Articles | Volume 17, issue 17
14 Sep 2017
Research article | 14 Sep 2017
Radiation in fog: quantification of the impact on fog liquid water based on ground-based remote sensing
Eivind G. Wærsted et al.
No articles found.
Abdanour Irbah, Julien Delanoë, Gerd-Jan van Zadelhoff, David P. Donovan, Pavlos Kollias, Bernat Puigdomènech Treserras, Shannon Mason, Robin J. Hogan, and Aleksandra Tatarevic
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT).Short summary
The Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) and Atmospheric Lidar (ATLID) aboard the EarthCare satellite are used to probe the Earth's atmosphere by measuring cloud and aerosol profiles. ATLID is sensitive to aerosols and small cloud particles and CPR to large ice particles, snowflakes and raindrops. It is the synergy of the measurements of these two instruments allowing a better classification of the atmospheric targets and the description of the associated products, which are the subject of this paper.
Alistair Bell, Pauline Martinet, Olivier Caumont, Frédéric Burnet, Julien Delanoë, Susana Jorquera, Yann Seity, and Vinciane Unger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5415–5438,Short summary
Cloud radars and microwave radiometers offer the potential to improve fog forecasts when assimilated into a high-resolution model. As this process can be complex, a retrieval of model variables is sometimes made as a first step. In this work, results from a 1D-Var algorithm for the retrieval of temperature, humidity and cloud liquid water content are presented. The algorithm is applied first to a synthetic dataset and then to a dataset of real measurements from a recent field campaign.
Meryl Wimmer, Gwendal Rivière, Philippe Arbogast, Jean-Marcel Piriou, Julien Delanoë, Carole Labadie, Quitterie Cazenave, and Jacques Pelon
Weather Clim. Dynam., 3, 863–882,Short summary
The effect of deep convection representation on the jet stream above the cold front of an extratropical cyclone is investigated in the global numerical weather prediction model ARPEGE. Two simulations using different deep convection schemes are compared with (re)analysis datasets and NAWDEX airborne observations. A deeper jet stream is observed with the less active scheme. The diabatic origin of this difference is interpreted by backward Lagrangian trajectories and potential vorticity budgets.
Sandrine Bony, Marie Lothon, Julien Delanoë, Pierre Coutris, Jean-Claude Etienne, Franziska Aemisegger, Anna Lea Albright, Thierry André, Hubert Bellec, Alexandre Baron, Jean-François Bourdinot, Pierre-Etienne Brilouet, Aurélien Bourdon, Jean-Christophe Canonici, Christophe Caudoux, Patrick Chazette, Michel Cluzeau, Céline Cornet, Jean-Philippe Desbios, Dominique Duchanoy, Cyrille Flamant, Benjamin Fildier, Christophe Gourbeyre, Laurent Guiraud, Tetyana Jiang, Claude Lainard, Christophe Le Gac, Christian Lendroit, Julien Lernould, Thierry Perrin, Frédéric Pouvesle, Pascal Richard, Nicolas Rochetin, Kevin Salaün, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Guillaume Seurat, Bjorn Stevens, Julien Totems, Ludovic Touzé-Peiffer, Gilles Vergez, Jessica Vial, Leonie Villiger, and Raphaela Vogel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2021–2064,Short summary
The French ATR42 research aircraft participated in the EUREC4A international field campaign that took place in 2020 over the tropical Atlantic, east of Barbados. We present the extensive instrumentation of the aircraft, the research flights and the different measurements. We show that the ATR measurements of humidity, wind, aerosols and cloudiness in the lower atmosphere are robust and consistent with each other. They will make it possible to advance understanding of cloud–climate interactions.
Simone Kotthaus, Juan Antonio Bravo-Aranda, Martine Collaud Coen, Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado, Maria João Costa, Domenico Cimini, Ewan J. O’Connor, Maxime Hervo, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, María Jiménez-Portaz, Lucia Mona, Dominique Ruffieux, Anthony Illingworth, and Martial Haeffelin
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
This review summarises capabilities and limitations of the methods available to monitor atmospheric boundary layer heights and characteristics. It is highlighted how atmospheric profile observations can best be exploited to inform measurement network design, algorithm implementation, and sound data interpretation. An overview of long-term observational studies demonstrates the value of such observations for advancing our understanding of ABL variability.
Pragya Vishwakarma, Julien Delanoë, Susana Jorquera, Pauline Martinet, Frederic Burnet, Alistair Bell, and Jean-Charles Dupont
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Cloud observations are necessary to characterize the cloud properties at the local and global scales. These observations must be translated to cloud geophysical parameters. This paper presents the estimation of liquid water content (LWC) using radar and microwave radiometer (MWR) measurements. LWP from MWR scales the LWC and the scaling factor (lna) is retrieved. The retrievals are compared with in-situ observations. A climatology of lna is built to estimate LWC with only radar information.
Jean-François Ribaud, Martial Haeffelin, Jean-Charles Dupont, Marc-Antoine Drouin, Felipe Toledo, and Simone Kotthaus
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7893–7907,Short summary
PARAFOG is a near-real-time decision tool that aims to retrieve pre-fog alert levels minutes to hours prior to fog onset. The second version of PARAFOG allows us to discriminate between radiation and stratus lowering fog situations. It is based upon the combination of visibility observations and automatic lidar and ceilometer measurements. The overall performance of the second version of PARAFOG over more than 300 fog cases at five different locations presents a good perfomance.
Jean-Eudes Petit, Jean-Charles Dupont, Olivier Favez, Valérie Gros, Yunjiang Zhang, Jean Sciare, Leila Simon, François Truong, Nicolas Bonnaire, Tanguy Amodeo, Robert Vautard, and Martial Haeffelin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17167–17183,Short summary
The COVID-19 outbreak led to lockdowns at national scales in spring 2020. Large cuts in emissions occurred, but the quantitative assessment of their role from observations is hindered by weather and interannual variability. That is why we developed an innovative methodology in order to best characterize the impact of lockdown on atmospheric chemistry. We find that a local decrease in traffic-related pollutants triggered a decrease of secondary aerosols and an increase in ozone.
Gwendal Rivière, Meryl Wimmer, Philippe Arbogast, Jean-Marcel Piriou, Julien Delanoë, Carole Labadie, Quitterie Cazenave, and Jacques Pelon
Weather Clim. Dynam., 2, 1011–1031,Short summary
Inacurracies in representing processes occurring at spatial scales smaller than the grid scales of the weather forecast models are important sources of forecast errors. This is the case of deep convection representation in models with 10 km grid spacing. We performed simulations of a real extratropical cyclone using a model with different representations of deep convection. These forecasts lead to different behaviors in the ascending air masses of the cyclone and the jet stream aloft.
Felipe Toledo, Martial Haeffelin, Eivind Wærsted, and Jean-Charles Dupont
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13099–13117,Short summary
The article presents a new conceptual model to describe the temporal evolution of continental fog layers, developed based on 7 years of fog measurements performed at the SIRTA observatory, France. This new paradigm relates the visibility reduction caused by fog to its vertical thickness and liquid water path and provides diagnostic variables that could substantially improve the reliability of fog dissipation nowcasting at a local scale, based on real-time profiling observation.
Bjorn Stevens, Sandrine Bony, David Farrell, Felix Ament, Alan Blyth, Christopher Fairall, Johannes Karstensen, Patricia K. Quinn, Sabrina Speich, Claudia Acquistapace, Franziska Aemisegger, Anna Lea Albright, Hugo Bellenger, Eberhard Bodenschatz, Kathy-Ann Caesar, Rebecca Chewitt-Lucas, Gijs de Boer, Julien Delanoë, Leif Denby, Florian Ewald, Benjamin Fildier, Marvin Forde, Geet George, Silke Gross, Martin Hagen, Andrea Hausold, Karen J. Heywood, Lutz Hirsch, Marek Jacob, Friedhelm Jansen, Stefan Kinne, Daniel Klocke, Tobias Kölling, Heike Konow, Marie Lothon, Wiebke Mohr, Ann Kristin Naumann, Louise Nuijens, Léa Olivier, Robert Pincus, Mira Pöhlker, Gilles Reverdin, Gregory Roberts, Sabrina Schnitt, Hauke Schulz, A. Pier Siebesma, Claudia Christine Stephan, Peter Sullivan, Ludovic Touzé-Peiffer, Jessica Vial, Raphaela Vogel, Paquita Zuidema, Nicola Alexander, Lyndon Alves, Sophian Arixi, Hamish Asmath, Gholamhossein Bagheri, Katharina Baier, Adriana Bailey, Dariusz Baranowski, Alexandre Baron, Sébastien Barrau, Paul A. Barrett, Frédéric Batier, Andreas Behrendt, Arne Bendinger, Florent Beucher, Sebastien Bigorre, Edmund Blades, Peter Blossey, Olivier Bock, Steven Böing, Pierre Bosser, Denis Bourras, Pascale Bouruet-Aubertot, Keith Bower, Pierre Branellec, Hubert Branger, Michal Brennek, Alan Brewer, Pierre-Etienne Brilouet, Björn Brügmann, Stefan A. Buehler, Elmo Burke, Ralph Burton, Radiance Calmer, Jean-Christophe Canonici, Xavier Carton, Gregory Cato Jr., Jude Andre Charles, Patrick Chazette, Yanxu Chen, Michal T. Chilinski, Thomas Choularton, Patrick Chuang, Shamal Clarke, Hugh Coe, Céline Cornet, Pierre Coutris, Fleur Couvreux, Susanne Crewell, Timothy Cronin, Zhiqiang Cui, Yannis Cuypers, Alton Daley, Gillian M. Damerell, Thibaut Dauhut, Hartwig Deneke, Jean-Philippe Desbios, Steffen Dörner, Sebastian Donner, Vincent Douet, Kyla Drushka, Marina Dütsch, André Ehrlich, Kerry Emanuel, Alexandros Emmanouilidis, Jean-Claude Etienne, Sheryl Etienne-Leblanc, Ghislain Faure, Graham Feingold, Luca Ferrero, Andreas Fix, Cyrille Flamant, Piotr Jacek Flatau, Gregory R. Foltz, Linda Forster, Iulian Furtuna, Alan Gadian, Joseph Galewsky, Martin Gallagher, Peter Gallimore, Cassandra Gaston, Chelle Gentemann, Nicolas Geyskens, Andreas Giez, John Gollop, Isabelle Gouirand, Christophe Gourbeyre, Dörte de Graaf, Geiske E. de Groot, Robert Grosz, Johannes Güttler, Manuel Gutleben, Kashawn Hall, George Harris, Kevin C. Helfer, Dean Henze, Calvert Herbert, Bruna Holanda, Antonio Ibanez-Landeta, Janet Intrieri, Suneil Iyer, Fabrice Julien, Heike Kalesse, Jan Kazil, Alexander Kellman, Abiel T. Kidane, Ulrike Kirchner, Marcus Klingebiel, Mareike Körner, Leslie Ann Kremper, Jan Kretzschmar, Ovid Krüger, Wojciech Kumala, Armin Kurz, Pierre L'Hégaret, Matthieu Labaste, Tom Lachlan-Cope, Arlene Laing, Peter Landschützer, Theresa Lang, Diego Lange, Ingo Lange, Clément Laplace, Gauke Lavik, Rémi Laxenaire, Caroline Le Bihan, Mason Leandro, Nathalie Lefevre, Marius Lena, Donald Lenschow, Qiang Li, Gary Lloyd, Sebastian Los, Niccolò Losi, Oscar Lovell, Christopher Luneau, Przemyslaw Makuch, Szymon Malinowski, Gaston Manta, Eleni Marinou, Nicholas Marsden, Sebastien Masson, Nicolas Maury, Bernhard Mayer, Margarette Mayers-Als, Christophe Mazel, Wayne McGeary, James C. McWilliams, Mario Mech, Melina Mehlmann, Agostino Niyonkuru Meroni, Theresa Mieslinger, Andreas Minikin, Peter Minnett, Gregor Möller, Yanmichel Morfa Avalos, Caroline Muller, Ionela Musat, Anna Napoli, Almuth Neuberger, Christophe Noisel, David Noone, Freja Nordsiek, Jakub L. Nowak, Lothar Oswald, Douglas J. Parker, Carolyn Peck, Renaud Person, Miriam Philippi, Albert Plueddemann, Christopher Pöhlker, Veronika Pörtge, Ulrich Pöschl, Lawrence Pologne, Michał Posyniak, Marc Prange, Estefanía Quiñones Meléndez, Jule Radtke, Karim Ramage, Jens Reimann, Lionel Renault, Klaus Reus, Ashford Reyes, Joachim Ribbe, Maximilian Ringel, Markus Ritschel, Cesar B. Rocha, Nicolas Rochetin, Johannes Röttenbacher, Callum Rollo, Haley Royer, Pauline Sadoulet, Leo Saffin, Sanola Sandiford, Irina Sandu, Michael Schäfer, Vera Schemann, Imke Schirmacher, Oliver Schlenczek, Jerome Schmidt, Marcel Schröder, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Andrea Sealy, Christoph J. Senff, Ilya Serikov, Samkeyat Shohan, Elizabeth Siddle, Alexander Smirnov, Florian Späth, Branden Spooner, M. Katharina Stolla, Wojciech Szkółka, Simon P. de Szoeke, Stéphane Tarot, Eleni Tetoni, Elizabeth Thompson, Jim Thomson, Lorenzo Tomassini, Julien Totems, Alma Anna Ubele, Leonie Villiger, Jan von Arx, Thomas Wagner, Andi Walther, Ben Webber, Manfred Wendisch, Shanice Whitehall, Anton Wiltshire, Allison A. Wing, Martin Wirth, Jonathan Wiskandt, Kevin Wolf, Ludwig Worbes, Ethan Wright, Volker Wulfmeyer, Shanea Young, Chidong Zhang, Dongxiao Zhang, Florian Ziemen, Tobias Zinner, and Martin Zöger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4067–4119,Short summary
The EUREC4A field campaign, designed to test hypothesized mechanisms by which clouds respond to warming and benchmark next-generation Earth-system models, is presented. EUREC4A comprised roughly 5 weeks of measurements in the downstream winter trades of the North Atlantic – eastward and southeastward of Barbados. It was the first campaign that attempted to characterize the full range of processes and scales influencing trade wind clouds.
Rebecca D. Kutzner, Juan Cuesta, Pascale Chelin, Jean-Eudes Petit, Mokhtar Ray, Xavier Landsheere, Benoît Tournadre, Jean-Charles Dupont, Amandine Rosso, Frank Hase, Johannes Orphal, and Matthias Beekmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12091–12111,Short summary
Our work investigates the diurnal evolution of atmospheric ammonia concentrations during a major pollution event. It analyses it in regard of both chemical (gas–particle conversion) and physical (vertical mixing, meteorology) processes in the atmosphere. These mechanisms are key for understanding the evolution of the physicochemical state of the atmosphere; therefore, it clearly fits into the scope of Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics.
Florian Ewald, Silke Groß, Martin Wirth, Julien Delanoë, Stuart Fox, and Bernhard Mayer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5029–5047,Short summary
In this study, we show how solar radiance observations can be used to validate and further constrain ice cloud microphysics retrieved from the synergy of radar–lidar measurements. Since most radar–lidar retrievals rely on a global assumption about the ice particle shape, ice water content and particle size biases are to be expected in individual cloud regimes. In this work, we identify and correct these biases by reconciling simulated and measured solar radiation reflected from these clouds.
Jinghui Lian, François-Marie Bréon, Grégoire Broquet, Thomas Lauvaux, Bo Zheng, Michel Ramonet, Irène Xueref-Remy, Simone Kotthaus, Martial Haeffelin, and Philippe Ciais
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10707–10726,Short summary
Currently there is growing interest in monitoring city-scale CO2 emissions based on atmospheric CO2 measurements, atmospheric transport modeling, and inversion technique. We analyze the various sources of uncertainty that impact the atmospheric CO2 modeling and that may compromise the potential of this method for the monitoring of CO2 emission over Paris. Results suggest selection criteria for the assimilation of CO2 measurements into the inversion system that aims at retrieving city emissions.
Alistair Bell, Pauline Martinet, Olivier Caumont, Benoît Vié, Julien Delanoë, Jean-Charles Dupont, and Mary Borderies
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4929–4946,Short summary
This paper presents work towards making retrievals on the liquid water content in fog and low clouds. Future retrievals will rely on a radar simulator and high-resolution forecast. In this work, real observations are used to assess the errors associated with the simulator and forecast. A selection method to reduce errors associated with the forecast is proposed. It is concluded that the distribution of errors matches the requirements for future retrievals.
Pierre-Etienne Brilouet, Marie Lothon, Jean-Claude Etienne, Pascal Richard, Sandrine Bony, Julien Lernoult, Hubert Bellec, Gilles Vergez, Thierry Perrin, Julien Delanoë, Tetyana Jiang, Frédéric Pouvesle, Claude Lainard, Michel Cluzeau, Laurent Guiraud, Patrice Medina, and Theotime Charoy
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3379–3398,Short summary
During the EUREC4A field experiment that took place over the tropical Atlantic Ocean east of Barbados, the French ATR 42 environment research aircraft of SAFIRE aimed to characterize the shallow cloud properties near cloud base and the turbulent structure of the subcloud layer. The high-frequency measurements of wind, temperature and humidity as well as their translation in terms of turbulent fluctuations, turbulent moments and characteristic length scales of turbulence are presented.
David L. A. Flack, Gwendal Rivière, Ionela Musat, Romain Roehrig, Sandrine Bony, Julien Delanoë, Quitterie Cazenave, and Jacques Pelon
Weather Clim. Dynam., 2, 233–253,Short summary
The representation of an extratropical cyclone in simulations of two climate models is studied by comparing them to observations of the international field campaign NAWDEX. We show that the current resolution used to run climate model projections (more than 100 km) is not enough to represent the life cycle accurately, but the use of 50 km resolution is good enough. Despite these encouraging results, cloud properties (partitioning liquid and solid) are found to be far from the observations.
Roland Stirnberg, Jan Cermak, Simone Kotthaus, Martial Haeffelin, Hendrik Andersen, Julia Fuchs, Miae Kim, Jean-Eudes Petit, and Olivier Favez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3919–3948,Short summary
Air pollution endangers human health and poses a problem particularly in densely populated areas. Here, an explainable machine learning approach is used to analyse periods of high particle concentrations for a suburban site southwest of Paris to better understand its atmospheric drivers. Air pollution is particularly excaberated by low temperatures and low mixed layer heights, but processes vary substantially between and within seasons.
Nicolas Blanchard, Florian Pantillon, Jean-Pierre Chaboureau, and Julien Delanoë
Weather Clim. Dynam., 2, 37–53,Short summary
Rare aircraft observations in the warm conveyor belt outflow associated with an extratropical cyclone are complemented with convection-permitting simulations. They reveal a complex tropopause structure with two jet stream cores, from which one is reinforced by bands of negative potential vorticity. They show that negative potential vorticity takes its origin in mid-level convection, which indirectly accelerates the jet stream and, thus, may influence the downstream large-scale circulation.
Frédéric Szczap, Alaa Alkasem, Guillaume Mioche, Valery Shcherbakov, Céline Cornet, Julien Delanoë, Yahya Gour, Olivier Jourdan, Sandra Banson, and Edouard Bray
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 199–221,Short summary
Spaceborne lidar and radar are suitable tools to investigate cloud vertical properties on a global scale. This paper presents the McRALI code that provides simulations of lidar and radar signals from the EarthCARE mission. Regarding radar signals, cloud heterogeneity induces a severe bias in velocity estimates. Regarding lidar signals, multiple scattering is not negligible. Our results also give some insight into the reliability of lidar signal modeling using independent column approximation.
Felipe Toledo, Julien Delanoë, Martial Haeffelin, Jean-Charles Dupont, Susana Jorquera, and Christophe Le Gac
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6853–6875,Short summary
Cloud observations are essential to rainfall, fog and climate change forecasts. One key instrument for these observations is cloud radar. Yet, discrepancies are found when comparing radars from different ground stations or satellites. Our work presents a calibration methodology for cloud radars based on reference targets, including an analysis of the uncertainty sources. The method enables the calibration of reference instruments to improve the quality and value of the cloud radar network data.
Nicolas Blanchard, Florian Pantillon, Jean-Pierre Chaboureau, and Julien Delanoë
Weather Clim. Dynam., 1, 617–634,Short summary
The study presents the first results from the airborne RASTA observations measured during the North Atlantic Waveguide and Downstream Impact Experiment (NAWDEX). Our combined Eulerian–Lagrangian analysis found three types of organized convection (frontal, banded and mid-level) in the warm conveyor belt (WCB) of the Stalactite cyclone. The results emphasize that convection embedded in WCBs occurs in a coherent and organized manner rather than as isolated cells.
Fabio Madonna, Rigel Kivi, Jean-Charles Dupont, Bruce Ingleby, Masatomo Fujiwara, Gonzague Romanens, Miguel Hernandez, Xavier Calbet, Marco Rosoldi, Aldo Giunta, Tomi Karppinen, Masami Iwabuchi, Shunsuke Hoshino, Christoph von Rohden, and Peter William Thorne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3621–3649,Short summary
Radiosondes are one of the primary sources of upper-air data for weather and climate monitoring. In the last two decades, technological progress made available automated radiosonde launchers (ARLs), which are able to replace measurements typically performed manually. This work presents a comparative analysis of the technical performance of the ARLs currently available on the market and contribute to define a strategy to achieve the full traceability of the ARL products.
Emmanuel Fontaine, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Delphine Leroy, Julien Delanoë, Alain Protat, Fabien Dezitter, John Walter Strapp, and Lyle Edward Lilie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3503–3553,Short summary
This study investigates properties of ice hydrometeors (shape, concentration, density, and size) in deep convective systems. The analysis focuses on similarities and differences over four locations in the tropical troposphere. It shows that measurements as a function of temperature and radar reflectivity factors tend to be similar in the four types of deep convective systems when concentrations of ice are larger than 0.1 g m-3.
Holger Baars, Albert Ansmann, Kevin Ohneiser, Moritz Haarig, Ronny Engelmann, Dietrich Althausen, Ingrid Hanssen, Michael Gausa, Aleksander Pietruczuk, Artur Szkop, Iwona S. Stachlewska, Dongxiang Wang, Jens Reichardt, Annett Skupin, Ina Mattis, Thomas Trickl, Hannes Vogelmann, Francisco Navas-Guzmán, Alexander Haefele, Karen Acheson, Albert A. Ruth, Boyan Tatarov, Detlef Müller, Qiaoyun Hu, Thierry Podvin, Philippe Goloub, Igor Veselovskii, Christophe Pietras, Martial Haeffelin, Patrick Fréville, Michaël Sicard, Adolfo Comerón, Alfonso Javier Fernández García, Francisco Molero Menéndez, Carmen Córdoba-Jabonero, Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Daniele Bortoli, Maria João Costa, Davide Dionisi, Gian Luigi Liberti, Xuan Wang, Alessia Sannino, Nikolaos Papagiannopoulos, Antonella Boselli, Lucia Mona, Giuseppe D'Amico, Salvatore Romano, Maria Rita Perrone, Livio Belegante, Doina Nicolae, Ivan Grigorov, Anna Gialitaki, Vassilis Amiridis, Ourania Soupiona, Alexandros Papayannis, Rodanthi-Elisaveth Mamouri, Argyro Nisantzi, Birgit Heese, Julian Hofer, Yoav Y. Schechner, Ulla Wandinger, and Gelsomina Pappalardo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15183–15198,
Marie Lothon, Paul Barnéoud, Omar Gabella, Fabienne Lohou, Solène Derrien, Sylvain Rondi, Marjolaine Chiriaco, Sophie Bastin, Jean-Charles Dupont, Martial Haeffelin, Jordi Badosa, Nicolas Pascal, and Nadège Montoux
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5519–5534,Short summary
In the context of an atmospheric network of instrumented sites equipped with sky cameras for cloud monitoring, we present an algorithm named ELIFAN, which aims to estimate the cloud cover amount from full-sky visible daytime images. ELIFAN is based on red-to-blue ratio thresholding applied on the image pixels and on the use of a blue-sky library. We present its principle and its performance and highlight the interest of combining several complementary instruments.
Andrés Esteban Bedoya-Velásquez, Gloria Titos, Juan Antonio Bravo-Aranda, Martial Haeffelin, Olivier Favez, Jean-Eudes Petit, Juan Andrés Casquero-Vera, Francisco José Olmo-Reyes, Elena Montilla-Rosero, Carlos D. Hoyos, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, and Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7883–7896,Short summary
This study is related to the first time hygroscopic enhancement factors retrieved directly for ambient aerosols using remote sensing techniques are combined with online chemical composition in situ measurements to evaluate the role of the different aerosol species in aerosol hygroscopicity at ACTRIS SIRTA observatory. The results showed 8 cases that fulfilled strict criteria over 107 cases identified in this study.
Constantino Listowski, Julien Delanoë, Amélie Kirchgaessner, Tom Lachlan-Cope, and John King
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6771–6808,Short summary
Using satellite cloud products we investigate the supercooled liquid-water (SLW) distribution Antarctic-wide for the first time. We demonstrate differences between the monthly evolution of the marine low-level mixed-phase clouds and that of the marine low-level pure SLW clouds. In addition to the temperature and sea ice fraction as factors explaining the low-level liquid-cloud seasonal cycle, ice nuclei emissions from open water may also be driving the mixed-phase cloud monthly evolution.
Quitterie Cazenave, Marie Ceccaldi, Julien Delanoë, Jacques Pelon, Silke Groß, and Andrew Heymsfield
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2819–2835,Short summary
The impact of ice clouds on the water cycle and radiative budget is still uncertain due to the complexity of cloud processes that makes it difficult to acquire adequate observations of ice cloud properties and parameterize them into climate and weather prediction models. In this paper we present the latest refinements brought to the DARDAR-CLOUD product, which contains ice cloud microphysical properties retrieved from the cloud radar and lidar measurements from the A-Train space mission.
Mary Borderies, Olivier Caumont, Julien Delanoë, Véronique Ducrocq, Nadia Fourrié, and Pascal Marquet
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 907–926,Short summary
The potential of W-band radar reflectivity to improve the quality of analyses and forecasts of heavy precipitation events in the Mediterranean area is investigated. The 1D + 3DVar assimilation method has been adapted to assimilate the W-band reflectivity in the Météo-France kilometre-scale NWP model AROME. The results suggest that the joint assimilation of W-band reflectivity and horizontal wind profiles lead to a slight improvement of moisture analyses and rainfall precipitation forecasts.
Mary Borderies, Olivier Caumont, Julien Delanoë, Véronique Ducrocq, and Nadia Fourrié
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 821–835,Short summary
The study reports on the impact of the assimilation of wind data from airborne Doppler cloud-profiling radar in a kilometre-scale NWP model on predicting heavy precipitation events in the Mediterranean area. The positive impact of the assimilation of such data is particularly evidenced for a heavy precipitation event and results are slightly encouraging over a 45-day period. In addition, the impact of the length of the assimilation window in a 3h-3DVar assimilation system is investigated.
Marie Mazoyer, Frédéric Burnet, Cyrielle Denjean, Gregory C. Roberts, Martial Haeffelin, Jean-Charles Dupont, and Thierry Elias
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4323–4344,Short summary
In situ microphysical measurements collected during 23 fog events at SIRTA (south of Paris) are examined here. An original iterative method based on the κ-Köhler theory has been used to compute statistics of their activation properties. Useful information is provided to constrain and validate numerical simulations. The paper demonstrates that supersaturation encountered in these fogs is too low to observe a correlation between concentrations of aerosols > 200 nm and droplet concentrations.
Florian Ewald, Silke Groß, Martin Hagen, Lutz Hirsch, Julien Delanoë, and Matthias Bauer-Pfundstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1815–1839,Short summary
This study gives a summary of lessons learned during the absolute calibration of the airborne, high-power Ka-band cloud radar HAMP MIRA on board the German research aircraft HALO. The first part covers the internal calibration of the instrument where individual instrument components are characterized in the laboratory. In the second part, the internal calibration is validated with external reference sources like the ocean surface backscatter and different air- and spaceborne cloud radars.
Jeronimo Escribano, Alessio Bozzo, Philippe Dubuisson, Johannes Flemming, Robin J. Hogan, Laurent C.-Labonnote, and Olivier Boucher
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 805–827,Short summary
Accurate shortwave radiance computations are becoming increasingly important for some applications in atmospheric composition. In this work we propose a benchmark protocol and dataset to asses the accuracy and computing runtime of radiance calculations of radiative transfer models. It is applied to four models, showing the potential of this benchmark to evaluate the model performance under a variety of atmospheric conditions, viewing geometries, aerosol loading, and optical properties.
Qiaoyun Hu, Philippe Goloub, Igor Veselovskii, Juan-Antonio Bravo-Aranda, Ioana Elisabeta Popovici, Thierry Podvin, Martial Haeffelin, Anton Lopatin, Oleg Dubovik, Christophe Pietras, Xin Huang, Benjamin Torres, and Cheng Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1173–1193,Short summary
Smoke plumes generated in Canadian fire activities were elevated to the lower stratosphere and transported from North America to Europe. The smoke plumes were observed by three lidar systems in northern France. This study provides a comprehensive characterization for aged smoke aerosols at high altitude using lidar observations. It presents that fire activities on the Earth's surface can be an important contributor of stratospheric aerosols and impact the Earth's radiation budget.
Matthias Wiegner, Ina Mattis, Margit Pattantyús-Ábrahám, Juan Antonio Bravo-Aranda, Yann Poltera, Alexander Haefele, Maxime Hervo, Ulrich Görsdorf, Ronny Leinweber, Josef Gasteiger, Martial Haeffelin, Frank Wagner, Jan Cermak, Katerina Komínková, Mike Brettle, Christoph Münkel, and Kornelia Pönitz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 471–490,Short summary
Many ceilometers are influenced by water vapor absorption in the spectral range around 910 nm. Thus, a correction is required to retrieve aerosol optical properties. Validation of this correction scheme was performed in the framework of CeiLinEx2015 for several ceilometers with good agreement for Vaisala's CL51 ceilometer. For future applications we recommend monitoring the emitted wavelength and providing
darkmeasurements on a regular basis to be able to correct for signal artifacts.
Odran Sourdeval, Edward Gryspeerdt, Martina Krämer, Tom Goren, Julien Delanoë, Armin Afchine, Friederike Hemmer, and Johannes Quaas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14327–14350,Short summary
The number concentration of ice crystals (Ni) is a key cloud property that remains very uncertain due to difficulties in determining it using satellites. This lack of global observational constraints limits our ability to constrain this property in models responsible for predicting future climate. This pair of papers fills this gap by showing and analyzing the first rigorously evaluated global climatology of Ni, leading to new information shedding light on the processes that control high clouds.
Edward Gryspeerdt, Odran Sourdeval, Johannes Quaas, Julien Delanoë, Martina Krämer, and Philipp Kühne
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14351–14370,Short summary
The concentration of ice crystals in a cloud affects both the properties and the life cycle of the cloud. This work uses a new satellite retrieval to investigate controls on the ice crystal concentration at a global scale. Both temperature and vertical wind speed in a cloud have a strong impact on the concentration of ice crystals. The ice crystal number is also related to the aerosol environment; defining this relation opens up new ways to investigate human impacts on clouds and the climate.
Marco Zanatta, Paolo Laj, Martin Gysel, Urs Baltensperger, Stergios Vratolis, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Yutaka Kondo, Philippe Dubuisson, Victor Winiarek, Stelios Kazadzis, Peter Tunved, and Hans-Werner Jacobi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14037–14057,Short summary
The research community aims to quantify the actual contribution of soot particles to the recent Arctic warming. We discovered that mixing of soot with other components might enhance its light absorption power by 50 %. The neglection of such amplification might lead to the underestimation of radiative forcing by 0.12 W m−2. Thus a better understanding of the optical properties of soot is a crucial step for an accurate quantification of the radiative impact of soot in the Arctic atmosphere.
Amelie Driemel, John Augustine, Klaus Behrens, Sergio Colle, Christopher Cox, Emilio Cuevas-Agulló, Fred M. Denn, Thierry Duprat, Masato Fukuda, Hannes Grobe, Martial Haeffelin, Gary Hodges, Nicole Hyett, Osamu Ijima, Ain Kallis, Wouter Knap, Vasilii Kustov, Charles N. Long, David Longenecker, Angelo Lupi, Marion Maturilli, Mohamed Mimouni, Lucky Ntsangwane, Hiroyuki Ogihara, Xabier Olano, Marc Olefs, Masao Omori, Lance Passamani, Enio Bueno Pereira, Holger Schmithüsen, Stefanie Schumacher, Rainer Sieger, Jonathan Tamlyn, Roland Vogt, Laurent Vuilleumier, Xiangao Xia, Atsumu Ohmura, and Gert König-Langlo
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1491–1501,Short summary
The Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) collects and centrally archives high-quality ground-based radiation measurements in 1 min resolution. More than 10 300 months, i.e., > 850 years, of high-radiation data in 1 min resolution from the years 1992 to 2017 are available. The network currently comprises 59 stations collectively representing all seven continents as well as island-based stations in the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian and Arctic oceans.
Brian H. Kahn, Hanii Takahashi, Graeme L. Stephens, Qing Yue, Julien Delanoë, Gerald Manipon, Evan M. Manning, and Andrew J. Heymsfield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10715–10739,Short summary
The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) satellite instrument shows statistically significant global trends in ice cloud properties between September 2002 and August 2016. The trends are not explained by known AIRS instrument limitations. Significant differences in the ice cloud particle size is found between convective clouds and thin ice clouds in the tropics. These results will be a useful benchmark for other studies of global ice cloud properties.
Marjolaine Chiriaco, Jean-Charles Dupont, Sophie Bastin, Jordi Badosa, Julio Lopez, Martial Haeffelin, Helene Chepfer, and Rodrigo Guzman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 919–940,Short summary
A scientific approach is presented to aggregate and harmonize a set of 60 geophysical variables at hourly scale over a decade, and to allow multiannual and multi-variable studies combining atmospheric dynamics and thermodynamics, radiation, clouds and aerosols from ground-based observations.
Christopher R. Yost, Kristopher M. Bedka, Patrick Minnis, Louis Nguyen, J. Walter Strapp, Rabindra Palikonda, Konstantin Khlopenkov, Douglas Spangenberg, William L. Smith Jr., Alain Protat, and Julien Delanoe
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1615–1637,Short summary
Accretion of cloud ice particles upon engine or instrument probe surfaces can cause engine malfunction or even power loss, and therefore it is important for aircraft to avoid flight through clouds that may have produced large quantities of ice particles. This study introduces a method by which potentially hazardous conditions can be detected using satellite imagery. It was found that potentially hazardous conditions were often located near or beneath very cold clouds and thunderstorm updrafts.
Marcelo de Paula Corrêa, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Fabrina Bolzan Martins, Kátia Mendes, Martial Haeffelin, Miguel Rivas, and Elisa Rojas
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
This paper provides a very simple method for UV index estimation from PAR measurements. These latter are generally performed by cheaper instruments and commonly found in any ordinary meteorological station. A large dataset collected in South America and Europe was used to test this method and thes results are comparable to the instrumental errors. For this reason, the method is a useful tool for UV index evaluations in regions lacking adequate instrumentation.
Thibault Vaillant de Guélis, Hélène Chepfer, Vincent Noel, Rodrigo Guzman, Philippe Dubuisson, David M. Winker, and Seiji Kato
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4659–4685,
Guillaume Mioche, Olivier Jourdan, Julien Delanoë, Christophe Gourbeyre, Guy Febvre, Régis Dupuy, Marie Monier, Frédéric Szczap, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, and Jean-François Gayet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12845–12869,Short summary
This paper is a study about the mixed-phase clouds frequently occurring in the Arctic region. It is based on airborne measurements and highlights the microphysical properties of these particular clouds composed of liquid droplets at cloud top and ice crystals below precipitating down to the surface. This work may help to improve the representation of the mixed-phase clouds in numerical prediction models as well as the retrieval of their properties from remote sensing observations.
Francesco De Angelis, Domenico Cimini, Ulrich Löhnert, Olivier Caumont, Alexander Haefele, Bernhard Pospichal, Pauline Martinet, Francisco Navas-Guzmán, Henk Klein-Baltink, Jean-Charles Dupont, and James Hocking
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3947–3961,Short summary
Modern data assimilation systems require knowledge of the typical differences between observations and model background (O–B). This work illustrates a 1-year O–B analysis for ground-based microwave radiometer (MWR) observations in clear-sky conditions for a prototype network of six MWRs in Europe. Observations are MWR brightness temperatures (TB). Background profiles extracted from the output of a convective-scale model are used to simulate TB through the radiative transfer model RTTOV-gb.
Jean-Christophe Raut, Louis Marelle, Jerome D. Fast, Jennie L. Thomas, Bernadett Weinzierl, Katharine S. Law, Larry K. Berg, Anke Roiger, Richard C. Easter, Katharina Heimerl, Tatsuo Onishi, Julien Delanoë, and Hans Schlager
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10969–10995,Short summary
We study the cross-polar transport of plumes from Siberian fires to the Arctic in summer, both in terms of transport pathways and efficiency of deposition processes. Those plumes containing soot may originate from anthropogenic and biomass burning sources in mid-latitude regions and may impact the Arctic climate by depositing on snow and ice surfaces. We evaluate the role of the respective source contributions, investigate the transport of plumes and treat pathway-dependent removal of particles.
Martial Haeffelin, Quentin Laffineur, Juan-Antonio Bravo-Aranda, Marc-Antoine Drouin, Juan-Andrés Casquero-Vera, Jean-Charles Dupont, and Hugo De Backer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5347–5365,Short summary
Air traffic at busy airports can be significantly disrupted because low visibility due to fog makes it unsafe to take off, land and taxi on the ground. In this paper we show how automatic profiling lidar ceilometer measurements, available at most airports, can be used to provide pre-fog alert information, and hence help airport weather forecasters to better predict these low visibility conditions. This research was carried out in the context of a field campaign at Paris CDG airport (France).
Bertrand Bessagnet, Guido Pirovano, Mihaela Mircea, Cornelius Cuvelier, Armin Aulinger, Giuseppe Calori, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Astrid Manders, Rainer Stern, Svetlana Tsyro, Marta García Vivanco, Philippe Thunis, Maria-Teresa Pay, Augustin Colette, Florian Couvidat, Frédérik Meleux, Laurence Rouïl, Anthony Ung, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, José María Baldasano, Johannes Bieser, Gino Briganti, Andrea Cappelletti, Massimo D'Isidoro, Sandro Finardi, Richard Kranenburg, Camillo Silibello, Claudio Carnevale, Wenche Aas, Jean-Charles Dupont, Hilde Fagerli, Lucia Gonzalez, Laurent Menut, André S. H. Prévôt, Pete Roberts, and Les White
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12667–12701,Short summary
The EURODELTA III exercise allows a very comprehensive intercomparison and evaluation of air quality models' performance. On average, the models provide a rather good picture of the particulate matter (PM) concentrations over Europe even if the highest concentrations are underestimated. The meteorology is responsible for model discrepancies, while the lack of emissions, particularly in winter, is mentioned as the main reason for the underestimations of PM.
Guillaume Merlin, Jérôme Riedi, Laurent C. Labonnote, Céline Cornet, Anthony B. Davis, Phillipe Dubuisson, Marine Desmons, Nicolas Ferlay, and Frédéric Parol
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4977–4995,Short summary
The vertical distribution of cloud cover has a significant impact on a large number of meteorological and climatic processes. Cloud top altitude (CTOP) and cloud geometrical thickness (CGT) are essential for understanding these processes. Previous studies established the possibility of retrieving those parameters from multi-angular oxygen A-band measurements. Here we perform a study and comparison of the performance of future instruments.
Juan Antonio Bravo-Aranda, Livio Belegante, Volker Freudenthaler, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Doina Nicolae, María José Granados-Muñoz, Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado, Aldo Amodeo, Giusseppe D'Amico, Ronny Engelmann, Gelsomina Pappalardo, Panos Kokkalis, Rodanthy Mamouri, Alex Papayannis, Francisco Navas-Guzmán, Francisco José Olmo, Ulla Wandinger, Francesco Amato, and Martial Haeffelin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4935–4953,Short summary
This work analyses the lidar polarizing sensitivity by means of the Stokes–Müller formalism and provides a new tool to quantify the systematic error of the volume linear depolarization ration (δ) using the Monte Carlo technique. Results evidence the importance of the lidar polarizing effects which can lead to systematic errors larger than 100 %. Additionally, we demonstrate that a proper lidar characterization helps to reduce the uncertainty.
Claudia Di Biagio, Paola Formenti, Lionel Doppler, Cécile Gaimoz, Noel Grand, Gerard Ancellet, Jean-Luc Attié, Silvia Bucci, Philippe Dubuisson, Federico Fierli, Marc Mallet, and François Ravetta
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10591–10607,Short summary
Pollution aerosols strongly influence the composition of the Western Mediterranean, but at present little is known on their optical properties. Here, we report observations of pollution aerosols measured during the TRAQA airborne campaign in summer 2012. Data from this study indicate a large variability of the absorption for pollution particles. This variability strongly influences their direct radiative effect, with possible consequences on the hydrological cycle in this part of the basin.
Simone Kotthaus, Ewan O'Connor, Christoph Münkel, Cristina Charlton-Perez, Martial Haeffelin, Andrew M. Gabey, and C. Sue B. Grimmond
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3769–3791,Short summary
Ceilometers lidars are useful to study clouds, aerosol layers and atmospheric boundary layer structures. As sensor optics and acquisition algorithms can strongly influence the observations, sensor specifics need to be incorporated into the physical interpretation. Here, recommendations are made for the operation and processing of profile observations from the widely deployed Vaisala CL31 ceilometer. Proposed corrections are shown to increase data quality and even data availability at times.
Pasquale Sellitto, Alcide di Sarra, Stefano Corradini, Marie Boichu, Hervé Herbin, Philippe Dubuisson, Geneviève Sèze, Daniela Meloni, Francesco Monteleone, Luca Merucci, Justin Rusalem, Giuseppe Salerno, Pierre Briole, and Bernard Legras
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6841–6861,Short summary
We combine plume dispersion and radiative transfer modelling, and satellite and surface remote sensing observations to study the regional influence of a relatively weak volcanic eruption from Mount Etna (25–27 October 2013) on the optical/micro-physical properties of Mediterranean aerosols. Our results indicate that even relatively weak volcanic eruptions may produce an observable effect on the aerosol properties at the regional scale, with a significant impact on the regional radiative balance.
M. Mazoyer, F. Burnet, G. C. Roberts, M. Haeffelin, J.-C Dupont, and T. Elias
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Comprehensive field campaigns dedicated to fog life cycle observation were conducted during the winters of 2010–2013 at the SIRTA observatory in the suburb of Paris. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of aerosol particles on the fog microphysics through an original method. We conclude that the actual supersaturations reached during these fog episodes are too low and no simultaneous increase of aerosols (D > 200 nm) and droplet concentrations can be observed.
Yevgeny Derimian, Oleg Dubovik, Xin Huang, Tatyana Lapyonok, Pavel Litvinov, Alex B. Kostinski, Philippe Dubuisson, and Fabrice Ducos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5763–5780,Short summary
The study presents a comprehensive tool for accurate calculation of solar flux as part of a novel algorithm GRASP (Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties). We show that simplification of details in directional properties of atmospheric aerosol scattering and reflectance of underlying surface causes systematic biases in evaluation of aerosol radiative effect. Presented application for satellite data is one more step in the measurement-based estimate of aerosol effect on climate.
A. Garnier, J. Pelon, M. A. Vaughan, D. M. Winker, C. R. Trepte, and P. Dubuisson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2759–2774,Short summary
Cloud absorption optical depths retrieved at 12.05 microns are compared to extinction optical depths retrieved at 0.532 microns from perfectly co-located observations of single-layered semi-transparent cirrus over oceans made by the space-borne CALIPSO IIR infrared radiometer and CALIOP lidar. A new relationship describing the temperature-dependent effect of multiple scattering in the CALIOP retrievals is derived and discussed.
T. Elias, J.-C. Dupont, E. Hammer, C. R. Hoyle, M. Haeffelin, F. Burnet, and D. Jolivet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6605–6623,
F. Peers, F. Waquet, C. Cornet, P. Dubuisson, F. Ducos, P. Goloub, F. Szczap, D. Tanré, and F. Thieuleux
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4179–4196,Short summary
This study presents an original method to evaluate the aerosol optical thickness, the single scattering albedo and the cloud optical thickness for aerosol above cloud scenes. It is based on multi-angle total and polarized radiances both provided by the A-train satellite instrument POLDER/PARASOL. This algorithm has been applied together with a radiative transfer code over the South East Atlantic Ocean. The mean direct radiative effect for August and September 2006 is found to be 33.5W.m−2.
J.-E. Petit, O. Favez, J. Sciare, V. Crenn, R. Sarda-Estève, N. Bonnaire, G. Močnik, J.-C. Dupont, M. Haeffelin, and E. Leoz-Garziandia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2985–3005,
J. Badosa, J. Wood, P. Blanc, C. N. Long, L. Vuilleumier, D. Demengel, and M. Haeffelin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4267–4283,
M. Sicard, S. Bertolín, M. Mallet, P. Dubuisson, and A. Comerón
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9213–9231,
T. Fauchez, C. Cornet, F Szczap, P. Dubuisson, and T. Rosambert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5599–5615,
V. Michoud, A. Colomb, A. Borbon, K. Miet, M. Beekmann, M. Camredon, B. Aumont, S. Perrier, P. Zapf, G. Siour, W. Ait-Helal, C. Afif, A. Kukui, M. Furger, J. C. Dupont, M. Haeffelin, and J. F. Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2805–2822,
P. Dubuisson, H. Herbin, F. Minvielle, M. Compiègne, F. Thieuleux, F. Parol, and J. Pelon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 359–371,
H. Herbin, L. C. Labonnote, and P. Dubuisson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3301–3311,
D. Cimini, F. De Angelis, J.-C. Dupont, S. Pal, and M. Haeffelin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2941–2951,
Q. J. Zhang, M. Beekmann, F. Drewnick, F. Freutel, J. Schneider, M. Crippa, A. S. H. Prevot, U. Baltensperger, L. Poulain, A. Wiedensohler, J. Sciare, V. Gros, A. Borbon, A. Colomb, V. Michoud, J.-F. Doussin, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, M. Haeffelin, J.-C. Dupont, G. Siour, H. Petetin, B. Bessagnet, S. N. Pandis, A. Hodzic, O. Sanchez, C. Honoré, and O. Perrussel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5767–5790,
G. Pappalardo, L. Mona, G. D'Amico, U. Wandinger, M. Adam, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Boselli, J. A. Bravo-Aranda, A. Chaikovsky, A. Comeron, J. Cuesta, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, M. Gausa, E. Giannakaki, H. Giehl, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, S. Groß, M. Haeffelin, A. Hiebsch, M. Iarlori, D. Lange, H. Linné, F. Madonna, I. Mattis, R.-E. Mamouri, M. A. P. McAuliffe, V. Mitev, F. Molero, F. Navas-Guzman, D. Nicolae, A. Papayannis, M. R. Perrone, C. Pietras, A. Pietruczuk, G. Pisani, J. Preißler, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, A. A. Ruth, J. Schmidt, F. Schnell, P. Seifert, I. Serikov, M. Sicard, V. Simeonov, N. Spinelli, K. Stebel, M. Tesche, T. Trickl, X. Wang, F. Wagner, M. Wiegner, and K. M. Wilson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4429–4450,
F. Freutel, J. Schneider, F. Drewnick, S.-L. von der Weiden-Reinmüller, M. Crippa, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger, L. Poulain, A. Wiedensohler, J. Sciare, R. Sarda-Estève, J. F. Burkhart, S. Eckhardt, A. Stohl, V. Gros, A. Colomb, V. Michoud, J. F. Doussin, A. Borbon, M. Haeffelin, Y. Morille, M. Beekmann, and S. Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 933–959,
Related subject area
Subject: Clouds and Precipitation | Research Activity: Remote Sensing | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Ice crystal characterization in cirrus clouds III: retrieval of ice crystal shape and roughness from observations of halo displaysTechnical note: Identification of two ice-nucleating regimes for dust-related cirrus clouds based on the relationship between number concentrations of ice-nucleating particles and ice crystalsHighly supercooled riming and unusual triple-frequency radar signatures over McMurdo Station, AntarcticaIce microphysical processes in the dendritic growth layer: a statistical analysis combining multi-frequency and polarimetric Doppler cloud radar observationsObserving short-timescale cloud development to constrain aerosol–cloud interactionsNatural Marine Cloud Brightening in the Southern OceanExploring relations between cloud morphology, cloud phase, and cloud radiative properties in Southern Ocean's stratocumulus cloudsObservations of cold-cloud properties in the Norwegian Arctic using ground-based and spaceborne lidarSatellite observations of seasonality and long-term trend in cirrus cloud properties over Europe: Investigation of possible aviation impactsAn evaluation of the liquid cloud droplet effective radius derived from MODIS, airborne remote sensing, and in situ measurements from CAMP2ExA Lagrangian analysis of pockets of open cells over the southeastern PacificThe formation and composition of the Mount Everest plume in winterNew insights on the prevalence of drizzle in marine stratocumulus clouds based on a machine learning algorithm applied to radar Doppler spectraAddressing the difficulties in quantifying droplet number response to aerosol from satellite observationsOptically thin clouds in the tradesStability-dependent increases in liquid water with droplet number in the ArcticLightning activity in northern Europe during a stormy winter: disruptions of weather patterns originating in global climate phenomenaA climatology of open and closed mesoscale cellular convection over the Southern Ocean derived from Himawari-8 observationsMethodology to determine the coupling of continental clouds with surface and boundary layer height under cloudy conditions from lidar and meteorological dataAlbedo susceptibility of northeastern Pacific stratocumulus: the role of covarying meteorological conditionsOpportunistic experiments to constrain aerosol effective radiative forcingEnvironmental effects on aerosol–cloud interaction in non-precipitating marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds over the eastern North AtlanticHemispheric contrasts in ice formation in stratiform mixed-phase clouds: disentangling the role of aerosol and dynamics with ground-based remote sensingMicrophysical process of precipitating hydrometeors from warm-front mid-level stratiform clouds revealed by ground-based lidar observationsOverview: Fusion of radar polarimetry and numerical atmospheric modelling towards an improved understanding of cloud and precipitation processesA climatology of trade-wind cumulus cold pools and their link to mesoscale cloud organizationGlobal evidence of aerosol-induced invigoration in marine cumulus cloudsImpacts of the Saharan air layer on the physical properties of the Atlantic tropical cyclone cloud systems: 2003–2019Two-year statistics of columnar-ice production in stratiform clouds over Hyytiälä, Finland: environmental conditions and the relevance to secondary ice productionChanges in cirrus cloud properties and occurrence over Europe during the COVID-19-caused air traffic reductionA new conceptual model for adiabatic fogDeciphering organization of GOES-16 green cumulus through the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) lensSatellite retrieval of cloud base height and geometric thickness of low-level cloud based on CALIPSOLightning occurrences and intensity over the Indian region: long-term trends and future projectionsContrasting ice formation in Arctic clouds: surface-coupled vs. surface-decoupled cloudsEvaluation of the CMIP6 marine subtropical stratocumulus cloud albedo and its controlling factorsIdentifying meteorological influences on marine low-cloud mesoscale morphology using satellite classificationsLidar observations of cirrus clouds in Palau (7°33′ N, 134°48′ E)Observing the timescales of aerosol–cloud interactions in snapshot satellite imagesPotential impact of aerosols on convective clouds revealed by Himawari-8 observations over different terrain types in eastern ChinaHow frequent is natural cloud seeding from ice cloud layers ( < −35 °C) over Switzerland?Processes contributing to cloud dissipation and formation events on the North Slope of AlaskaCharacterisation and surface radiative impact of Arctic low clouds from the IAOOS field experimentA-Train estimates of the sensitivity of the cloud-to-rainwater ratio to cloud size, relative humidity, and aerosolsIce injected into the tropopause by deep convection – Part 2: Over the Maritime Continent3D radiative heating of tropical upper tropospheric cloud systems derived from synergistic A-Train observations and machine learningThe potential of increasing man-made air pollution to reduce rainfall over southern West AfricaThe dual-field-of-view polarization lidar technique: a new concept in monitoring aerosol effects in liquid-water clouds – theoretical frameworkThe dual-field-of-view polarization lidar technique: a new concept in monitoring aerosol effects in liquid-water clouds – case studiesConstraining the Twomey effect from satellite observations: issues and perspectives
Linda Forster and Bernhard Mayer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15179–15205,Short summary
We present a novel retrieval using ground-based imaging observations of halo displays together with radiative transfer simulations to help improve our understanding of ice crystal properties representative of cirrus clouds. Analysis of 4400 calibrated HaloCam images featuring a 22° halo revealed aggregates of hexagonal columns of 20 µm effective radius with a mixture of about 37 % smooth and 63% severely roughened surfaces as the best match in general.
Yun He, Zhenping Yin, Fuchao Liu, and Fan Yi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13067–13085,Short summary
A method is proposed to identify the sole presence of heterogeneous nucleation and competition between heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation for dust-related cirrus clouds by characterizing the relationship between dust ice-nucleating particle concentration calculated from CALIOP using the POLIPHON method and in-cloud ice crystal number concentration from the DARDAR-Nice dataset. Two typical cirrus cases are shown as a demonstration, and the proposed method can be extended to a global scale.
Frederic Tridon, Israel Silber, Alessandro Battaglia, Stefan Kneifel, Ann Fridlind, Petros Kalogeras, and Ranvir Dhillon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12467–12491,Short summary
The role of ice precipitation in the Earth water budget is not well known because ice particles are complex, and their formation involves intricate processes. Riming of ice crystals by supercooled water droplets is an efficient process, but little is known about its importance at high latitudes. In this work, by exploiting the deployment of an unprecedented number of remote sensing systems in Antarctica, we find that riming occurs at much lower temperatures compared with the mid-latitudes.
Leonie von Terzi, José Dias Neto, Davide Ori, Alexander Myagkov, and Stefan Kneifel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11795–11821,Short summary
We present a statistical analysis of ice microphysical processes (IMP) in mid-latitude clouds. Combining various radar approaches, we find that the IMP active at −20 to −10 °C seems to be the main driver of ice particle size, shape and concentration. The strength of aggregation at −20 to −10 °C correlates with the increase in concentration and aspect ratio of locally formed ice particles. Despite ongoing aggregation, the concentration of ice particles stays enhanced until −4 °C.
Edward Gryspeerdt, Franziska Glassmeier, Graham Feingold, Fabian Hoffmann, and Rebecca J. Murray-Watson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11727–11738,Short summary
The response of clouds to changes in aerosol remains a large uncertainty in our understanding of the climate. Studies typically look at aerosol and cloud processes in snapshot images, measuring all properties at the same time. Here we use multiple images to characterise how cloud temporal development responds to aerosol. We find a reduction in liquid water path with increasing aerosol, party due to feedbacks. This suggests the aerosol impact on cloud water may be weaker than in previous studies.
Gerald G. Mace, Sally Benson, Ruhi Humphries, Mathew Peter Gombert, and Elizabeth Sterner
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The number cloud droplets per unit volume is a significantly important property of clouds that controls their reflective properties. Computer models of the Earth's atmosphere and climate have low skill at predicting the reflective properties of Southern Ocean clouds. Here we investigate the properties of those clouds using satellite data and find that the cloud droplet number in the Southern Ocean is related to the oceanic phytoplankton abundance near Antarctica.
Jessica Danker, Odran Sourdeval, Isabel L. McCoy, Robert Wood, and Anna Possner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10247–10265,Short summary
Using spaceborne lidar-radar retrievals, we show that seasonal changes in cloud phase outweigh changes in cloud-phase statistics across cloud morphologies at given cloud-top temperatures. These results show that cloud morphology does not seem to pose a primary constraint on cloud-phase statistics in the Southern Ocean. Meanwhile, larger changes in in-cloud albedo across cloud morphologies are observed in supercooled liquid rather than mixed-phase stratocumuli.
Britta Schäfer, Tim Carlsen, Ingrid Hanssen, Michael Gausa, and Trude Storelvmo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9537–9551,Short summary
Cloud properties are important for the surface radiation budget. This study presents cold-cloud observations based on lidar measurements from the Norwegian Arctic between 2011 and 2017. Using statistical assessments and case studies, we give an overview of the macro- and microphysical properties of these clouds and demonstrate the capabilities of long-term cloud observations in the Norwegian Arctic from the ground-based lidar at Andenes.
Qiang Li and Silke Groß
The IPCC report identified that cirrus clouds have significant impacts on the radiation balance comparable to the CO2 effects, which, however, are still hard to parameterize. The current study aims to investigate the possible aviation impact on cirrus properties based on the analysis of 10-year lidar measurements of CALIPSO. The results reveal that there is a significant positive trend in cirrus depolarization ratio in the last 10 years before COVID, which is strongly correlated with aviation.
Dongwei Fu, Larry Di Girolamo, Robert M. Rauber, Greg M. McFarquhar, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Jesse Loveridge, Yulan Hong, Bastiaan van Diedenhoven, Brian Cairns, Mikhail D. Alexandrov, Paul Lawson, Sarah Woods, Simone Tanelli, Sebastian Schmidt, Chris Hostetler, and Amy Jo Scarino
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8259–8285,Short summary
Satellite-retrieved cloud microphysics are widely used in climate research because of their central role in water and energy cycles. Here, we provide the first detailed investigation of retrieved cloud drop sizes from in situ and various satellite and airborne remote sensing techniques applied to real cumulus cloud fields. We conclude that the most widely used passive remote sensing method employed in climate research produces high biases of 6–8 µm (60 %–80 %) caused by 3-D radiative effects.
Kevin M. Smalley, Matthew D. Lebsock, Ryan Eastman, Mark Smalley, and Mikael K. Witte
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8197–8219,Short summary
We use geostationary satellite observations to track pockets of open-cell (POC) stratocumulus and analyze how precipitation, cloud microphysics, and the environment change. Precipitation becomes more intense, corresponding to increasing effective radius and decreasing number concentrations, while the environment remains relatively unchanged. This implies that changes in cloud microphysics are more important than the environment to POC development.
Edward E. Hindman and Scott Lindstrom
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7995–8008,Short summary
Winds buffeting the Mt. Everest massif often produce plumes. This systematic study identified plumes from daily observations of real-time, on-line images from a geosynchronous meteorological satellite. The corresponding meteorological data were used with a cloud-forming model to show the plumes were composed, depending on the temperature, of droplets, crystals or both. They were not composed of resuspended snow, which is a common belief. We estimated the plumes may produce significant snowfall.
Zeen Zhu, Pavlos Kollias, Edward Luke, and Fan Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7405–7416,Short summary
Drizzle (small rain droplets) is an important component of warm clouds; however, its existence is poorly understood. In this study, we capitalized on a machine-learning algorithm to develop a drizzle detection method. We applied this algorithm to investigate drizzle occurrence and found out that drizzle is far more ubiquitous than previously thought. This study demonstrates the ubiquitous nature of drizzle in clouds and will improve understanding of the associated microphysical process.
Hailing Jia, Johannes Quaas, Edward Gryspeerdt, Christoph Böhm, and Odran Sourdeval
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7353–7372,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interaction is the most uncertain component of the anthropogenic forcing of the climate. By combining satellite and reanalysis data, we show that the strength of the Twomey effect (S) increases remarkably with vertical velocity. Both the confounding effect of aerosol–precipitation interaction and the lack of vertical co-location between aerosol and cloud are found to overestimate S, whereas the retrieval biases in aerosol and cloud appear to underestimate S.
Theresa Mieslinger, Bjorn Stevens, Tobias Kölling, Manfred Brath, Martin Wirth, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6879–6898,Short summary
The trades are home to a plethora of small cumulus clouds that are often barely visible to the human eye and difficult to detect with active and passive remote sensing methods. With the help of a new method and by means of high-resolution data we can detect small and particularly thin clouds. We find that optically thin clouds are a common phenomenon in the trades, covering a large area and influencing the radiative effect of clouds if they are undetected and contaminate the cloud-free signal.
Rebecca J. Murray-Watson and Edward Gryspeerdt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5743–5756,Short summary
Clouds are important to the Arctic surface energy budget, but the impact of aerosols on their properties is largely uncertain. This work shows that the response of liquid water path to cloud droplet number increases is strongly dependent on lower tropospheric stability (LTS), with weaker cooling effects in polluted clouds and at high LTS. LTS is projected to decrease in a warmer Arctic, reducing the cooling effect of aerosols and producing a positive, aerosol-dependent cloud feedback.
Ivana Kolmašová, Ondřej Santolík, and Kateřina Rosická
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3379–3389,Short summary
The 2014–2015 winter brought an enormous number of lightning strokes to northern Europe, about 4 times more than their long-term median over the last decade. This unusual production of lightning, concentrated above the ocean and along the western coastal areas, was probably due to a combination of large-scale climatic events like El Niño and the North Atlantic Oscillation, causing increased sea surface temperatures and updraft strengths, which acted as additional thundercloud-charging drivers.
Francisco Lang, Luis Ackermann, Yi Huang, Son C. H. Truong, Steven T. Siems, and Michael J. Manton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2135–2152,Short summary
Marine low-level clouds cover vast areas of the Southern Ocean, and they are essential to the Earth system energy balance. We use 3 years of satellite observations to group low-level clouds by their spatial structure using a pattern-recognizing program. We studied two primary cloud type patterns, i.e. open and closed clouds. Open clouds are uniformly distributed over the storm track, while closed clouds are most predominant in the southeastern Indian Ocean. Closed clouds exhibit a daily cycle.
Tianning Su, Youtong Zheng, and Zhanqing Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1453–1466,Short summary
To enrich our understanding of coupling of continental clouds, we developed a novel methodology to determine cloud coupling state from a lidar and a suite of surface meteorological instruments. This method is built upon advancement in our understanding of fundamental boundary layer processes and clouds. As the first remote sensing method for determining the coupling state of low clouds over land, this methodology paves a solid ground for further investigating the coupled land–atmosphere system.
Jianhao Zhang, Xiaoli Zhou, Tom Goren, and Graham Feingold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 861–880,Short summary
Oceanic liquid-form clouds are effective sunlight reflectors. Their brightness is highly sensitive to changes in the amount of aerosol particles in the atmosphere and the state of the atmosphere they reside in. This study quantifies this sensitivity using long-term satellite observations and finds an overall cloud brightening (a cooling effect) potential and an essential role of the covarying meteorological conditions in governing this sensitivity for northeastern Pacific stratocumulus.
Matthew W. Christensen, Andrew Gettelman, Jan Cermak, Guy Dagan, Michael Diamond, Alyson Douglas, Graham Feingold, Franziska Glassmeier, Tom Goren, Daniel P. Grosvenor, Edward Gryspeerdt, Ralph Kahn, Zhanqing Li, Po-Lun Ma, Florent Malavelle, Isabel L. McCoy, Daniel T. McCoy, Greg McFarquhar, Johannes Mülmenstädt, Sandip Pal, Anna Possner, Adam Povey, Johannes Quaas, Daniel Rosenfeld, Anja Schmidt, Roland Schrödner, Armin Sorooshian, Philip Stier, Velle Toll, Duncan Watson-Parris, Robert Wood, Mingxi Yang, and Tianle Yuan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 641–674,Short summary
Trace gases and aerosols (tiny airborne particles) are released from a variety of point sources around the globe. Examples include volcanoes, industrial chimneys, forest fires, and ship stacks. These sources provide opportunistic experiments with which to quantify the role of aerosols in modifying cloud properties. We review the current state of understanding on the influence of aerosol on climate built from the wide range of natural and anthropogenic laboratories investigated in recent decades.
Xiaojian Zheng, Baike Xi, Xiquan Dong, Peng Wu, Timothy Logan, and Yuan Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 335–354,Short summary
This study uses ground-based observations to investigate the physical processes in the aerosol–cloud interactions in non-precipitating marine boundary layer clouds, over the eastern North Atlantic Ocean. Results show that the cloud responses to the aerosols are diminished with limited water vapor supply, while they are enhanced with increasing water vapor availability. The clouds are found to be most sensitive to the aerosols under sufficient water vapor and strong boundary layer turbulence.
Martin Radenz, Johannes Bühl, Patric Seifert, Holger Baars, Ronny Engelmann, Boris Barja González, Rodanthi-Elisabeth Mamouri, Félix Zamorano, and Albert Ansmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17969–17994,Short summary
This study brings together long-term ground-based remote-sensing observations of mixed-phase clouds at three key locations of aerosol–cloud interactions in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere midlatitudes. The findings contribute several new aspects on the nature of the excess of supercooled liquid clouds in the Southern Hemisphere, such as a long-term lidar-based estimate of ice-nucleating particle profiles as well as the effects of boundary layer coupling and gravity waves on ice formation.
Yang Yi, Fan Yi, Fuchao Liu, Yunpeng Zhang, Changming Yu, and Yun He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17649–17664,Short summary
Our lidar observations reveal the complete microphysical process of hydrometeors falling from mid-level stratiform clouds. We find that the surface rainfall begins as supercooled mixed-phase hydrometeors fall out of a liquid parent cloud base. We find also that the collision–coalescence growth of precipitating raindrops and subsequent spontaneous breakup always occur around 0.6 km altitude during surface rainfalls. Our findings provide new insights into stratiform precipitation formation.
Silke Trömel, Clemens Simmer, Ulrich Blahak, Armin Blanke, Sabine Doktorowski, Florian Ewald, Michael Frech, Mathias Gergely, Martin Hagen, Tijana Janjic, Heike Kalesse-Los, Stefan Kneifel, Christoph Knote, Jana Mendrok, Manuel Moser, Gregor Köcher, Kai Mühlbauer, Alexander Myagkov, Velibor Pejcic, Patric Seifert, Prabhakar Shrestha, Audrey Teisseire, Leonie von Terzi, Eleni Tetoni, Teresa Vogl, Christiane Voigt, Yuefei Zeng, Tobias Zinner, and Johannes Quaas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17291–17314,Short summary
The article introduces the ACP readership to ongoing research in Germany on cloud- and precipitation-related process information inherent in polarimetric radar measurements, outlines pathways to inform atmospheric models with radar-based information, and points to remaining challenges towards an improved fusion of radar polarimetry and atmospheric modelling.
Raphaela Vogel, Heike Konow, Hauke Schulz, and Paquita Zuidema
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16609–16630,Short summary
The shallow cumulus clouds that populate the trade-wind regions can produce substantial amounts of rain. Before reaching the surface, part of the rain can evaporate and form pools of cold air that spread at the surface as density currents. We use 10 years of data from Barbados to show that such cold pools occur on 3 out of 4 d, that cold-pool periods are 90 % cloudier relative to the average winter conditions, and that they are connected to specific patterns of mesoscale cloud organization.
Alyson Douglas and Tristan L'Ecuyer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15103–15114,Short summary
When aerosols enter the atmosphere, they interact with the clouds above in what we term aerosol–cloud interactions and lead to a series of reactions which delay the onset of rain. This delay may lead to increased rain rates, or invigoration, when the cloud eventually rains. We show that aerosol leads to invigoration in certain environments. The strength of the invigoration depends on how large the cloud is, which suggests that it is highly tied to the organization of the cloud system.
Hao Luo and Yong Han
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15171–15184,Short summary
The various feedbacks of Atlantic tropical cyclones (TCs) to the Saharan air layer (SAL) are determined by the combined effects of dry air masses, the dust aerosols as ice nuclei, and dynamic, thermodynamic, and moisture conditions. The specific influence mechanisms of SAL on the three intensities of TCs (tropical depression, tropical storm, and hurricane) are different. The conclusions are beneficial to our recognition of the physical process and evolution of TCs in the Atlantic region.
Haoran Li, Ottmar Möhler, Tuukka Petäjä, and Dmitri Moisseev
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14671–14686,Short summary
In natural clouds, ice-nucleating particles are expected to be rare above –10 °C. In the current paper, we found that the formation of ice columns is frequent in stratiform clouds and is associated with increased precipitation intensity and liquid water path. In single-layer shallow clouds, the production of ice columns was attributed to secondary ice production, despite the rime-splintering process not being expected to take place in such clouds.
Qiang Li and Silke Groß
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14573–14590,Short summary
Aircraft emit exhaust gases and particles directly into the atmosphere, which may contribute to climate change. We present a significant reduction in the occurrence rate and particle linear depolarization ratio of cirrus clouds based on the analysis of measurements with the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite during COVID-19 when air traffic was significantly reduced. The findings imply that these clouds formed with less influence from aviation.
Felipe Toledo, Martial Haeffelin, Eivind Wærsted, and Jean-Charles Dupont
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13099–13117,Short summary
The article presents a new conceptual model to describe the temporal evolution of continental fog layers, developed based on 7 years of fog measurements performed at the SIRTA observatory, France. This new paradigm relates the visibility reduction caused by fog to its vertical thickness and liquid water path and provides diagnostic variables that could substantially improve the reliability of fog dissipation nowcasting at a local scale, based on real-time profiling observation.
Tom Dror, Mickaël D. Chekroun, Orit Altaratz, and Ilan Koren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12261–12272,Short summary
A part of continental shallow convective cumulus (Cu) was shown to share properties such as organization and formation over vegetated areas, thus named green Cu. Mechanisms behind the formed patterns are not understood. We use different metrics and an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) to decompose the dataset and quantify organization factors (cloud streets and gravity waves). We show that clouds form a highly organized grid structure over hundreds of kilometers at the field lifetime.
Xin Lu, Feiyue Mao, Daniel Rosenfeld, Yannian Zhu, Zengxin Pan, and Wei Gong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11979–12003,Short summary
In this paper, a novel method for retrieving cloud base height and geometric thickness is developed and applied to produce a global climatology of boundary layer clouds with a high accuracy. The retrieval is based on the 333 m resolution low-level cloud distribution as obtained from the CALIPSO lidar data. The main part of the study describes the variability of cloud vertical geometrical properties in space, season, and time of the day. Resultant new insights are presented.
Rohit Chakraborty, Arindam Chakraborty, Ghouse Basha, and Madineni Venkat Ratnam
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11161–11177,Short summary
In this study, urbanization-induced surface warming has been found to trigger prominent changes in upper-troposphere–lower-stratosphere regions leading to stronger and more frequent lightning extremes over India. Consequently, the implementation of this hypothesis in global climate models reveals that lightning frequency and intensity values across India will rise by ~10–25 % and 15–50 %, respectively, by 2100 at the current urbanization rate, which should be alarming for present policymakers.
Hannes J. Griesche, Kevin Ohneiser, Patric Seifert, Martin Radenz, Ronny Engelmann, and Albert Ansmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10357–10374,Short summary
Heterogeneous ice formation in Arctic mixed-phase clouds under consideration of their surface-coupling state is investigated. Cloud phase and macrophysical properties were determined by means of lidar and cloud radar measurements, the coupling state, and cloud minimum temperature by radiosonde profiles. Above −15 °C cloud minimum temperature, surface-coupled clouds are more likely to contain ice by a factor of 2–6. By means of a literature survey, causes of the observed effects are discussed.
Bida Jian, Jiming Li, Guoyin Wang, Yuxin Zhao, Yarong Li, Jing Wang, Min Zhang, and Jianping Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9809–9828,Short summary
We evaluate the performance of the AMIP6 model in simulating cloud albedo over marine subtropical regions and the impacts of different aerosol types and meteorological factors on the cloud albedo based on multiple satellite datasets and reanalysis data. The results show that AMIP6 demonstrates moderate improvement over AMIP5 in simulating the monthly variation in cloud albedo, and changes in different aerosol types and meteorological factors can explain ~65 % of the changes in the cloud albedo.
Johannes Mohrmann, Robert Wood, Tianle Yuan, Hua Song, Ryan Eastman, and Lazaros Oreopoulos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9629–9642,Short summary
Observations of marine-boundary-layer conditions are composited by cloud type, based on a new classification dataset. It is found that two cloud types, representing regions of clustered and suppressed low-level clouds, occur in very similar large-scale conditions but are distinguished from each other by considering low-level circulation and surface wind fields, validating prior results from modeling.
Francesco Cairo, Mauro De Muro, Marcel Snels, Luca Di Liberto, Silvia Bucci, Bernard Legras, Ajil Kottayil, Andrea Scoccione, and Stefano Ghisu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7947–7961,Short summary
A lidar was used in Palau from February–March 2016. Clouds were observed peaking at 3 km below the high cold-point tropopause (CPT). Their occurrence was linked with cold anomalies, while in warm cases, cirrus clouds were restricted to 5 km below the CPT. Thin subvisible cirrus (SVC) near the CPT had distinctive characteristics. They were linked to wave-induced cold anomalies. Back trajectories are mostly compatible with convective outflow, while some distinctive SVC may originate in situ.
Edward Gryspeerdt, Tom Goren, and Tristan W. P. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6093–6109,Short summary
Cloud responses to aerosol are time-sensitive, but this development is rarely observed. This study uses isolated aerosol perturbations from ships to measure this development and shows that macrophysical (width, cloud fraction, detectability) and microphysical (droplet number) properties of ship tracks vary strongly with time since emission, background cloud and meteorological state. This temporal development should be considered when constraining aerosol–cloud interactions with observations.
Tianmeng Chen, Zhanqing Li, Ralph A. Kahn, Chuanfeng Zhao, Daniel Rosenfeld, Jianping Guo, Wenchao Han, and Dandan Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6199–6220,Short summary
A convective cloud identification process is developed using geostationary satellite data from Himawari-8. Convective cloud fraction is generally larger before noon and smaller in the afternoon under polluted conditions, but megacities and complex topography can influence the pattern. A robust relationship between convective cloud and aerosol loading is found. This pattern varies with terrain height and is modulated by varying thermodynamic, dynamical, and humidity conditions during the day.
Ulrike Proske, Verena Bessenbacher, Zane Dedekind, Ulrike Lohmann, and David Neubauer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5195–5216,Short summary
Ice crystals falling out of one cloud can initiate freezing in a second cloud below. We estimate the occurrence frequency of this natural cloud seeding over Switzerland from satellite data and sublimation calculations. We find that such situations with an ice cloud above another cloud are frequent and that the falling crystals survive the fall between two clouds in a significant number of cases, suggesting that natural cloud seeding is an important phenomenon over Switzerland.
Joseph Sedlar, Adele Igel, and Hagen Telg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4149–4167,
Julia Maillard, François Ravetta, Jean-Christophe Raut, Vincent Mariage, and Jacques Pelon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4079–4101,Short summary
Clouds remain a major source of uncertainty in understanding the Arctic climate, due in part to the lack of measurements over the sea ice. In this paper, we exploit a series of lidar profiles acquired from autonomous drifting buoys deployed in the Arctic Ocean and derive a statistic of low cloud frequency and macrophysical properties. We also show that clouds contribute to warm the surface in the shoulder seasons but not significantly from May to September.
Kevin M. Smalley and Anita D. Rapp
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2765–2779,Short summary
We use satellite observations of shallow cumulus clouds to investigate the influence of cloud size on the ratio of cloud water path to rainwater (WRR) in different environments. For a fixed temperature and relative humidity, WRR increases with cloud size, but it varies little with aerosols. These results imply that increasing WRR with rising temperature relates not only to deeper clouds but also to more frequent larger clouds.
Iris-Amata Dion, Cyrille Dallet, Philippe Ricaud, Fabien Carminati, Thibaut Dauhut, and Peter Haynes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2191–2210,Short summary
Ice in the tropopause has a strong radiative effect on climate. The amount of ice injected (∆IWC) up to the tropical tropopause layer has been shown to be the highest over the Maritime Continent (MC), a region that includes Indonesia. ∆IWC is studied over islands and sea of the MC. Space-borne observations of ice, precipitation and lightning are used to estimate ∆IWC and are compared to ∆IWC estimated from the ERA5 reanalyses. It is shown that Java is the area of the greatest ∆IWC over the MC.
Claudia J. Stubenrauch, Giacomo Caria, Sofia E. Protopapadaki, and Friederike Hemmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1015–1034,Short summary
Tropical anvils formed by convective outflow play a crucial role in modulating the Earth’s energy budget and heat transport. To explore the relation between these anvils and convection, we built 3D radiative heating fields, based on machine learning employed on cloud and atmospheric properties from IR sounder and meteorological reanalyses, trained on lidar–radar retrievals. The 15-year time series reveals colder convective systems during warm periods, affecting the atmospheric heating structure.
Gregor Pante, Peter Knippertz, Andreas H. Fink, and Anke Kniffka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 35–55,Short summary
Seasonal rainfall amounts along the densely populated West African Guinea coast have been decreasing during the past 35 years, with recently accelerating trends. We find strong indications that this is in part related to increasing human air pollution in the region. Given the fast increase in emissions, the political implications of this work are significant. Reducing air pollution locally and regionally would mitigate an imminent health crisis and socio-economic damage from reduced rainfall.
Cristofer Jimenez, Albert Ansmann, Ronny Engelmann, David Donovan, Aleksey Malinka, Jörg Schmidt, Patric Seifert, and Ulla Wandinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15247–15263,Short summary
A novel lidar method to study cloud microphysical properties (of liquid water clouds) and to study aerosol–cloud interaction (ACI) is developed and presented in this paper. In Part 1, the theoretical framework including an error analysis is given together with an overview of the aerosol information that the same lidar system can obtain. The ACI concept based on aerosol and cloud information is also explained. Applications of the proposed approach to lidar measurements are presented in Part 2.
Cristofer Jimenez, Albert Ansmann, Ronny Engelmann, David Donovan, Aleksey Malinka, Patric Seifert, Robert Wiesen, Martin Radenz, Zhenping Yin, Johannes Bühl, Jörg Schmidt, Boris Barja, and Ulla Wandinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15265–15284,Short summary
Part 2 presents the application of the dual-FOV polarization lidar technique introduced in Part 1. A lidar system was upgraded with a second polarization telescope, and it was deployed at the southernmost tip of South America. A comparison with alternative remote sensing techniques and the evaluation of the aerosol–cloud–wind relation in a convective boundary layer in pristine marine conditions are presented in two case studies, demonstrating the potential of the approach for ACI studies.
Johannes Quaas, Antti Arola, Brian Cairns, Matthew Christensen, Hartwig Deneke, Annica M. L. Ekman, Graham Feingold, Ann Fridlind, Edward Gryspeerdt, Otto Hasekamp, Zhanqing Li, Antti Lipponen, Po-Lun Ma, Johannes Mülmenstädt, Athanasios Nenes, Joyce E. Penner, Daniel Rosenfeld, Roland Schrödner, Kenneth Sinclair, Odran Sourdeval, Philip Stier, Matthias Tesche, Bastiaan van Diedenhoven, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15079–15099,Short summary
Anthropogenic pollution particles – aerosols – serve as cloud condensation nuclei and thus increase cloud droplet concentration and the clouds' reflection of sunlight (a cooling effect on climate). This Twomey effect is poorly constrained by models and requires satellite data for better quantification. The review summarizes the challenges in properly doing so and outlines avenues for progress towards a better use of aerosol retrievals and better retrievals of droplet concentrations.
Ackerman, S. A. and Stephens, G. L.: The Absorption of Solar Radiation by Cloud Droplets: An Application of Anomalous Diffraction Theory, J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 1574–1588, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1987)044<1574:TAOSRB>2.0.CO;2, 1987.
American Meteorological Society: Fog, Glossary of Meteorology, available at: http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Fog (last access: 31 March 2017), 2017.
Anderson, G. P., Clough, S. A., Kneizys, F. X., Chetwynd, J. H., and Shettle, E. P.: AFGL Atmospheric Constituent Profiles (0.120 km), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Massachusetts, 1986.
Baum, B. A., Yang, P., Heymsfield, A. J., Bansemer, A., Cole, B. H., Merrelli, A., Schmitt, C., and Wang, C.: Ice cloud single-scattering property models with the full phase matrix at wavelengths from 0.2 to 100 µm, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra., 146, 123–139, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jqsrt.2014.02.029, 2014.
Bergot, T.: Small-scale structure of radiation fog: a large-eddy simulation study, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 139, 1099–1112, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2051, 2013.
Bergot, T., Terradellas, E., Cuxart, J., Mira, A., Liechti, O., Mueller, M., and Nielsen, N. W.: Intercomparison of Single-Column Numerical Models for the Prediction of Radiation Fog, J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim., 46, 504–521, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAM2475.1, 2007.
Boers, R., Russchenberg, H., Erkelens, J., Venema, V., Van Lammeren, A., Apituley, A., and Jongen, S.: Ground-based remote sensing of stratocumulus properties during CLARA, 1996, J. Appl. Meteorol., 39, 169–181, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(2000)039<0169:GBRSOS>2.0.CO;2, 2000.
Boers, R., Baltink, H. K., Hemink, H. J., Bosveld, F. C., and Moerman, M.: Ground-Based Observations and Modeling of the Visibility and Radar Reflectivity in a Radiation Fog Layer, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 30, 288–300, https://doi.org/10.1175/JTECH-D-12-00081.1, 2012.
Bolton, D.: The computation of equivalent potential temperature, Mon. Weather Rev., 108, 1046–1053, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1980)108<1046:TCOEPT>2.0.CO;2, 1980.
Brown, R. and Roach, W. T.: The physics of radiation fog: II–a numerical study, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 102, 335–354, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49710243205, 1976.
Chýlek, P., Lesins, G. B., Videen, G., Wong, J. G. D., Pinnick, R. G., Ngo, D., and Klett, J. D.: Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 101, 23365–23371, https://doi.org/10.1029/96JD01901, 1996.
Cuxart, J. and Jiménez, M. A.: Deep radiation fog in a wide closed valley: study by numerical modeling and remote sensing, Pure Appl. Geophys., 169, 911–926, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-011-0365-4, 2012.
Davies, R., Ridgway, W. L., and Kim, K.-E.: Spectral Absorption of Solar Radiation in Cloudy Atmospheres: A 20 cm−1 Model, J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 2126–2137, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1984)041<2126:SAOSRI>2.0.CO;2, 1984.
Delanoë, J., Protat, A., Vinson, J.-P., Brett, W., Caudoux, C., Bertrand, F., Parent du Chatelet, J., Hallali, R., Barthes, L., Haeffelin, M., and Dupont, J.-C.: BASTA: A 95-GHz FMCW Doppler Radar for Cloud and Fog Studies, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 33, 1023–1038, 2016.
Dubuisson, P., Giraud, V., Chomette, O., Chepfer, H., and Pelon, J.: Fast radiative transfer modeling for infrared imaging radiometry, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra., 95, 201–220, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jqsrt.2004.09.034, 2005.
Dubuisson, P., Roger, J. C., Mallet, M., and Dubovik, O.: A code to compute the direct solar radiative forcing: application to anthropogenic aerosols during the Escompte experiment, in: Proc. In-ternational Radiation Symposium (IRS 2004) on Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, edited by: Fischer, H., Sohn, B.-J., and Deepak, A., Hampton, Busan, Korea, 127–130, 2006.
Dupont, J.-C., Haeffelin, M., Protat, A., Bouniol, D., Boyouk, N., and Morille, Y.: Stratus–fog formation and dissipation: a 6-day case study, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 143, 207–225, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-012-9699-4, 2012.
Dupont, J.-C., Haeffelin, M., Stolaki, S., and Elias, T.: Analysis of dynamical and thermal processes driving fog and quasi-fog life cycles using the 2010–2013 ParisFog dataset, Pure Appl. Geophys., 173, 1337–1358, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-015-1159-x, 2016.
Foken, T.: The energy balance closure problem: an overview, Ecol. Appl., 18, 1351–1367, https://doi.org/10.1890/06-0922.1, 2008.
Fox, N. I. and Illingworth, A. J.: The retrieval of stratocumulus cloud properties by ground-based cloud radar, J. Appl. Meteorol., 36, 485–492, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1997)036<0485:TROSCP>2.0.CO;2, 1997.
Gaussiat, N., Hogan, R. J., and Illingworth, A. J.: Accurate liquid water path retrieval from low-cost microwave radiometers using additional information from a lidar ceilometer and operational forecast models, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 24, 1562–1575, https://doi.org/10.1175/JTECH2053.1, 2007.
Gultepe, I., Tardif, R., Michaelides, S. C., Cermak, J., Bott, A., Bendix, J., Müller, M. D., Pagowski, M., Hansen, B., Ellrod, G., Jacobs, W., Toth, G., and Cober, S. G.: Fog research: A review of past achievements and future perspectives, Pure Appl. Geophys., 164, 1121–1159, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-007-0211-x, 2007.
Gultepe, I., Pearson, G., Milbrandt, J. A., Hansen, B., Platnick, S., Taylor, P., Gordon, M., Oakley, J. P., and Cober, S. G.: The fog remote sensing and modeling field project, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 90, 341–359, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008BAMS2354.1, 2009.
Gultepe, I., Zhou, B., Milbrandt, J., Bott, A., Li, Y., Heymsfield, A. J., Ferrier, B., Ware, R., Pavolonis, M., Kuhn, T., Gurka, J., Liu, P., and Cermak, J.: A review on ice fog measurements and modeling, Atmos. Res., 151, 2–19, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2014.04.014, 2015.
Haeffelin, M., Barthès, L., Bock, O., Boitel, C., Bony, S., Bouniol, D., Chepfer, H., Chiriaco, M., Cuesta, J., Delanoë, J., Drobinski, P., Dufresne, J.-L., Flamant, C., Grall, M., Hodzic, A., Hourdin, F., Lapouge, F., Lemaître, Y., Mathieu, A., Morille, Y., Naud, C., Noël, V., O'Hirok, B., Pelon, J., Pietras, C., Protat, A., Romand, B., Scialom, G., and Vautard, R.: SIRTA, a ground-based atmospheric observatory for cloud and aerosol research, in: Annales Geophysicae, 23, 253–275, available at: https://hal-polytechnique.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00329353/ (last access: 16 February 2017), 2005.
Haeffelin, M., Bergot, T., Elias, T., Tardif, R., Carrer, D., Chazette, P., Colomb, M., Drobinski, P., Dupont, E., Dupont, J. C., Gomes, L., Musson-Genon, L., Pietras, C., Plana-Fattori, A., Protat, A., Rangognio, J., Raut, J.-C., Rémy, S., Richard, D., Sciare, J., and Zhang, X.: PARISFOG: shedding new light on fog physical processes, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 91, 767–783, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009BAMS2671.1, 2010.
Haeffelin, M., Dupont, J.-C., Boyouk, N., Baumgardner, D., Gomes, L., Roberts, G., and Elias, T.: A comparative study of radiation fog and quasi-fog formation processes during the ParisFog field experiment 2007, Pure Appl. Geophys., 170, 2283–2303, 2013.
Haeffelin, M., Laffineur, Q., Bravo-Aranda, J.-A., Drouin, M.-A., Casquero-Vera, J.-A., Dupont, J.-C., and De Backer, H.: Radiation fog formation alerts using attenuated backscatter power from automatic lidars and ceilometers, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5347–5365, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-9-5347-2016, 2016.
Hautiére, N., Tarel, J.-P., Lavenant, J., and Aubert, D.: Automatic fog detection and estimation of visibility distance through use of an onboard camera, Mach. Vis. Appl., 17, 8–20, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00138-005-0011-1, 2006.
Hess, M., Koepke, P., and Schult, I.: Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds: The Software Package OPAC, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 79, 831–844, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1998)079<0831:OPOAAC>2.0.CO;2, 1998.
Hu, Y. X. and Stamnes, K.: An Accurate Parameterization of the Radiative Properties of Water Clouds Suitable for Use in Climate Models, J. Climate, 6, 728–742, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1993)006<0728:AAPOTR>2.0.CO;2, 1993.
Jacobson, M. Z.: Investigating cloud absorption effects: Global absorption properties of black carbon, tar balls, and soil dust in clouds and aerosols, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 117, D06205, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JD017218, 2012.
Johnson, B. T., Shine, K. P., and Forster, P. M.: The semi-direct aerosol effect: Impact of absorbing aerosols on marine stratocumulus, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 130, 1407–1422, https://doi.org/10.1256/qj.03.61, 2004.
Katata, G.: Fogwater deposition modeling for terrestrial ecosystems: A review of developments and measurements, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 119, 8137–8159, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JD021669, 2014.
Kato, S., Mace, G. G., Clothiaux, E. E., Liljegren, J. C., and Austin, R. T.: Doppler cloud radar derived drop size distributions in liquid water stratus clouds, J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 2895–2911, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058<2895:DCRDDS>2.0.CO;2, 2001.
Khain, A., Pinsky, M., Magaritz, L., Krasnov, O., and Russchenberg, H. W. J.: Combined observational and model investigations of the Z-LWC relationship in stratocumulus clouds, J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim., 47, 591–606, 2008.
Korolev, A. V., Isaac, G. A., Cober, S. G., Strapp, J. W., and Hallett, J.: Microphysical characterization of mixed-phase clouds, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 129, 39–65, https://doi.org/10.1256/qj.01.204, 2003.
Kotthaus, S., O'Connor, E., Münkel, C., Charlton-Perez, C., Haeffelin, M., Gabey, A. M., and Grimmond, C. S. B.: Recommendations for processing atmospheric attenuated backscatter profiles from Vaisala CL31 ceilometers, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3769–3791, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-9-3769-2016, 2016.
Kratz, D. P.: The correlated k-distribution technique as applied to the AVHRR channels, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad., 53, 501–517, https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-4073(95)90050-0, 1995.
Löhnert, U. and Maier, O.: Operational profiling of temperature using ground-based microwave radiometry at Payerne: prospects and challenges, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 1121–1134, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-5-1121-2012, 2012.
Löhnert, U., Turner, D. D., and Crewell, S.: Ground-Based Temperature and Humidity Profiling Using Spectral Infrared and Microwave Observations. Part I: Simulated Retrieval Performance in Clear-Sky Conditions, J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim., 48, 1017–1032, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JAMC2060.1, 2009.
Maier, F., Bendix, J., and Thies, B.: Simulating Z–LWC relations in natural fogs with radiative transfer calculations for future application to a cloud radar profiler, Pure Appl. Geophys., 169, 793–807, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-011-0332-0, 2012.
Marke, T., Ebell, K., Löhnert, U., and Turner, D. D.: Statistical retrieval of thin liquid cloud microphysical properties using ground-based infrared and microwave observations, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 121, 14558–14573, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JD025667, 2016.
Martucci, G. and O'Dowd, C. D.: Ground-based retrieval of continental and marine warm cloud microphysics, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 2749–2765, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-4-2749-2011, 2011.
Mason, J.: The physics of radiation fog, J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn., 60, 486–499, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj1965.60.1_486, 1982.
Matrosov, S. Y., Uttal, T., and Hazen, D. A.: Evaluation of Radar Reflectivity–Based Estimates of Water Content in Stratiform Marine Clouds, J. Appl. Meteorol., 43, 405–419, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(2004)043<0405:EORREO>2.0.CO;2, 2004.
Mlawer, E. J., Payne, V. H., Moncet, J.-L., Delamere, J. S., Alvarado, M. J., and Tobin, D. C.: Development and recent evaluation of the MT_ CKD model of continuum absorption, Philos. T. Roy. Soc. Lond. A, 370, 2520–2556, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2011.0295, 2012.
Nakanishi, M.: Large-eddy simulation of radiation fog, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 94, 461–493, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1002490423389, 2000.
Ohmura, A.: Physical Basis for the Temperature-Based Melt-Index Method, J. Appl. Meteorol., 40, 753–761, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<0753:PBFTTB>2.0.CO;2, 2001.
Platt, C. M. R.: Infrared absorption and liquid water content in stratocumulus clouds, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 102, 553–561, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49710243305, 1976.
Price, J.: Radiation fog. Part I: observations of stability and drop size distributions, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 139, 167–191, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-010-9580-2, 2011.
Price, J., Porson, A., and Lock, A.: An observational case study of persistent fog and comparison with an ensemble forecast model, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 155, 301–327, 2015.
Renard, J.-B., Dulac, F., Berthet, G., Lurton, T., Vignelles, D., Jégou, F., Tonnelier, T., Jeannot, M., Couté, B., Akiki, R., Verdier, N., Mallet, M., Gensdarmes, F., Charpentier, P., Mesmin, S., Duverger, V., Dupont, J.-C., Elias, T., Crenn, V., Sciare, J., Zieger, P., Salter, M., Roberts, T., Giacomoni, J., Gobbi, M., Hamonou, E., Olafsson, H., Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P., Camy-Peyret, C., Mazel, C., Décamps, T., Piringer, M., Surcin, J., and Daugeron, D.: LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles – Part 1: Principle of measurements and instrument evaluation, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1721–1742, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-9-1721-2016, 2016.
Rose, T., Crewell, S., Löhnert, U., and Simmer, C.: A network suitable microwave radiometer for operational monitoring of the cloudy atmosphere, Atmos. Res., 75, 183–200, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2004.12.005, 2005.
Rothman, L. S., Gordon, I. E., Babikov, Y., Barbe, A., Benner, D. C., Bernath, P. F., Birk, M., Bizzocchi, L., Boudon, V., Brown, L. R., Campargue, A., Chance, K., Coudert, L., Devi, V. M., Drouin, B. J., Fayt, A., Flaud, J.-M., Gamache, R. R., Harrison, J., Hartmann, J.-M., Hill, C., Hodges, J. T., Jacquemart, D., Jolly, A., Lamouroux, J., LeRoy, R. J., Li, G., Long, D., Mackie, C. J., Massie, S. T., Mikhailenko, S., Müller, H. S. P., Naumenko, O. V., Nikitin, A. V., Orphal, J., Perevalov, V., Perrin, A., Polovtseva, E. R., Richard, C., Smith, M. A. H., Starikova, E., Sung, K., Tashkun, S., Tennyson, J., Toon, G. C., Tyuterev, V. G., Vander Auwera, J. and Wagner, G.: The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra., 130, 4–50, doi:org/10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.07.002, 2013.
Sauvageot, H. and Omar, J.: Radar reflectivity of cumulus clouds, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 4, 264–272, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0426(1987)004<0264:RROCC>2.0.CO;2, 1987.
Stamnes, K., Tsay, S.-C., Wiscombe, W., and Jayaweera, K.: Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media, Appl. Optics, 27, 2502–2509, https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.27.002502, 1988.
Steeneveld, G. J., Ronda, R. J., and Holtslag, A. A. M.: The Challenge of Forecasting the Onset and Development of Radiation Fog Using Mesoscale Atmospheric Models, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 154, 265–289, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-014-9973-8, 2015.
Stephens, G. L., Vane, D. G., Boain, R. J., Mace, G. G., Sassen, K., Wang, Z., Illingworth, A. J., O'Connor, E. J., Rossow, W. B., Durden, S. L., Miller, S. D., Austin, R. T., Benedetti, A., Mitrescu, C., and the CloudSat Science Team: The cloudsat mission and the a-train, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 83, 1771–1790, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-83-12-1771, 2002.
Tardif, R. and Rasmussen, R. M.: Event-based climatology and typology of fog in the New York City region, J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim., 46, 1141–1168, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAM2516.1, 2007.
Teshiba, M., Hashiguchi, H., Uematsu, A., Tanaka, H., Ohmori, Y., and Fukao, S.: Fog observations with a millimeter-wave scanning radar at Miyoshi basin, Japan, Earth Planet. Space, 56, 259–268, https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03353408, 2004.
Twomey, S.: The Influence of Pollution on the Shortwave Albedo of Clouds, J. Atmos. Sci., 34, 1149–1152, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1977)034<1149:TIOPOT>2.0.CO;2, 1977.
Wallace, J. M. and Hobbs, P. V.: Atmospheric science: an introductory survey, 2nd Edn., Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam, 2006.
Zhou, B. and Ferrier, B. S.: Asymptotic analysis of equilibrium in radiation fog, J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol., 47, 1704–1722, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JAMC1685.1, 2008.
Heating and cooling of fog layers by solar and terrestrial radiation influence the fog life cycle. We quantify these radiative impacts on fog liquid water using detailed cloud radar observations of seven fog events as well as sensitivity studies. We find that the impact of radiation is affected mainly by fog optical thickness, atmospheric humidity and the presence of clouds above the fog. Observing these quantities in real time can therefore be useful for forecasting fog dissipation.
Heating and cooling of fog layers by solar and terrestrial radiation influence the fog life...