air quality and solar radiation quantities related to health, agriculture, and energy. Different aerosol conditions are identified (pure smoke, pure dust, dust–smoke together); the largest impact on solar radiation quantities is found for cases with mixed dust–smoke aerosols. Such situations are expected to occur more frequently in the future.
Xiaojing Shen, Junying Sun, Huizheng Che, Yangmei Zhang, Chunhong Zhou, Ke Gui, Wanyun Xu, Quan Liu, Junting Zhong, Can Xia, Xinyao Hu, Sinan Zhang, Jialing Wang, Shuo Liu, Jiayuan Lu, Aoyuan Yu, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8241–8257,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) events occur when the dust episodes' fade is analysed based on long-term measurement of particle number size distribution. Analysis shows that the observed formation and growth rates are approximately 50 % of and 30 % lower than those of other NPF events. As a consequence of the uptake of precursor gases on mineral dust, the physical and chemical properties of submicron particles, as well as the ability to be cloud condensation nuclei, can be changed.
Marco Zanatta, Stephan Mertes, Olivier Jourdan, Regis Dupuy, Emma Järvinen, Martin Schnaiter, Oliver Eppers, Johannes Schneider, Zsófia Jurányi, and Andreas Herber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7955–7973,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) particles influence the Arctic radiative balance. Vertical measurements of black carbon were conducted during the ACLOUD campaign in the European Arctic to study the interaction of BC with clouds. This study shows that clouds influence the vertical variability of BC properties across the inversion layer and that multiple activation and transformation mechanisms of BC may occur in the presence of low-level, persistent, mixed-phase clouds.
Guangdong Niu, Ximeng Qi, Liangduo Chen, Lian Xue, Shiyi Lai, Xin Huang, Jiaping Wang, Xuguang Chi, Wei Nie, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7521–7534,Short summary
The reported below-cloud wet-scavenging coefficients (BWSCs) are much higher than theoretical data, but the reason remains unclear. Based on long-term observation, we find that air mass changing during rainfall events causes the overestimation of BWSCs. Thus, the discrepancy in BWSCs between observation and theory is not as large as currently believed. To obtain reasonable BWSCs and parameterizations from field observations, the effect of air mass changes needs to be considered.
Antonio Donateo, Gianluca Pappaccogli, Daniela Famulari, Mauro Mazzola, Federico Scoto, and Stefano Decesari
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7425–7445,Short summary
This work aims to measure the turbulent fluxes and the dry deposition velocity for size-segregated particles (from ultrafine to quasi-coarse range) at an Arctic site (Svalbard). Aiming to characterize the effect of surface properties on dry deposition, continuous observations were performed from the coldest months (on snow surface) to the snow melting period and throughout the summer (snow-free surface). A data fit of the deposition velocity as a function of particle diameters will be provided.
Hang Liu, Xiaole Pan, Shandong Lei, Yuting Zhang, Aodong Du, Weijie Yao, Guiqian Tang, Tao Wang, Jinyuan Xin, Jie Li, Yele Sun, Junji Cao, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7225–7239,Short summary
We provide the average vertical profiles of black carbon (BC) concentration, size distribution and coating thickness at different times of the day in an urban area based on 112 vertical profiles. In addition, it is found that BC in the residual layer generally has a thicker coating, higher absorption enhancement and hygroscopicity than on the surface. Such aged BC could enter into the boundary layer and influence the BC properties in the early morning.
Cristina González-Flórez, Martina Klose, Andrés Alastuey, Sylvain Dupont, Jerónimo Escribano, Vicken Etyemezian, Adolfo Gonzalez-Romero, Yue Huang, Konrad Kandler, George Nikolich, Agnesh Panta, Xavier Querol, Cristina Reche, Jesús Yus-Díez, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7177–7212,Short summary
Atmospheric mineral dust consists of tiny mineral particles that are emitted by wind erosion from arid regions. Its particle size distribution (PSD) affects its impact on the Earth's system. Nowadays, there is an incomplete understanding of the emitted dust PSD and a lot of debate about its variability. Here, we try to address these issues based on the measurements performed during a wind erosion and dust emission field campaign in the Moroccan Sahara within the framework of FRAGMENT project.
Kevin R. Barry, Thomas C. J. Hill, Marina Nieto-Caballero, Thomas A. Douglas, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Paul J. DeMott, and Jessie M. Creamean
Ice nucleating particles (INPs) are important for the climate due to their influence on cloud properties. To understand potential land-based sources of them in the Arctic, we carried out a source survey near the northernmost point of Alaska, a landscape connected to the changing permafrost (thermokarst). Permafrost contained high concentrations of INPs, with the largest values near the coast. The thermokarst lakes were found to emit INPs, and its water contained elevated concentrations.
Stefania Gilardoni, Dominic Heslin-Rees, Mauro Mazzola, Vito Vitale, Michael Sprenger, and Radovan Krejci
Models still fail in reproducing black carbon (BC) temporal variability in the Arctic. Analysis of equivalent BC concentration in the European Arctic shows that BC seasonal variability is modulated by the efficiency of removal by precipitation during transport towards high latitudes. Short-term variability is controlled by synoptic-scale circulation patterns. The advection of warm air from lower latitudes is an effective pollution transport pathway during summer.
Stergios Vratolis, Evangelia Diapouli, Manousos I. Manousakas, Susana Marta Almeida, Ivan Beslic, Zsofia Kertesz, Lucyna Samek, and Konstantinos Eleftheriadis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6941–6961,Short summary
Using a dataset from 16 European and Asian cities we develop a new method so as to identify and quantify the emission fluxes from each geographic grid cell for secondary sulfate and dust aerosol. The information provided by the new method allows the implementation of targeted mitigation measures. The new method could be applied to several other pollutants (e.g., black carbon).
Yishuo Guo, Chenjuan Deng, Aino Ovaska, Feixue Zheng, Chenjie Hua, Junlei Zhan, Yiran Li, Jin Wu, Zongcheng Wang, Jiali Xie, Ying Zhang, Tingyu Liu, Yusheng Zhang, Boying Song, Wei Ma, Yongchun Liu, Chao Yan, Jingkun Jiang, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Men Xia, Tuomo Nieminen, Wei Du, Tom Kokkonen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6663–6690,Short summary
Using the comprehensive datasets, we investigated the long-term variations of air pollutants during winter in Beijing from 2019 to 2022 and analyzed the characteristics of atmospheric pollution cocktail during different short-term special events (e.g., Beijing Winter Olympics, COVID lockdown and Chinese New Year) associated with substantial emission reductions. Our results are useful in planning more targeted and sustainable long-term pollution control plans.
Fei Li, Biao Luo, Miaomiao Zhai, Li Liu, Gang Zhao, Hanbing Xu, Tao Deng, Xuejiao Deng, Haobo Tan, Ye Kuang, and Jun Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6545–6558,Short summary
A field campaign was conducted to study black carbon (BC) mass size distributions and mixing states connected to traffic emissions using a system that combines a differential mobility analyzer and single-particle soot photometer. Results showed that the black carbon content of traffic emissions has a considerable influence on both BC mass size distributions and mixing states, which has crucial implications for accurately representing BC from various sources in regional and climate models.
Juan Andrés Casquero-Vera, Daniel Pérez-Ramírez, Hassan Lyamani, Fernando Rejano, Andrea Casans, Gloria Titos, Francisco José Olmo, Lubna Dada, Simo Hakala, Tareq Hussein, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Pauli Paasonen, Antti Hyvärinen, Noemí Pérez, Xavier Querol, Sergio Rodríguez, Nikos Kalivitis, Yenny González, Mansour A. Alghamdi, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Andrés Alastuey, Tuukka Petäjä, and Lucas Alados-Arboledas
Here we present the first study of the effect of mineral dust on the inhibition/promotion of new particle formation (NPF) events in different dust-influenced areas. Unexpectedly, we show that the occurrence of NPF events is highly frequent during mineral dust outbreaks, occurring even during extreme dust outbreaks. We also show that the occurrence of NPF events during mineral dust outbreaks significantly affects the potential cloud condensation nuclei budget.
Juan Hong, Min Tang, Qiaoqiao Wang, Nan Ma, Shaowen Zhu, Shaobin Zhang, Xihao Pan, Linhong Xie, Guo Li, Uwe Kuhn, Chao Yan, Jiangchuan Tao, Ye Kuang, Yao He, Wanyun Xu, Runlong Cai, Yaqing Zhou, Zhibin Wang, Guangsheng Zhou, Bin Yuan, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5699–5713,Short summary
A comprehensive investigation of the characteristics of new particle formation (NPF) events was conducted at a rural site on the North China Plain (NCP), China, during the wintertime of 2018 by covering the particle number size distribution down to sub–3 nm. Potential mechanisms for NPF under the current environment were explored, followed by a further discussion on the factors governing the occurrence of NPF at this rural site compared with other regions (e.g., urban areas) in the NCP region.
Xinyao Hu, Junying Sun, Can Xia, Xiaojing Shen, Yangmei Zhang, Quan Liu, Zhaodong Liu, Sinan Zhang, Jialing Wang, Aoyuan Yu, Jiayuan Lu, Shuo Liu, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5517–5531,Short summary
The simultaneous measurements under dry conditions of aerosol optical properties were conducted at three wavelengths for PM1 and PM10 in urban Beijing from 2018 to 2021. Considerable reductions in aerosol absorption coefficient and increased single scattering albedo demonstrated that absorbing aerosols were more effectively controlled than scattering aerosols due to pollution control measures. The aerosol radiative effect and the transport's impact on aerosol optical properties were analysed.
Martin de Graaf, Karolina Sarna, Jessica Brown, Elma V. Tenner, Manon Schenkels, and David P. Donovan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5373–5391,Short summary
Clouds over the oceans reflect sunlight and cool the earth. Simultaneous measurements were performed of cloud droplet sizes and smoke particles in and near the cloud base over Ascension Island, a remote island in the Atlantic Ocean, to determine the sensitivity of cloud droplets to smoke from the African continent. The smoke was found to reduce cloud droplet sizes, which makes the cloud droplets more susceptible to evaporation, reducing cloud lifetime.
Madeleine Petersson Sjögren, Malin Alsved, Tina Šantl-Temkiv, Thomas Bjerring Kristensen, and Jakob Löndahl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4977–4992,Short summary
Biological aerosol particles (bioaerosols) affect human health by spreading diseases and may be important agents for atmospheric processes, but their abundance and size distributions are largely unknown. We measured bioaerosols for 18 months in the south of Sweden to investigate bioaerosol temporal variations and their couplings to meteorology. Our results showed that the bioaerosols emissions were coupled to meteorological parameters and depended strongly on the season.
Andreas Massling, Robert Lange, Jakob Boyd Pernov, Ulrich Gosewinkel, Lise-Lotte Sørensen, and Henrik Skov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4931–4953,Short summary
The effect of anthropogenic activities on cloud formation introduces the highest uncertainties with respect to climate change. Data on Arctic aerosols and their corresponding cloud-forming properties are very scarce and most important as the Arctic is warming about 2 times as fast as the rest of the globe. Our studies investigate aerosols in the remote Arctic and suggest relatively high cloud-forming potential, although differences are observed between the Arctic spring and summer.
Yang Wang, Chanakya Bagya Ramesh, Scott Giangrande, Jerome Fast, Xianda Gong, Jiaoshi Zhang, Alyssa Matthews, Fan Mei, Ahmet Tolga Odabasi, John Shilling, Jason Tomlinson, Die Wang, and Jian Wang
We report the vertical profiles of aerosol properties over the Southern Great Plains (SGP), a region influenced by shallow convective clouds, land-atmosphere interactions, boundary layer turbulence, and the aerosol life cycle. We examined the processes that drive the aerosol population and distribution in the lower troposphere over the SGP. This study helps improve our understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions and the model representation of aerosol processes.
Markku Kulmala, Anna Lintunen, Hanna Lappalainen, Annele Virtanen, Chao Yan, Ekaterina Ezhova, Tuomo Nieminen, Ilona Riipinen, Risto Makkonen, Johanna Tamminen, Anu-Maija Sundström, Antti Arola, Armin Hansel, Kari Lehtinen, Timo Vesala, Tuukka Petäjä, Jaana Bäck, Tom Kokkonen, and Veli-Matti Kerminen
To be able to meet global grand challenges, we need comprehensive open data with proper metadata. In this opinion paper, we describe the SMEAR (Station for Measuring Earth surface – Atmosphere Relations) concept and include several examples (cases), such as NPF and growth, feedback loops, the effect of COVID, and what has been learnt from these investigations. The future needs and the potential of comprehensive observations of the environment are summarized.
Kevin C. H. Sze, Heike Wex, Markus Hartmann, Henrik Skov, Andreas Massling, Diego Villanueva, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4741–4761,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) play an important role in cloud formation and thus in our climate. But little is known about the abundance and properties of INPs, especially in the Arctic, where the temperature increases almost 4 times as fast as that of the rest of the globe. We observe higher INP concentrations and more biological INPs in summer than in winter, likely from local sources. We also provide three equations for estimating INP concentrations in models at different times of the year.
Timothy Jiang, Mark Gordon, Paul A. Makar, Ralf M. Staebler, and Michael Wheeler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4361–4372,Short summary
Measurements of submicron aerosols (particles smaller than 1 / 1000 of a millimeter) were made in a forest downwind of oil sands mining and production facilities in northern Alberta. These measurements tell us how quickly aerosols are absorbed by the forest (known as deposition rate) and how the deposition rate depends on the size of the aerosol. The measurements show good agreement with a parameterization developed from a recent study for deposition of aerosols to a similar pine forest.
Jingye Ren, Lu Chen, Jieyao Liu, and Fang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4327–4342,Short summary
The density of black carbon (BC) is linked to its morphology and mixing state and could cause uncertainty in evaluating cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. A method for retrieving the mixing state and density of BC in the urban atmosphere is developed. The mean retrieval density of internally mixed BC was lower, assuming void-free spherical structures. Our study suggests the importance of accounting for variable BC density in models when assessing its climate effect in urban atmosphere.
Alessandro Bigi, Giorgio Veratti, Elisabeth Andrews, Martine Collaud Coen, Lorenzo Guerrieri, Vera Bernardoni, Dario Massabò, Luca Ferrero, Sergio Teggi, and Grazia Ghermandi
Atmospheric particles include compounds playing a key role on the greenhouse effect and on air toxicity. Concurrent observations of these compounds by multiple instruments are presented, following a deployment within an urban environment in the Po valley, one of the pollution hotspot of Europe. The study compares these data highlighting the impact by ground emissions, mainly vehicular traffic and biomass burning, on the absorption of Sun radiation and ultimately on climate change and air quality.
Francesca Gallo, Janek Uin, Kevin J. Sanchez, Richard H. Moore, Jian Wang, Robert Wood, Fan Mei, Connor Flynn, Stephen Springston, Eduardo B. Azevedo, Chongai Kuang, and Allison C. Aiken
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4221–4246,Short summary
This study provides a summary statistic of multiday aerosol plume transport event influences on aerosol physical properties and the cloud condensation nuclei budget at the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Facility in the eastern North Atlantic (ENA). An algorithm that integrates aerosol properties is developed and applied to identify multiday aerosol transport events. The influence of the aerosol plumes on aerosol populations at the ENA is successively assessed.
Ruhi S. Humphries, Melita D. Keywood, Jason P. Ward, James Harnwell, Simon P. Alexander, Andrew R. Klekociuk, Keiichiro Hara, Ian M. McRobert, Alain Protat, Joel Alroe, Luke T. Cravigan, Branka Miljevic, Zoran D. Ristovski, Robyn Schofield, Stephen R. Wilson, Connor J. Flynn, Gourihar R. Kulkarni, Gerald G. Mace, Greg M. McFarquhar, Scott D. Chambers, Alastair G. Williams, and Alan D. Griffiths
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3749–3777,Short summary
Observations of aerosols in pristine regions are rare but are vital to constraining the natural baseline from which climate simulations are calculated. Here we present recent seasonal observations of aerosols from the Southern Ocean and contrast them with measurements from Antarctica, Australia and regionally relevant voyages. Strong seasonal cycles persist, but striking differences occur at different latitudes. This study highlights the need for more long-term observations in remote regions.
Chunshui Lin, Ru-Jin Huang, Haobin Zhong, Jing Duan, Zixi Wang, Wei Huang, and Wei Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3595–3607,Short summary
The complex interaction between O3 and PM2.5, coupled with the topology of the Fenwei Plain and the evolution of the boundary layer height, highlights the challenges in further reducing particulate pollution in winter despite years of efforts to reduce emissions. Through scenario analysis in a chemical box model constrained by observation, we show the co-benefits of reducing NOx and VOCs simultaneously in reducing ozone and SOA.
Liang Yuan and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3195–3205,Short summary
Chemical compositions vary between and within particles due to the complex sources and aging processes, causing particle-to-particle heterogeneity in aerosol hygroscopicity, which is of great importance to aerosol climatic and environmental effects. This study proposes an algorithm to quantify the heterogeneity from in situ measurements, sheds light on the reanalysis of the existing H-TDMA datasets, and could have a large impact on how we use and think about these datasets.
Weilun Zhao, Ying Li, Gang Zhao, Song Guo, Nan Ma, Shuya Hu, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Previous studies concentrated on black carbon (BC)-containing particle less than 700 nm because of technical limitation. In this study, BC-containing particle larger than 700 nm (BC>700) was measured, highlighting the importance of BC>700 to total BC mass and absorption. The contribution of BC>700 to BC direct radiative effect was estimated, highlighting the necessity to consider whole size range of BC-containing particle in the model estimation of BC radiative effect.
Erik Ahlberg, Stina Ausmeel, Lovisa Nilsson, Mårten Spanne, Julija Pauraite, Jacob Klenø Nøjgaard, Michele Bertò, Henrik Skov, Pontus Roldin, Adam Kristensson, Erik Swietlicki, and Axel Eriksson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3051–3064,Short summary
To investigate the properties and origin of black carbon particles in southern Sweden during late summer, we performed measurements both at a rural site and the nearby city of Malmö. We found that local traffic emissions of black carbon led to concentrations around twice as high as those at the rural site. Modeling show that these emissions are not clearly distinguishable at the rural site, unless meteorology was favourable, which shows the importance of long-range transport and processing.
Haichao Wang, Yongbo Tan, Zheng Shi, Ning Yang, and Tianxue Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2843–2857,Short summary
The effects of aerosols on lightning are complex and still far from understood. We analysed the impacts of aerosols on lightning activity in the Sichuan Basin. Results show that lightning flashes first increase with aerosol loading during all periods and then behave differently (decrease in the afternoon and flatten at night). This suggests that the changes in solar radiation can modulate the aerosol effects on the occurrence and development of convection and lightning activity.
Nathaniel W. May, Noah Bernays, Ryan Farley, Qi Zhang, and Daniel A. Jaffe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2747–2764,Short summary
In summer 2019 at Mt. Bachelor Observatory, we observed smoke from wildfires with transport times ranging from less than a day up to 2 weeks. Aerosol absorption of multi-day transported smoke was dominated by black carbon, while smoke with shorter transport times had greater brown carbon absorption. Notably, Siberian smoke exhibited aerosol scattering and physical properties indicative of contributions from larger particles than typically observed in smoke.
Adelaide Dinoi, Daniel Gulli, Kay Weinhold, Ivano Ammoscato, Claudia R. Calidonna, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Daniele Contini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2167–2181,Short summary
In this study, particle number size distribution analysis was performed with the purpose of characterizing new particle formation (NPF) events occurring in two areas of southern Italy over 5 years of measurements. The identification of NPF events produced different results in terms of frequency and seasonality. Some of the main variables involved in the process, the local atmospheric conditions in which the events occurred, and the role of the air masses were discussed and compared.
Zhibo Xie, Jiaoshi Zhang, Huaqiao Gui, Yang Liu, Bo Yang, Haosheng Dai, Hang Xiao, Douguo Zhang, Da-Ren Chen, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2079–2088,Short summary
The hygroscopic growth of single nanoparticles is important for hygroscopic characteristic analysis of atmospheric particles and for scientific studies involving atmospheric particles. Based on the hygroscopicity difference of subgroups of atmospheric nanoparticles, the classification and proportion analysis of atmospheric nanoparticles has been completed, which has potential significance in predicting the contribution of the atmospheric particulate hygroscopicity and particle growth mechanism.
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Beddows, D. C. S., Dall'Osto, M., Harrison, R. M., Kulmala, M., Asmi, A., Wiedensohler, A., Laj, P., Fjaeraa, A. M., Sellegri, K., Birmili, W., Bukowiecki, N., Weingartner, E., Baltensperger, U., Zdimal, V., Zikova, N., Putaud, J.-P., Marinoni, A., Tunved, P., Hansson, H.-C., Fiebig, M., Kivekäs, N., Swietlicki, E., Lihavainen, H., Asmi, E., Ulevicius, V., Aalto, P. P., Mihalopoulos, N., Kalivitis, N., Kalapov, I., Kiss, G., de Leeuw, G., Henzing, B., O'Dowd, C., Jennings, S. G., Flentje, H., Meinhardt, F., Ries, L., Denier van der Gon, H. A. C., and Visschedijk, A. J. H.: Variations in tropospheric submicron particle size distributions across the European continent 2008–2009, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4327–4348, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-4327-2014, 2014.
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Measurements of airborne particulate matter have been conducted using a scanning mobility particle sizer at a site in the vicinity of Heathrow Airport, London. The measured particle size distributions have been assessed both by k means clustering and PMF analysis in conjunction with measurements of meteorological variables and chemical composition. The results give a quantitative estimate of the impact of aircraft and airport emissions on local air quality.
Measurements of airborne particulate matter have been conducted using a scanning mobility...